Science.gov

Sample records for 19e congrs mondial

  1. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  2. Searching for a correlation between cosmic-ray sources above 10{sup 19} eV and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kashti, Tamar; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2008-05-15

    We study the anisotropy signature which is expected if the sources of ultrahigh energy, >10{sup 19} eV, cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extra-galactic and trace the large scale distribution of luminous matter. Using the PSCz galaxy catalog as a tracer of the large scale structure (LSS), we derive the expected all sky angular distribution of the UHECR intensity. We define a statistic that measures the correlation between the predicted and observed UHECR arrival direction distributions, and show that it is more sensitive to the expected anisotropy signature than the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function. The distribution of the correlation statistic is not sensitive to the unknown redshift evolution of UHECR source density and to the unknown strength and structure of inter-galactic magnetic fields. We show, using this statistic, that recently published >5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV Auger data are inconsistent with isotropy at Asymptotically-Equal-To 98% CL, and consistent with a source distribution that traces LSS, with some preference for a source distribution that is biased with respect to the galaxy distribution. The anisotropy signature should be detectable also at lower energy, >4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV. A few-fold increase of the Auger exposure is likely to increase the significance to >99% CL, but not to>99.9% CL (unless the UHECR source density is comparable to or larger than that of galaxies). In order to distinguish between different bias models, the systematic uncertainty in the absolute energy calibration of the experiments should be reduced to well below the current Asymptotically-Equal-To 25%.

  3. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  4. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Northeastern U. /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP

    2008-06-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10{sup 18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index {gamma} of the particle flux, J {proportional_to} E{sup {gamma}}, at energies between 4 x 10{sup 18} eV and 4 x 10{sup 19} eV is 2.69 {+-} 0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2 {+-} 0.4(stat){+-}0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin.

  5. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min. PMID:18764444

  6. Peculiarities of the anisotropy of cosmic rays with E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 19} eV from Yakutsk EAS array data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2009-11-15

    The arrival directions of primary cosmic ray particles with energies E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 19} eV and zenith angles {theta} {<=} 60{sup o} recorded on the Yakutsk array over the period 1974-2009 are analyzed. These events separated by different time intervals are shown to have different global anisotropies.

  7. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  8. SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/socquet/Auboulot/congres/socquetAGU2014.doc Geodetic coupling in the North Chile - South Peru seismic gap: new insights from GPS measurements in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Cotte, N.; Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Jara, J.; Pina-Valdes, J.; Chlieh, M.; Carrizo, D.; Bejar Pizarro, M.; Metois, M.

    2014-12-01

    SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/socquet/Auboulot/congres/socquetAGU2014.doc The subduction zone at the latitude of the Central Andes did not experience a Mw>8.5 earthquake since the 19thcentury, and forms a ~500km long seismic gap in North Chile - South Peru. Understanding the factors that limit the extent of seismic ruptures is crucial for risk mitigation and for understanding physical processes that govern the behavior of seismogenic faults. It appears crucial to evaluate interseismic coupling and its spatial variation in seismic gaps to assess seismic potential. Recent geodetic studies combining continuous and campaign GPS measurements as well as InSAR measurements showed that the subduction interface in north Chile, was accumulating interseismic elastic strain, likely to rebound into a large megathrust Earthquake. A Mw8.2 earthquake occurred on the 1st of April 2014 in this seismic gap, in front of Pisagua (North Chile), ~150 km south of the Chile-Peru Border. In spite of its already large magnitude, that earthquake was smaller expected in the area, and has most probably increased the stress in the unbroken segments at both edges. Most of accumulated strain remains to be relaxed in the North Chile-South Peru seismic gap. Here we propose to present a first assessment of the interseismic loading in the South Peru part of the seismic gap, at the northern extremity of Pisagua Earthquake, where it is poorly known. In south Peru, over an area of 500 x 250 km, 33 campaign markers have been installed and measured in June 2012. This network has been partially remeasured in June 2013 and April 2014 (after Mw8.2 Pisagua Eaquake). These measurements provide us with an estimate of the Pre-Pisagua-Earthquake coupling, and the co-seismic static displacements. These displacements are combined together with the ones of previous studies that occurred in North Chile and provide a unique and dense velocity field spreading through the Chile Peru border. In particular this provides

  9. Site-selective laser-spectroscopy studies of the intrinsic 1.9-eV luminescence center in glassy SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuja, Linards; Suzuki, Toshio; Tanimura, Katsumi

    1995-12-01

    The intrinsic 1.9-eV photoluminescence band (the R band) in neutron-irradiated synthetic silica glass has been studied using site-selective photoluminescence excitation in the 2.0 eV absorption band and transient spectral hole-burning techniques. The measurements of the low-energy wing of the zero-phonon line intensity distribution function confirm the predicted nearly Gaussian shape with a peak at 1.93 eV and a half-width of 86 meV. The homogeneous shape of the emission contour (``single-site spectrum'') has been evaluated by a selective saturation method, revealing, a phonon sideband with a peak at 60 cm-1 and a width of approximately 500 cm-1. The total Huang-Rhys factor is estimated as 1.50+/-0.5 and the partial Huang-Rhys factor for the interaction with the 890 cm-1 local vibration is 0.08+/-0.04. The analysis of spectral parameters indicates that the R band cannot be due to peroxide or ozonide molecular ions and upholds the attribution of the center to the nonbridging oxygen hole center.

  10. Acceptances for space-based and ground-based fluorescence detectors, and inference of the neutrino-nucleon cross-section above 10{sup 19} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Irimia, Andrei; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2006-04-15

    Detection of ultrahigh energy neutrinos will be useful for unraveling the dynamics of the most violent sources in the cosmos and for revealing the neutrino cross-section at extreme energy. If there exists a Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) suppression of cosmic-ray events above E{sub GZK}{approx}5x10{sup 19} eV, as predicted by theory, then the only messengers of energies beyond E{sub GZK} are neutrinos. Cosmic neutrino fluxes can initiate air-showers through interaction in the atmosphere, or in the Earth. Neutrino trajectories will be downgoing to nearly horizontal in the former case, and 'Earth-skimming' in the latter case. Thus it is important to know the acceptances (event rate/flux) of proposed air-shower experiments for detecting both types of neutrino-initiated events. We calculate these acceptances for fluorescence detectors, both space-based as with the EUSO and OWL proposals, and ground-based, as with Auger, HiRes and Telescope Array. The neutrino cross-section {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} is unknown at energies above 5.2x10{sup 13} eV. Although the popular QCD extrapolation of lower-energy physics offers the cross-section value of 0.54x10{sup -31}(E{sub {nu}}/10{sup 20} eV){sup 0.36} cm{sup 2}, new physics could raise or lower this value. Therefore, we present the acceptances of horizontal (HAS) and upgoing (UAS) air-showers as a function of {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} over the range 10{sup -34} to 10{sup -30} cm{sup 2}. The dependences of acceptances on neutrino energy, shower-threshold energy, shower length, and shower column density are also studied. We introduce a cloud layer, and study its effect on rates as viewed from space and from the ground. For UAS, we present acceptances for events over land (rock), and over the ocean (water). Acceptances over water are larger by about an order of magnitude, thus favoring space-based detectors. We revisit the idea of Kusenko and Weiler [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 161101 (2002)] to infer {sigma}{sub {nu

  11. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-03-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations. PMID:24594489

  12. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 10{sup 19} eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10{sup 19} eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 10{sup 19} eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  13. On the anisotropy of E{sub 0} Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV cosmic rays according to data of the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2012-02-15

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration discovered, in a solid angle of radius about 18 Degree-Sign , a local group of cosmic rays having energies in the region E{sub 0} {>=} 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV and coming from the region of the Gen A radio galaxy, whose galactic coordinates are l{sub G} 309.5 Degree-Sign and b{sub G} = 19.4 Degree-Sign . Near it, there is the Centaur supercluster of galaxies, its galactic coordinates being l{sub G} = 302.4 Degree-Sign and b{sub G} = 21.6 Degree-Sign . It is noteworthy that the Great Attractor, which may have a direct bearing on the observed picture, is also there.

  14. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII e Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne – qu’est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Les changements au Code International de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIIIe CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s’est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1er janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en ‘Portable Document Format’ (PDF) avec un ‘International Standard Serial Number’ (ISSN) ou un ‘International Standard Book Number’ (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1er janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d’un identifiant (‘identifier’) fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés. Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et

  15. Translation into French of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne - qu'est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    RésuméLes changements au CodeInternational de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIII(e) CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s'est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1(er) janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en 'Portable Document Format' (PDF) avec un 'International Standard Serial Number' (ISSN) ou un 'International Standard Book Number' (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1(er) janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d'un identifiant ('identifier') fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés.Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et Taxon. PMID:22287925

  16. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves the outcome of adults with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 and t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the prospective multicenter LALA-94 study.

    PubMed

    Vey, N; Thomas, X; Picard, C; Kovascovicz, T; Charin, C; Cayuela, J M; Dombret, H; Dastugue, N; Huguet, F; Bastard, C; Stamatoulas, A; Giollant, M; Tournilhac, O; Macintyre, E; Buzyn, A; Bories, D; Kuentz, M; Dreyfus, F; Delannoy, A; Raynaud, S; Gratecos, N; Bordessoule, D; de Botton, S; Preudhomme, C; Reman, O; Troussard, X; Pigneux, A; Bilhou, C; Vernant, J P; Boucheix, C; Gabert, J

    2006-12-01

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 have a poor outcome. We have evaluated the impact of an intensified post-remission therapy using a high-dose chemotherapy course followed by allogeneic or autologous SCT on the outcome of 58 patients with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 (E2A group, n=24) or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 (MLL group, n=34) treated in the LALA-94 multicenter prospective study. Patients in the MLL group had higher WBC counts and more frequent DIC. CR rates achieved by MLL and E2A groups were similar to other B-cell ALL (87, 82 and 86% respectively). While in CR, patients with a donor were assigned to alloSCT (n=22), the remaining patients with were randomized between autoSCT (n=15) or chemotherapy (n=8). Five-year overall survival was 31 and 45% for E2A and MLL groups, respectively. In both groups, DFS was higher in the alloSCT arm as compared to autoSCT and chemotherapy arms. The results of this study show that chemotherapy intensification did not overcome the poor prognosis of adults with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1. Allogeneic SCT should thus be offered in first CR to patients with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4. New therapeutic approaches are needed for patients without donor. PMID:17039234

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization, superoxide dismutase and antimicrobial activities studies of copper (II) complexes with 2-(E)-(2-(2-aminoethylamino) methyl)-4-bromophenol and (19E, 27E)-N1, N2-bis (phenyl (pyridine-2-yl)-methylene)-ethane-1, 2-diamine as ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Mukesh; Patel, R. N.; Rawat, S. P.

    2014-07-01

    Three new copper (II) complexes, [Cu(L)(H2O)]ClO4 (1), [Cu(L1)(ClO4)]+ (2) and [Cu(L1)]2+ (3), where HL = 2-(E)-(2-(2-aminoethylamino)methyl)-4-bromophenol, L1 =(19E, 27E)-N1,N2-bis(phenyl(pyridine-2-yl)-methylene)-ethane-1, 2-diamine, have been synthesized and characterized by using various physic-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The solid-state structures of 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Infrared spectra, ligand field spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements agree with the observed crystal structures. The molecular structure of copper complexes showed that the ligands occupies the basal plane of square pyramidal geometry with the H2O of 1 or the ClO4 of 2 occupying the remaining apical position. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system of the space group P21/c, a = 10.5948(6)Å, b = 19.6164(11)Å, c = 8.6517(5)Å, α = 90°, β = 108.213(2)°, γ = 90° and Z = 4 for 1, a = 9.5019(3)Å, b = 11.3 801(3)Å, c = 25.3168(14)Å, α = 90°, β = 100.583(4)°, γ = 90°, and Z = 4 for 2. The synthesized Schiff base (HL/L1) was behaves as tetradentate ON3/N4 ligands with donor groups suitable placed for forming 2 or 3 five membered chelate rings. Copper (II) complexes display X-band EPR spectra in 100% DMSO at 77 K giving g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 indicating dx2-y2 ground state. The half-wave potential values for Cu (II)/Cu (I) redox couple obtained in the reaction of the copper (II) complexes with molecular oxygen and superoxide radical (O2-) electronegated in DMSO are in agreement with the SOD-like activity of the copper (II) complexes. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the complexes against the two bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) and the two fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus sp.) have been investigated comparing with the Schiff base ligands.

  18. CONGR: A FORTRAN IV Program to Compute Coefficients of Congruence for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV program which computes either of the coefficients of congruence (psi or phi) used in comparison of factors in factor analysis is presented. Output consists of a non-symmetric matrix of factor coefficients. Listings of the program, results and test data are available. (Author/JKS)

  19. On galactic origin of cosmic rays with energy up to 10(19) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, A. A.; Efimov, N. N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray anisotropy are considered. In supposed models of galactic magnetic field the main characteristics of expected anisotropy are estimated and are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that particles with energy up to 10 to the 19th power eV are of galactic origin.

  20. Properties of 10 (18)-10 (19)eV EAS at far core distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of 10 to the 18th power - 10 to the 19th power eV EAS showers such as the electron lateral distribution, the muon lateral distribution ( 1Gev), the ratio of muon density to a electron density, the shower front structure and the transition effects in scintillator of 5cm thickness are investigated with the Akeno 4 sq km/20sq km array at far core distances between 500m and 3000m. The fluctuation of densities and arrival time increase rapidly at core distances greater than 2km.

  1. Comments on the workshop on techniques to study cosmic rays with E>10 19eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducorps, Antoine

    1992-11-01

    As a software engineer with a background in electronics, working in the area of High Energy Physics, I feel embarrassed to give my views on this Workshop which is in a field very novel to me. However, I would like to comment on three points, amongst the huge quantity of knowledge handed to me during these three days.

  2. Ninth international congress on Carboniferous stratigraphy and geology. Proceedings, volume 3. Neuvieme congres international de stratigraphie et de geologie du Carbonifere. Compte rendu, volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Geldsetzer, H.H.J.; Nassichuk, W.W.; Belt, E.S.; Macqueen, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Papers were presented on the Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coast basins, on paleogeography and paleotectonics and on sedimentology and geochemistry. A total of 14 papers concerning coal have been abstracted separately. Papers are in English or in French.

  3. Ninth international congress on Carboniferous stratigraphy and geology. Neuvieme congres international de stratigraphie et de geologie du Carbonifere. Compte rendu, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains: the plenary sessions of the Congress; invited lectures on the Carboniferous geology of China and Spain; reports of international commissions and committees; and papers on the history of Carboniferous geology. 4 papers have been abstracted separately.

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Communication Association (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1993) = Actes du Congres annuel, Association Canadienne de Communication (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Communication Association, Montreal (Quebec).

    This paper presents abstracts of 80 individual papers and panel discussions that deal with journalism, popular culture, mass media, "science" in public discourse, the social construction of communication technologies, factorial analysis as a research tool, and other issues in communication. Almost all of the abstracts in the paper are presented in…

  5. Le Congres de Nice 1974: Encouragement des Activites des Ecrivains at Traducteurs (The Nice Congress 1974: Encouraging the Activities of Writers and Translators)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Azaola, M.

    1974-01-01

    A representative from Unesco offers some suggestions supporting writers and translators, including: strong writers' organizations, literature prizes, encouraging writers from oral traditions to record work on tape, diversification of production by publishers, financial rewards to writers from both government and publishers, and adherence to…

  6. Parente genetique et correspondances phonetiques: A propos du proto-mondial (Genetic Kinship and Phonetic Correspondences: About Proto-Global).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucquois, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Irrespective of the traditional reconstructions related to the theory of well known families of languages such as Indo-European or Semitic, some researchers have aimed at rebuilding super-families, going as far as a Proto-global family. Several puzzling agreements between their proposals and the reconstructions made by the genetics populations…

  7. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report. Banque mondiale et l'environnement, ejercicio 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment.

  8. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  9. Discours prononce au cours du diner offert a l'issue du premier congres de l'API (Address Given on the Occasion of the First Meeting of the API)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Keith

    1978-01-01

    The speech, half in French and half in English, is an endorsement of the association, an indication of political, social and educational reforms it might influence, a reminder that members of the association, Canadian Parents for French, were present and interested, and an appeal for good public relations. (AMH)

  10. Colleges Celebrations 92: Actes du Congres = College Celebrations 92: Proceedings of the Combined Conference of the Association des colleges communacutaires du Canada and the Association quebecoise de pedagogie collegiale (Montreal, Quebec, May 24-27, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    The papers presented at this meeting of the annual conference of the Quebec Association of Collegiate Pedagogy and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges covered the following topics: (1) Students and Teachers, including papers focusing on faculty and student characteristics and concerns; (2) Development of Human Resources, including…

  11. Equal Employment Opportunity Law Enforcement. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. One Hundredth Congres, Second Session (Los Angeles, CA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document comprises the testimony presented at an oversight hearing on equal employment opportunity law enforcement before the House Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities. Among those who testified were the following: (1) Jerry Blakemore, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, United States Department of Labor; (2) James Foster,…

  12. Eduard Suess (1831 1914) et sa fresque mondiale La face de la Terre, deuxième tentative de tectonique globale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand-Delga, Michel; Seidl, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The global synthesis of Suess, Das Antlitz der Erde (1883-1909), translated and augmented as La face de la Terre, replaces Élie de Beaumont's theory of 'upheavals', rejected by the end of the century. Although Suess' theory is also based upon the alleged cooling of the Earth, it differs on significant points such as the following: ( i) mountain belts are not symmetrical, they result from tangential push directed towards their foreland; ( ii) their bends result from their accommodation against older rigid blocks; ( iii) the 'Caledonian belt' has been followed by the 'Variscan', in turn followed by the 'Alpides' (see Marcel Bertrand); ( iv) the oceans formed by foundering of their basement at varied epochs, and their progressive infilling resulted in the worldwide 'eustatic' transgressions; ( v) the peri-Pacific 'island arcs' move toward the Pacific Ocean, which is the oldest one. Besides a coherent vision of the development of the Earth, integrating the early concepts of 'mobilism', Suess coined many currently used geological terms (Tethys, Gondwana, etc.). Suess, at this time authoritative the world over, was a member of the 'Académie des sciences' of Paris.

  13. Repertoire Mondial des Collections et des Fonds d'Archives de l'Art des Enfants = World Directory of Collections and Archives of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nancy R.; And Others

    Divided into two parts, this world directory features collections and archives of childrens' art. The first part of the volume provides information about the collections before October 1989. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order according to the French spelling of the various countries and include the following information for each entry:…

  14. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  15. Education for All: Is the World on Track? Summary Report. EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2002 = Education pour Tous: Le Monde Est-Il sur la Bonne Voie? Resume du Rapport. Rapport Mondial de Suivi sur l'EPT, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Packer, Steve; Ellis, Simon; Van Ravens, Jan; Barry, Ulrika Peppler; Bella, Nicole; Djioze, Valerie; Mputu, Hilaire; Aggio, Carlos; Cifuentes-Montoya, Mariana; Pinceau, Pascale; Nsengimana, Delphine

    In 2000 the World Education Forum, sponsored by UNESCO, met to assess and act on educational opportunities for children, youth, and adults around the world. The forum agreed on six goals for education considered to be essential, attainable, and affordable, given strong international commitment and resolve, and on a program called Education for All…

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education = Les actes du congres annuel de l'association canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes (8th, Cornwall, Ontario, June 1-30, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Rene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 23 papers in French and the following 45 papers in English: "Arthur Lismer" (Barer-Stein); "Bootstrapping and Shoestringing to Academic Respectability" (Baskett); "Teaching by Teleconference" (Boak, Kirby); "Doing What Is Possible" (Butterwick); "Connections between Individual and World Peace" (Fallis et al.); "Federal…

  17. Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century: Global Guidelines and Papers from an International Symposium Hosted by the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (Organisation Mondiale pour L'Education Prescolaire) and the Association for Childhood Education International (Ruschlikon, Switzerland, July 5-8, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Childhood Education International, Olney, MD.

    The International Symposium on Early Childhood Education and Care for the 21st Century was held in Ruschlikon, Switzerland in 1999. Attending were 83 early childhood education professionals from 28 nations to develop international guidelines for the education and care of young children. This document contains shortened versions of the guidelines…

  18. Efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole 2010 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    OuédraogoYugbaré, Solange Odile; Zagré, Nikaise; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kam, Ludovic; Ouattara, Diarra Yé; Simporé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    L’épidémie du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine en milieu pédiatrique est surtout le résultat de la transmission mère-enfant. Notre étude a pour objectif de décrire l'efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole OMS 2010 (Option A et trithérapie) au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude d'une cohorte d'enfants suivis dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou sur une période de 2 ans allant du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013. Nous avons obtenu l'accord de 4900 femmes enceintes pour le dépistage de l'infection du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine et 238 gestantes ont été diagnostiquées séropositives soit 4,86% de séroprévalence. Les femmes étaient surtout infectées par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine avec de type I (95,38%)). La majorité était sous trithérapie (74,3%) et (25,7%) sous prophylaxie (option A). Les nouveau-nés (92,5%) ont reçu un traitement antirétroviral à base de névirapine dans les 72 heures après la naissance. L'allaitement sécurisé a été appliquée dans 78% des cas. Le taux global de transmission mère-enfant du VIH était de 3,6% avec 3% de transmission chez les enfants nés de mères sous trithérapie antirétrovirale et 6,3% dans les cas de prophylaxie antirétrovirale. Le facteur de risque de transmission a été le long délai du début d'administration des antirétroviraux chez le nouveau-né. La mortalité infantile à un an était de 3,5%. Cette étude a révélé l'efficacité de l'Option A et conforté celle de la trithérapie, le passage à l'Option B+ serait donc plus bénéfique. PMID:26966499

  19. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  20. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  1. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) For digitally modulated emissions, the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) standard shall be employed. Both digital audio broadcasting and datacasting are authorized. The RF requirements for the DRM system are... require that the digital spectral power density (and total power) be lower by several dB than is...

  2. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) For digitally modulated emissions, the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) standard shall be employed. Both digital audio broadcasting and datacasting are authorized. The RF requirements for the DRM system are... require that the digital spectral power density (and total power) be lower by several dB than is...

  3. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) For digitally modulated emissions, the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) standard shall be employed. Both digital audio broadcasting and datacasting are authorized. The RF requirements for the DRM system are... require that the digital spectral power density (and total power) be lower by several dB than is...

  4. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  5. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: A FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education. World Education Forum 2000. Final Report = Accorder la priorite a un programme efficace de sante scolaire: Une maniere FRAICHE (FRESH) d'aneliorer la qualite et d'accroitre l'equite dans le domaine de l'education. Forum mondial 2000 sur l'education. Rapport final = Recursos efectivos en salud escolar: Un enfogue NUEVO para mejorar la calidad y la equidad educativa. Foro Mundial par la educacion 2000. Informe final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This booklet, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the foundation and reasoning behind the partnership to Focus on Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH), making the case that an effective school health program: responds to the greater number of school-age children and the greater proportion of those children attending school;…

  6. Everest

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  7. Everest

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-20

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  8. Geoffrey Burbidge : L'art de la critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    Avec pres de cinquante ans de carriere derriere lui, Geoffrey Burbidge n'a rien perdu de son gout du débat et de la controverse. Mondialement reconnu pour ses travaux sur les quasars, il en agace aujourd'hui plus d'un en venant deranger le bel ordonnancement de la cosmologie. Il porte sur le monde scientifique un regard tres critique, condamnant notamment ces chercheurs qui acceptent trop volontiers d'emprunter les chemins tout traces.

  9. Conference Salam/Musset

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG L.Van Hove introduit le Prof. A.Salam né en 1926 dans l'ouest du Pakistan, un des gagnants du prix nobel de physique de cette année. Célébration de ses contributions théoriques mondialement connues. Après chaque discours, un petit historique est présenté par Paul Musset. Mention honorable aussi pour l'expérience Gargamelle et ses collaborateurs.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Official Board Interpretations; Preemption Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with § 229.20(d) of Regulation CC (12 CFR part 229), to determine whether the Expedited Funds... Board's Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...'s Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Official Board Interpretations; Preemption Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with § 229.20(d) of Regulation CC (12 CFR part 229), to determine whether the Expedited Funds... Board's Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...'s Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...

  12. 19-electron intermediates in the Ligand Substitution of CpW(CO)3with a Lewis Base

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, James F.; Kling, Matthias F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Frei,Heinz; Harris, Charles B.

    2005-12-14

    Odd electron species are important intermediates in organometallic chemistry, participating in a variety of catalytic and electron-transfer reactions which produce stable even-electron products. While electron deficient 17-electron (17e) radicals have been well characterized, the possible existence of short-lived 19-electron (19e) radicals has been a subject of continuing investigation. 19e radicals have been postulated as intermediates in the photochemical ligand substitution and disproportionation reactions of organometallic dimers containing a single metal-metal bond, yet the reactions of these intermediates on diffusion-limited time scales (ns-{micro}s) have never been directly observed. This study resolves the 19e dynamics in the ligand substitution of 17e radicals CpW(CO){sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}} (Cp = C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) with the Lewis base P(OMe){sub 3}, providing the first complete description 19e reactivity.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Official Board Interpretations; Preemption Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... California Background The Board has been requested, in accordance with § 229.20(d) of Regulation CC (12 CFR... CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds on other funds, the...'s Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Official Board Interpretations; Preemption Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... California Background The Board has been requested, in accordance with § 229.20(d) of Regulation CC (12 CFR... CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds on other funds, the...'s Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Official Board Interpretations; Preemption Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... California Background The Board has been requested, in accordance with § 229.20(d) of Regulation CC (12 CFR... CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds on other funds, the...'s Regulation D (12 CFR 204.2(d)). (Note, however, that under § 229.19(e) of Regulation CC, Holds...

  16. Forecasting landslide activations by means of GA-SAKe. An example of application to three case studies in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; De Rango, Alessio; Gariano, Stefano L.; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2016-04-01

    Science and Practice, Margottini, Canuti, Sassa (Eds.), Vol. 3, pp.73-79. [2] Terranova O.G., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P. & Iovine G.G.R. (2015). Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1955-1978. [3] Iovine G., Iaquinta P. & Terranova O. (2009). In Anderssen, Braddock & Newham (Eds.), Proc. 18th World IMACS Congr. and MODSIM09 Int. Congr. on Modelling and Simulation, pp. 2686-2693. [4] Iovine G., Lollino P., Gariano S.L. & Terranova O.G. (2010). NHESS, 10, 2341-2354. [5] Capparelli G., Iaquinta P., Iovine G., Terranova O.G. & Versace P. (2012). Natural Hazards, 61(1), pp.247-256.

  17. Clinicopathological features of renal amyloidosis: a single-center study on 47 cases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chang-qing; Zhang, Yu-an; Li, Zhen-qiong; Wang, Yu-mei

    2015-02-01

    The correlations between the clinicopathological features and the long-term outcomes of renal amyloidosis (RA) were analyzed with a view to develop strategies for improving diagnosis and prognosis of RA. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 47 patients diagnosed with RA between 2004 and 2014 at the Wuhan Union Hospital. The data on the renal histology, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of RA patients were retrieved from the hospital records and characteristic patterns were identified. The histological changes in the kidneys were correlated with the clinical manifestations of RA. Additionally, most RA patients in this study had decreased serum levels of κ light chain and increased urine levels of κ and λ light chains as well as presence of M-protein in the urine and serum. Patients with early RA showed no specific pathognomonic symptoms. Bleeding associated with diagnostic renal biopsy was rare. We recommend that the routine work-up of patients aged over 40 years and presenting with non-diabetic nephropathy includes the non-invasive tests for the measurement of serum and urine levels of κ and λ light chains as well as protein electrophoresis tests for the presence of urinary and serum M-protein. Additionally, such patients should undergo renal biopsy screening with Cong-red staining to ensure early diagnosis of RA and improve their survival, since the risk of hemorrhage related to renal biopsy screening is low at early stages of RA. PMID:25673192

  18. [Congresses of the Croatian Medical Association regarding unpublished proceedings of the 10th congress in Zadar on September 25-28, 1996].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, Ante

    2011-01-01

    The first annual meeting of Croatian physicians, with characteristics of a congress, was held in 1899 at the 25th anniversary of the Croatian Medical Association. From 1954 to 1996, during almost 60 years of existence of the Croatian Medical Association, ten congresses of the Association were held. The congresses were during the development of modern medicine devoted to different medical questions, including some problems of national pathology, of the structure and restructuring of health care. The work and the content of congresses were published in the proceedings except for the 8th Congress in 1987 and the 10th in 1996. By reading main lectures, invited lectures and free papers the knowledge of that period can be gained. Many papers are even today actual, even today it could be learned from them. With more details, using published proceedings the 9th congress and the 10th congress are described on the basis preserved program, of a brief report in home journal and ample preserved correspondence. The national medical congres dedicated to technology advancement and to numerous problems of national pathology may be actual even today. They could help to solve many problems of health care, contribute to its improvement and convey consensus on its further development. PMID:22329299

  19. Control of respiration in proteoliposomes containing cytochrome aa3. I. Stimulation by valinomycin and uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Hansen, F B; Miller, M; Nicholls, P

    1978-06-01

    1. Both valinomycin and p-trifluoromethoxy carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone (FCCP) are required for full release of respiration by cytochrome c oxidase-containing proteoliposomes (prepared by sonicating beef heart cytochrome aa3 in salt solution with 4 parts phosphatidylcholine, 4 parts phosphatidylethanolamine and 2 parts cardiolipin) in the presence of external ascorbate and cytochrome c. In the absence of valinomycin the response to FCCP is rather sluggish, as reported by Wrigglesworth et al. (1976) (Abstracts, 10th Int. Congr. Biochem., No. 06-6-230). 2. The Km for cytochrome c in 67 mM, pH 7.4, phosphate buffer with ascorbate as substrate, was 9 micrometer in both absence and presence of valinomycin and FCCP. Energization thus acts non-competitively towards cytochrome c oxidation. 3. The apparent Km for oxygen is greater in the energized than in the deenergized state; double reciprocal plots of respiration rate versus oxygen concentration are concave downward in the absence of uncouplers, as found with intact mitochondria. Energization thus acts "competitively" towards oxygen. 4. Despite the lack of a functional ATPase system, all the kinetic features of energization found in intact mitochondria can be mimicked in the reconstituted liposomes. This supports the chemiosmotic idea that electrical and perhaps H+ gradients modify the oxidase activity in reconstituted vesicles. PMID:207320

  20. NIH deltanoids meeting on Vitamin D and cancer. Conclusion and strategic options.

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Roger; Moody, Terry; Sporn, Michael; Barrett, J Carl; Norman, Anthony W

    2005-10-01

    A meeting on "Cancer Chemoprevention and Cancer Treatment; role of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and deltanoids" was held on the NIH Congres, Bethesda in November 2004. The following conclusions were presented at the end of this symposium. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are worldwide problems and are associated with several health problems including higher cancer prevalence. There is convincing evidence that the active vitamin D hormone, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), can decrease cell proliferation, modify cell apoptosis and control malignant cell growth. Therefore academia, public funding agencies and industry should urgently design appropriate studies to better define the causal relationship between vitamin D nutrition and cancer, define the optimal vitamin D nutrition based on accurate 25(OH)D measurement and inform the public and medical profession accordingly. Selective vitamin D receptor modulators are a potentially interesting new class of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents as demonstrated by several first generation analogs have provided a convincing proof of concept. In the mean time, the public should be informed about the risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and appropriate steps should be taken to improve the vitamin D nutritional status of large parts of the world population. PMID:16043351

  1. Origin of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Hill, C.T.

    1983-04-01

    The nature of the cosmic-ray spectrum above 10/sup 19/ eV discriminates between possible primary source models in a limited way. The shape of the spectrum, apart from normalization, is universal after a few photomeson interaction lengths. Fundamental processes, those sensitive to physics at e.g. the grand unification scale, are energy efficient and may be necessary to account for the normalization of the spectrum at the GZ cut-off. Very distant cosmological sources of this kind can generate significant structure above 10/sup 19/ eV. Local sources are not required and may even be problematic.

  2. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Kaiyumars B; Kaur, Kanchan; Rodrigues, Gabriel S; Kulkarni, Dhananjay M; Singhal, Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease. PMID:18558006

  3. Research on synchronization technique of the DRM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-fei; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Cheng, Wen; Su, Fan

    2011-10-01

    To deal with the degradation of the synchronization performance in low SNR condition, a novel DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) synchronization algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm employs cyclic prefix for timing synchronization and fractional frequency offset estimation like conventional methods, but accomplishes frame synchronization and integer frequency offset estimation using time pilot cells and differential coding technologies, which are designed specially for the DRM system. After channel estimation and equalization, frequency pilot cells are used to estimate residue fractional frequency offset and subsequent sample offset as well as fixed phase offset to achieve complete synchronization. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can possesses better time and frequency synchronization performance than the conventional method in the multi-path fading channel with low SNR condition.

  4. Effect of three apple rootstocks on the population of the small red-belted clearwing borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Experiments were conducted in Ash-Shoubak area of Jordan from June 2003 to September 2005 to study the effect of three apple rootstocks on the development of the small red-belted clearwing borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkh.) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), under field conditions. Mondial Gala apple trees grafted on the dwarfing rootstock M9 and the semi-dwarfing rootstock M26 were equally infested, whereas those grafted on MM106 showed significantly lower infestation levels. S. myopaeformis bore into burr knots that develop below a graft union on rootstocks and girdle the tree. There was a significant effect of rootstock on the numbers of burrs present, and the percentage of burr knots infested by S. myopaeformis, with M106 having significantly fewer burrs, and a lower percent infested. PMID:20233078

  5. Grossesses extra utérines successives et bilharziose tubaire chez une touriste française

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Justine; Mottet, Nicolas; Malincenco, Marianna; Gay, Catherine; Royer, Pierre Yves; Riethmuller, Didier

    2016-01-01

    La bilharziose est la seconde endémie parasitaire mondiale et ses atteintes génito urinaires sont bien décrites. Les grossesses ectopiques (GEU) sur obstruction tubaire par les œufs de bilharziose sont rapportées dans les populations africaines. La bilharziose affecte aussi les voyageurs mais l'atteinte de l'appareil génital féminin est plus rare. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de deux GEU successives sur bilharziose tubaire chez une patiente d'origine Française, sept ans après un voyage touristique au Mali, la première découverte sur pièce de salpingectomie et la seconde ayant nécessité une salpingotomie controlatérale avec une injection de méthotrexate, deux mois plus tard. PMID:27200124

  6. Les vies de Galilée

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-26

    Qu'est-ce que l'astronomie? A quoi sert-elle ? Qui était Galilée ? Une soirée avec Fiami, auteur et dessinateur autour des vies de Galilée, titre de son nouvel ouvrage. Galilée y joue le protagoniste ou le complice de grandes découvertes à différentes époques et sous divers profils : Galilée à Babylone (-568) | Galilée à Alexandrie (-197) | Galilée en Inde (499) | Galilée à Venise (1609) | Galilée et Halley (1705) | Galilée revient (2009) Dans le cadre de l'année mondiale de l'astronomie. » Tout public » Entrée libre » Réservation groupes au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  7. Les vies de Galilée

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Qu'est-ce que l'astronomie? A quoi sert-elle ? Qui était Galilée ? Une soirée avec Fiami, auteur et dessinateur autour des vies de Galilée, titre de son nouvel ouvrage. Galilée y joue le protagoniste ou le complice de grandes découvertes à différentes époques et sous divers profils : Galilée à Babylone (-568) | Galilée à Alexandrie (-197) | Galilée en Inde (499) | Galilée à Venise (1609) | Galilée et Halley (1705) | Galilée revient (2009) Dans le cadre de l'année mondiale de l'astronomie. » Tout public » Entrée libre » Réservation groupes au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  8. Search for ultra-high energy photons using Telescope Array surface detector

    SciTech Connect

    Rubtsov, G. I.; Troitsky, S. V.; Ivanov, D.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomson, G. B.

    2011-09-22

    We search for ultra-high energy photons by analyzing geometrical properties of shower fronts of events registered by the Telescope Array surface detector. By making use of an event-by-event statistical method, we derive an upper limit on the absolute flux of primary photons with energies above 10{sup 19} eV.

  9. On the Possibility of Radar Detection of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray- and Neutrino-induced Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P.

    1999-01-01

    We show that cosmic rays air showers resulting from primaries with energies above 10(sup 19) eV should be straightforward to detect with radar ranging techniques, where the radar echoes are produced by scattering from the column of ionized air produced by the shower.

  10. 24 CFR 882.803 - Project eligibility and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... providing continual psychiatric, medical, or nursing services are not eligible for assistance under this.... 3601-19), E.O. 11063 (as amended by E.O. 12259; 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 652 and 3 CFR, 1980 Comp., p... receiving Federal funding for rental assistance or operating costs under other HUD programs. (3)...

  11. A strategy to minimize reactive metabolite formation: discovery of (S)-4-(1-cyclopropyl-2-methoxyethyl)-6-[6-(difluoromethoxy)-2,5-dimethylpyridin-3-ylamino]-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazine-2-carbonitrile as a potent, orally bioavailable corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Richard A; Ahuja, Vijay T; Zhuo, Xiaoliang; Mattson, Ronald J; Denhart, Derek J; Deskus, Jeffrey A; Vrudhula, Vivekananda M; Pan, Senliang; Ditta, Jonathan L; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Grace, James E; Lentz, Kimberley A; Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Molski, Thaddeus F; Krishnananthan, Subramaniam; Wong, Henry; Qian-Cutrone, Jingfang; Schartman, Richard; Denton, Rex; Lodge, Nicholas J; Zaczek, Robert; Macor, John E; Bronson, Joanne J

    2009-12-10

    Detailed metabolic characterization of 8, an earlier lead pyrazinone-based corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, revealed that this compound formed significant levels of reactive metabolites, as measured by in vivo and in vitro biotransformation studies. This was of particular concern due to the body of evidence suggesting that reactive metabolites may be involved in idiosyncratic drug reactions. Further optimization of the structure-activity relationships and in vivo properties of pyrazinone-based CRF(1) receptor antagonists and studies to assess the formation of reactive metabolites led to the discovery of 19e, a high affinity CRF(1) receptor antagonist (IC(50) = 0.86 nM) wherein GSH adducts were estimated to be only 0.1% of the total amount of drug-related material excreted through bile and urine, indicating low levels of reactive metabolite formation in vivo. A novel 6-(difluoromethoxy)-2,5-dimethylpyridin-3-amine group in 19e contributed to the potency and improved in vivo properties of this compound and related analogues. 19e had excellent pharmacokinetic properties in rats and dogs and showed efficacy in the defensive withdrawal model of anxiety in rats. The lowest efficacious dose was 1.8 mg/kg. The results of a two-week rat safety study with 19e indicated that this compound was well-tolerated. PMID:19954247

  12. Armor Procedural Skills: Learning and Retention. Technical Report 621.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knerr, C. Mazie; And Others

    Research investigated learning and retention of eight armor tasks selected to represent tasks varying in length, complexity, and extent of practice in operational units. Performance data were collected from soldiers in operational units and from soldiers attending One Station Unit Training (OSUT) in Armor Military Occupational Specialty (19E).…

  13. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... owners of the adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of... than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public...

  14. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A... of lading, dock receipt, or other similar document with respect to the shipment. (d) Compensation... interchange-based computer system in its forwarding business; however, the forwarder must directly...

  15. 12 CFR 509.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585, which implements section 19(e... violation of: (1) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1464 (d), (s) and (v); (2) Section 9 of the HOLA or any regulation or order...

  16. 32 CFR 56.7 - Programs and activities subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5720.19E, “Navy Science Cruiser Program,” February 24, 1977. (5) Title 10 U.S. Code, section 9441 (1976... Army Corps of Engineers to State and local governments for the control of aquatic plant growths...

  17. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A....42 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN TRANSPORTATION...

  18. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A....42 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN TRANSPORTATION...

  19. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A....42 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN TRANSPORTATION...

  20. 32 CFR 56.7 - Programs and activities subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 5720.19E, “Navy Science Cruiser Program,” February 24, 1977. (5) Title 10 U.S. Code, section 9441 (1976... Army Corps of Engineers to State and local governments for the control of aquatic plant growths...

  1. 24 CFR 882.803 - Project eligibility and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... receiving Federal funding for rental assistance or operating costs under other HUD programs. (3) Nursing homes and related facilities such as intermediate care or board and care homes; units within the grounds.... 3601-19), E.O. 11063 (as amended by E.O. 12259; 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 652 and 3 CFR, 1980 Comp.,...

  2. 24 CFR 882.803 - Project eligibility and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... receiving Federal funding for rental assistance or operating costs under other HUD programs. (3) Nursing homes and related facilities such as intermediate care or board and care homes; units within the grounds.... 3601-19), E.O. 11063 (as amended by E.O. 12259; 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 652 and 3 CFR, 1980 Comp.,...

  3. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  4. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  5. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  6. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  7. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  8. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  9. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  10. 12 CFR 509.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585, which implements section 19(e... violation of: (1) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1464 (d), (s) and (v); (2) Section 9 of the HOLA or any regulation or order...

  11. 12 CFR 509.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585, which implements section 19(e... violation of: (1) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1464 (d), (s) and (v); (2) Section 9 of the HOLA or any regulation or order...

  12. 12 CFR 509.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585, which implements section 19(e... violation of: (1) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1464 (d), (s) and (v); (2) Section 9 of the HOLA or any regulation or order...

  13. 12 CFR 509.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585, which implements section 19(e... violation of: (1) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1464 (d), (s) and (v); (2) Section 9 of the HOLA or any regulation or order...

  14. 48 CFR 231.205-19 - Insurance and indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-19 Insurance and indemnification. (e) In addition to the cost limitations in FAR 31.205-19(e), self-insurance and purchased insurance costs are...

  15. 12 CFR 585.10 - What does this part do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What does this part do? 585.10 Section 585.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROHIBITED SERVICE AT SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 585.10 What does this part do? This part implements section 19(e)(1)...

  16. Identification and Characterization of an Immunogenic Hybrid Epitope Formed by both HIV gp120 and Human CD4 Proteins ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, George K.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Ibrahim, Sani; Taylor, Brian M.; Salkar, Rachita; Guan, Yongjun; Kamin-Lewis, Roberta; DeVico, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Certain antibodies from HIV-infected humans bind conserved transition state (CD4 induced [CD4i]) domains on the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and demonstrate extreme dependence on the formation of a gp120-human CD4 receptor complex. The epitopes recognized by these antibodies remain undefined although recent crystallographic studies of the anti-CD4i monoclonal antibody (MAb) 21c suggest that contacts with CD4 as well as gp120 might occur. Here, we explore the possibility of hybrid epitopes that demand the collaboration of both gp120 and CD4 residues to enable antibody reactivity. Analyses with a panel of human anti-CD4i MAbs and gp120-CD4 antigens with specific mutations in predicted binding domains revealed one putative hybrid epitope, defined by the human anti-CD4i MAb 19e. In virological and immunological tests, MAb 19e did not bind native or constrained gp120 except in the presence of CD4. This contrasted with other anti-CD4i MAbs, including MAb 21c, which bound unliganded, full-length gp120 held in a constrained conformation. Conversely, MAb 19e exhibited no specific reactivity with free human CD4. Computational modeling of MAb 19e interactions with gp120-CD4 complexes suggested a distinct binding profile involving antibody heavy chain interactions with CD4 and light chain interactions with gp120. In accordance, targeted mutations in CD4 based on this model specifically reduced MAb 19e interactions with stable gp120-CD4 complexes that retained reactivity with other anti-CD4i MAbs. These data represent a rare instance of an antibody response that is specific to a pathogen-host cell protein interaction and underscore the diversity of immunogenic CD4i epitope structures that exist during natural infection. PMID:21994452

  17. Monitoring and modelling for landslide risk mitigation and reduction. The case study of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Oreste G.; Greco, Venanzio R.; Gariano, Stefano L.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    movements caused severe damage to roads and infrastructure. The second crisis ended up in late June: the hydrological model FLaIR was then successfully tested against the known dates of activation of the slope movement, by using a local rain series [3]. Meanwhile, technical support was being assured to the Municipality to optimize geological prospections, monitoring, and design of remedial works of a master plan. A third activation occurred during the night of 15 March 2013, when planned remedial works had not been completed yet. By applying the hydrological model SAKe [4, 5], this activation could be predicted, again permitting the prompt adoption of mitigation measures. Such activation was triggered by rains smaller and shorter than those that caused previous activations, perhaps indicating an apparent increasing fragility of the slope. Changes in slope stability conditions before and after the construction of the remedial works are being investigated. Critical rain conditions and groundwater levels for landslide activation are in fact expected to change, depending on combined effects of natural weakening vs. artificial strengthening. Monitoring will allow to quantitatively verify the new relationships between rainfall, groundwater and slope stability. References [1] Iovine G., Iaquinta P. & Terranova O. (2009). In Anderssen, Braddock & Newham (Eds.), Proc. 18th World IMACS Congr. and MODSIM09 Int. Congr. on Modelling and Simulation, pp. 2686-2693. [2] Iovine G., Lollino P., Gariano S.L. & Terranova O.G. (2010). NHESS, 10, 2341-2354. [3] Capparelli G., Iaquinta P., Iovine G., Terranova O.G. & Versace P. (2012). Natural Hazards, 61(1), pp.247-256. [4] Terranova O.G., Iaquinta P., Gariano S.L., Greco R. & Iovine G. (2013) In: Landslide Science and Practice, Margottini, Canuti, Sassa (Eds.), Vol. 3, pp.73-79. [5] Terranova O.G., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P. & Iovine G.G.R. (2015). Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1955-1978.

  18. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials. PMID:9463884

  19. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies. PMID:25607287

  20. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  1. Social individualism: Walter Gropius and his appropriation of Franz Müller-Lyer's idea of a new man.

    PubMed

    Poppelreuter, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In 1929, Walter Gropius developed the "High-Rise Steel Frame Apartment Building" that was based on theories about the emergence of a New Man put forward by sociologist Franz Müller-Lyer. In his lecture at the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne conference in 1929, Gropius appropriated Müller-Lyer's sociology in order to promote and prompt the re-development of high-rise tenements and master households. Gropius’ 1931 contribution to the Deutsche Bauausstellung in Berlin incorporated a full-scale community lounge and a recreation area with sporting equipment, as well as a model and plans for a "High-Rise Steel Frame Apartment Building" that were designed in accordance with Müller-Lyer's theories. While it shows Müller-Lyer's influence, the boxing equipment found in the recreation area reflects the importance that sport, and boxing in particular, had gained after 1900. Boxing was perceived as a sport that would not only further fitness but also raise the spirits and help the inhabitant to succeed in the modern urban environment. By providing boxing equipment, Müller-Lyer's vision, which envisaged master households as furthering a community of peaceful individuals living in a condition of mutual trust, is weakened. In 1923, the sociologist Helmuth Plessner had regarded utopian visions of ideal communities as antithesis to actual events in the Weimar Republic. The embracing of theories that promised an evolutionary and linear development towards peaceful communities can be regarded as a counterreaction to a present that was perceived as an imperfect and temporary condition. Furthermore, Gropius’ appropriation of Müller-Lyer's sociology not only helped to distinguish his position from Marxist and socialist theories but also illustrated the contemporary tendency to accept utopian ideas while simultaneously doubting the practicality of some. PMID:21574288

  2. Improved limit on the muon electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. W.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Danby, G. T.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Meng, W.; Mi, J.; Morse, W. M.; Nikas, D.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Warburton, D.; Bousquet, B.; Cushman, P.; Duong, L.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Kronkvist, I.; Qian, T.

    2009-09-01

    Three independent searches for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive and negative muons have been performed, using spin precession data from the muon g-2 storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Details on the experimental apparatus and the three analyses are presented. Since the individual results on the positive and negative muons, as well as the combined result, d{sub {mu}}=(0.0{+-}0.9)x10{sup -19}e cm, are all consistent with zero, we set a new muon EDM limit, |d{sub {mu}}|<1.8x10{sup -19}e cm (95% C.L.). This represents a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limit on the muon EDM.

  3. A New Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Muon

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, Robert M.

    2009-12-17

    Three independent searches for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive and negative muons have been performed, using spin precession data from the muon g-2 storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Brief details on the experimental apparatus and the three analyses are presented. Since the individual results on the positive and negative muon, as well as the combined result, d{sub {mu}} = (-0.1{+-}0.9)x10{sup -19} e{center_dot}cm, are all consistent with zero, we set a new muon EDM limit, |d{sub {mu}}|<1.9x10{sup -19} e{center_dot}cm(95% C.L.). This represents a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limit on the muon EDM.

  4. Plasma deposition of wide gap, highly photoconductive a-Si:H thin films from disilane-helium mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Wide gap (>1.9 eV), photoconductive, intrinsic amorphous silicon films were made in a uhv system from Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/-He mixtures. The hydrogen concentrations, optical gaps and photoconductivities were measured. Unlike films made from SiH/sub 4/, Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/-produced films exhibit excellent electronic properties even at low deposition temperatures. The ratio of AM1 photoconductivity to dark conductivity was as high as 10/sup 7/.

  5. 47 CFR 90.721 - Other channels available for non-nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Channel Nos. A EA 2 and 13 B EA 3 and 16 C EA 5 and 18 D EA 8 and 19 E EA 171-180 F REAG 1, 6, and 11 G...-nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band. (a) The channel groups listed in the following Table are... equivalent or greater efficiency for non-commercial or commercial operations. Table 1—Phase I Trunked...

  6. 47 CFR 90.721 - Other channels available for non-nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Channel Nos. A EA 2 and 13 B EA 3 and 16 C EA 5 and 18 D EA 8 and 19 E EA 171-180 F REAG 1, 6, and 11 G...-nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band. (a) The channel groups listed in the following Table are... equivalent or greater efficiency for non-commercial or commercial operations. Table 1—Phase I Trunked...

  7. 12 CFR 4.76 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10(k)(6) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1820(k)(6)) and in 12 CFR part 19. (e) Remedies not exclusive. The... under section 10(k) of FDI Act. If a senior examiner of a national bank, after leaving the employment of... with section 10(k)(6) of the FDI Act, be subject to one of the following penalties— (1) An order—...

  8. 12 CFR 4.76 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10(k)(6) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1820(k)(6)) and in 12 CFR part 19. (e) Remedies not exclusive. The... under section 10(k) of FDI Act. If a senior examiner of a national bank, after leaving the employment of... with section 10(k)(6) of the FDI Act, be subject to one of the following penalties— (1) An order—...

  9. Effects of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Colson, Brett A; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-01

    We have performed 50 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the effect of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) regulatory light chain (RLC). We previously showed that the N-terminal phosphorylation domain of RLC simultaneously populates two structural states in equilibrium, closed and open, and that phosphorylation at S19 induces a modest shift toward the open state, which is sufficient to activate smooth muscle. However, it remains unknown why pseudophosphorylation mutants poorly mimic phosphorylation-induced activation of SMM. We performed MD simulations of unphosphorylated, phosphorylated, and three pseudophosphorylated RLC mutants: S19E, T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E. We found that the S19E mutation does not shift the equilibrium toward the open state, indicating that simple charge replacement at position S19 does not mimic the activating effect of phosphorylation, providing a structural explanation for previously published functional data. In contrast, mutants T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E shift the equilibrium toward the open structure and partially activate in vitro motility, further supporting the model that an increase in the mol fraction of the open state is coupled to SMM motility. Structural analyses of the doubly-charged pseudophosphorylation mutants suggest that alterations in an interdomain salt bridge between residues R4 and D100 results in impaired signal transmission from RLC to the catalytic domain of SMM, which explains the low ATPase activity of these mutants. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation produces a unique structural balance in the RLC. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the structural aspects of activation and force potentiation in smooth and striated muscle. PMID:25091814

  10. Nuclear motion effects in the photoionisation of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J. R.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1980-04-14

    A calculation of the photoionization cross section of CO2 reveals that the σu shape resonance at approximately 19 eV, accessed by the 1πg and 4σg valence levels, is reduced and broadened by coupling to the ground-state vibrational motion. Off resonance the effect of nuclear motion is negligible. Results are compared with experimental branching ratios.

  11. Evolution of the ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum by transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.T.; Schramm, D.N.

    1983-04-01

    Ultra-high energy proton primaries interacting with the 3/sup 0/K photon background are treated as a transport phenomenon. Baryon number is explicitly conserved and the evolved spectrum develops a bump at a scale of order 5x10/sup 19/ eV, below the cutoff, due to the pile-up of energy degraded protons. This may correspond in part to the observed ankle structure in the CR spectrum.

  12. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia. PMID:26249427

  13. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A. Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-06-15

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10{sup 15} - 3 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  14. Defect-related transitions in Zn3P2 studied by means of photovoltaic effect spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirowska, N.; Misiewicz, J.

    1992-11-01

    Transitions at energies of 1.31 eV and 1.41 eV have been observed in Zn3P2 at room temperature (T=295 K) by using surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. Results obtained from absorption and photoconductivity measurements are also discussed here. The polarity of the PSV signal has been analysed. Two acceptor levels were found to be at 0.29 eV and 0.19 eV above the valence band.

  15. Highlights of recent progress in plant lipid research.

    PubMed

    Lessire, R; Cahoon, E; Chapman, K; Dyer, J; Eastmond, P; Heinz, E

    2009-06-01

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of energy for the production of raw materials. This is the context in which the 18th International Symposium on Plant lipids (ISPL) was held in Bordeaux from 20th to 25th July 2008 at "La Cité Mondiale". The 18th ISPL gathered 270 researchers from 33 countries. Sixty nine oral communications and 136 posters were presented during the 12 sessions of the Symposium. The sessions have covered all the different aspects of the Plant Lipid field including: Surface lipids: suberin, cutin and waxes, Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, Plant lipids as renewable sources of energy, Seed oils and bioengineering of metabolic pathways, Lipid catabolism, Models for lipid studies: lower plants, micro-organisms and others, Modifications of proteins by lipids, Sphingolipids, sterols and isoprenoids, Lipid signaling and plant stress responses, Lipid trafficking and membrane dynamics, New methods and technologies: functional lipidomics, fluxome, modelling. During the ISPL 2008 Bordeaux, important and new information was reported in the different fields. A selection of these results is presented here. PMID:19328004

  16. Cancer métaplasique du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Babahabib, Moulay Abdellah; Chennana, Adil; Hachi, Aymen; Kouach, Jaoud; Moussaoui, Driss; Dhayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Les carcinomes métaplasiques du sein sont des tumeurs rares. Ils constituent un groupe hétérogène de tumeurs définis selon l'organisation mondiale de la santé comme étant un carcinome canalaire infiltrant mais comportant des zones de remaniements métaplasiques (de type épidermoïde, à cellules fusiformes, chondroïde et osseux ou mixte), qui varient de quelques foyers microscopiques à un remplacement glandulaire complet. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne sont pas spécifiques. Le traitement associe la chirurgie, la radiothérapie et la chimiothérapie. L'hormonothérapie n'a pas de place. Le pronostic est sombre. L'histopathologie combinée à l'immunohistochimie permet de poser un diagnostic sure. Etant donné que la prise en charge thérapeutique est limitée, une nouvelle approche moléculaire pourrait modifier cette contribution faible et mal cernée des traitements systémiques classiques. Les patientes atteintes de carcinome métaplasique mammaire pourraient bénéficier de traitements ciblés, ce qui reste à confirmer par des essais cliniques. PMID:25870723

  17. [Screening in open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen; Mocanu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the second cause of mondial cecity, after retinal diabetes complications, with extremely severe implications in quality of life. Screening testing for glaucoma is justified, because only the diagnosis in very incipient stage will preserve the visual function; any treatment will not assure the reversibility of pre-existent optic nerve lesions. Screening of glaucoma, will take into a consideration the costs, the time of investigation, the adverse effects, and the sensitivity and specificity of tests; the last parameter also will strongly influence the positive predictive value. An ideal screening identifies all subjects that present the disease (sensitivity) and will exclude all healthy subjects (specificity). In this moment, in Dolj district, the diagnosis is based on active diagnosis of new cases of glaucoma on the high risk level population, therefore in a 210000 habitants. 4723 patients with glaucoma are diagnosed, screened and follow-up on medical cabinets and on Center of Glaucoma, which coordinates their activity. To better monitored patients, automatized programs with acquisition and storage for different types of medical imaging facilities had become indispensable to any routine practice. PMID:23755511

  18. Padus, Sandalus, Gens Fadiena. Underwater Surveys in Palaeo-Watercourses (ferrara District - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    In the ambit of our program of researches on ancient rivers in Ferrara hinterland (Italy), we have been joining a Scientific - Didactic Project between Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Emilia Romagna, Comune di Portomaggiore Assessorato alla Cultura, CMAS A.CDCI. - Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques Federation ITA F07 - Associazione CMAS Diving Center Italia. The Project is focused on underwater archaeological surveys in ex quarry lakes, following the Rivers Padus and Sandalus between Voghiera, Gambulaga and Portomaggiore (Ferrara District). Here we are going to introduce our most recent results, after the last immersions and a 3D bathymetrical survey completed by echo-side scan sonar in Tramonto Lake at Gambulaga, explaining the connection with remote sensing investigations and direct surveys applied to underwater archaeology of the inland water. The main submerged structure individuated is a part of wooden dock on the left side of Padus, in front of the Necropolis of Fadieni (1st-3rd cent. A.D.). Thanks to the study of 183 finds coming from the lake, involving students and young collaborators of the Archaeological National Museum of Ferrara, we are reconstructing the ancient landscape between Proto-Imperial Age and Late Antique.

  19. Traitement intra-artériel des métastases hépatiques de cancer colorectal

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, O.; Geschwind, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal représente un problème majeur de santé publique. Son incidence annuelle mondiale est d’environ un million de cas et la mortalité annuelle est de plus de 500 000 cas par an. Le foie est l’organe le plus fréquemment touché par les métastases. Leur survenue est observée dans 40 à 60% des cas (contemporaines dans 25% des cas). Bien que la résection chirurgicale soit le seul traitement curatif, nombre de patients ne peuvent en bénéficier en raison de l’importante diffusion des métastases hépatiques. Chimiothérapies et biothérapies systémiques sont les options conventionnelles de la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques multiples. C’est dans ces situations cliniques que les thérapies intra-artérielles peuvent jouer un rôle important. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les différentes thérapies endovasculaires applicables aux métastases hépatiques de cancers colorectaux, avec leurs indications, résultats et complications éventuelles. PMID:21944243

  20. Liquid Water vs. Hydrogen Cyanide on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, C. R.; Zolotov, M. Y.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in plumes on Enceladus [1]. We explored computationally the thermodynamic stability and kinetic reactivity of HCN. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations show that HCN is unstable in liquid water, and should be overwhelmingly hydrolyzed to formic acid (HCOOH) and ammonia (NH3) under all conditions relevant to Enceladus. Even in an aqueous solution with an unreasonably high NH3 activity of 10, the HCOOH/HCN activity ratio is predicted to be greater than 107 at 0°C. This ratio decreases with increasing NH3 activity and with increasing temperature. Even at high temperatures (e.g., 200°C), it is at least 3-4 orders-of-magnitude above unity. It is notable that neither formic acid nor ammonia have been detected in any plumes [1]. We thus infer that the detected HCN is unlikely to have equilibrated with an aqueous solution below Enceladus' surface. Chemical kinetic considerations indicate that the hydrolysis lifetime of HCN has a complex dependence on pH, and decreases with increasing temperature. We find that, even at the pH value most conducive to the survival of HCN (~5), HCN can persist for only about 5 Ma in liquid water at 0°C. Thus, the HCN in the plumes could not have come from a long-lasting ocean or sea, and probably came from a recent aqueous melt or some icy phase. A liquid source for the HCN would be more restrictive than an ice source. For example, an aqueous solution must have a pH between 4-6 for HCN to be preserved in it for at least ~1 Ma at 0°C. However, this pH restriction would be lifted if the HCN source were a very young pool (i.e., centuries-millennia old). On the other hand, it is expected that HCN could survive indefinitely in an icy matrix. The proposed HCN sources may be less favorable abodes for life than a long-lived aqueous reservoir. Reference: [1] Waite J.H. et al. (2008) Eur. Planet. Sci. Congr. 3, EPSC2008-A-00593.

  1. In situ rutile petrochronology: texture-related T, Paleoproterozoic inheritance and a Pan-African overprint in the oldest subduction-related eclogites, Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, A.; Kraus, K.; Herms, P.; Appel, P.; Raase, P.

    2014-12-01

    example of the potential of in-situ rutile petrochronology in complex, polymetamorphic rocks when meticulous attention is given to textural context. Möller et al., 1995, Geology, v. 23, p. 1067-1070. Collins et al., 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 224, p. 175-192. Wendt et al., 1972, 24th Internat. Geol. Congr., Proc., p. 295-314.

  2. PlanetServer/EarthServer: Big Data analytics in Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Oosthoek, Jelmer; Baumann, Peter; Beccati, Alan; Cantini, Federico; Misev, Dimitar; Orosei, Roberto; Flahaut, Jessica; Campalani, Piero; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Planetary data are freely available on PDS/PSA archives and alike (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). Their exploitation by the community is somewhat limited by the variable availability of calibrated/higher level datasets. An additional complexity of these multi-experiment, multi-mission datasets is related to the heterogeneity of data themselves, rather than their volume. Orbital - so far - data are best suited for an inclusion in array databases (Baumann et al., 1994). Most lander- or rover-based remote sensing experiment (and possibly, in-situ as well) are suitable for similar approaches, although the complexity of coordinate reference systems (CRS) is higher in the latter case. PlanetServer, the Planetary Service of the EC FP7 e-infrastructure project EarthServer (http://earthserver.eu) is a state-of-art online data exploration and analysis system based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Mars orbital data. It provides access to topographic, panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral calibrated data. While its core focus has been on hyperspectral data analysis through the OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (Oosthoek et al., 2013; Rossi et al., 2013), the Service progressively expanded to host also sounding radar data (Cantini et al., this volume). Additionally, both single swath and mosaicked imagery and topographic data are being added to the Service, deriving from the HRSC experiment (e.g. Jaumann et al., 2007; Gwinner et al., 2009) The current Mars-centric focus can be extended to other planetary bodies and most components are general purpose ones, making possible its application to the Moon, Mercury or alike. The Planetary Service of EarthServer is accessible on http://www.planetserver.eu References: Baumann, P. (1994) VLDB J. 4 (3), 401-444, Special Issue on Spatial Database Systems. Cantini, F. et al. (2014) Geophys. Res. Abs., Vol. 16, #EGU2014-3784, this volume Heather, D., et al.(2013) EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626 Gwinner, K

  3. To be or not to be Yutsis: Algorithms for the decision problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyck, D.; Brinkmann, G.; Fack, V.; McKay, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    Generalized recoupling coefficients or 3nj-coefficients can be expressed as multiple sums over products of Racah or 6 j-coefficients [L.C. Biedenharn, J.D. Louck, Coupling of n angular momenta: recoupling theory, in: The Racah-Wigner Algebra in Quantum Theory, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, vol. 9, Addison-Wesley, 1981, pp. 435-481]. The problem of finding an optimal summation formula (i.e. with a minimal number of Racah coefficients) for a given 3nj-coefficient is equivalent to finding an optimal reduction of a so-called Yutsis graph [A.P. Yutsis, I.B. Levinson, V.V. Vanagas, Mathematical Apparatus of the Theory of Angular Momentum, Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1962]. In terms of graph theory Yutsis graphs are connected simple cubic graphs which can be partitioned into two vertex induced trees. The two parts are necessarily of the same size. In this area Yutsis graphs are also studied under the name of cubic dual Hamiltonian graphs [F. Jaeger, On vertex-induced forests in cubic graphs, in: Proc. 5th Southeastern Conference, Congr. Numer. (1974) 501-512]. We present algorithms for determining whether a cubic graph is a Yutsis graph. This is interesting for generating large test cases for programs (as in [P.M. Lima, Comput. Phys. Comm. 66 (1991) 89; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, T. Bastug, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 139 (2001) 314; D. Van Dyck, V. Fack, GYutsis: heuristic based calculation of general recoupling coefficients, Comput. Phys. Comm. 154 (2003) 219-232]) that determine a summation formula for a 3nj-coefficient. Moreover, we give the numbers of Yutsis and non-Yutsis cubic graphs with up to 30 vertices and cubic polyhedra with up to 40 vertices. All these numbers have been computed by two independent programs in order to reduce the probability of error. Since the decision problem whether a given cubic graph is Yutsis or not is NP-complete, we could not hope for a polynomial time worst case performance of our

  4. Progress toward a 30 percent-efficient, monolithic, three-junction, two-terminal concentrator solar cell for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partain, L. D.; Chung, B.-C.; Virshup, G. F.; Schultz, J. C.; Macmillan, H. F.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Kuryla, M. S.; Bertness, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    Component efficiencies of 0.2/sq cm cells at approximately 100x AMO light concentration and 80 C temperatures are not at 15.3 percent for a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top cell, 9.9 percent for a 1.4 eV GaAs middle cell under a 1.9 eV AlGaAs filter, and 2.4 percent for a bottom 1.0 eV InGaAs cell under a GaAs substrate. The goal is to continue improvement in these performance levels and to sequentially grow these devices on a single substrate to give 30 percent efficient, monolithic, two-terminal, three-junction space concentrator cells. The broad objective is a 30 percent efficient monolithic two-terminal cell that can operate under 25 to 100x AMO light concentrations and at 75 to 100 C cell temperatures. Detailed modeling predicts that this requires three junctions. Two options are being pursued, and both use a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top junction and a 1.4 eV GaAs middle junction grown by a 1 atm OMVPE on a lattice matched substrate. Option 1 uses a low-doped GaAs substrate with a lattice mismatched 1.0 eV InGaAs cell formed on the back of the substrate. Option 2 uses a Ge substrate to which the AlGaAs and GaAs top junctions are lattice matched, with a bottom 0.7 eV Ge junction formed near the substrate interface with the GaAs growth. The projected efficiency contributions are near 16, 11, and 3 percent, respectively, from the top, middle, and bottom junctions.

  5. Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Wohlfarth, Maria; Lippach, Gregor; Rauh, Manfred; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-05-01

    Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life. PMID:27007072

  6. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  7. Plasma deposition of wide gap, highly photoconductive a-Si:H thin films from disilane-helium mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Wide gap (> 1.9 eV), photoconductive, intrinsic amorphous silicon films were made in a UHV system from Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/-He mixtures. The hydrogen concentrations, optical gaps and photoconductivities were measured. Unlike films made from SiH/sub 4/, Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/-produced films exhibit excellent electronic properties even at low deposition temperatures. The ratio of AM1 photoconductivity to dark conductivity was as high as 10/sup 7/. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of sulfate reorientations in LiNaSO4.

    PubMed

    Shakhovoy, R A; Rakhmatullin, A; Deschamps, M; Sarou-Kanian, V; Bessada, C

    2016-05-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance study of the sulfate ion reorientations in β-LiNaSO4 has been carried out. The influence of the SO4 reorientational jumps on the quadrupolar interactions of (7)Li nuclei was investigated by a jump reorientational model, which has not previously been applied to sulfates. The activation energy required for the SO4 reorientations was found to be 0.19 eV. It was also revealed that the SO4 reorientational disorder should be associated with a small anomaly of a heat capacity at around 600 K, which was previously observed experimentally. PMID:27028697

  9. The cosmic ray spectrum above 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, M. M.; Ulrichs, J.; Horton, L.; Mccusker, C. B. A.; Peak, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    The final analysis of the data obtained by the Sydney University Giant Airshower Recorder (SUGAR) is presented. The data has been reanalysed to take into account the effects of afterpulsing in the photomultiplier tubes. Event data was used to produce a spectrum of equivalent vertical muon number and from this a model dependent primary energy spectrum was obtained. These spectra show good evidence for the Ankle: a flattening at 10(19) eV. There is no sign of the cut-off which would be expected from the effects of the universal black body radiation.

  10. Photoinduced conductivity changes in polycrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.

    1996-02-01

    We report that the dark electrical properties of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films are modified after exposure to UV light. UV illumination gives rise to an increase in the dark conductivity and to a change in the I-V characteristic from Iα exp (aV) for the as-grown material to IαV2 following UV irradiation. Thermally stimulated currents corresponding to an activation energy of about 1.9 eV are observed after UV illumination. The effects of UV irradiation can be totally reversed by thermal annealing and partially reversed by exposing the samples to white light.

  11. Second dip as a signature of ultrahigh energy proton interactions with cosmic microwave background radiation.

    PubMed

    Berezinsky, V; Gazizov, A; Kachelrieb, M

    2006-12-01

    We discuss as a new signature for the interaction of extragalactic ultrahigh energy protons with cosmic microwave background radiation a spectral feature located at E= 6.3 x 10(19) eV in the form of a narrow and shallow dip. It is produced by the interference of e+e(-)-pair and pion production. We show that this dip and, in particular, its position are almost model-independent. Its observation by future ultrahigh energy cosmic ray detectors may give the conclusive confirmation that an observed steepening of the spectrum is caused by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect. PMID:17280191

  12. Influence of fluorine on the fiber resistance studied through the nonbridging oxygen hole center related luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, L.; Cannas, M.; Alessi, A.; Boscaino, R.; Girard, S.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Morana, A.

    2013-05-21

    The distribution of Non-Bridging Oxygen Hole Centers (NBOHCs) in fluorine doped optical fibers was investigated by confocal microluminescence spectroscopy, monitoring their characteristic 1.9 eV luminescence band. The results show that these defects are generated by the fiber drawing and their concentration further increases after {gamma} irradiation. The NBOHC concentration profile along the fiber provides evidence for an exponential decay with the fluorine content. This finding agrees with the role of fluorine in the fiber resistance and is discussed, from the microscopic point of view, by looking at the conversion mechanisms from strained bonds acting as precursors.

  13. Electronic structure and mass enhancement of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. S.; Krakauer, H.; Pickett, W. E.

    1985-12-01

    The self-consistent general potential linearized augmented plane wave method has been applied to study the enegy bands of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt 3 within the local density approxination. We found 2.5 f-electrons per U atom and a f-band width of ≈1.9 eV pinned at the Fermi energy EF. An enhancement factor of 19 is deduced from the density of states at EF and the experimental linear coefficient of the specific heat. Possible sources of the renormalization are discussed based on available experimental information.

  14. Current Impact Risks

    Science.gov Websites

    0.211 -4.36 -4.40 0 2016 JR38 2086-2086 1 1.9e-09 2.10 25.5 0.027 -9.33 -9.33 0 2016 JP38 2020-2078 25 1.7e-08 9.77 24.4 0.044 -6.76 -7.09 0 2016 JO38 2016-2115 467 9.6e-07 7.41 ...

  15. Magnetic and electron spin resonance studies of (Ce 1-cGd c)Rh 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, A.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic and ESR measurements have been performed on several samples of the (Ce 1-cGd c)Rh 2 series in the interval 0 ≦ c ≦ 1. It is found that only those Ce atoms with at least 3nn Gd atoms are magnetic. The cerium sublattice appears to reach the magnetic percolation limit at about c=0.3. Using the lattice parameters and the RKKY model a value of 0.19eV is computed for the effective exchange integral Jo at the GdRh 2 end of the series.

  16. Interpreting cosmic ray spectra and composition above 100 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gaisser, T.K.

    1995-07-10

    Cosmic radiation which have energies above 100 TeV are discussed. Exam of the possible sources of such high energy particles are given. Also, measurement of high energy muons in air showers as a probe of composition in the 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV region of the spectrum is discussed. Finally, a description of a simulation used to analyze the 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV energy region of the spectrum is given. In this higher energy region evidence for a transition to a new population of particles exists. (AIP) {copyright}{ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics} 1995

  17. The muon EDM in the g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chislett, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    The observation of a muon electric dipole moment would provide an additional source of CP violation which is required to explain the matter anti-matter asymmetry in the universe. The current experimental limit, |dμ| < 1.9 × 10-19e·cm, was set by the BNL E821 experiment. This paper discusses how the new experiment at Fermilab, E989 [3], aims to decrease this by two orders of magnitude down to 10-21e·cm.

  18. Low Temperature Silicon Surface Cleaning by HF Etching/Ultraviolet Ozone Cleaning (HF/UVOC) Method (II)—in situ UVOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya; Suemitsu, Maki; Miyamoto, Nobuo

    1989-12-01

    A new method to obtain clean silicon surfaces using a thermal treatment at as low as 700°C is proposed. The method consists of an ex situ treatment of HF dipping followed by a rinse in distilled, deionized water and in situ treatments of both UVOC under low oxygen pressure and annealing in vacuo. From the Arrhenius plot of the removal rate of the surface oxide, two mechanisms corresponding to a diffusion of the volatile product, SiO, and a reaction between oxygen and silicon are suggested to exist, with activation energies 3.7 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively.

  19. Conformational features of secondary N-cyclopropyl amides.

    PubMed

    González-de-Castro, Ángela; Broughton, Howard; Martínez-Pérez, José A; Espinosa, Juan F

    2015-04-17

    NMR studies in conjunction with ab initio calculations revealed unexpected conformational behavior of N-cyclopropylacetamide (1). This secondary amide displays 16-19% E-rotamer (cis) around the carbonyl-nitrogen bond in apolar solvents, in contrast to other aliphatic secondary acetamides in which significant E-rotamer populations are rare due to steric contacts between the substituents on the amide bond. In addition, 1 adopts an ortho conformation around the N-cPr bond instead of the anti conformation generally preferred by secondary acetamides. This distinct conformational behavior was also observed for other secondary N-cyclopropyl amides. PMID:25803271

  20. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ωB97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  1. Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Stephan

    Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans r

  2. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  3. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  4. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  5. La tuberculose pulmonaire et le tabac: à propos de 100 cas

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouissmi, Hatim; Marc, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Le tabagisme et la tuberculose sont deux enjeux majeurs de santé publique au niveau mondial, en particulier dans les pays émergents. Pour déterminer les particularités cliniques, radiologiques, bactériologiques et thérapeutiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire chez les sujets tabagiques nous avons mené une étude prospective au service de phtisiologie de l'hôpital Moulay Youssef sur une période de 10 mois, portant sur 100 nouveaux cas de tuberculose pulmonaire, répartis en 2 groupes, 50 patients tabagiques: Groupe A et 50 patients non tabagiques: Groupe B. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 41 ans ± 12 chez le groupe A et de 36 ans ± 16 chez le groupe B. Le délai de consultation était plus long chez les tabagiques, la médiane était de 60j (30; 98) contre 40j (30; 60), la symptomatologie clinique était variable chez les deux groupes, dominée par les expectorations chez les tabagiques 96% contre 60%. Les lésions radiologiques étaient similaires chez les deux groupes ainsi que la charge bacillaire. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Après un mois du traitement, la Bacilloscopie était négative chez 50% du groupe A contre 66% chez le groupe B. la régression des lésions radiologiques était similaire chez les deux groupes. Le retard diagnostique et le retard de négativation des frottis sont les principales particularités de la tuberculose pulmonaire du sujet tabagique. Le sevrage tabagique doit faire partie intégrante de la prise en charge des patients atteints de tuberculose. PMID:25821545

  6. Comparison of PremierTM Rotaclone®, ProSpecTTM, and RIDASCREEN® Rotavirus Enzyme Immunoassay Kits for Detection of Rotavirus Antigen in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Rashi; Lyde, Freda; Esona, Mathew D.; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children throughout the world. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have been the standard method for detection of rotavirus in stool specimens since the 1980s. The World Health Organization (WHO) Rotavirus Surveillance Network has proposed including three EIA kits in the WHO-GSM (Global Management System/Système Mondial de Gestion ) catalogue for easy procurement of EIA kits by participating rotavirus surveillance network laboratories. Objectives In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of 3 commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits: PremierTM Rotaclone® (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.), ProSpecTTM (Oxoid, Ltd.) and RIDASCREEN® (R-biopharm AG) for rotavirus diagnostics. Study design Using reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) as the gold standard, the 3 EIA kits were evaluated by testing a stool panel consisting of 56 rotavirus-positive and 54 rotavirus negative samples. Results The sensitivities of the PremierTM Rotaclone®, ProSpecTTM and RIDASCREEN® kits were 76.8%, 75% and 82.1% respectively, but did not differ significantly. The specificity of all the 3 kits was 100%. The use of RT-PCR as a gold standard lowered the observed sensitivity of all 3 EIA kits but helps to reduce equivocal results that can be seen when another EIA or other non-molecular methods are used as the reference assay in comparison studies. Conclusion Our study found that all three kits are suitable for use by rotavirus surveillance programs. PMID:23850415

  7. Interdire aux enfants et aux adolescents de moins de 18 ans l’accès aux établissements commerciaux de bronzage

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Stanwick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Le nombre de mélanomes cutanés malins a plus que triplé depuis 35 ans. Puisque les dommages sont cumulatifs, l’exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets tôt dans la vie accroît le risque, qui augmente davantage avec l’utilisation de sources artificielles de rayonnements ultraviolets. Il peut falloir des années pour évaluer les répercussions et l’étendue complètes des dommages causés par le bronzage artificiel à longueur d’année, compte tenu de la longue période de latence de la plupart des cancers de la peau. Les adolescents fréquentent souvent les salons de bronzage, les filles s’y rendant davantage et de manière soutenue. L’industrie du bronzage conteste la classification de cancérigène physique de groupe 1 qu’attribuent au bronzage artificiel l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer. Les salons de bronzage cherchent à établir et à maintenir une clientèle chez les adolescents. Par conséquent, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie s’ajoute à d’autres organismes de santé réputés pour appuyer l’interdiction des établissements commerciaux de bronzage aux enfants et adolescents de moins de 18 ans.

  8. Évolution de leucémies myéloïdes chroniques sous nilotinib après échec a l'imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Salifo; Hien, Francis Michel; Ouédraogo, Macaire Sampawendé; Drabo, Youssouf Joseph

    2014-01-01

    C'est une étude observationnelle prospective ouverte: quatre leucémies myéloïdes chroniques résistant ou intolérant à l'Imatinib ont été traitées par le Nilotinib. Elles ont été incluses dans le programme GIPAP et suivies selon les recommandations de “European LeukemiaNet”. Trois ont un score de Sokal de haut risque et une de bas risque. Deux étaient hypertendues. Mises sous Nilotinib, il y a eu deux rémissions cytogénétiques complètes et deux échecs. Le traitement a été interrompu chez les deux rémissions complètes, l'un pour effet secondaire du Nilotinib et l'autre pour changement de pays. Les deux échecs sont dus à des résistances. Le Nilotinib réduisant la fréquence des mutations des leucémies myéloïdes chroniques à haut risque et risque intermédiaire, il serait judicieux d'utiliser ce produit en première intention dans ces cas - ci pour réduire la charge des examens complémentaires. Les pays à bas revenu confrontés à des problèmes de survie ont besoin de la solidarité mondiale pour prendre en charge les leucémies myéloïdes chroniques. PMID:25419280

  9. Ion-molecule interactions in crossed-beams. [N/sup +/-H/sub 2/; F/sup +/-H; CO/sub 2//sup +/-D/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.G.

    1980-09-01

    Interactions of the ions N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ with H/sub 2/ and/or its isotopes were examined using the crossed-beam technique in the low (< 4 eV) initial relative energy. For the reaction N/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. NH/sup +/ + H, complex formation dominates up to 1.9 eV and a substantial interaction occurs between all collision partners up to 3.6 eV. The distribution of N/sup +/ scattered nonreactively from H/sub 2/ also showed a long-lived complex channel below 1.9 eV. The reaction F/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->..FH/sup +/ + H proceeded by a direct reaction mechanism at 0.20 to 1.07 eV. The reaction CO/sub 2//sup +/ + D/sub 2/ ..-->.. DCO/sub 2//sup +/ + D gives asymmetric product distributions at 0.27 eV and above, indicating a direct reaction mechanism. Results indicated that there are probably barriers in the exit channels for DCO/sub 2//sup +/, DCO/sup +/, and D/sub 2/O/sup +/ products. The electronic state distributions of the N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ beams was investigated using beam attenuation and total luminescence techniques.

  10. Amorphous silicon carbide films prepared using vaporized silicon ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takashi; Shen, Zhongrong; Takagishi, Hideyuki; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2014-03-01

    The deposition of wide-band-gap silicon films using nonvacuum processes rather than conventional vacuum processes is of substantial interest because it may reduce cost. Herein, we present the optical and electrical properties of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) films prepared using a nonvacuum process in a simple chamber with a vaporized silicon ink consisting of cyclopentasilane, cyclohexene, and decaborane. The incorporation of carbon into the silicon network induced by the addition of cyclohexene to the silicon ink resulted in an increase in the optical band gap (Eg) of films from 1.56 to 2.11 eV. The conductivity of films with Eg < 1.9 eV is comparable to that of conventional a-SiC:H films prepared using a vacuum process, while the films with Eg > 1.9 eV show lower conductivity than expected because of the incorporation of excess carbon without the formation of Si-C bonds.

  11. Seismic evaluation of NOSR 2. Naval Oil Shale Reserves management support and systems engineering project. [Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    In June 1981, the Department of Energy (DOE) elected to conduct a seismic evaluation of NOSR 2 in Utah. This survey was carried out by TRW for DOE as part of the resource assessment of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves. The objective of the seismic survey was to determine if there are any structures on the Reserve which may have trapped hydrocarbons. An evaluation of the results indicated the elongated anticlinal structure in the southeast corner (Tabyago Dome) does have dip reversal and that there is a closed structure. Centered in Section 21, T13S, R19E, that structure has a high probability of having trapped hydrocarbons. Any well drilled on that structure should test all the potential producing formations down to the Pre-Cambrian (15,000 feet). It is also possible that several stratigraphic traps exist on a north-trending anticline in R19E. The seismic survey was carried out during August-September 1981 when the Seismograph Service Corporation (SSC) shot an additional eight seismic lines over the entire Reserve. With the three existing commercial seismic lines, a total of 66.25 miles of seismic profiles were available for the evaluation. Additional geologic information from existing reports and data from producing areas which surround the Reserve also were used in making the final assessment. 9 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  12. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    PubMed

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings. PMID:24060693

  13. Design and synthesis of a novel 2-oxindole scaffold as a highly potent and brain-penetrant phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masato; Kamisaki, Haruhi; Kunitomo, Jun; Oki, Hideyuki; Kokubo, Hironori; Suzuki, Akihiro; Ikemoto, Tomomi; Nakashima, Kosuke; Kamiguchi, Naomi; Harada, Akina; Kimura, Haruhide; Taniguchi, Takahiko

    2015-11-15

    Highly potent and brain-penetrant phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors based on the 2-oxindole scaffold were designed and synthesized. (2-Oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)phenyl derivative 1 showed the high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux (efflux ratio (ER)=6.2) despite the potent PDE10A inhibitory activity (IC50=0.94 nM). We performed an optimization study to improve both the P-gp efflux ratio and PDE10A inhibitory activity by utilizing structure-based drug design (SBDD) techniques based on the X-ray crystal structure with PDE10A. Finally, 1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-fluoro-5-[5-methoxy-4-oxo-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-1(4H)-yl]-3,3-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (19e) was identified with improved P-gp efflux (ER=1.4) and an excellent PDE10A inhibitory activity (IC50=0.080 nM). Compound 19e also exhibited satisfactory brain penetration, and suppressed PCP-induced hyperlocomotion with a minimum effective dose of 0.3mg/kg by oral administration in mice. PMID:26494583

  14. VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM PASSIVE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES: CONSTRAINTS FOR NGC 1399

    SciTech Connect

    Pedaletti, G.; Wagner, S. J.; Rieger, F. M.

    2011-09-10

    Very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) {gamma}-rays are expected to be emitted from the vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), irrespective of their activity state. In the magnetosphere of rotating SMBH, efficient acceleration of charged particles can take place through various processes. These particles could reach energies up to E {approx} 10{sup 19} eV. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from these particles is then feasible via leptonic or hadronic processes. Therefore, passive systems, where the lack of a strong photon field allows the VHE {gamma}-rays to escape, are expected to be detected by Cherenkov telescopes. We present results from recent VHE experiments on the passive SMBH in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 1399. No {gamma}-ray signal has been found, neither by the H.E.S.S. experiment nor in the Fermi data analyzed here. We discuss possible implications for the physical characteristics of the system. We conclude that in a scenario where particles are accelerated in vacuum gaps in the magnetosphere, only a fraction {approx}0.3 of the gap is available for particle acceleration, indicating that the system is unlikely to be able to accelerate protons up to E {approx} 10{sup 19} eV.

  15. DYNAMICS OF THE REACTION OF N{sup +} WITH H{sub 2}. V. REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE SCATTERING OF N{sup +}({sup 3}p) AT RELATIVE ENERGIES BELOW 3.6 eV.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Steven G.; Farrar, James M.; Mahan, Bruce H.

    1980-05-01

    We have measured product velocity vector distributions for the processes N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H)NH{sup +} and N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H{sub 2})N+ in the initial relative energy ranges of 0.98~3.60 eV and 0.66~ 2.50 eV respectively using the crossed beam technique. At energies below about 1.9 eV the predominance of a long-lived NH{sub 2}{sup +} complex is inferred from isotropic reactive scattering and a backscattered peak in the non-reactive distributions. Above 1.9 eV there is still a substantial interaction between all three atoms. The dynamics are adequately explained by a mechanism which involves accessing the deep {sup 3}B{sub 1} potential well through an avoided crossing with the {sup 3}A{sub 2} surface when the ·symmetry is relaxed from C{sub 2v} to C{sub s}. The reaction of electronically excited metastable ions, probably N{sup +}({sup 1}D), is seen as a forward peak in the reactive distributions.

  16. Temperature-Dependent Rate Constants and Substituent Effects for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radicals With Three Partially Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, K.-J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    Rate constants and temperature dependencies for the reactions of OH with CF3OCH3 (HFOC-143a), CF2HOCF2H (HFOC-134), and CF3OCF2H (HFOC-125) were studied using a relative rate technique in the temperature range 298-393 K. The following absolute rate constants were derived: HFOC-143a, 1.9E-12 exp(-1555/T); HFOC-134, 1.9E-12 exp(-2006/T); HFOC-125, 4.7E-13 exp(-2095/T). Units are cm(exp 3)molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1). Substituent effects on OH abstraction rate constants are discussed, and it is shown that the CF3O group has an effect on the OH rate constants similar to that of a fluorine atom. The effects are related to changes in the C-H bond energies of the reactants (and thereby the activation energies) rather than changes in the preexponential factors. On the basis of a correlation of rate constants with bond energies, the respective D(C-H) bond strengths in the three ethers are found to be 102, 104, and 106 kcal/mol, with an uncertainty of about 1 kcal/mol.

  17. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    the propellant. The propellant is a plasma that reaches extreme temperatures. Rockets tend to work much better the hotter the exhaust is. Thrust from the plasma engine could boost a spacecraft for a longer time and with better efficiency than conventional engines. Solar Windsurfing: A technology that uses a magnetic balloon to capture ionized particles shed by the Sun, "sailing" through space by taking use of the pressure of the sun's rays. All that is needed is a thin sheet of reflective material. Solar photons bounce off and transfer momentum to the sail, allowing the spacecraft to accelerate without expending fuel. General problems: -The electrostatic impact of the plasma created by electric thruster on spacecraft charging. -The influence of plasma ejected from the thruster on solar panel performances. -Creation of parasite currents in the structure that may disturb sensitive equipment. -... in 300 words but I think that you will have a general idea about my work and what The Astronautical Congres represents to me.

  18. An explanation for the chotic structure of the poles based on a new concept concerning the formation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguignes, M.

    areas the way in which the gravitational sealing of the Moon occurred. the future modalities of an informative exploration of the polar regions. Bibliography Hubbard-GS; Feldman-W; Cox-SA; Smith-MA; Chu-Thielbar -L. 2002 : Lunar Prospector: First results and lessons learned ACTA-ASTRONAUTICA. JAN; 50 (1) : 39-47 Stankevich-DG; Shkuratov-YG; Petrov-DV 2001 Estimation of the area of the perpetually shaded lunar surface SOLAR-SYSTEM-RESEARCH. NOV-DEC; 35 (6) : 452-457 Séguignes M G. 2002 : Towards another theory for the formation of the moon. Poster 27ème congres of European Geophysical Society. Nice, 2002

  19. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been

  20. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Radiation Facility, in Grenoble/France). Polymetallic chalcogenide minerals and various model compounds displaying distinct bonding situations of indium to other ligands (oxygen and halides) were studied. Encouraging results from a first experiment [5] showed the presence of a "white line" in the XANES spectra collected from InF3 and from In-hosting bornite; however, the impossibility of clearly identifying the nanoscale phase hosting indium in sulphide ore samples has hindered a full interpretation of X-ray absorption data. The crystal chemistry of indium in natural chalcogenides is now reanalysed and XANES results obtained so far for polymetallic sulphides are accordingly re-evaluated, disclosing a challenging clue for indium binding state in these host minerals within sulphide ores. [1] M.O. Figueiredo et al. (2007) Procd. 9th Biennial SGA Mtg., Dublin/Ireland, edt. C. Andrew et al., 1355-1357. [2] O.C. Gaspar (2002) Canad. Miner. 40, 611-636. [3] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) ICANS 23, 23rd Int. Conf. Amorphous & Nano-crystalline Semiconductors, Netherlands, August 23-28. Poster ID 229 (abstract). [4] T. Seifert & D. Sandmann (2002) Ore Geol. Reviews 28, 1-31. [5] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) XVIII Int. Mater. Res. Congr., Mexico, August 16-20. Symp. 20, Poster nr. 1 (abstract). * Work developed within the research project PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006 financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science & Technology (FCT/MCTES). The financial support from EU to perform the experiments at the ESRF is also acknowledged.

  1. Systematic High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Investigation of Martian South Polar Landforms: Thermal Contraction Polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hao, Jingyan

    2015-04-01

    landforms and combine results of two polar surveys. The work presented here provides a detailed assessment of data coverage, a review of polygonal landform types and of their distribution based on CTX observations. [1] Thomas et al. (2000): Nature, 404(6774): 161-164. [2] Kieffer (2003): 6th Int. Conf. Mars, #3158. [3] Piqueux & Christensen (2008): J. Geophys. Res., 113(E2), CiteID E02006. [4] Mangold (2005): Icarus, 174(2): 336-359. [5] van Gasselt et al. (2006): Europ. Planet. Sci. Congr., #629. [6] van Gasselt et al. (2005): J. Geophys. Res., 110(E8), CiteID E08002. [7] Byrne & Ingersoll (2003): Science, 299(5609): 1,057-1,053 [8] Piqueux et al. (2003): J. Geophys. Res., 108(E8), CiteID 5084. [9] Pilorget et al. (2013): J. Geophys. Res. 118(12): 2,520-2,536. [10] James et al. (2010): Icarus, 208(1): 82-85. [11] Portyankina et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 311-320. [12] Thomas et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 296-310. [13] Hansen et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 283-295.

  2. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations and large landslides: implications on landslide hazard of urban areas and coastal erosion phenomena of Mount Poro headland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    square kilometers. Its movement towards NW produced a typical coastline, with a strong progradation towards NW and W from Punta della Tonnara to Parghelia and up to Fiumara della Ruffa (WSW of Tropea). The DSGSD involves the granitic bedrock as well as the transgressive Tortonian deposits, made by sands with the presence of Clypeasters, which are topped by arenaceous banks, for a total depth of 150 m. DSGSDs involving granitic rocks were probably due to more deformable lithotypes, like biotite schists, which work as substratum of granitic rocks at a not very deep depth, like in other areas of Calabria. Finally, the slow sliding towards N and NW of the landslide shapes the coast like a bow, thus causing strong erosion phenomena of the coastline. Ietto A & Calcaterra D. (1988). Deformazioni gravitative profonde e tettonica presso Tropea (M.te Poro, Calabria)", Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana, 41, pp. 911-915, Rome, Italy. Guerricchio A. (2000). La fragilità del territorio dell'Italia centro-meridionale desumibile da immagini da satellite. X Congr. Naz. dei Geologi. International Conference: Il Territorio fragile; I, 443-482, Rome, Italy.

  3. Prelude and first decade, 1951-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    The initiative leading to the establishment of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) was taken in 1949 by the Stuttgart based Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung (GfW), who proposed to other astronautical societies that a conference should be arranged to establish mutual co-operation. The British Interplanetary Society (BIS) agreed to organize such a conference in London in 1951, but in the interim the Groupement Astronautique Français (GAF) arranged a preliminary meeting to set up the agenda for the London meeting and to define its objectives. Representatives from astronautical groups in seven European countries and one South American society met in Paris in October 1950. Their meetings were preceded, on 30 September, by a large public gathering organized by the GAF, in the Sorbonne and was designated the Premier Congrès International d'Astronautique, a style which was to be adopted, in its English translation, for the subsequent annual conferences of the IAF. The representatives agreed that the objective of the London conference should be to create a federation of autonomous national astronautical societies, whose main purpose would be to provide an annual forum where these societies would meet. The London conference in September 1951, held in the City of Westminster, following the Paris precedent, was designated the IInd International Astronautical Congress. Astronautical and rocket societies from the ten countries were represented and became signatories to the agreement founding the IAF on 4 September 1951. The London congress set the pattern for subsequent congresses, in particular introducing technical lecture sessions. At the IIIrd Congress, held in Stuttgart, the first under the aegis of the newly founded IAF, a constitution was agreed and a Finance Committee was elected. The Constitution established that the Federation should be registered in Switzerland and be governed by a council of voting members—one only from each country. Subsequent

  4. Role for the beta-adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cyclase in the ontogenetic subsensitivity to isoproterenol in the embryonic chick ventricle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Isoproterenol (ISO) increases contractility and cyclic AMP content in ventricles of embryonic and hatched chicks. A transient decrease in beta-agonist sensitivity for both effects is seen in 18 day embryos (10E). Beta-adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cylase (AC) and receptor binding were characterized in 14,000xg particulates and purified membranes from the ventricles of 10-11E, 17-19E and week-old chicks (5-6H). In crude particulates, the K/sub act/ for ISO (+100 ..mu..M Gpp(NH)p)-stimulated AC is greatest in the 17-19E. Maximal (ISO + Gpp(NH)p)-AC of the 11E is two-fold greater and NaF-AC is 30% greater than those of the 17-19E and 5-6 H. All age groups have comparable catalytic AC. All age groups have comparable K/sub d/'s for /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (5-11 nM), while the 18E has 40% fewer receptors than the 11E and 5-6H. In particulates or membranes, K/sub act/ values for Gpp(NH)p, NaF, MnCl> and forskolin are unchanged with age. In membranes, K/sub act/ values for ISO plus guanine nucleotide (G) and maximal (ISO + G)-AC are similar in all ages. The net effect of ISO ((ISO + G) minus G) is least while that of G (G minus basal) is greatest in the 18E. Whereas /sup 32/P-labeling of a 42 kd protein by cholera toxin is lowest (25% decrease) in particulates of the 18E, labeling of a 39-41 kd doublet by pertussis toxin decreases continuously (by 50%) with age. All age groups have comparable K/sub d/'s (10-13 pM) for (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol (CYP). These data indicate that a transient decrease in receptor number and receptor-N/sub s/ (guanine nucleotide-sensitive) coupling in the 18E contribute to the subsensitivity to beta-agonist.

  5. Effect of p–d hybridization, structural distortion and cation electronegativity on electronic properties of ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb) chalcopyrite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Ganguli, B.

    2013-04-15

    Significant effects of p–d hybridization, structural distortion and cation-electro-negativity are found on band gap in ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb). Our study suggests these compounds to be direct band gap semiconductors with band gaps of 1.23, 0.68 and 0.19 eV respectively. Lattice constants, tetragonal distortion (η), anion displacement, bond lengths and bulk moduli are calculated by Density Functional Theory based on Tight binding Linear Muffin-Tin orbital method. Our result of structural properties is in good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical results. Calculated band gaps also agree well with the experimental works within LDA limitation. Unlike other semiconductors in the group II–IV–V{sub 2}, there is a reduction in the band gap of 0.22, 0.20 and 0.24 eV respectively in ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb) due to p–d hybridization. Structural distortion decreases band gap by 0.20, 0.12 and 0.10 eV respectively. We find that cation electronegativity effect is responsible for increasing the band gap relative to their binary analogs GaInP{sub 2}, InGaAs{sub 2} and GaInSb{sub 2} respectively and increment are 0.13, 0.04 and 0.13 eV respectively. - Graphical abstract: One unit cell of ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb) chalcopyrite semiconductor. Semiconductors ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb) are found to be direct band gap semiconductors with band gaps 1.23, 0.68 and 0.19 eV respectively. The quantitative estimate of effects of p–d hybridization, structural distortion and cation electronegativity shows band gaps change significantly due to these effects. Highlights: ► ZnSnX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb) are direct band gap semiconductors. ► These have band gaps of 1.23 eV, 0.68 eV and 0.19 eV respectively. ► The band gap reduction due to p–d hybridization is 13.41%, 18.51% and 40% respectively. ► Band gap reduction due to structural distortion is 12.12%, 11.11% and 16.66% respectively. ► Band gap increases 8.38%, 3.70% and 21.31% respectively

  6. Events associated with restoration by zinc of meiosis in apomictic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bilinski, C A; Miller, J J; Girvitz, S C

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nutritional alterations (carbon source and zinc) on nuclear division and protein synthesis during apomictic and meiotic development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 19e1 were investigated. Unlike cells cultivated under meiosis-promoting conditions, cells cultured under apomixis-promoting conditions exhibited extensive protein synthesis during the first 3 h of incubation in sporulation medium, and nuclear divisions were evident during this time. Cycloheximide treatment of the latter cells induced meiosis, and maximum yields of meiotic asci resulted when this treatment was given for the first 3 h in sporulation medium. The results indicate that the decision concerning which developmental route cells will follow is made shortly after transfer to sporulation medium. Electrophoretic analysis of labeled proteins synthesized during sporulation revealed bands unique to both developmental routes. Images PMID:6350265

  7. In-situ characterization of growth and interfaces in a-Si:H devices. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.W.; Wronski, C.R.; An, I.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes work to identify materials parameters that can quantitatively describe the solar cell performance correctly in the initial and stabilized states and are consistent with a microscopic model of the metastable defect site. The objective is to be accomplished by applying results of in-situ analyses of a-Si:H surfaces and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/p/i interfaces to complement the present understanding of the electronic properties of materials and devices. A second objective of the program is to demonstrate, characterize, and understand improved doped and undoped ``wide-gap`` materials for use in achieving 15% stabilized photovoltaic modules (``wide-gap`` materials are defined as those materials with a band gap of at least 1.9 eV).

  8. High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area. PMID:24568119

  9. Autoionization of OCS by threshold photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Guyon, Paul-Marie; Nenner, Irène

    1981-04-01

    Autoionization of carbonyl sulfide between 12 and 16 eV has been investigated by photoionization using the pulsed synchrotron radiation from ACO Orsay's storage ring. The threshold photoelectron spectrum and the total photoionization spectrum of carbonyl sulfide have been recorded at high resolution in the wavelength range between 112.0 and 65.0 nm (11-19 eV). Threshold energy electrons are observed in specific wavelength regions: (i) at excitation energies where the X˜, Ã, B˜, and C˜ ionic states are formed by a direct process; (ii) in the à state region where resonant autoionization to à can be understood classically within the Franck-Condon approximation; (iii) in the ÖX˜ Franck-Condon gap between 90 and 110 nm, where resonant autoionization leads to very sharp electron energy distribution strongly peaked at zero energy. Here the mechanism must be more complex.

  10. Carbon-doped SiO(x) nanowires with a large yield of white emission.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Negri, Marco; Tatti, Roberta; Aversa, Lucrezia; Dhanabalan, Sathish Chander; Verucchi, Roberto; Attolini, Giovanni; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    The growth of SiOx nanowires (NWs) with intense white emission is reported. Due to carbon monoxide gas being used as a dopant precursor, carbon-doped under-stoichiometric silicon dioxide NWs are obtained. The doping of the NWs is studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which allows to assess the presence of carbon atoms in the silicon oxide amorphous structure. The light emission properties are studied by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows three main emission bands set at 2.7 eV (blue), 2.3 eV (green) and 1.9 eV (red), resulting in the white emission. PMID:24736107

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  12. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the MEC end station of the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; SLAC, aff; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-02-05

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station (MEC) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  13. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Gauthier, M.; et al

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstratesmore » the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.« less

  14. Highly conducting and wide band gap phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films as n-type window layers for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-05-01

    Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma with PH3 as the doping gas. The effect of PH3 flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10-2 S cm-1) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solar cells in n-i-p configuration.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-41 9.3E+06 Ca-45 1.1E+06 Sc-46 6.2E+01 Ti-44 1.5E+02 V-49 1.0E+08 Mn-53 7.5E+07 Mn-54 6.5E+01 Fe-55 2.9E+06 Fe-59 1.9E+02 Fe-60 8.1E+03 Co-56 3.9E+01 Co-57 2.3E+02 Co-58 1.3E+02 Co-60 1.7E+01 Ni-59 3.2E+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-41 9.3E+06 Ca-45 1.1E+06 Sc-46 6.2E+01 Ti-44 1.5E+02 V-49 1.0E+08 Mn-53 7.5E+07 Mn-54 6.5E+01 Fe-55 2.9E+06 Fe-59 1.9E+02 Fe-60 8.1E+03 Co-56 3.9E+01 Co-57 2.3E+02 Co-58 1.3E+02 Co-60 1.7E+01 Ni-59 3.2E+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-41 9.3E+06 Ca-45 1.1E+06 Sc-46 6.2E+01 Ti-44 1.5E+02 V-49 1.0E+08 Mn-53 7.5E+07 Mn-54 6.5E+01 Fe-55 2.9E+06 Fe-59 1.9E+02 Fe-60 8.1E+03 Co-56 3.9E+01 Co-57 2.3E+02 Co-58 1.3E+02 Co-60 1.7E+01 Ni-59 3.2E+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-41 9.3E+06 Ca-45 1.1E+06 Sc-46 6.2E+01 Ti-44 1.5E+02 V-49 1.0E+08 Mn-53 7.5E+07 Mn-54 6.5E+01 Fe-55 2.9E+06 Fe-59 1.9E+02 Fe-60 8.1E+03 Co-56 3.9E+01 Co-57 2.3E+02 Co-58 1.3E+02 Co-60 1.7E+01 Ni-59 3.2E+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-41 9.3E+06 Ca-45 1.1E+06 Sc-46 6.2E+01 Ti-44 1.5E+02 V-49 1.0E+08 Mn-53 7.5E+07 Mn-54 6.5E+01 Fe-55 2.9E+06 Fe-59 1.9E+02 Fe-60 8.1E+03 Co-56 3.9E+01 Co-57 2.3E+02 Co-58 1.3E+02 Co-60 1.7E+01 Ni-59 3.2E+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  20. Few-layer MoS2: a promising layered semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Rudren; Zhang, Qing

    2014-05-27

    Due to the recent expanding interest in two-dimensional layered materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been receiving much research attention. Having an ultrathin layered structure and an appreciable direct band gap of 1.9 eV in the monolayer regime, few-layer MoS2 has good potential applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices. In addition, the capability of controlling spin and valley degrees of freedom makes it a promising material for spintronic and valleytronic devices. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the research relevant to the structural and physical properties, fabrication methods, and electronic devices of few-layer MoS2. Recent developments and advances in studying the material are highlighted. PMID:24660756

  1. VUV photochemistry of oriented molecules: methylchloride on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, J.; Lamont, C. L. A.; Sìller, L.; Coquel, J. M.; Palmer, R. E.

    1997-11-01

    The photoionization of CH 3Cl adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been investigated as a function of the photon energy in the range 13-35 eV. Two ions were detected — CH +3 and H + — which show differences in their coverage and energy dependences. At very low coverages only H + ions are produced, while at higher coverages (still in the monolayer regime) CH +3 ions are also observed, reflecting a change in the orientation of the molecule on the surface as a function of coverage. The cross-section curves as a function of the photon energy for both ions show a maximum at 22 eV, while the onsets are at 16 eV for CH +3 and 19 eV for H +.

  2. Optical properties of ZnO powder prepared by using a proteic sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Joon; Woo, Hyun-Joo; Park, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Kiwan; Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the optical properties of ZnO powder synthesized by using a proteic sol-gel process with coconut water as the precursor. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray diffraction results show high purity of the synthesized ZnO powder. From the low-temperature (12 K) and power-dependent PL spectra, the donor-bound exciton, the acceptor-bound exciton, the donor-to-acceptor pair (DAP), and the phonon-replica of the DAP transition have been observed at 3.38, 3.34, 3.26, and 3.19 eV, respectively. The free exciton emission (˜3.3 eV) is also observed at 300 K in the temperature-dependent PL spectra.

  3. Tunable electronic and optical behaviors of two-dimensional germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhuo; Li, Yangping; Li, Chenxi; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    The electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like germanium carbide (2D-GeC) are calculated using first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. Monolayer GeC has a direct band gap of 2.19 eV. The imaginary part of the dielectric function shows a wide energy range of absorption spectrum for monolayer GeC. Tunable band structures are found for monolayer GeC through in-plane strain. In addition, the band structures and optical properties of bilayer GeC under strain along the c axis are analyzed. Multilayer GeC exhibits a direct band gap like monolayer GeC, and new options of interband transitions are found between layers. The results suggest that 2D-GeC could be a good candidate for optoelectronic such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and solar cells.

  4. Growth and depth dependence of visible luminescence in wurtzite InN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, X.D.; Shen, W.Z.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2006-04-10

    We present detailed investigation of growth and depth dependence of visible ({approx}1.9 eV) photoluminescence (PL) in wurtzite InN epilayers grown by magnetron sputtering. For normal surface incidence, PL peak was found to redshift with increasing growth temperatures. Cross-sectional PL measurements were able to separate contributions from the InN epilayers and sapphire substrates, which not only demonstrated the visible luminescence in InN but also revealed the blueshift of the PL peak with laser spot focusing from epilayer surface toward the interface. The results have been well explained by the growth mechanism and residual strain along growth direction of InN epilayers.

  5. Progress towards a 30% efficient GaInP/Si tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Stephanie; Ward, Scott; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David L.

    2015-08-28

    The performance of dual-junction solar cells with a Si bottom cell has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Simulations show that adding a top junction with an energy bandgap of 1.6 -1.9 eV to a standard silicon solar cell enables efficiencies over 38%. Currently, top junctions of GaInP (1.8 eV) are the most promising as they can achieve 1-sun efficiencies of 20.8% [1]. We fabricated mechanically stacked, four terminal GaInP/Si tandem solar cells using a transparent adhesive between the subcells. These tandem devices achieved an efficiency of 27% under AM1.5 g spectral conditions. Furthermore, higher efficiencies can be achieved by using an improved Si-bottom cell and by optimizing the dual-junction device for long-wavelength light and luminescent coupling between the two junctions.

  6. Progress towards a 30% efficient GaInP/Si tandem solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Essig, Stephanie; Ward, Scott; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David L.

    2015-08-28

    The performance of dual-junction solar cells with a Si bottom cell has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Simulations show that adding a top junction with an energy bandgap of 1.6 -1.9 eV to a standard silicon solar cell enables efficiencies over 38%. Currently, top junctions of GaInP (1.8 eV) are the most promising as they can achieve 1-sun efficiencies of 20.8% [1]. We fabricated mechanically stacked, four terminal GaInP/Si tandem solar cells using a transparent adhesive between the subcells. These tandem devices achieved an efficiency of 27% under AM1.5 g spectral conditions. Furthermore, higher efficiencies can be achieved bymore » using an improved Si-bottom cell and by optimizing the dual-junction device for long-wavelength light and luminescent coupling between the two junctions.« less

  7. Indium nitride: A narrow gap semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2002-08-14

    The optical properties of wurtzite InN grown on sapphire substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy have been characterized by optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photomodulated reflectance techniques. All these three characterization techniques show an energy gap for InN between 0.7 and 0.8 eV, much lower than the commonly accepted value of 1.9 eV. The photoluminescence peak energy is found to be sensitive to the free electron concentration of the sample. The peak energy exhibits a very weak hydrostatic pressure dependence and a small, anomalous blueshift with increasing temperature. The bandgap energies of In-rich InGaN alloys were found to be consistent with the narrow gap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameter was determined to be 1.43 eV in InGaN.

  8. Development of Novel Biopolymer/Synthetic-Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena Montoya, Marleth; Carranza, Sugeheidy; Hinojosa, Moisés; González, Virgilio

    2009-03-01

    In this work we report the successful development of a family of magnetic nanocomposites based on chitosan or/and polyamide 6 matrix with dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. The iron oxide contents varied from 5 up to 23 wt%, the nanocomposites were studied by FTIR, UV-vis, TGA, XRD, TEM and magnetometry. The FTIR analysis demonstrates an interaction between the amide group of the polyamide 6 and the ceramic material. In formic acid, the nanocomposites absorb in the UV-Vis range, and the magnitude of the band gap (optical), calculated using the band of higher wavelength, is between 2.16 and 2.19 eV. In nanocomposites with chitosan/polyamide 6 matrix the developed morphologies are spherulites of polyamide 6 surrounded by chitosan, with the iron oxide particles presumably in the form of ferrihidryte. The measured magnetic properties revealed a superparamagnetic character on the studied specimens.

  9. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  10. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  11. Ar plasma induced deep levels in epitaxial n-GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, A.; Nyamhere, C.; Botha, J. R.; Auret, F. D.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Meyer, W. E.; Coelho, S. M. M.; Kolkovsky, V. l.

    2012-01-01

    Ar plasma etching of n-type (Si doped) GaAs introduces several electron traps (E{sub c} - 0.04 eV, E{sub c} - 0.07 eV, E{sub c} - 0.19 eV, E{sub c} - 0.31 eV, E{sub c} - 0.53 eV, and E{sub c} - 0.61 eV). The trap, E{sub c} - 0.04 eV, labelled E1' and having a trap signature similar to irradiation induced defect E1, appears to be metastable. E{sub c} - 0.31 eV and E{sub c} - 0.61 eV are metastable too and they are similar to the M3/M4 defect configuration present in hydrogen plasma exposed n-GaAs.

  12. Enhancement of photocatalytic performance of plasmon-assisted metallic ion doped titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jimin; Zhao, Zhihuan; Gong, Chao; Cheng, Bin; Xue, Yongqiang; Yin, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Plasmonic assisted metallic ion doped titania was synthesized successfully by combining the hydrothermal and photoreduction methods. The chromium ion doping resulted to smaller particle size and preferable crystallinity than pure TiO2. Ag@AgI-TiO2-Cr showed the smallest band gap of 1.9 eV, corresponding to the wavelength range until 652 nm. The Ag-AgI plasmonic effect promoted electron transfer and accelerated photocatalytic reaction. Excellent visible light induced MO degradation was effectively realized. The sample Ag@AgI-TiO2-Cr exhibited the best photodegradation activity, which might be related to its smallest band gap, larger specific surface area of 178.3 m2 g-1 and the maximum equilibrium adsorption quantity of 18.0 mg/g.

  13. Control of the growth orientation and electrical properties of polycrystalline Cu2O thin films by group-IV elements doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Akimoto, Katsuhiro

    2004-11-01

    The effects of group-IV element dopants on the structural and electrical properties of Cu2O thin films were studied. Similar dopant-induced behavior was found in the observed variations of the growth orientation and electrical properties of Si- and Ge-doped Cu2O thin films. Ge doping was found to induce electrically active acceptors with an activation energy of 0.18 eV, comparable to the 0.19 eV value of Si-doped Cu2O. These results suggest that locally formed silicate and germanate have the same effect on the structural and electrical properties of Cu2O. On the other hand, Sn and Pb likely act as donors when incorporated substitutionally onto Cu-lattice sites, although further study may be required to suppress self-compensation effects in Cu2O to achieve n-type conductivity.

  14. Fluorogenic ratiometric dipodal optode containing imine-amide linkages: exploiting subtle thorium (IV) ion sensing.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Kundan; Kaur, Amanpreet; Tetgure, Sandesh; Chaitanya, G Krishana; Singh, Narinder; Kuwar, Anil

    2014-12-10

    The (13E,19E)-N1',N3'-bis[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]malonohydrazide (L) has been developed for the detection of Th(4+) ions using dual channel signalling system. The UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed the formation of L-Th(4+) complex in 1:1 equilibrium. The density functional theory (DFT) also confirms the optimum binding cavity for the recognition of metal ion. The binding constant computed from different mathematical models for an assembly of L-Th(4+). The detection limit of L for Th(4+) recognition is to a concentration down to 0.1 μM (0.023 μg g(-1)). The present sensing system is also successfully applied for the detection of Th(4+) ion present in soil near nuclear atomic plants. PMID:25441898

  15. Optical properties of colloidal aqueous synthesized 3 mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumanth Kumar, D.; Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh H., M.

    2016-05-01

    We have explored an easiest and simplest aqueous route to synthesize bright green luminescent CdS QDs using 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer in air ambient for solar cell applications. The CdS quantum dots showed a strong quantum confinement effect with good stability, size and excellent photoluminescence. MPA Capping on CdS QDs was confirmed through FTIR. The Optical absorption spectrum revealed the CdS quantum dots are highly transparent in the visible region with absorption peak at 380 nm, confirming the quantum confinement. Photoluminescence showed an emission peak at 525 nm wavelength. The optical band gap energy was found to be 3.19 eV and CdS quantum dots radius calculated using Brus equation is 1.5 nm. The results are presented and discussed in detail.

  16. The antigenic similarity of human low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    LEVINE, L; KAUFFMAN, D L; BROWN, R K

    1955-08-01

    THE FOLLOWING HUMAN LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS WERE PREPARED: beta-lipoproteins of densities greater than 1.040 (A, B,C) a beta-lipoprotein of -S(1.063) = 5 (D), a lipoprotein of -S(1.063) = 19 (E), and a lipoprotein of -S(1.063) = 70 (F). Data are presented which show the immunochemical homogeneity of the D lipoprotein rabbit-anti-D lipoprotein system. Cross-reactions between antibody to A and D lipoproteins and the above lipoproteins have been demonstrated by quantitative precipitation, quanitative complement fixation, and single and double diffusion in agar. The antigenic similarities appear to be associated with the protein portions of the molecule. The antisera produced did not differentiate the low density lipoprotein classes. PMID:13242737

  17. Detection of charged particles in thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Ward, W.; Street, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    We show our results in detecting particles of various linear energy transfer, including minimum ionizing electrons from a Sr-90 source with 5 to 12 micron thick n-i-p and p-i-n diodes. We measured W ( average energy to produce one electron-hole pair) using 17keV filtered xray pulses with a result W = 6.0 /+-/ 0.2eV. This is consistent with the expected value for a semiconductor with band gap of 1.7 to 1.9eV. With heavily ionizing particles such as 6 MeV alphas and 1 to 2 MeV protons, there was some loss of signal due to recombination in the particle track. The minimum ionizing electrons showed no sign of recombination. Applications to pixel and strip detectors for physics experiments and medical imaging will be discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Density functional theory with modified dispersion correction for metals applied to molecular adsorption on Pt(111).

    PubMed

    Andersson, M P

    2016-07-28

    We have performed density functional theory calculations using our modified DFT-D2 dispersion correction for metals to investigate adsorption of a range of molecules on Pt(111). The agreement between our calculations and experimental adsorption energies ranging from 0 to 3 eV was excellent with a mean absolute deviation of 0.19 eV and a maximum deviation of 0.37 eV. Our results show that the DFT-D2 semiempirical dispersion correction can provide accurate results also for describing adsorption on metals, provided that relevant physical properties of the system are taken into account, such as shorter ranged dispersion because of screening by the conducting electrons and a lower polarizability of the core electrons in metals compared to isolated atoms. PMID:27357643

  19. Group Theoretical Analysis of Vibrational Modes, Rovibronic Levels and Nuclear Spin Statistics of extended aromatic C48N12 Azafullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2004-03-17

    We have presented a group theoretical analysis of the vibrational modes and rovibronic levels of a novel extended aromatic C{sub 48}N{sub 12} azafullerene. The nuclear spin multiplets and statistical weights of {sup 14}N spin-1 bosons, vibrational and rotational analysis and computed vibrational spectra are provided. We have also predicted the properties of the {sup 3}A{sub u}, {sup 3}E{sub g}, and {sup 3}E{sub u} excited states of C{sub 48}N{sub 12} that lie 1.9 eV above the {sup 1}A{sub g} ground state, and that the {sup 3}E{sub g} and {sup 3}E{sub u} states would undergo Jahn-Teller distortion into chiral structures with no symmetry and an achiral structure with C{sub i} symmetry.

  20. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  1. Irregularity of the muon component in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A.V.; Makarov, I.T.; Nikiforova, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    Experimental data obtained from 1974 to 1992 at the Yakutsk array for muons with threshold energies E{sub {mu}} {ge} 1 GeV in extensive air showers (EAS) are analyzed. Periods of reliable detector operation are selected, and miscounts of muon detectors near their operation thresholds are thoroughly taken into account. Average lateral distribution functions (LDF) are obtained for EAS muons in the energy range E{sub 0} = 10{sup 17} - 5 x 10{sup 19} eV and in the zenith-angle range {theta}=0{degrees} - 60{degrees}. For energies E{sub 0} > 5 x 10{sup 18} eV, the LDF are shown to depend on E{sub 0} and {theta} in a substantially different manner than they do in the range of lower EAS energies. This irregularity is apparently associated with certain unknown processes or unknown primary particles involved in the development of EASs. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Gauthier, M.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  3. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. In recent experiments we have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on a scattering length comparable to the screening length. This technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.

  4. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, L B; Lee, H J; Barbrel, B; Gauthier, M; Galtier, E; Nagler, B; Döppner, T; LePape, S; Ma, T; Pak, A; Turnbull, D; White, T; Gregori, G; Wei, M; Falcone, R W; Heimann, P; Zastrau, U; Hastings, J B; Glenzer, S H

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision. PMID:25430365

  5. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. J.; Dasgupta, N. P.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, J. R.; Sinclair, R.; Prinz, F. B.

    2010-11-10

    We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1–20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.

  6. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) workshop travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six abstracts are provided from the SCOSTEP/STIP Symposium on Retrospective Analyses and Future Coordinated Intervals held in Switzerland on June 10 to 12, 1985. Six American scientists participated in the symposium and their abstracts are also included. The titles of their papers are: (1) An analysis of near surface and coronal activity during STIP interval 12, by T. E. Gergely; (2) Helios images of STIP intervals 6, B. V. Jackson; (3) Results from the analysis of solar and interplanetary observations during STIP interval 7, S. R. Kane; (4) STIP interval 19, E. Cliver; (5) Hydrodynamic buoyancy force in the solar atmosphere, T. Yeh; and (6) A combined MHD modes for the energy and momentum transport from solar surface to interplanetary space, S. T. Wu.

  7. Robust red-emission spectra and yields in firefly bioluminescence against temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Wang, Yu; Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2014-05-01

    We measured the quantitative spectra of firefly (Photinus pyralis) bioluminescence at various temperatures to investigate the temperature dependence of the luciferin-luciferase reaction at 15-34 °C. The quantitative spectra were decomposed very well into red (1.9 eV), orange (2.0 eV), and green (2.2 eV) Gaussian components. The intensity of the green component was the only temperature sensitive quantity that linearly decreased as the temperature increased at pH 7 and 8. We found the quantitative bioluminescence spectra to be robust below 2.0 eV against temperature and other experimental conditions. The revealed robustness of the red emissions should be useful for quantitative applications such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate detection.

  8. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. The JEM-EUSO optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Marchi, Alessandor Zuccaro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-09-22

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard the Japanese Experiment Module is an international mission devoted to the detection of ultra high-energy cosmic particles with energies E>7x10{sup 19} eV. They are revealed through emission in the atmosphere of Cherenkov and fluorescence light in the near-UV region, by using an optical system with 60 deg. field of view and a 2.3 m entrance pupil. One of the challenges consists in developing an unusual combination of large and lightweight refractive optics: two double-sided curved Fresnel lenses and a central curved Fresnel+diffractive lens, whose maximum dimensions are 2.65 m. This paper describes the development of such a optical system and its performances of the latest configurations.

  10. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Zastrau, U.

    2014-11-15

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  11. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in raw and cooked food.

    PubMed

    Norazah, A; Rahizan, I; Zainuldin, T; Rohani, M Y; Kamel, A G

    1998-03-01

    A total of 402 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from a variety of food samples and screened for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Screening was carried out using 15 specific monovalent antisera from Murex Diagnostic Limited. A total of 19 E. coli isolates were serotyped as EPEC. The EPEC strains were shown to belong to 8 serotypes. Eight out of 19 EPEC strains belonged to serotype 018C:K77 (B21). Seventeen out of 19 of the EPEC strains were isolated from cooked food. The presence of E. coli in cooked food is an indicator of fecal contamination and a sign of unhygienic food handling. The presence of EPEC in food could be a potential source of food-borne outbreak. Hygiene training for every food-handler is a necessity. PMID:9740276

  12. Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /CNEA, Buenos Aires /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been significantly reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  13. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  14. Oxygen-Induced Degradation in C60-Based Organic Solar Cells: Relation Between Film Properties and Device Performance.

    PubMed

    Bastos, João P; Voroshazi, Eszter; Fron, Eduard; Brammertz, Guy; Vangerven, Tim; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Poortmans, Jef; Cheyns, David

    2016-04-20

    Fullerene-based molecules are the archetypical electron-accepting materials for organic photovoltaic devices. A detailed knowledge of the degradation mechanisms that occur in C60 layers will aid in the development of more stable organic solar cells. Here, the impact of storage in air on the optical and electrical properties of C60 is studied in thin films and in devices. Atmospheric exposure induces oxygen-trap states that are 0.19 eV below the LUMO of the fullerene C60. Moreover, oxygen causes a 4-fold decrease of the exciton lifetime in C60 layers, resulting in a 40% drop of short-circuit current from optimized planar heterojunction solar cells. The presence of oxygen-trap states increases the saturation current of the device, resulting in a 20% loss of open-circuit voltage. Design guidelines are outlined to improve air stability for fullerene-containing devices. PMID:27065475

  15. DNA sequence analysis of a 10 624 bp fragment of the left arm of chromosome XV from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a RNA binding protein, a mitochondrial protein, two ribosomal proteins and two new open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, M J; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1996-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of a 10624 bp DNA segment located in the left arm of chromosome XV of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence contains eight open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids. Two of them do not present significant homology with sequences found in the databases. The product of ORF o0553 is identical to the protein encoded by the gene SMF1. Internal to it there is another ORF, o0555 that is apparently expressed. The proteins encoded by ORFs o0559 and o0565 are identical to ribosomal proteins S19.e and L18 respectively. ORF o0550 encodes a protein with an RNA binding signature including RNP motifs and stretches rich in asparagine, glutamine and arginine. PMID:8896268

  16. Digital HF communications for the polar regions - a low-cost alternative to satellite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior-Jones, Michael; Warrington, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Digital HF communications for the polar regions - a low-cost alternative to satellite? Prior-Jones, M.R. and Warrington, E. M Communications within the polar regions pose unique technical challenges, due to the physical isolation, lack of infrastructure and extreme weather conditions. Geostationary satellite links are widely used, but they cannot function poleward of 80 degrees due to the curvature of the Earth. Low-earth-orbit systems like Iridium and ARGOS will function all the way to the poles. However, they are expensive, particularly for experiments requiring long time-series. Transferring data by Iridium satellite phone costs of the order of 60USD per megabyte. HF (i.e. 3-30 MHz) radio signals propagate via the ionosphere, allowing long distance transmission beyond the horizon. Ranges of thousands of kilometres can be easily achieved with relatively low transmission powers when propagation is favourable. The polar ionosphere is, however, a challenging environment for radio signals - the signals often reflect from multiple regions of the ionosphere and by multiple hops with intermediate ground reflections producing multipath effects. As the ionosphere is moving, these signals are also subject to very significant Doppler shifts that add to the complexity of the environment. These effects may make data communications at polar latitudes difficult or impossible at times and often only at low data rates. In this paper we discuss our experiments to use modern signal-processing and modulation techniques for digital transmission on HF, offering a similar speed to satellite but without paying the high cost of satellite airtime. Using an HF channel simulator developed by Warrington et al based on measurements of propagation at high latitudes, we have tested the performance of an OFDM-based modem derived from the Digital Radio Mondiale standard used for digital HF broadcasting and found that it outperforms current military modems developed by NATO (STANAG 4285 and 4539

  17. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  18. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil épidémiologique et niveau de perception de la population adulte

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Yaméogo, Clément; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'accroissement rapide de la prévalence du diabète sucré en Afrique subsaharienne constitue un problème de santé public. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime qu’à l'horizon 2025, l'augmentation la plus significative de la prévalence du diabète sera enregistrée dans les pays en développement. Ceux-ci devraient abriter 75% des patients diabétiques du monde. Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de decrire le profil épidémiologique du diabète et d’évaluer le niveau de perception de la maladie par une population africaine en milieu urb qwqain de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Le diabète a été défini chez tout sujet ayant une glycémie casuelle supérieure à 2 g/L ou une glycémie à jeun supérieur ou égale à 1,26 g/L (≥ 7 mmol/L) à deux controles d'une semaine d'intervalle. Etaient considérés diabétique, les sujets déjà suivis et ceux nouvellement dépistés par l'etude. Résultats L’étude a inclus 1532 personnes, d’âge compris entre 25 et 64 ans dont 55,6% d'hommes et 44,4% de femmes. L’âge moyen était 36,10 ± 11,19 ans. La tranche d’âge de 25 à 34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 57,1%. La glycémie moyenne était de 1,04 g/L, la proportion des femmes ayant une hyperglycémie était statistiquement plus importante que celle des hommes (p< 0,05). Près de 81,3% de la population ignoraient que le diabète était un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion Il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso. PMID:26524982

  19. Surpoids et obésité dans la population générale de 5 à 19 ans en milieu urbain bamakois (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Oumar Bâ, Hamidou; Menta, Ichaka; Camara, Youssouf; Doumbia, Plutôt Seydou; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population âgée de 5 à 19 ans et fournir des données de référence pour de futures études. Méthodes Notre échantillon est issu de la première étude sur les pathologies cardiovasculaires basée sur l'approche STEP de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en sélectionnant tous les sujets âgés de 5 à 19 ans. Nous avons utilisé les méthodes de l'OMS et de l'International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) pour déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population générale. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 11,75 ans ± 4,387 et le sex-ratio M:F était de 0,79. les moyennes pour le poids et la taille étaient de 36,85 kg et 143,48 cm. Selon les critères OMS 1,61% des garçons et 3,28% des filles étaient en surpoids et 0,92% des garçons contre 1,46% des filles obèses. Selon les critères de l'IOTF 4,10% des garçons et 5,94% des filles étaient en surpoids tandis que 0,72% des garçons et 2,68% des filles étaient obèses. Conclusion Malgré sa faible prévalence le surpoids et l'obésité doivent être régulièrement étudiés pour reconnaître des tendances et prendre des mesures adéquates de prévention. Les 2 méthodes utilisées ont permis d'avoir des données de référence pour de futures études au Mali et ailleurs. PMID:25932064

  20. Antireflux versus conventional self-expanding metallic Stents (SEMS) for distal esophageal cancer: results of a multicenter randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Coron, E.; David, G.; Lecleire, S.; Jacques, J.; Le Sidaner, A.; Barrioz, T.; Coumaros, D.; Volteau, C.; Vedrenne, B.; Bichard, P.; Boustière, C.; Touchefeu, Y.; Brégeon, J.; Prat, F.; Le Rhun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are commonly used in the palliation of dysphagia in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma. However, they predispose to gastroesophageal reflux when deployed across the gastroesophageal junction. The aims of this study were to: 1) assess the influence of the antireflux valve on trans-prosthetic reflux (primary outcome); and 2) compare the results of SEMS with and without antireflux valve in terms of reflux symptoms, quality of life (QOL), improvement of dysphagia and adverse events (secondary outcomes). Patients and methods: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in nine centers. Carcinomas were locally advanced (47 %) or metastatic. After randomization, patients received either a covered SEMS with antireflux valve (n = 20) or a similar type of SEMS with no antireflux device but assigned to standard proton pump inhibitor therapy and postural advice (n = 18). Trans-prosthetic reflux was assessed at day 2 using a radiological score based on barium esophagography performed after Trendelenburg maneuver and graded from 0 (no reflux) to 12 (maximum). Monthly telephone interviews were conducted for Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) scoring from 0 (excellent) to 5 (poor), QOL assessment (based on the Reflux-Qual Simplifié scoring system) from 0 (poor) to 100 (excellent), dysphagia scoring from 0 (no dysphagia) to 5 (complete dysphagia) and regurgitation scoring from 0 (no regurgitation) to 16 (maximum). Results: No difference was noted in terms of age, sex, size of lesion, prosthesis length or need for dilation prior to SEMS placement. No difficulty in placing SEMS nor complications were noted. Radiological scores of reflux were found to be significantly lower in patients with an antireflux stent compared to the conventional stent and associated measures. The regurgitation scores were significantly decreased in patients with antireflux stents during the first 2 months after stent placement and

  1. Une version québécoise du Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2)—Outil d'évaluation des commotions cérébrales dans le sport 2 : Québec (SCAT2-Qc)

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jami; Boyer-Rémillard, Marie-Eve; Pilon-Piquette, Michael; McKinley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Objectif : traduire le Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) dans la langue française parlée au Québec et en vérifier l'acceptabilité pour la population québécoise francophone. Méthodologie : le processus de traduction de la version originale du SCAT2 a fait appel à une variante de la méthode de traduction et d'adaptation d'outils proposée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé. Une traduction parallèle a d'abord été réalisée. Ensuite, un comité a révisé cette traduction parallèle dans le but de produire une version préliminaire du SCAT2-Qc. Puis, on a procédé à une rétrotraduction parallèle, que l'on a comparée à la version originale. La version préliminaire a été modifiée. Pour parvenir à la version finale, on a intégré les suggestions et les commentaires formulés par deux sujets sains lors de l'essai de l'outil, et lors de la comparaison du SCAT2-Qc à la version française existante par trois réviseurs du domaine de la santé. On a ensuite testé la version finale du SCAT2-Qc auprès de douze sujets sains pour en vérifier l'acceptabilité. Résultats : les douze sujets sains n'ont eu aucun problème de compréhension en utilisant le SCAT2-Qc. Conclusion : les différentes étapes de traduction ont permis de créer le SCAT2-Qc. Son contenu ayant été validé, il peut à présent être utilisé dans le milieu sportif et scientifique québécois. PMID:24396168

  2. Une étude cas-témoins pour déterminer les facteurs de non-observance du suivi médical chez les patients diabétiques à Kinshasa, en 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Kennedy; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mutombo, Paulin Beya; Muyer, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète est un problème majeur de santé publique et un fardeau économique mondial qui n’épargne pas la RD-Congo. Bien que sa prise en charge soit codifiée, la plupart des diabétiques n'arrivent pas à respecter les rendez-vous de suivi. Cette étude vise principalement à identifier les déterminants de la non-observance du suivi médical chez les diabétiques à Kinshasa. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude cas-témoins où les cas sont les patients diabétiques non observant le suivi médical et les témoins, ceux répondant régulièrement au suivi médical. Couvrant la période du 1erjanvier au 31 décembre 2010, l’étude a porté sur un échantillon aléatoire de 154 sujets répartis entre 77 cas et 77 témoins. Résultats Les données indiquent une association entre la non-observance du suivi médical et le revenu (niveau de vie) des ménages. Les cas provenant des ménages à faible revenu courent six fois plus le risque d’être non-observants. Par contre, entre le niveau de connaissance et la non-observance l'association notée n’était pas statistiquement significative. Le respect des rendez-vous pourrait être amélioré de 77% si le revenu des ménages des diabétiques était augmenté. Le coût total mensuel du suivi médical est estimé à 27,2 USD, alors que le revenu permanant des ménages se situe à 306,6 USD. Conclusion Le bas niveau de vie mais pas celui de l'ignorance est un déterminant de la non-observance des visites de suivi du malade diabétique. PMID:25309658

  3. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  4. Epidémiologie de l'infection à Helicobacter Pylori à Yaoundé: de la particularité à l’énigme Africaine

    PubMed Central

    Andoulo, Firmin Ankouane; Noah, Dominique Noah; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap; Blackett, Katleen Ngu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'infection à Hélicobacter pylori concerne la moitié de la population mondiale, principalement dans les pays en voie de développement où l'infection atteint 80% de la population. Le but de notre étude était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à Hélicobacter pylori et de mettre en évidence les déterminants de l'infection ainsi que les maladies associées au Cameroun. Méthodes L’étude concernait 171 sujets symptomatiques référés pour une fibroscopie œsogastroduodénale au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Yaoundé et au Centre Médical la Cathédrale. L'infection à H.pylori était objectivée par un test rapide à l'uréase kit commercial Pronto Dry® (Medical Instruments Corporation, Solothurn, Switzerland). Résultats La prévalence globale de l'infection à Hélicobacter pylori était de 72,5% (124/171) (Intervalle de Confiance (IC) à 95% 65,2-79,1%) et dans chaque groupe d’âge (moins de 40ans, 40-50ans, plus de 50ans) de 83,1%(64/77), 67,4%(29/43) et 60,8%(31/51) respectivement. En analyse univariée, le risque de l'infection était significativement élevé dans le groupe de moins de 40ans comparé au groupe de 40-50ans (Risque Relatif (RR) 0,42 IC 95% 0,16-1,1, p = 0,04 pour le groupe 40-50ans) et comparé au groupe de plus de 50ans (RR 0,73; 0,57-0,93, p = 0,004 pour le groupe de plus de 50ans). La prévalence de l'infection à H.pylori était de 63,0% (17/27) pour l'ulcère duodénal, 50%(4/8) pour l'ulcère gastrique et 100%(2/2) pour le cancer gastrique. Conclusion A prévalence de l'infection à H.pylori au Cameroun est très élevée et significativement liée à l’âge de moins de 40 ans. PMID:24778752

  5. Profil clinique et bactériologique des infections néonatales bactériennes à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Kemeze, Sandrine; Moudze, Béatrice; Chiabi, Andreas; Eposse, Charlotte; Kaya, Alexis; Mbangue, Madeleine; Guifo, Odette; Kago, Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé a estimé la survenue globale de décès néonatal à 2,8 millions en 2015, dont 47,6% étaient dues aux infections. Ces infections peuvent survenir chez un nouveau-né de 0 à un mois de vie, pouvant aller jusqu’à 3 mois. Méthodes C'est une étude prospective allant du 1er mars au 30 juin 2015 au Service de néonatologie de l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Etaient inclus tout nouveau-né symptomatique avec ou sans critère anamnestique et tout nouveau-né asymptomatique, présentant au moins un risque infectieux et ayant au moins une culture positive ou une anomalie de la numération formule sanguine ou une protéine C réactive positive. Résultats Des 310 nouveau-nés admis, 300 ont été retenus pour infection néonatale, soit une incidence de 96,8%. Nous avons réalisé 104 cultures dont 25 positives, soit une incidence de l'infection néonatale confirmée de 24%. Les facteurs associés à l'infection étaient la prématurité inexpliquée <35 semaines d'aménorrhée(45,1%) et la réanimation néonatale (34,8%). La fièvre (56%) et les troubles neurologiques (48,8%) étaient les manifestations cliniques les plus fréquentes. Les Gram négatifs étaient les germes les plus fréquents (56%). L'imipenème (95%) et l'amikacine (66,7%) étaient les antibiotiques les plusefficaces. L’évolution était favorable dans 66,4% des cas et le taux de décès était de 33,6%. Conclusion Cette étude révèle une forte prévalence de l'infection dans cet hôpital. L’écologie bactérienne est dominée par les Gram négatifs, on note une importante résistance aux antibiotiques usuels et une mortalité assez élevée. PMID:27222688

  6. Clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile cultivated from stool samples of hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Predrag, Stojanovic; Branislava, Kocic; Miodrag, Stojanovic; Biljana, Miljkovic – Selimovic; Suzana, Tasic; Natasa, Miladinovic – Tasic; Tatjana, Babic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fortify the clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from stool samples of hospitalized patients. This survey included 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea and positive findings of Clostridium difficile in stool samples, and 100 hospitalized patients with formed stool as a control group. Bacteriological examination of a stool samples was conducted using standard microbiological methods. Stool sample were inoculated directly on nutrient media for bacterial cultivation (blood agar using 5% sheep blood, Endo agar, selective Salmonella Shigella agar, Selenite-F broth, CIN agar and Skirrow’s medium), and to selective cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA) (Biomedics, Parg qe tehnicologico, Madrid, Spain) for isolation of Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile toxin was detected by ELISA-ridascreen Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) and ColorPAC ToxinA test (Becton Dickinson, USA). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of parasites (causing diarrhea) was done using standard methods (conventional microscopy), commercial concentration test Paraprep S Gold kit (Dia Mondial, France) and RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium/Giardia Combi test (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of fungi (causing diarrhea) was performed by standard methods. All stool samples positive for Clostridium difficile were tested for Rota, Noro, Astro and Adeno viruses by ELISA – ridascreen (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). In this research we isolated 99 Clostridium difficile strains from 116 stool samples of 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. The 53 (66.25%) of patients with diarrhea were positive for toxins A and B, one (1.25%) were positive for only toxin B. Non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from samples of 26 (32.5%) patients. However, other pathogenic microorganisms of intestinal tract cultivated from samples of 16 patients

  7. 5 A, version modifée

    PubMed Central

    Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Sharma, Arya M.; Freedhoff, Yoni

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Adapter le modèle 5 A pour offrir aux professionnels des soins primaires un cadre de counseling sur l'obésité. Sources des données Une recension systématique des ouvrages spécialisés a été effectuée dans MEDLINE à l'aide des expressions de recherche 5 A's (49 articles recensés, tous pertinents) et 5 A's et primary care (8 articles recensés, tous redondants). On a aussi fait une recherche dans les sites web du National Institute of Health et de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Message principal L'approche 5 A (autorisation, analyse, avis, accord et aide ou ask, assess, advise, agree et assist en anglais), élaborée pour la cessation du tabagisme, peut être adaptée au counseling sur l'obésité. Demander l'autorisation de discuter du poids; ne pas porter de jugement et explorer la volonté du patient de changer. Analyser l'indice de masse corporelle, la circonférence de la taille et le stade de l'obésité; explorer les déclencheurs et les complications de l'excès de poids. Donner son avis sur les risques de l'obésité pour la santé, les bienfaits d'une modeste perte de poids, la nécessité d'une stratégie à long terme et les options de traitements. Se mettre d'accord sur des attentes, des objectifs et des changements comportementaux réalistes pour perdre du poids et sur les détails précis du plan de traitement. Assister dans l'identifcation et l'atténuation des obstacles; offrir des ressources, aider à trouver et à consulter les services appropriés et organiser un suivi périodique. Conclusion Les 5 A représentent une stratégie d'intervention comportementale fondée sur des données probantes qui a le potentiel d'améliorer le taux de réussite de la gestion du poids en soins primaires.

  8. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  9. La supraconductivité a 100 ans !

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Il y a 100 ans, le 8 avril 1911, une découverte majeure était réalisée : celle de la supraconductivité. La supraconductivité est la caractéristique qu?ont certains métaux et alliages de perdre toute résistance électrique en dessous d?une température donnée. Cette renversante découverte, réalisée de manière presque fortuite par Kammerlingh Onnes de l?Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas) et son étudiant Gilles Holst, a ouvert un nouveau champ de recherche en physique et de fabuleuses perspectives d?applications technologiques. Du point de vue scientifique, la supraconductivité est en effet l?une des rares manifestations de la physique quantique à l?échelle macroscopique.  Du point de vue des retombées techniques, elle est porteuse d?applications majeures dans le domaine de la santé, des communications et de l?énergie. 100 ans après, les physiciens n?ont toujours pas fini d?explorer ce phénomène et ses applications. Le CERN abrite des applications de la supraconductivité à des échelles inédites. L?accélérateur de particules LHC, avec ses milliers d?aimants supraconducteurs répartis sur 27 kilomètres de circonférence, est en effet la plus grande application mondiale de la supraconductivité. Il ne pourrait exister sans elle.  Le CERN fête donc la découverte de la supraconductivité avec une conférence exceptionnelle donnée par Philippe Lebrun. Au cours de cette conférence, l?expérience historique de Kammerlingh Onnes sera reproduite. Philippe Lebrun racontera l?histoire de cette étonnante découverte, en la replaçant dans le contexte scientifique de l?époque. Il racontera les développements scientifiques et les applications du premier siècle de la supraconductivité. Conférence en français Merci de bien vouloir vous inscrire au : +41 22 767 76 76 ou cern.reception@cern.ch

  10. Résultats fonctionnels de la chirurgie de la cataracte par phacoalternative avec implantation en chambre postérieure: à propos de 300 cas à Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonre, Ahgbatouhabéba; Yameogo, Claudette; Dolo, Mariam; Sanou, Jérôme; Daboue, Arsène

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte est la première cause de cécité curable dans le monde. Son traitement est chirurgical. Le but de notre travail a été d’évaluer les résultats de la phacoalternative ou la chirurgie de la cataracte à petite incision. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er janvier au 31 septembre 2014, chez des patients âgés d'au moins 40 ans. Les données socio-démographiques, l'acuité visuelle, l'astigmatisme et les complications ont été évalués. Nous avons inclus 300 yeux de 286 patients. L’âge moyen était de 66 ans (écart type 9,93) avec une prédominance masculine de 57,7%. Les co-morbidités étaient dominées par l'hypertension artérielle 30,33% des cas. L'acuité visuelle pré-opératoire était de moins de 1/20è dans 70, 7% des cas. En biométrie, la puissance moyenne était de 21,50 dioptries. L'implant posé a été adéquat dans 60%. Les principales complications per-opératoires étaient le chémosis post-anesthésie 4,67% et l'issue de vitrée moins de 2% des cas. Les complications post opératoires précoces ont été dominées par l’œdème de cornée 26,33%, et les complications tardives par la cataracte secondaire. L'astigmatisme induit était de 1, 12 dioptrie en moyenne (écart type 1,26). Sans correction, les résultats visuels étaient mauvais dans moins de 1%, limites dans 31%, et bons 68% suivants les normes de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. La phacoalternative donne des résultats satisfaisants, avec peu de complications. L'amélioration du plateau technique et la disponibilité d'implants adéquats pourraient les améliorer. PMID:26140073

  11. CONSTRAINING THE EMISSIVITY OF ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE WITH THE DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangyu; Liu Ruoyu; Aharonian, Felix

    2011-08-01

    Ultrahigh cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies {approx}> 10{sup 19} eV emitted at cosmological distances will be attenuated by cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation through photohadronic processes. Lower energy extragalactic cosmic rays ({approx}10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} eV) can only travel a linear distance smaller than {approx}Gpc in a Hubble time due to the diffusion if the extragalactic magnetic fields are as strong as nano-Gauss. These prevent us from directly observing most of the UHECRs in the universe, and thus the observed UHECR intensity reflects only the emissivity in the nearby universe within hundreds of Mpc. However, UHECRs in the distant universe, through interactions with the cosmic background photons, produce UHE electrons and gamma rays that in turn initiate electromagnetic cascades on cosmic background photons. This secondary cascade radiation forms part of the extragalactic diffuse GeV-TeV gamma-ray radiation and, unlike the original UHECRs, is observable. Motivated by new measurements of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background radiation by Fermi/Large Area Telescope, we obtained upper limit placed on the UHECR emissivity in the distant universe by requiring that the cascade radiation they produce not exceed the observed levels. By comparison with the gamma-ray emissivity of candidate UHECR sources (such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei) at high redshifts, we find that the obtained upper limit for a flat proton spectrum is {approx_equal} 10{sup 1.5} times larger than the gamma-ray emissivity in GRBs and {approx_equal} 10 times smaller than the gamma-ray emissivity in BL Lac objects. In the case of iron nuclei composition, the derived upper limit of UHECR emissivity is a factor of 3-5 times higher. Robust upper limit on the cosmogenic neutrino flux is further obtained, which is marginally reachable by the Icecube detector and the next-generation detector JEM-EUSO.

  12. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  13. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.; Kotera, Kumiko E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2013-03-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10{sup 19} eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ∼ E{sup −1}) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy E{sub max} ∼ Z 10{sup 19} eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 18} eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy.

  14. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, P.K.; Brown, S.; Hollingsworth, R.; Shen, D.S.; del Cueto, J.; Iwanicko, E.; Marshall, C.; DeHart, C.; Mentor, D.; Benson, A.; Matovich, C.; Sandwisch, J. )

    1991-04-01

    This report describes a contract to produce multijunction modules based entirely on amorphous silicon alloys, the modules having an aperture area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} and a stable, reproducible conversion efficiency of at least 6.5% after 600 hours of light exposure (air mass 1.5) at 50{degrees} C. The work focussed on (1) producing opto-electronic-grade amorphous silicon material for band gaps of about 1.7 and 1.9 eV by changing the hydrogen content in the film bonded to the silicon, (2) studying and obtaining data on the light stability of single-junction p-i-n solar cells with gaps of about 1.7 and 1.9 eV, and (3) analyzing losses in a silicon/silicon multijunction cell. We report new results on an indium tin oxide (ITO)/silver back contact and the deposition of granular tin oxide by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Progress toward module fabrication at the end of six months has been good, with the demonstration of 5.4% initial efficiency in a silicon/silicon multijunction submodule with an aperture area of 4620 cm{sup 2} and incorporating devices with 2nd-junction i-layer thicknesses of about 3500 {angstrom}. We also demonstrated a single-junction silicon submodule with an aperture area of 4620 cm{sup 2}, a thickness of about 3500 {angstrom}, and an initial efficiency of 6.5%. 4 refs., 39 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Point defect study of CuTi and CuTi sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, J.R.; Lutton, R.T.; Wesley, D.; Wharton, W.R.; Oehrli, M.L.; Herte, M.S.; Sabochick, M.J. ); Lam, N.Q. )

    1991-03-01

    The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the ordered compounds CuTi and CuTi{sub 2} were determined using atomistic simulation with realistic embedded-atom potentials. The formation energy of an antisite pair was found to be 0.385 and 0.460 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. In both compounds, the creation of a vacancy by the removal of either a Cu or Ti atom resulted in a vacant Cu site, with an adjacent antisite defect in the case of the Ti vacancy. The vacant Cu site in CuTi was found to be very mobile within two adjacent (001) Cu planes, with a migration energy of 0.19 eV, giving rise to two-dimensional migration. The vacancy migration energy across (001) Ti planes, however, was 1.32 eV, which could be lowered to 0.75 or 0.60 eV if one or two Cu antisite defects were initially present in these planes. In CuTi{sub 2}, the vacancy migration energy of 0.92 eV along the (001) Cu plane was significantly higher than in CuTi. The effective vacancy formation energies were calculated to be 1.09 eV and 0.90 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. Interstitials created by inserting either a Cu or Ti atom had complicated configurations in which a Cu {l angle}111{r angle} split interstitial was surrounded by two or three Ti antisite defects. The interstitial formation energy was estimated to be 1.7 eV in CuTi and 1.9 eV in CuTi{sub 2}.

  16. Structure-activity relationship analysis of the peptide deformylase inhibitor 5-bromo-1H-indole-3-acetohydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sylvain; Duroc, Yann; Larue, Valéry; Giglione, Carmela; Léon, Carole; Soulama, Coralie; Denis, Alexis; Dardel, Frédéric; Meinnel, Thierry; Artaud, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    The lead compound 5-bromoindolyl-3-acetohydroxamic acid (10) was recently identified as a potent inhibitor of bacterial peptide deformylases (PDFs). The synthesis and associated activities of new variants were investigated at position 5 to optimize the fit at the S1' subsite and at position 1 to improve both potency and antibacterial activity. A morphomimetic series, termed "reverse-indole" was synthesized. The indole derivatives remain selective in vitro inhibitors of PDF2 over PDF1. Bromide is the best group at position 5 and cannot be replaced by bulkier substituents. In this series, an N-benzyl group at position 1 in 19 e improves the potency relative to 10. In the case of PDF1, and unlike PDF2, potency is increased as the alkyl chain becomes longer and more ramified. These data support the results of NMR footprinting experiments that were performed with (15)N-labeled Ni-PDF and the corresponding 3-acetic acid derivatives. Most of the compounds have antibacterial activities toward B. subtilis, but are inefficient toward E. coli owing to active removal by the major efflux pumps. Among the reverse-indole derivatives, 23 c, which is the exact mirror image of 19 e, shows strong potency in vitro against PDF2, but little against PDF1, although this compound displays significant antibacterial activity toward an efflux-minus mutant of E. coli. All the compounds were assessed with major pathogenic bacteria, but most of them are inefficient antibacterial agents. The reverse-indole compounds 23 a and 23 c have potency against S. pneumoniae that is similar to that of actinonin. PMID:19053131

  17. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  18. Simulation studies of the Cl{sup -}+ CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 nucleophilic substitution reaction: Comparison with ion imaging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiaxu; Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun Rui; Hase, William L.; Mikosch, Jochen; Wester, Roland

    2013-03-21

    In the previous work of Mikosch et al.[Science 319, 183 (2008)], ion imaging experiments were used to study the Cl{sup -}+ CH{sub 3}I {yields} ClCH{sub 3}+ I{sup -} reaction at collision energies E{sub rel} of 0.39, 0.76, 1.07, and 1.9 eV. For the work reported here MP2(fc)/ECP/d direct dynamics simulations were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the experiments. There is good agreement with the experimental product energy and scattering angle distributions for the highest three E{sub rel}, and at these energies 80% or more of the reaction is direct, primarily occurring by a rebound mechanism with backward scattering. At 0.76 eV there is a small indirect component, with isotropic scattering, involving formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. All of the reaction is direct at 1.07 eV. Increasing E{sub rel} to 1.9 eV opens up a new indirect pathway, the roundabout mechanism. The product energy is primarily partitioned into relative translation for the direct reactions, but to CH{sub 3}Cl internal energy for the indirect reactions. The roundabout mechanism transfers substantial energy to CH{sub 3}Cl rotation. At E{sub rel}= 0.39 eV both the experimental product energy partitioning and scattering are statistical, suggesting the reaction is primarily indirect with formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. However, neither MP2 nor BhandH/ECP/d simulations agree with experiment and, instead, give reaction dominated by direct processes as found for the higher collision energies. Decreasing the simulation E{sub rel} to 0.20 eV results in product energy partitioning and scattering which agree with the 0.39 eV experiment. The sharp transition from a dominant direct to indirect reaction as E{sub rel} is lowered from 0.39 to 0.20 eV is striking. The lack of agreement between the simulations and experiment for E{sub rel}= 0.39 eV may result from a distribution of collision energies in the experiment and/or a shortcoming in both the MP2 and BhandH simulations. Increasing the reactant rotational temperature from 75 to 300 K for the 1.9 eV collisions, results in more rotational energy in the CH{sub 3}Cl product and a larger fraction of roundabout trajectories. Even though a ClCH{sub 3}-I{sup -} post-reaction complex is not formed and the mechanistic dynamics are not statistical, the roundabout mechanism gives product energy partitioning in approximate agreement with phase space theory.

  19. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  20. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    cells have the ability to bind various ions and may serve as nucleation centres for a variety of minerals [5, 6]. These, often amorphous precursor mineral phases can be transformed, during later diagenesis, into authigenic carbonates, feldspar and phyllosilicates, as observed in the case of both Nauga Formation and Lake Van cyanobacterial sheaths and capsules. The early massive appearance of benthic coccoid cyanobacteria, as evidenced by the mineralised mats in the Neoarchean Nauga Formation, and their ability to produce fine-grained limestones, confirms the significant role of these micro organisms in the formation of vast deposits of marine micritic limestones, as suggested also for younger geologic ages [7, 8]. References [1] Altermann, W. and Nelson, D. R. (1998) Sed. Geol. 120, 225-256. [2] Kazmierczak, J. and Altermann, W. (2002) Science 298, 2351. [3] Kempe, S. et al. (1991) Nature 394, 605-608. [4] Kazmierczak, J. and Altermann, W. (2002) 16th Intern. Sed. Congr. Abstract Vol., 191. [5] Douglas, S. and Beveridge, T. J. (1998) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 26, 79-88. [6] Barker, W. W. and Banfield, J. F. (1998) Geomicrobiol. J. 15, 223-244. [7] Kazmierczak, J. et al. (1996) Acta Palaeont. Polonica 41, 319-338. [8] Altermann, W. et al. (2006) Geobiology 4, 147- 166.

  1. Prelude and first decade, 1951-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    The initiative leading to the establishment of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) was taken in 1949 by the Stuttgart based Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung (GfW), who proposed to other astronautical societies that a conference should be arranged to establish mutual co-operation. The British Interplanetary Society (BIS) agreed to organize such a conference in London in 1951, but in the interim the Groupement Astronautique Français (GAF) arranged a preliminary meeting to set up the agenda for the London meeting and to define its objectives. Representatives from astronautical groups in seven European countries and one South American society met in Paris in October 1950. Their meetings were preceded, on 30 September, by a large public gathering organized by the GAF, in the Sorbonne and was designated the Premier Congrès International d'Astronautique, a style which was to be adopted, in its English translation, for the subsequent annual conferences of the IAF. The representatives agreed that the objective of the London conference should be to create a federation of autonomous national astronautical societies, whose main purpose would be to provide an annual forum where these societies would meet. The London conference in September 1951, held in the City of Westminster, following the Paris precedent, was designated the IInd International Astronautical Congress. Astronautical and rocket societies from the ten countries were represented and became signatories to the agreement founding the IAF on 4 September 1951. The London congress set the pattern for subsequent congresses, in particular introducing technical lecture sessions. At the IIIrd Congress, held in Stuttgart, the first under the aegis of the newly founded IAF, a constitution was agreed and a Finance Committee was elected. The Constitution established that the Federation should be registered in Switzerland and be governed by a council of voting members—one only from each country. Subsequent

  2. Syndrome métabolique chez les patients hypertendus dans le service cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouedraogo de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Yaméogo, Aristide Relwendé; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le syndrome métabolique constitue de nos jours un véritable problème de santé publique. Le syndrome métabolique est le moteur d'une double épidémie mondiale de diabète type II et de maladies cardiovasculaires. L'objectif de notre étude est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, para cliniques et évolutifs chez les hypertendus dans le service de Cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective sur une période de deux ans dans le service de cardiologie chez les patients hypertendus ayant un syndrome métabolique. Résultats La fréquence du syndrome métabolique était de 17,5% des patients hypertendus. Le sex ratio était de 1,2. L’âge moyen des patients étaient de 56,1 ±10,7 ans. Les patients connus hypertendus étaient de 92,1% avec une durée moyenne d’évolution de l'HTA qui était de 8,7 ± 5,9 ans. Le suivi était irrégulier dans 60% cas et une rupture du traitement dans 37,1% des cas. La dyslipidémie était notée dans 84,2% des cas et le diabète dans 60,5% des cas. La PAS moyenne était de 184,3 ± 47,3 mmHg et la PAD moyenne était de 110,7 ± 27,7 mmHg. L'HTA était sévère dans 63,2% des cas. La glycémie moyenne était de 8,3 ± 4,3 mmol/L, le LDL cholestérol moyen était de 3,5 ± 1,0 mmol/L et le taux des triglycérides moyen était de 1,6 ± 1,1 mmol/L. L'HVG électrique était notée chez 76,3% des patients et échographique dans 58,8% des cas. Les atteintes viscérales étaient neurologique dans 44,5%, rénale dans 55,3% et cardiaque dans 31,2% des cas. Le nombre moyen d'antihypertenseurs était de 3,0 ± 1,0 et 76,3% ont reçu au moins une trithérapie antihypertensive. Le taux de mortalité était de 5,3%. Conclusion Le syndrome métabolique est une pathologie qui pose la problématique de la définition qui n'est pas consensuelle d'une part et d'autre part du contrôle de ses éléments constitutifs surtout l'HTA. PMID:25883718

  3. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs, Krşehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünsal, N.; Afşin, M.

    1999-12-01

    The present study identifies the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs in Krşehir province, a geothermal field in central Anatolia, Turkey. Based on these properties, a hydrogeological regime is proposed in order to explain the Mahmutlu-Bağdatoğlu geothermal system. The relation between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water is similar to the relationship in global meteoric water, indicating that the water is of meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these two thermal springs belong to the same hydrogeological system. The hydrogeological system comprises a fractured limestone member of the Çevirme Formation and the Kervansaray Formation as reservoir rocks, and the Delicermak Formation as an overlying aquitard. The waters of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu springs are mainly of the Na-Cl-SO4 type that originate from the Pohrenk evaporite. The thermal waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, halite, and gypsum. The δ18O and δ2H contents indicate a δ18O shift in the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu waters. The temperature range of the two reservoirs is estimated to be 98-158 °C, on the basis of Na+K+Ca and SiO2 geothermometers. RésuméCette étude présente les caractéristiques chimiques et isotopiques des sources thermales minéralisées de Mahmutlu et de Bağdatoğlu, dans la province de Krşehir, un champ géothermal d'Anatolie centrale (Turquie). Un fonctionnement hydrogéologique est proposéà partir de ces caractéristiques, permettant d'expliquer le système géothermal de Mahmatlu-Bağdatoğlu. La relation entre les teneurs en deutérium et celles en oxygène-18 des eaux est semblable à celle des eaux météoriques mondiales, ce qui indique que l'eau est d'origine météorique. Les caractéristiques géochimiques des eaux de ces deux sources montrent qu'elles appartiennent au

  4. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    . Cette nouvelle gamme de modeles-interpolateurs imbriques qualifies d'"intelligents" fait partie de la famille des modeles dits "pilotes". L'hypothese directrice de notre etude est fondee sur la supposition que le climat de fine echelle est souvent gouverne par des forcages provenant de la surface plutot que par des transports atmospheriques de grande echelle spatiale. La technique que nous proposons vise donc a guider FIZR par la Dynamique echantillonnee d'un MCG et de la forcer par la Physique du MCG ainsi que par un forcage orographique de meso-echelle, en chacun des noeuds de la grille fine de calculs. Afin de valider la robustesse et la justesse de notre modele climatique regional, nous avons choisi la region de la Cote Ouest du continent nord americain. Elle est notamment caracterisee par une distribution geographique des precipitations et des temperatures fortement influencee par le relief sous-jacent. Les resultats d'une simulation d'un mois de janvier avec FIZR demontrent que nous pouvons simuler des champs de precipitations et de temperatures au niveau de l'abri beaucoup plus pres des observations climatiques comparativement a ceux simules a partir d'un MCG. Ces performances sont manifestement attribuees au forcage orographique de meso-echelle de meme qu'aux caracteristiques de surface determinees a fine echelle. Un modele similaire a FIZR peut, en principe, etre implante sur l'importe quel MCG, donc, tout organisme de recherche implique en modelisation numerique mondiale de grande echelle pourra se doter d'un el outil de regionalisation.

  5. Evaluation de la tenue du partogramme dans une maternité universitaire

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Manel; Zedini, Chekib; El Ghardallou, Meriem; Mellouli, Menel; Bougmiza, Iheb; Sahli, Jihène; Khairi, Hédi; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya Nabli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité maternelle est un problème majeur de santé mondiale. Une grande proportion de ces décès serait évitable par des soins adéquats, une aide à l'accouchement, la disponibilité des soins d'urgence et l'utilisation des outils d'aide à la décision tels que le partogramme. L'objectif était d’évaluer l’écart entre ce qui est censé être fait et ce qui est fait réellement pour les différents paramètres situés dans le partogramme au sein d'une maternité de 3ème niveau et élaborer des recommandations pour la mise en place d'un plan d'action. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective par audit clinique, effectuée sur un échantillon de 400 dossiers obstétricaux des parturientes ayant accouchées dans la maternité du CHU Farhat Hached durant l'année 2011. Le référentiel utilisé est celui réalisé par l'Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé en l'an 2000, concernant la qualité de la tenue du partogramme. Résultats La majorité des critères d’évaluation portant sur la présentation du partogramme était conforme. Deux critères concernant la variété de la présentation et le rythme cardiaque fœtal étaient non conformes parmi ceux portant sur la surveillance du fœtus. Plusieurs critères en rapport avec la surveillance de la mère étaient non conformes. Aucun des critères portant sur les traitements administrés et les marqueurs d’évènements n'est conforme. Les critères portant sur la naissance et la surveillance immédiate qui étaient non conformes sont: le début des efforts expulsifs, le mode d'accouchement, l’état du périnée, la délivrance et la révision utérine. Conclusion La véritable démarche de l'audit clinique se doit d'aller au-delà du recueil et de l'analyse des données, le but final étant l'amélioration des pratiques. PMID:26516400

  6. Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l

  7. Une étude rétrospective sur l'incidence de l'insuffisance rénale chronique dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale chronique est un problème de santé publique au niveau mondial. Dans les pays développés, cette affection survient essentiellement chez les sujets âgés, mais en Afrique, elle s'installe plutôt chez les sujets jeunes actifs. C'est une affection de lourde prise en charge dans un pays à faible revenu à cause de ses coûts. Notre but est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des nouveaux cas d'insuffisance rénale chronique à Madagascar. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de 3 ans partant du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2009 dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo portant sur 239 patients diagnostiqués comme une insuffisance rénale chronique. L'incidence était de 8,51% parmi les patients hospitalisés dans le service. L’âge moyen des patients était de 45,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 et 82 ans et un sex-ratio de 1,46. Le principal antécédent était l'hypertension artérielle (59,8%). L'insuffisance rénale chronique était terminale dans 75,31% des cas (n=180). Les causes de l'insuffisance rénale chronique étaient dominées par la glomérulonéphrite chronique (40,1%), la néphroangiosclérose (35,5%). L'hémodialyse était réalisée chez 3 patients (1,26%), aucun patient n’était pas programmé pour une greffe rénale. Le taux de mortalité dans le service était de 28,87%. L'insuffisance rénale chronique est une maladie de pronostic redoutable et handicapante qui affecte les sujets jeunes à Madagascar. Son traitement reste inaccessible dans la majorité des patients. L'accent doit donc être mis principalement sur la prévention notamment une bonne prise en charge précoce des infections, de l'hypertension artérielle et du diabète pour réduire ses impacts négatifs sur la santé communautaire et publique. Le projet de la transplantation rénale - donneur vivant, traitement efficace et moins coûteux par rapport à l

  8. Epidémiologie du cancer gastrique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    PubMed Central

    Mellouki, Ihsane; laazar, Nawal; Benyachou, Bahija; Aqodad, Nouredine; Ibrahimi, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Le cancer de l'estomac est représenté essentiellement par Les adénocarcinomes gastriques, ces derniers demeurent l'une des dix premières causes mondiales de mortalité avec un pronostic qui est péjoratif. Son incidence reste variable à travers le monde, elle est caractérisée par une importante disparité géographique. Le but de notre travail est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'adénocarcinome gastrique dans notre contexte à travers une étude rétrospective, observationnelle étalée sur une période de 10 ans (Janvier 2001- Janvier 2011), incluant tous les malades admis au service d'hépato-gastroentérologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès pour prise en charge d'un adénocarcinome gastrique. Durant cette période, 343 patients étaient admis pour prise en charge d'une tumeur gastrique, dont 170 patients avaient un adénocarcinome gastrique (49.5%). L’âge moyen de ces patients était de 58±13.4 ans [16 ans-0 ans]. Dans 43.7% des cas, les patients provenaient de la région de Fès, souvent du milieu rurale. On note une nette prédominance masculine, avec une différence significative entre les 2 sexes (p < ;0.05). Les patients âgés de moins de 60ans représentaient la tranche d’âge prédominante (63%) par rapports aux patients âgés de plus de 60ans (p = 0.02). 61% des patients consultaient dans un délai allant de 1 mois à 6 mois, 30.4% des patients étaient tabagiques, ce facteur avait une relation statistiquement significative avec l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.02). la non consommation de l'alcool est inversement liée et de façon significative à l'apparition de l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.03) dans notre contexte. L'infection par Hélicobacter pylori n’était mentionnée que chez peu de malades. Les formes métastatiques au moment du diagnostic dépassaient 50% avec un taux de décès au cours de l'hospitalisation de 2.6%. Sur le plan endoscopique, la localisation antropylorique, et la forme ulc

  9. Correlation between I (current)-V (voltage) characteristics and thermally stimulated depolarization current of Mn-doped BaTiO3 multilayer ceramic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Doo-Young

    2013-08-01

    I (Current)-V (voltage) characteristics of Mn-doped BaTiO3 multilayer ceramic capacitor were investigated. The increase of Mn concentration reduced the slope of current increase with increasing dc field and enhanced the dc field to the abrupt increase of current and thereby breakdown. Ohmic, Schottky, and Poole-Frenkel type conduction was successively observed with the increase of dc field in all specimens. The region of Child's law did not appear before breakdown, which suggests space charge limited (SCL) conduction with field enhanced trap barrier lowering. A peak of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) beyond 300 °C associated with trapped space charges appeared, which increased by the increase of Mn concentration. In addition, the peak intensity increased to a maximum value and then decreased again with increasing polarization dc field in TSDC measurement. Its activation energies were around 1.9 eV for all specimens, which is very close to the energy level for the ionization of Mn3+/Mn2+. These results experimentally demonstrate the role of the variable valence acceptor Mn as trapping center for injected charges, and the occurrence of field enhanced trap charge release, and therefore, the conduction mechanism can be described by the SCL model incorporating the Poole-Frenkel effect.

  10. Magnetoresistance in Boron Carbide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Ellen; Sokolov, A.; Baruth, A.; Robertson, B. W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of thin insulator layers are crucial to the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions. Commercial requirements are a device with a high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) with low cost and high stability. At present the vast majority of barriers are made from amorphous Al2O3 and crystalline MgO. The TMR value depends not only on the spin-dependent electronic structure of the electrodes, but on the metal-insulator interface. Oxide-type barriers may suffer from local vacancies and other type of defects, resulting in oxygen diffusion, making the TMR value unstable with time. We present TMR results obtained on a non-oxide barrier, boron carbide (B10C2) for applications in magnetic tunnel junctions. This low Z inorganic material can be grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) without pinholes in the ultra thin film regime. PECVD grown boron carbide is an excellent dielectric with resistivities in the range of 10^7 ohm-cm, with a band gap that can be adjusted from 0.7 eV to 1.9 eV by altering the boron to carbon ratio and to band gap values well above 2.7 eV by adding phosphorus. This creates a unique opportunity for experimental study of a broad spectrum of phenomena, related to the dielectric properties of the barrier.