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Sample records for 19th century novels

  1. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  2. [Naturalism, novel and society in 19th-20th century transition in Spain.].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity. PMID:21305794

  3. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  4. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  5. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  6. Vocational Education in the 19th Century American Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F.

    The phrase "all things useful and all things ornamental," coined by Benjamin Franklin, describes the stated mission of most of the approximately 6,000 educational academies flourishing in America in the mid-19th century. Built upon the roots of Latin grammar schools, the academies evolved to include courses in many areas, from classical studies to…

  7. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  8. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Costa, Jean Newton Lima; Vilela, Ana Caroline Marques; Nóbrega, Magno da

    2014-07-01

    The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a) correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b) understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c) its relation with human ageing; and d) the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept. PMID:25054992

  9. [Strength training at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Seignan, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century, the therapies of strength had part task to revive vital energy and thus to restore the body forces. Under the method assigned with this objective, there were the baths, body exercises and a continuation of preservation recommended by hygiene. On a general level, the doctor had in hearth to harder the body and to make it robust and healthy. He is to the sick of the head could benefit from this care. Electrification made demonstration of its curative action and its interest to treat the languid state. Considered under this angle, strength could not be then the prerogative of the only muscles. PMID:26050431

  10. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  11. [Suicide and cultural criticism in 19th century Spanish medicine].

    PubMed

    Plumed Domingo, José Javier; Novella, Enric J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the major role of suicide in the cultural criticism deployed by 19th century Spanish doctors by analysing the most important theoretical models that inspired their contributions to its aetiology. In the first half of the century, the most commonly debated causal factor was the passions, which were thought to stand in a permanent tension with a free, reflexive and conscious self, in accordance with the spiritualist doctrine that was then dominant. In the context of a growing somatisation of moral and intellectual phenomena, the notion of suicide as an act of free will was later modified, and it became considered the consequence of certain organic disturbances. However, this process did not alter the central role of suicidal behaviour within 19th-century cultural criticism, because the advent of degeneration theory meant that doctors finally had a doctrine that allowed them to combine biological determinism with the extended perception of a moral and social crisis threatening the stability and achievements of bourgeois society. PMID:26012336

  12. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  13. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  14. [The disease called "Barbiers" in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B A; Aubry, P

    2014-01-01

    Described by French, English, and Dutch physicians, the disease known as Barbiers struck the island of Reunion in 1805, 1821, 1838 and 1847. It also ravaged India and other parts of the world during the 19(th) century. The origin of the name Barbiers nonetheless remains unknown. Because no diagnostic tests existed at the time, Barbiers has been thought to refer to several clinical entities, and has been the topic of passionate debates among French doctors, including Auguste Vinson and Le Roy De Méricourt, as well as among their British colleagues. This article reviews its history and tries to understand its true nature in 2014, but cannot reach a firm conclusion. PMID:25295833

  15. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  16. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop. PMID:27146124

  17. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  18. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  19. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  20. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  1. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn's Context in the 19(th) Century.

    PubMed

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By the late 19(th) Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology - all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn's Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive "index of nature" was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  2. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397920

  3. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work. PMID:20467024

  4. [Earth magnetism research in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Wiederkehr, K H

    2000-01-01

    Even before the discovery of the electromagnetism by Oersted, and before Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A. v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. With the help of the "Göttinger Magnetische Verein", a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss game into existence. Even today, Gauss' theory of the geomagnetism is one of the pillars for geomagnetical research work. Thereafter, J. v. Lamont, Prof. in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the forties, James Clarke Ross advanced to the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to gather solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonical observatories. In the eighties, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. The geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the "Deutsche Seewarte" in Hamburg, had been one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He had a close cooperation with the newly founded "Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium" in Wilhelmshaven, and he also managed to gain the collaboration of the "Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus" in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in a German observatory in Wilhelmshaven. Here M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meterological-Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, gained special merit. The treatise considers preceding hypotheses of geomagnetism as well as the palaeomagnetic studies. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are briefly treated. They represent one of the keystones for the modern

  5. The Historical Roots Of Exobiology In The 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coliolo, F.

    2003-04-01

    Scientific studies on the air's microorganisms started in France with Gaultier de Claubry, who declared during a conference at Academy of Science: "The atmosphere carries spores and germs that can develop themselves in contact with water; this does not exclude the possibility to carry these substances by spring water and hot springs" (de Claubry G., Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, t. XLI, p.645). These researches were improved by Pasteur, and have constituted the basis of Panspermy's theory. In the mid 19th century, several events, particularly by the second epidemy of cholera that attacked Europe in 1847 and 1848, attracted the interest of researchers involved in the study of atmosphere's microbes. Here-below are names of some important scientists of the past: - Antony Van Leeuwenhoeck, a Dutch microbiologist, who found some infusorians in the rain water - Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, a German biologist, who showed that atmospheric dust inside homes and hospitals are full cryptogamic seeds that he himself found on Altai, Alps crest and in other places - Dundas Thompson, an English doctor, who performed the analysis of the air contained in five environments, out of which: 1) three in hospital rooms hosting different proportions of persons infected by cholera 2) one in the open air 3) one in the dramage In this contribution, we will consider through the work of French scientist Miquel, "La Terre avant l'Histoire", several studies about the existence of many "nits" and germs in the air. The question is: Taking in account the scientific knowledge and available technologies at that time, can we consider these "ancient researches" as an anticipation of modern exobiology experiments on the bacterial spores?

  6. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  7. Reading for Moral Progress: 19th Century Institutions Promoting Social Change. Occasional Papers No. 207.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; And Others

    The three papers in this document examine the motives behind the collecting and loaning of publications in the 19th century. They describe the effects of three discrete movements designed to assist religious, military, and academic endeavors. The first paper, "Bread Upon the Waters: The Printed Word in Sunday Schools in 19th Century England and…

  8. 4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON RIGHT. 20TH CENTURY ELECTRIC LIFT LOCKS ON LEFT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  9. 41. VIEW WEST OF 19TH CENTURY RESERVOIR ALONG RIGHT SHOULDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW WEST OF 19TH CENTURY RESERVOIR ALONG RIGHT SHOULDER OF DAMIEN ROAD, USED FOR KALAWAO SETTLEMENT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  10. 39. PHOTOCOPY OF CA. MID19TH CENTURY PORTRAIT TITLED ON BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. PHOTOCOPY OF CA. MID-19TH CENTURY PORTRAIT TITLED ON BACK 'HAMILTON SMITH,' FROM COLLECTION OF OTIS SAALMAN, TELL CITY, IND. - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  11. 10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). EAST FACADE AND ORIGINAL LANDSCAPING - Pennsylvania Hospital for Mental & Nervous Diseases, Forty-fourth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  13. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-12-01

    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842

  14. Timeliness: Interpretations from a Sample of 19th Century Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes a sample of nineteenth-century newspapers and argues that timeliness varied in value according to the origin of news such that technological improvements alone did not explain the decrease in time lag in news reporting. (FL)

  15. Apparatus for Natural Philosophy; 19th Century Wave Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the nineteenth century wave machines which can be found in the Smithsonian Institution, at Kenyon, and other colleges. Included is information about the apparatus, queries, and descriptions of different wave machines and how they work. Information included may inspire the reader with similar apparatus to repair it and use it again.…

  16. 19th century auroral observations reveal solar activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Growing interest in the aurora in the early part of the eighteenth century, which resulted from the spectacular reappearance of the aurora in 1707 and 1716, followed a relative scarcity of great auroras during the Maunder minimum, a period of prolonged reduced solar activity from about 1645-1715. Observations in the early eighteenth century led to questions about the geographical extent, nature, and temporal variability of the auroras. Typically, such observations were included as part of recorded meteorological notations, though occasionally early astronomers, such as Tycho Brahe in the 1590s, included auroras in their observations. Meteorological observations were important because of the effects of weather and climate on agriculture, and, according to the belief at the time, on disease.

  17. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  18. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  19. One of the origins of modernity and naturalism of French literature in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Na-Mi

    2013-04-01

    Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard was not exclusively against vitalism, but the dogmatic misuse of vitalism. His objective thinking could be a useful model for the authors, who considered science to be an origin of modernity in literature of naturalism. Especially, Emile Zola was strongly influenced by Bernard's "An introduction to the study of Experimental medicine" and published "Experimental novel," a manifesto of naturalism. Although Bernard's experimental methodology and determinism deeply influenced modern European culture, the relationship between his Experimental medicine and modernism have not been fully investigated yet. His experimental medicine also needs to be discussed from the ecological viewpoints. His anthropo-centrism was unique since he emphasized any human theory could not surpass the principle of nature. Conventional anthropo-centrism claims that human beings are superior enough to own and govern the nature. And Bernard's the necessary determinism contains the ecological principle that all life forms and inanimate objects are organically related and intertwined to each other, irrespectively of their usefulness for the human beings. Although there were some ethical debates related to his medical experiments on living bodies of animal, his strict principle to perform experiments only after animal or human body died was worth considering as an effort to sustain ecological viewpoints. He was also unique in terms of being realistic and candid about his situation which was limited by the 19th century's scientific and medical development. In conclusion, the significance of convergence of literature and medical science

  20. An Analysis of Environmental Issues in 19th Century England Using the Writings of Charles Dickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens lived during the best and worst of times in 19th century England. His writings were greatly influenced by the ongoing industrial revolution. He described abhorrent environmental conditions, inadequate sanitary practices, child abuse, and other social maladies of the times. By bringing Charles Dickens into the biology classroom,…

  1. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. The Romantic Rhetoric of 19th Century Obituaries: "She Gave a Few Faint Gasps and Died."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Eleanor

    Scholars of writing, language, and culture will find a rich fund of research material in 19th-century obituaries which convey extensive details of the deceased's life through an elegant language reminiscent of an oral culture. In contrast to today's newspaper obituaries, which are business-like, tight-lipped, and entirely devoid of any details or…

  3. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  4. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  5. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  6. The Development of the Progressive in 19th Century English: A Quantitative Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaud, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Expansion of the progressive (be+ing periphrastic form, where "be" is at the same time the copula and a statement of existence) was a major feature of modernization of the English verb system in the 19th century. A survey (1787-1880) of a collection of private letters, most from famous writers, reveals that linguistic factors played a small role…

  7. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century. (CMK)

  8. 10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. Original Photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF899 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  9. 12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF854 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  10. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  11. The Rise of Age Homogamy in 19th Century Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Putte, Bart; Van Poppel, Frans; Vanassche, Sofie; Sanchez, Maria; Jidkova, Svetlana; Eeckhaut, Mieke; Oris, Michel; Matthijs, Koen

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a "classic" response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching interpretation is that the erosion of the EMP was…

  12. [From the history of the 19th century pathology. Pathological anatomy and pathology in the first half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Stochik, A M; Pal'tsev, M A; Zatravkin, S N; Stochik, A A

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the first half of the 19th century collective notions on disease as the event that is alien to the human body (which is embodied as a living being), which occurs and develops in accordance with its own laws differing from the laws of human vital functions; on the causes and essence of diseases and the methods of their study. It also shows a place of human pathology in the structure of medical knowledge of that time and its role in the investigation of diseases. PMID:19938694

  13. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope. PMID:23183195

  14. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  15. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum. PMID:22611911

  16. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  17. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). The books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panayotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    During the 19th century a number of elementary and high schools were established for the need of the Greek community of Istanbul. Among the courses included in the curricula were those concerning the scientific study of Nature like Botany, Chemistry and Physics. In the present study we attempt to give a thorough description of the educational material used in these schools for the study of natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. Especially we shall discuss the books used as course books as well as their probable sources. Furthermore we shall try to make a comparison with the relevant situation in the Greek state and the Ottoman Empire, where modern physics had been already introduced through textbooks based on Ganot's treatise on Physics. The results of our research will give for the first time a picture of the way Greek students in the 19th century Istanbul received their basic knowledge about Physics.

  18. Visual hallucinations in the 19th century: research in a medical archive.

    PubMed

    di Diodoro, D; Bruschi, C; Esposito, W; Ferrari, G

    1998-11-01

    The authors have gathered and analyzed the visual hallucinations described in the mid- to late-19th century from archived medical records of the former psychiatric hospital "Osservanza" in Imola, northern Italy. Though the investigation was not intended as a statistical survey, the principal aim being to classify the hallucinations according to their outward characteristics, the authors have tried to locate the possible sources of these phenomena in folklore and religious iconography. PMID:9824175

  19. Sand Dust Weather in Beijing from the Late 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue Zhen; Fang, Xiuqi

    Based on an ancient Chinese diary named Weng Tonghe Diary written in the late Qing Dynasty, daily weather entries were extracted, excluding the months with more than 4 absent recording days. From the data, monthly sand dust days (SDD) and monthly colder days from 1860 to 1898 are reconstructed. Then, based on the records of complementary rainfall/sunshine days, monthly rainfall/snowfall days are reconstructed. The results reveal that sand dust weather of the later half of the 19th century is more frequent than the mid-1980s, and especially the 1990s. The monthly distribution of the past differs to the recent several decades. The spring contribution to the total frequency during the later 19th century and during the years 1961-2000 is 70 and 60%, respectively. The spring SDD is significantly correlated with local meteorological conditions during the later 19th century. However, based on the present data, it would be difficult to attribute a dynamical mechanism as the prime meteorological factor responsible for the sand dust frequency distribution.

  20. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity. PMID:23573214

  1. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  2. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives. PMID:25632775

  3. Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Selection in an Autochthonous Siberian Population from the 16th-19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N.; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16th–19th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. PMID:24587092

  4. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  5. 19th-century academic examinations for physicians in the United States Army Medical Department.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, A P

    1994-01-01

    During the latter half of the 19th century, the United States Army commissioned medical officers or hired civilian physicians to serve its troops. The civilian physician signed a contract for services, and the candidate for a commission was subjected to rigorous examinations before becoming an officer. The rigorous testing of prospective medical officers was necessary because of the lack of standardization in the education of physicians. Examples of the test, statistics, and individual records show how the Army dealt with unqualified candidates. Images PMID:8048241

  6. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  7. Extending the African instrumental record to the early 19th century

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes progress toward the production of a data set that extends the African climate record back to the beginning of the 19th century. Qualitative documentary evidence, lake-level fluctuations and other proxy indicators are combined with historical rainfall records to produce regional time series. The data set has relatively high temporal and spatial resolution. The conceptualization is based on a climatic regionalization produced using modern data and an anomaly method in previous historical reconstructions. The data set provides information for some 100 regions with a 1 to 5 year resolution for most of the nineteenth century. Three to five quantitative classes of rainfall are utilized in the data set. Here, the available information to produce this record is summarized. The methodology utilized to combine proxy data and observations to produce a quantitative rainfall data set is described. This historical data set is compared with actual rainfall records for select regions where both are available. This comparison indicates the reliability of the proxy African data set. An analysis of the historical record indicates that the main characteristics of rainfall variability evident in the modern African record are also apparent in the 19th century record. 5 figs.

  8. Samuel Wilmot, fish culture, and recreational fisheries in late 19th century Ontario.

    PubMed

    Knight, William

    2007-01-01

    Historians have shown that fish culturists and anglers enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship in 19th century North America. Sharing interests in producing and protecting fish for recreation, the two groups supported emerging regimes of fisheries administration and fish culture that privileged angling and game fish species. In Ontario, it has been argued that anglers achieved control of inland fisheries with help from state fish culturist Samuel Wilmot who, as a sportsman, shared anglers' recreational perspective. A closer look at Wilmot and fish culture in late 19th century Ontario, however, reveals a more complex struggle over recreational fisheries administration. I show that game fish culture under Wilmot was subordinated to fish culture programs that supported the Great Lakes commercial fisheries. Indeed, Wilmot resisted anglers' reframing of Ontario's fisheries as a private recreational resource. By the 1890s, however, this position was unpopular with Ontario's anglers and government officials, who demanded greater provincial control over recreational fisheries and fish culture. It was only after Wilmot's retirement in 1895 that game fish culture received higher priority in Ontario with both federal and provincial governments engaging in programs of wild bass transfers. In 1899, Ontario won a share of fisheries jurisdiction and established its first provincial fisheries administration, which laid the basis for more comprehensive programs of game fish culture in the 20th century. PMID:19227681

  9. Classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review citation classics of 19th-century members of the American Neurological Association (ANA), and to elaborate what these works contributed and why they continue to be important. Most classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists were initial or early descriptions of clinical conditions, diseases, or procedures. These include descriptions by Beard of the Jumping Frenchmen of Maine; by Sachs of "amaurotic family idiocy" (Tay-Sachs disease); by Hun of the lateral medullary syndrome; by Mitchell of phantom limbs; and by Dana of familial tremor. Few of these were the initial description, although most were clear and fairly complete by modern standards. Several citation classics were cited mainly as a point of comparison with later events or developments, including those by Corning on spinal anesthesia, Bartholow on electrical stimulation of the brain, Mitchell on the status of American psychiatry, and Starr on childhood brain tumors. The reports of Corning, Bartholow, and Mitchell have been the subjects of continued controversy. The only examples of basic neuroscience among the citation classics are the classic studies by Onuf and Collins involving ablation of portions of the sympathetic chain in cats, and Onuf's description of the nucleus of Onuf in the human spinal cord. Onuf's basic science work was made possible by a unique and short-lived multidisciplinary research environment created at the New York State Pathological Institute for the scientific investigation of insanity and neurologic diseases. PMID:12122807

  10. Causes for the late 19th century European floods, as simulated in ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichet, A.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Schär, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 19th century, an unusual large number of floods were recorded in central Europe, causing important damages. Different factors contributing to the occurrence of these floods have been discussed, including the anomalously high precipitation anomalies observed in central Europe. Based on the frequency and spatial pattern of these floods, previous studies suggest that changes in the large scale circulation payed a relevant role. We use an atmospheric Global Circulation Model forced with observed SSTs to test this hypothesis and identify causes for the associated atmospheric circulation pattern. We find that the reproducibility of the central European high precipitation in the late 19th century is not deterministic but probabilistic. We also show that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs, as opposed to climatological ones, increase the probability for high precipitation anomalies in central Europe, whereas transient aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations have almost no impact. Finally, our results suggest that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs enhanced central European precipitation via their impact on the atmospheric circulation, by increasing the probability to develop pressure patterns favorable for high precipitation in central Europe (namely, a low pressure system over the British Isles and a high pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean).

  11. Reconstructions of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John

    2016-04-01

    Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface temperature change. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface temperature data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale temperature patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of temperature field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete temperature fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of temperatures in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric changes throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface Temperature Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface temperature data set.

  12. Reconciling reconstructed and simulated features of the winter Pacific-North-American pattern in the early 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Lehner, F.; Ortega, P.; Raible, C. C.; Swingedouw, D.

    2014-11-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. Here, we illustrate the contrast between an interdecadal strong positive phase of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century that is described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree-rings from northwestern North America, and a slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies during the same period in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. Additionally, a pseudo-proxy investigation with the same simulation ensemble allows assessing the robustness of PNA reconstructions using solely geophysical predictors from northwestern North America for the last millennium. The reconstructed early-19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although it is subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and potential deficiencies. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early-19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early-19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, hence unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations. However, firm attribution of the reconstructed PNA anomaly is hampered by known limitations and deficiencies of coupled climate models and uncertainties in the early-19th-century external forcing and background climate conditions.

  13. Lockyer's "Astronomy" among Serbs in the second half of the 19th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninković, S.

    1997-08-01

    The dynamical development of astronomy in the second half of 19th century has also found its adequate response among Serbs. As a good example may serve, in the opinion of the present authors, the translation of "Astronomy" by N. Lockyer into Serbian (the book was printed in 1880 in Novi Sad). The translator was Djordje Natošević who translated not the English original, but the German translation. The authors find Natošević an interesting personality. A physician by education he devoted the best part of his life to pedagogy and to enhancing the educational level in Serbian primary and secondary schools in Austria-Hungary of those days. He spent some time also in Serbia. It was then that he translated from German the textbook "Astronomy" by Lockyer, popular in those days.

  14. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  15. Myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia during the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J; Remler, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Zinc-induced myeloneuropathy was recently (re)discovered and its pathophysiology elaborated as resulting from secondary copper deficiency. However, myelopathy was a recognized problem among European zinc-smelter workers in the late 19th century, although these early reports have been overlooked in recent studies and reports. The purpose of this article is to translate and review German-language reports of myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia (now southern Poland) by Schlockow from the 1870s. Disease manifestations among zinc-smelter workers developed after sustained zinc exposure over many years. The earliest symptoms were sensory and included paresthesias, dysesthesias, allodynia, and formication in the lower extremities, particularly the feet. Workers ultimately developed a clinical picture resembling subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with a spastic-ataxic gait with prominent proprioceptive impairment, sensory disequilibrium, and rombergism. PMID:24688096

  16. [The art of improvising. The practice of medico-legal autopsies in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Menenteau, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Murder is perpetrated, suicide is committed and lethal accidents happen everywhere, even in the heart of the French country. In the 19th century, law often appealed to the lights of experts. During criminal investigation, improvisation and men's adaptation were important, although forensic autopsy was official and necessary. Sometimes the magistrates appealed to young people, not used to that kind of reports, who could only remind some bits of the forensic courses they had followed when they were students. As for the specialists, the circumstances often led them to examine--as Baudelaire would say--the "decaying carcass," in a dark and suffocating ruined house, on the kitchen table, and with a simple scapel. PMID:23038869

  17. [Biased objectivity--images of women in 19th century German neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Schröter, A; Riha, O; Steinberg, H

    2012-09-01

    At the beginning of the 19 (th) century German scholars wanted to differentiate men and women on the basis of anatomic brain or cerebrum particularities. With the help of scientific criteria such as the weight of the brain they aimed not only to prove pre-postulated intellectual differences, but also to find scientific justification for the inferiority of women in general and their inferior position and treatment in society. This paper presents insights into and excerpts from studies written by renowned scientists such as S. T. von Soemmerring, J. F. Ackermann, K. F. Burdach, F. Tiedemann, E. Huschke, H. Schaaffhausen, or P. J. Möbius. Covering the years from 1780 to 1900, these materials show how at the beginning the interest was primarily in comparative anatomic studies and results, but was soon mingled with sociological intentions. Hence this study gives insights into the history of modern gender studies of neurosciences. PMID:22173968

  18. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  19. Height of female Americans in the 19th century and the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-03-01

    Using 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological standard of living of comparable US African-American and white females during a period of relatively rapid economic development. White females were consistently taller than black females by about 1.5 cm (0.6 in.). Whites from Great Lakes and Plains states and black Southwestern females were the tallest. US females were tall compared to their European counterparts. The height of females began to decline in the antebellum period, possibly before that of males. The recovery of physical stature was also earlier among females than among males. This implies that the biological standard of lower-class men and women did not move in parallel during the onset of modern economic growth. It also implies that the antebellum puzzle was most likely rooted in the endogenous forces of socio-economic change rather than the exogenous changes in the disease environment. PMID:21276759

  20. [Pharmacies in Rzeszów (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Swieboda, J

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation is available thanks to many years investigation into the development of education and the history of the church in Galicia and the surrounding region. On the basis of gathered record materials and works concerning medical care, the author presents a history of drug stores in Rzezów in 17th-19th centuries. First, he deals with a pharmacy run by the Pijar monks in the years 1670-1697. There is a unique polychromy in it showing the different way of treating sick patients in the years 1695-1697. Next, he depicts the development of pharmacies according to Austrian law, when southern Poland came under the rule of the Habsburg family between 1772-1918. The lot of all pharmacies, the role of their owners, illustrious pharmacists, Polish - Austrian marriages among pharmacists, their connections with doctors and their position in society during this period are also described. PMID:11770491

  1. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement.

    PubMed

    Norton, W

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  2. [Presentation of pyoderma gangraenosum in a dermatologic atlas of the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kuner, N; Hartschuh, W

    2000-07-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum was first described in 1930 by Brunsting, Goeckermann and O'Leary. Nevertheless we found some illustrations in an atlas on dermatology, published by Marie-Nicolas Devergie in the first half of the 19th century, which appear to be pyoderma gangrenosum. In addition to discussions of typical syphilitic affections of the skin, Devergie's "Clinique de la Maladie Syphilitique" includes illustrations of gangrenous ulcers, which appeared unexpectedly after local and systemic therapy with mercury. Devergie interpreted those enlarging ulcers as a side effect of mercury therapy. Thus we were able to find evidence of pyoderma gangrenosum more than 100 years before first description in 1930. The etiology of this clinical picture is still unsettled. The favorite postulate has been a bacterial genesis which was the subject of numerous publications until the 1960s. PMID:10969411

  3. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th-20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Timothy J; Bray, Bernice E

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents 5-yearly data on the height of young adult men in 15 Western European countries for birth cohorts from the middle of the 19th to the end of the 20th century. The results indicate that from the 1870s to the 1970s average height increased by around 11 cm, or more than 1cm per decade. The main finding is that for the northern and middle European groups of countries the gains in height were most rapid in the period 1911-15 to 1951-55, a period that embraced two World Wars and the Great Depression but also witnessed advances in public health and hygiene. For the southern countries growth was fastest in the period 1951-55 to 1976-80. These findings suggest that advances in height were determined not only by income and living standards but also by a variety of other socioeconomic trends. PMID:20399715

  4. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    PubMed Central

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  5. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored. PMID:22047479

  6. [Infant mortality and births in the 19th and early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E

    2008-12-20

    During the 19th century infant mortality was very high in the Netherlands, particularly in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland (up to 300 per 1000 live births and more), and also in parts of North Brabant and Limburg. In the northern provinces (Drenthe, Groningen and Friesland) mortality was lower. Where breast-feeding was infrequently given (in rural areas of South Holland, Zeeland and from the 1850s also in North Brabant), infant mortality was relatively high. In the northern provinces many mothers breast-fed their infants. The fertility rate of married women was high, especially in those parts of the country where breast-feeding was infrequent. From 1875-1880 fertility rate and infant mortality decreased: the so-called demographic transition. Improved social conditions and employment opportunities played an important role in this as did the vertical social mobility: limitation of the size of families gave children opportunities to climb the social ladder. PMID:19177920

  7. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  8. The Case for Consolidation: Our 19th-Century Model of Governance Is a Formula for Mediocrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul

    2004-01-01

    We need fewer public libraries with greater dependence. Here at the beginning of the 21st century, public libraries are still saddled with a 19th-century model of government. They are far too beholden to governing authorities, usually municipal or county governments, for their financial sustenance. This is a formula for mediocrity. "Local control"…

  9. Founding of Compulsory Civil Education According to the Education Acts from Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Records of education in Croatia occur very soon after the settlement of Croats in this area. It is tied to 9th century and Duke Trpimir. Initial steps of education were not legally bounded nor the school was obligatory. In the second half of the 19th century, more precisely in 1871, with the First Education Act education becomes obligatory. Using…

  10. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  11. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  12. [Masters of obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina in the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Berić, B M

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews data about masters of obstetrics, physicians and surgeons nonphysicians, who worked in Vojvodina from the second half of the 18th till the beginning of the 20th century. They used to be the professional and time bridge as well as extremely important developmental link of continuity between the obstetrics of untrained and subsequently educated midwives and physicians gyneco--surgeons, later specialists gynecologists--obstetricians all as a part of integral discipline of gynecology and obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina. The existence of about 30 masters of obstetrics in the area of today's Vojvodina from the 18th to the 20th century, educated at medical faculties of Vienna, Budapest and Graz, points to the fact that obstetrics and gynecology in our regions in the 18th and especially 19th and 20th centuries, used to have similar, and somewhere identical trends and directions of development, like the obstetrics and gynecology of Central Europe of that time and that it used to be, just like it is today, a part of European gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:7739446

  13. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  14. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  15. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  16. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    PubMed

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character. PMID:17093651

  17. Placebos in 19th century medicine: a quantitative analysis of the BMJ

    PubMed Central

    Raicek, Jacqueline E; Stone, Bradley H

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide the first quantitative data on the use of the term “placebo” in the 19th century. Design Computer search of BMJ’s archival database from January 1840 (the first issue) through December 1899 for uses of the words “placebo(s).” Grounded theory was used to categorise the implications of uses of the term. Results 71 citations contained the term “placebo(s).” Of these, 22 (31%) used the term to mean “no effect” or as a general pejorative term, 18 (25%) portrayed placebo treatment as permitting the unfolding of the natural history (the normal waxing and waning of illness), 14 (20%) described placebo as important to satisfy patients, 7 (10%) described it as fulfilling a physician’s performance role, 3 (4%) described its use to buy time, 3 (4%) described its use for financial gain, 2 (3%) used it in a manner similar to a placebo control, and only one implied that placebo could have a clinical effect. Only one citation mentioned telling the patient about his placebo treatment. Conclusion Nineteenth century physicians had diverse a priori assumptions about placebos. These findings remind us that contemporary medicine needs to use rigorous science to separate fact from its own beliefs concerning the “provision of care.” As in previous generations, ethical issues concerning placebos continue to challenge medicine. PMID:23249668

  18. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  19. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    In 1864 a detailed map was made about Walachia, its title is Charta României Meridionale (Map of Southern Romania), it has 112 map sheets, it is often called after his draughtsman: Szathmári's map. The map has an outstanding position in the history of Romanian cartography, because it indicates a turning-point. Before the map, foreigners (Austrians and Russians) had made topographic maps about this vassal principality of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian topographic survey (1855-1859) - which served as a basis for this map - was the last one and the most detailed of these surveys. The map was made between the personal-union (1859) and independence (1878) of the Danubian Principalities. This map was the first (to a certain extent) own map of the forming country. In consequence of this survey and map, the Romanian mapping institute was founded, which one - based on this survey and map - began the topographic mapping of the country. In the Romanian scientific literature imperfect and contradictory information has been published about this map. Only a dozen copies of the map were kept in few map collections; the researchers could have reached them with difficulties. During our research we processed the circumstances of the survey and mapmaking discovering its documentation in the archives of Vienna, as well as using the Romanian, Hungarian and German scientific literature. We found the copies in map collections from Vienna to Bucharest. We digitized all the map sheets from different collections. We calculated the parameters of the used geodetic datum and map projection. We published on the web, such we made the map reachable for everybody. The map can be viewed in different zoom levels; can be downloaded; settlements can be found using the place name index; areas can be exported in modern projection, so the conditions of that time could be compared with today's reality. Our poster presents on the one hand the survey and the map realized in mid-19th century and our

  20. The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States. PMID:12817602

  1. How To Dance through Time. Volume I: The Romance of Mid-19th Century Couple Dances. Beginning Level. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 35-minute VHS videotape is the first in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides how-to instructions to help beginning dancers learn the mid-19th century ballroom couple dances. It introduces dancers to the basic steps, which accompany the romantic dance music of the past. Each dance segment is introduced by a brief…

  2. The use of Congreve-type war Rockets by the Spanish in the 19th century: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancho, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A yearly account of military uses, by the Spanish, of Congreve war rockets is given, from the year 1810 until 1895. Events prior to the 19th century are also recorded which include the use of rockets against the Moors of Valencia and documentation, from literature of that period, relating to rocket applications.

  3. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the patterns with…

  4. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  5. How Conceptual Frameworks Influence Clinical Practice: Evidence from the Writings of John Thelwall, a 19th-Century Speech Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The impact of speech therapists' conceptual frameworks on their clinical methods tends to be ignored or taken for granted by today's practitioners. One way to show the importance of such frameworks is to study how they were used previously. John Thelwall, a 19th-century elocutionist, offers a rich source for studying the influence of…

  6. The Educational Utilization of Elements of the History of Natural Sciences (19th Century): Highlighting the Cognitive Continuity with Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniati, Helen A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current paper, the reasons why the late 19th century Greek university community of natural scientists used elements from the History of Natural sciences which refer exclusively to ancient Greek science, and the consequences of such a choice are evaluated. Emphasis will be given to the speech delivered by the Dean, Professor of Chemistry, A.…

  7. Self-Help Medical Literature in 19th-Century Canada and the Rhetorical Convention of Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines self-help medical literature in 19th-century Canada. Shows that while authors repeatedly called for "plain" language in contrast to mysterious terminology employed by medical practitioners, comparison of their style with that of medical textbook authors reveals few real differences. Concludes that the posture adopted by Canadian self-help…

  8. Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

    This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents to serve as a…

  9. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  10. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). Scientific instruments and experiments in electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panagiotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    The Greek schools operating in Istanbul date back to the 19th century. These schools have noteworthy collections of old scientific instruments that were used in teaching experimental physics. Amongst them, more outstanding are the scientific instruments used in demonstrating electrostatics. This paper briefly presents the equipment, focuses on exceptional scientific instruments and attempts to illuminate certain aspects in teaching the natural sciences.

  11. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish. PMID:20481059

  12. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  13. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  14. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, A

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research. PMID:2534606

  15. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  16. [A new political contribution to medicine: homeopathy in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Albarracin Teulon, A

    1993-01-01

    The author has sumarized the role of well known 19th century doctors, Thackray, Villermé, Chadwick and especially Virchow (whose socio-medical works are related in detail), in the influence of political ideas on Medicine. As a new contribution to this subject the author informs us of the participation or a Spanish homeopathic doctor in this task. Anastasio García López (1821-1897), was influenced by the works of Charles Fourier, whose doctrine was spreading throughout Spain at that time. García López aplied the sociological concepts of the French utopian philosopher to his idea of homeopaty. A review is made of how Fourierism penetrated and became implanted in Spain and the mark it left on Hahnemann is analized using the "passionate attraction" concept and the ideas of social constriction and violence. García López believed that Hahnemann was attempting to free therapeutics from the yoke of attacking symptoms, emphasizing the affinities of the illness with the cure. Finally, this influence is demostrated in all the activitires of this Spanish doctor, politican, spiritualist, mason and hydrologist of renown. PMID:11624939

  17. Legacy Contaminantion in UK catchments since the mid-19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Noacco, V.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    We present data from UK catchments to characterise impacts of industrial and agricultural development of UK river catchments since the mid-19th century. We draw heavily on the world's longest continuous water quality monitoring programme in the Thames River Basin (1868-date) and discuss the implications of both agricultural development, social and industrial change, and the impact of legislation on coupled land and water resource systems. Our review draws on both data and model analysis over a 145-year period and explores how a multitude of inter-linked drivers affects process-function and practical water resource management decision-support. Our work uncovers key drivers, catchment responses and emergent challenges for process science and regulation, with particular emphasis on the technical challenge for catchment scientists to provide both insight and workable solutions to maintain food and water security in intensively management river basins. We discuss issues of appropriate methods for both data capture and subsequent analyses to support short- and long-term decision making, and particularly considers the importance of advanced techniques to clarify uncertainties in extrapolation of short-term observations to inform long-term goals. We speculate as to future trajectories of catchment responses to current pressures, and potential pitfalls to immediate concerns that may often be at odds with overall requirements for continued use of natural resources in the future.

  18. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from late 19th century America.

    PubMed

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900-1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20-50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  19. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  20. Reconciling reconstructed and simulated features of the winter Pacific/North American pattern in the early 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Lehner, F.; Ortega, P.; Raible, C. C.; Swingedouw, D.

    2015-06-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. Here, we illustrate the contrast between an interdecadal strong positive phase of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century that is described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree rings from northwestern North America, and a slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies during the same period in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. Additionally, a pseudo-proxy investigation with the same simulation ensemble allows for assessing the robustness of PNA reconstructions using solely geophysical predictors from northwestern North America for the last millennium. The reconstructed early 19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although the pseudo-reconstructions are subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and deficiencies highlighted especially at multidecadal and centennial timescales. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early 19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early 19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, which is unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations. However, firm attribution of the reconstructed PNA anomaly is hampered by known limitations and deficiencies of coupled climate models and uncertainties in the early 19th-century external forcing and background climate state.

  1. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  2. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion. PMID:25432331

  3. Instrumental evidence of an unusually strong West African Monsoon in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, David; Ordoñez, Paulina; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation in the Sahel -which is mainly controlled by the dynamics of the West African Monsoon-, has been in the spot of the climate community for the last three decades due to the persistence of the drought period that started in the 1970s. Unfortunately, reliable meteorological series in this area are only available since the beginning of the 20th Century, thus limiting our understanding of the significance of this period from a long term perspective. Currently, our knowledge of what happened in times previous to the 20th Century essentially relies in documentary or proxy sources. In this work, we present the first instrumental evidence of a 50 year-long period characterised by an unusually strong West African monsoon in the19th Century. Following the recent advances in the generation of climatic indices based on data from ship's logbooks, we used historical wind observations to compute a new index (the so-called ASWI) for characterising the strength of the West African Monsoon. The ASWI is based in the persistence of the southwesterly winds in the [29°W-17°W;7°N-13°N] area and it has been possible to compute it since 1790 for July and since 1839 for August and September. We show that the ASWI is a reliable measure of the monsoon's strength and the Sahelian rainfall. Our new series clearly shows the well-known drought period starting in the 1970s. During this dry period, the West African Monsoon was particularly weak and interestingly, we found that since then, the correlations with different climatic patterns such as the Pacific and Atlantic "El Niño" changed significantly in relation to those of the previous century. Remarkably, our results also show that the period 1839-1890 was characterised by an unusually strong and persistent monsoon. Notwithstanding, two of the few dry years within this period were concurrent with large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. This latter result supports the recently suggested relationship between major

  4. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  5. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society. PMID:26111839

  6. Geomagnetic research in the 19th century: a case study of the German contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.

    2001-10-01

    Even before the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted, and before the work of Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A.v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. Through the ``Göttinger Magnetischer Verein'', a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss came into existence. Even today, Gauss's theory of geomagnetism is one of the pillars of geomagnetic research. Thereafter, J.v. Lamont, in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the 1840s, James Clarke Ross advanced to the vicinity of the southern magnetic pole on the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to demonstrate solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonial observatories. In the 1980s, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. Geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the programme of the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the ``Deutsche Seewarte'' in Hamburg, was one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He forged a close cooperation with the newly founded ``Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium'' in Wilhelmshaven, and also managed to gain the collaboration of the ``Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus'' in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in the German observatory at Wilhelmshaven. Here, M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meteorological Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, deserves special credit. Early hypotheses of geomagnetism and pioneering palaeomagnetic experiments are briefly reviewed. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are also briefly described as

  7. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  8. 19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries. PMID:19121575

  9. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating

  10. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  11. Was the 19th Century end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Flanner, M.; Marzeion, B.; Kaser, G.; VanCuren, R. A.; Abdalati, W.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid 19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Our current knowledge of the Alpine climate, climatologists consider the climatic end of the LIA to have come markedly later than the glaciological end, resulting in a paradox. Simulations of glacier length variations using glacier flow and mass balance models forced with instrumental and proxy temperature and precipitation fail to match the timing and magnitude of the observed late 19th century retreat. Matches between simulations and observations have only been achieved when additional glacier mass loss is imposed after 1865 or when precipitation signals are generated that would fit the glacier retreat rather than using actual precipitation records. A known transition however did occur across that half century and into the 20th century that may have held powerful potential consequences for absorption of solar radiation, earlier melt of snow cover, and, in turn, the retreat of glaciers. That transition was the dramatic rise in a byproduct of industrialization: black carbon. Ice cores indicate that BC concentrations increased abruptly at mid 19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in BC emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. We estimate the radiative forcings by these changes in BC loading and whether they were of sufficient magnitude to produce the pronounced negative glacier mass balance that began mid 19th century. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W m-2 between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W m-2 in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W m-2 by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in

  12. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  13. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  14. Constraining the geomagnetic field intensity in Western Europe during the 17-19th centuries from French faience shards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, J.; Genevey, A.; Gallet, Y.

    2003-12-01

    We obtained new archeointensity results for France from the analysis of seven groups of potsherds precisely dated from the beginning of the 17th century to the 19th century. These earthenware shards were found during excavations in Nevers which was an important production center of faience in France during the 17-18th centuries. For our intensity determinations, we used a new variant of the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method. This procedure ("IZZI" method; Tauxe et al., 2003) involves the alternation of pair of heatings in field-zero field ("IZ" steps) and pair of heatings in zero field-in field ("ZI" steps), and was specially designed to detect biased intensity results due to multi-domain magnetic grains. The raw intensity values were corrected for TRM anisotropy and cooling rate effects. Our preliminary results do not show strong intensity variations during the 17-19th centuries. In particularly they do not exhibit a rapid intensity decrease during the 17th century as predicted in Western Europe from the global geomagnetic models of Jackson et al. (2000). To constrain their models during the 1590-1840 period, during which directional but no intensity geomagnetic measurements are available, these authors used a backward extrapolation made on the basis of the linear decay of the dipole moment observed since 1840. Our study challenges the validity of this extrapolation and contributes to our knowledge on the recent variation of the dipole moment of the geomagnetic field.

  15. Mathematics and Astronomy in the Educational System of Serbia in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.

    2009-09-01

    In the second half of the 19th century solid fundaments of the educational system were formed in Serbia, in order to follow the contemporaneous development in Europe. Mathematics and astronomy found an important place in this educational system thanks to, above all, distinguished intellectuals who were pioneers in the improvement of education and science in these fields, such as Dimitrije Nešić, Dimitrije Danić, Bogdan Gavrilović and Mihailo Petrović in mathematics and Milan Nedeljković, Milan Andonović, Jovan Dragašević and Djordje Stanojević in astronomy.

  16. Causes of mortality due to rheumatic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Peral Pacheco, Diego; Suárez-Guzmán, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A total of 26,203 of the deaths in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century were collected and grouped according to the Bertillon's Classification, in order to study the causes of death from rheumatic diseases. An analysis was made using the Death Registers, those located in the Parish Archives, and files of the Municipal Archives. There were a total of 31 deaths due to rheumatic diseases, with the 65-74 years age group being most frequent. The lack of records may be due to the inaccuracy of the diagnoses. September was the month of increased mortality. PMID:26139377

  17. [The links between technology and specialist practice in rehabilitation: the model of gymnastic technology in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Climent, José M; Ballester, Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Gymnastic technology had a decisive role in the configuration of a particular medical specialty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Its study is critical to understand the strong division of work roles that existed in this field, with a medical specialty and several professions linked to physiotherapy and rehabilitation. This process was developed in two well-defined phases: the assimilation of the knowledge and technological advances of gymnasts at the beginning of the 19th century, and the appropriation of the use of these appliances by doctors. Both factors favoured the emergence of the new professions. PMID:14626280

  18. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  19. ["The mind-body problem". The relation of psychical to physical in 19th century German psychology].

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2010-01-01

    During the 19th century, the question of the relation between the soul and the body was deeply renewed by German psychological studies. The new elaborated conception of the relationship between the psychical and the physical coincides with the appearance of a cognitivist paradigm, in which mental phenomena are considered as entities that may be individualised, isolated, and then correlated with the activity of specific neural substrates. German psychologists were confronted with the problem of the correlation between psychical life and the nervous system (localisation of mental phenomena and nature of this correlative relationship), and propose an extensive analysis on the neural conditions and the emergence of psychical processes. PMID:20533803

  20. When realism made a difference: The constitution of matter and its conceptual enigmas in late 19th century physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilholt, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter-mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within the physics community, as can be shown for the examples of Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. The latter developed a series of counter-arguments, culminating in an ingenious attempt to turn the tables on the critics of atomism and prove the inconsistency of non-atomistic conceptions of nature. Underlying this controversy is a disagreement over specific goals of physical research which was considered crucially relevant to the further course of physical inquiry. It thereby exemplifies an attitude towards the realism issue that can be contrasted with a different, more neutral attitude of construing the realism issue as merely philosophical and indifferent with respect to concrete research programs in physics, which one also occasionally finds expressed in the 19th century controversy and which may be seen as the prevailing attitude of the 20th century debate.

  1. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  2. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  3. Improvement of health care for the poor in Split (southern Croatia) during the first half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Brisky, Livia; Brisky, Tibor

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health care available for the poor citizens of Split during the first half of the 19th century. Soon after being constructed in 1797, the Civic Hospital in Split founded by the Ergovac brothers for the needs of the poor was transformed into a military hospital. Consequently, caring for this social stratum was taken over by two inadequate shelters and later by a small civic hospital situated in the Split suburb of Dobri. The year of the application of Petar Ergovac to the supreme ruler for the transformation of the hospital building established by his family from a military to a civil institution was found, as well as the correct data regarding its return to initial idea in 1821. On the basis of the archival documents kept in the Archaeological Museum in Split and in the State Archives in Zadar, the work organization of the Civic Hospital in Split and the first stage of its change from a charitable to a public health hospital institution were presented. This study revealed the aspiration of the authorities in the first half of the 19th century to improve the health system of the city of Split. PMID:22397228

  4. Evidence of Active Dune Sand on the Great Plains in the 19th Century from Accounts of Early Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Holliday, Vance T.

    1995-03-01

    Eolian sand is extensive over the Great Plains of North America, but is at present mostly stabilized by vegetation. Accounts published by early explorers, however, indicate that at least parts of dune fields in Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas were active in the 19th century. Based on an index of dune mobility and a regional tree-ring record, the probable causes for these periods of greater eolian activity are droughts, accompanied by higher temperatures, which greatly lowered the precipitation-to-evapotranspiration ratio and diminished the cover of stabilizing vegetation. In addition, observations by several explorers, and previous historical studies, indicate that rivers upwind of Great Plains dune fields had shallow, braided, sandy channels, as well as intermittent flow in the 19th century. Wide, braided, sandy rivers that were frequently dry would have increased sand supplies to active dune fields. We conclude that dune fields in the Great Plains are extremely sensitive to climate change and that the potential for reactivation of stabilized dunes in the future is high, with or without greenhouse warming.

  5. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. PMID:20110713

  6. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  7. Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th century from accounts of early explorers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of early explorers show that they were more mobile in the last century. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th century, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton

  8. The worldwide impact of Donati's comet on art and society in the mid-19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Antonella; Galli, Daniele; Nenzi, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Donati's comet was one of the most spectacular astronomical events of the nineteenth century. Its extended sword-like tail was a spectacular sight that inspired several literary and artistic representations. Traces of Donati's comet are found in popular magazines, children's books, collection cards, and household objects through the beginning of the twentieth century.

  9. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century. PMID:25758234

  10. Medical and social care in Rovinj from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Teklić, Ante; Peterković, Vjerislav

    2012-09-01

    By using published and unpublished sources from various archival series kept in the Rovinj Heritage Museum, Chapter Archives of Rovinj and the Diocesan Archives of Porec the authors shed new light and present the health and social care system in the city of Rovinj covering the period which goes from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century. Altruistic mentality of individual citizens, lay and ecclesiastical institutions as well as the need to prevent diseases urged the foundation of medical-social-religious-charitable institutions. In the researched period Rovinj flourished demographically and economically, so that health and social institutions included offices in charge of prevention. When it came to various aspects of social activities, decisions were made by the foreign political authorities--Venetian, French and Austrian administration, although the first initiative would always come from the Rovinj Commune or individual citizens. PMID:23213973

  11. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Michela

    2013-12-01

    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration. PMID:22542472

  12. [Military Knowledge: War Sciences and Army Libraries in France in the 19th Century (c. 1800-c. 1900)].

    PubMed

    Thoral, Marie-Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the development of military knowledge in France in the 19th century, both in terms of production of knowledge (especially through the Dépôt de la Guerre) and of transmission through a network of army libraries. The strategic dimension of this form of knowledge required a direct intervention of the state, to control or restrict the publication of sensitive data. State intervention was also necessary to coordinate and generate a unified, applied military knowledge using data submitted by members of different army branches, or by civilians. The work of military librarians and bibliologists was all the more difficult because of the very wide range of sciences which could be used by the army. Growing state intervention and public funding were thus essential for the production and transmission of military knowledge. PMID:26902056

  13. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent. PMID:20503663

  14. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M

    2015-08-01

    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. PMID:24802355

  15. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  17. 19th Century Roots of Modern Interpretation Theory: Dickens as a Platform Performer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, John Samuel

    Charles Dickens was not only a master novelist but was also a master in the art of performance. His distinctive reading style was in marked contrast to the standard practices of mid-nineteenth century elocution, but his unique readings and performance philosophy closely resemble the text-centered approach of modern oral interpretation. Considered…

  18. American Populism and Its Ontario Offshoots in the Late 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the nineteenth century agrarian movements in Canada and the U.S., examining the similarities between Populism and the Canadian agricultural movement. Presents the American Populist Party Platform of 1892 and the Patrons of Industry Platform of 1891 to illustrate the agrarian ideas and political policies of each country. (GEA)

  19. The Unsung Past: Afro-American Women Writers of 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simson, Renate

    Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…

  20. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  1. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  2. Simulation of the 19th and 20th century climate with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichet, A.; Schär, C.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.

    2009-04-01

    Climate simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model driven with natural and anthropogenic forcings have been carried out from 1870 to 2000. The atmospheric GCM ECHAM5 is interactively coupled to the atmospheric aerosol module HAM, while the SSTs are based on data from the Hadley Center dataset. Aerosol emissions are taken from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and include SO2 and black carbon from fossil fuel combustion as well as black carbon from biomass burning. Other forcings included in the simulations are changes in greenhouse gases, DMS, solar output and volcanic activities. Global simulations will give a general overview of the climate evolution since the mid-nineteenth century, and will allow the definition of limits to further regional simulations. Sensitivity experiments are carried out, in order to understand better the impact of the the different forcings on the climate since the mid-nineteenth century. Results are discussed with particular emphasis on the hydrological and radiation conditions under different forcings.

  3. The Amateur's Small Transit Instrument of the 19TH-CENTURY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, C.; Hughes, D. W.

    1987-03-01

    The owners of today's digital watches and the listeners to Dyson's signature tune little realize how difficult it was in the nineteenth century to check that watches were telling the right time. If one lived in the country one had to rely either on the Sun and note carefully the time of apparent noon by recording when the Sun crossed the meridian, or on the stars and use the sidereal day and specific meridian transits to set and regulate your watches. To help these country dwellers, entrepreneurs such as Latimer Clark, Edward Dent and C. A. Steinheil produced inexpensive transit instruments that could be used by the non-scientific amateurs. These instruments, their setting up, use and accuracy are reviewed in this paper.

  4. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  5. The dynamics of scarlet fever epidemics in England and Wales in the 19th century.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C. J.; Duncan, S. R.; Scott, S.

    1996-01-01

    There was a marked rise in scarlet fever mortality in England and Wales in the mid-nineteenth century and spectral analysis of the registration details, 1847-80, shows that the interepidemic interval was 5-6 years, but after 1880 the endemic level fell and the fatal epidemics disappeared. The dynamics of the scarlet fever epidemics can be represented by a linearized mathematical model and because the system is lightly damped, it could be driven by an oscillation in susceptibility. Epidemics were significantly correlated with dry conditions in spring/summer (P < 0.001), suggesting that these produced a low amplitude oscillation in susceptibility which drove the system. Epidemics also correlated (P < 0.001) with an oscillation in wheat prices but at a lag of 3 years, suggesting that malnutrition during pregnancy caused increased susceptibility in the subsequent children which interacted synergistically with seasonal dry conditions. Scarlet fever mortality was sharply reduced after 1880 in parallel with falling wheat prices suggesting that the remarkable period of high scarlet fever mortality (1840-80) was dependent on poor nutritive levels during that time. PMID:8972674

  6. [Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879].

    PubMed

    Cigui, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. PMID:23094841

  7. The black cholera comes to the central valley of America in the 19th century - 1832, 1849, and later.

    PubMed

    Daly, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  8. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  9. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  10. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production. PMID:25577887

  11. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  12. [Lódź--centre of medical sciences development at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Social and economical changes in Lódź transforming the town into a strong textile industry centre at the turn of 19th and 20th century stimulated the development of medical sciences and professional activity. Between 1800 and 1914 a 600-fold increase in the number of inhabitants occured - a demographic phenomenon unknown in Europe at that time. This led to specific sanitary and hygiene conditions, negatively affecting the population's health. In these social and economic conditions, with Russian occupant unwillingness to act, medical professionals and other social groups, in particular founders ot the textile industry--K. Scheibler, I. Poznanski, I. Heinzel, I. Kunitzer and others spontaneously acted to solve urgent medical problems. In this period a number of modern private and public hospitals such as neuro-psychiatric " Kochanówka" hospital, paediatric "Anna-Maria" hospital, factory-owned hospitals and other social aid centres were organised. These institutions, apart clinical activities for the society, held scientific research. A number of scientists were active in Lódź at that time: Stanisław Bartoszewicz, Józef Brudzinski, Józef Kollnski, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Witold Chodźko, Tadeusz Mogielnicki, Józef Maybaum-Marzynski, Stanislaw Serkowski, Stanislaw Skalski, Emanuel Sonnenberg and others. They were involed in new fields of medical research, such as paediatric diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, neoplastic diseases, infectious diseases and occupational medicine. All these activities were co-ordinated by: Lódź Medical Association, Lódź Division of the Warsaw Society of Hygiene, Industrial Medicine Assocation and Tuberculosis League. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century Lódź was listed among well known centres of modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods in the menagement of tuberculosis, childhood diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Professional skills and scientific activity of physicians form Lódź, their efforts in

  13. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  14. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  15. The Essence of Language Is History: A Theoretical Introduction to the Connection between Social Relations and Language Relations in 19th Century Brussels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Metsenaere, Machteld

    An examination of language use in 19th century Brussels seeks to explain how and why a link between language and social class came into operation. Hypotheses relating the social characteristics (material circumstances and consciousness) of social classes and segments of social classes to various resulting language patterns are proposed. This…

  16. Disability Care & Education in 19th Century India: Dates, Places & Documentation, with Some Additional Material on Mental Retardation and Physical Disabilities up to 1947. Revised Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This monograph uses brief excerpts from many sources to document the history of the education and care of individuals with disabilities in India, primarily in the 19th century. An introduction describes the author's methodology in compiling and annotating the excerpts, which are listed alphabetically by locality in India. Under each locality,…

  17. Socialising Nurse Probationers in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries--Relevance of Historical Reflection for Modern Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentzon, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Historical records from London hospitals in the late 19th-early 20th centuries were analyzed for their depiction of nursing trainees. Analysis reveals a strong emphasis on character traits rather than intellectual ability. In contrast, the literature of the last 3 decades shows a contemporary concern for nurses as knowledgeable doers. (Contains 31…

  18. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  19. The Rise and Fall of Science Education: A Content Analysis of Science in Elementary Reading Textbooks of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century the textbook dominated the curriculum and methods of instruction. The most important textbook was the textbook of reading known as the reader. In the early 1800s science was not established as a separate primary grade subject. The science students encountered in these reading textbooks may have been their only formal science…

  20. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part I: Selected Papers Covering the Colonial Period through the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 16 papers presented in this collection all deal with journalism and journalists from colonial America through the 19th century. The papers and their authors are: "Fighting for a Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760" (David A. Copeland); "A Romance with 'Local' Happenings (Never…

  1. The winter Pacific-North-American pattern in the early 19th century in proxy-based reconstructions and climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Bothe, Oliver; Lehner, Flavio; Ortega, Pablo; Raible, Christoph C.; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. In this contribution, we illustrate the case of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century. During this period, the interdecadal strong positive PNA phase described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree-rings from northwestern North America contrasts with the slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. In an attempt to reconcile the simulated and reconstructed behaviors, the robustness of PNA reconstructions based exclusively on geophysical predictors from northwestern North America is investigated following a pseudo-proxy analysis in the same simulation ensemble. The reconstructed early-19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although it is subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and potential deficiencies. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early-19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early-19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, hence distinguished from the externally-forced signal described by the ensemble mean and unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations.

  2. The Humanistic Approach to Upbringing and Education in the Creative Legacy of the Ukrainian Pedagogues of the Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anosov, Ivan Pavlovych; Elkin, Mark Veniaminovych; Golovkova, Marina Mykhaylivna; Korobchenko, Angelina Anatoliivna; Oksa, Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the study of the humanistic approach to upbringing and education in the creative legacy of the Ukrainian pedagogues of the second half of the 19th century. Through the analysis of S. Myropolskiy's and Kh. Alchevska's pedagogical legacy, a world outlook position of scholars concerning humanisation of the educational…

  3. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  4. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  5. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one. PMID:27356339

  6. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  7. Geophysical survey applied to underwater archaeology: a 19th century town submerged in Tequesquitengo Lake, Morelos, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Dominguez, R. E.; Bandy, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    In August 2009, we conducted an underwater geophysical survey with archaeological objectives at the Tequesquitengo Lake, in Morelos, Mexico. This survey was supervised by researchers from the UNAM’s Institute of Geophysics. The main objectives were to locate and delimitate the archaeological site of a submerged town which lies at the bottom of the lake since the mid 19th century by using geophysical survey techniques. A small size vessel used for our survey was provided by the local Harbour Master, onboard which we mounted a differential GPS unit, navigation system, a dual 38 kHz/200 Khz echosounder and 200 kHz sidescan sonar system, and a marine proton magnetometer, to accomplish our objectives. A bathymetric survey of the site was carried out. And using magnetometry the archaeological site was delimitated. We acquired various sonar images of the higher structures of a church. The magnetic maps showed us some anomalies, which could be an indication of the remains of the submerged town. Additional future surveys, backed up by more research dives could definitely help us in obtaining a broad insight into the history and cultural diversity of this site.

  8. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  9. [Psychophysical parallelism. On a discursive figure in the field of scientific changes in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wegener, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The article traces the rise and fall of "psychophysical parallelism" - which was the most advanced scientific formulation of the mind / body relationship in the second half of the 19th century - through an interdisciplinary and broad geographical spectrum. It sheds light on the extremely different positions that rallied round this discursive figure, ranging from Fechner, Hering, Mach, Wundt, Bain, Hughlings Jackson, and Taine to Freud and Saussure. The article develops the thesis that the psychophysical parallelism functioned as a 'hot zone' within and a symptom of the changes in the order of sciences at that time. Against that background, the criticism of the psychophysical parallelism which became prominent around 1900 (Stumpf, Busse, Bergson, Mauthner et. al.) indicates the cooling of this 'hot zone' and the establishment of a new order within the scientific disciplines. The article pays particular attention to the position of this figure in contemporaneous language theories. Its basic assumption is that the relationship between the body and the psyche is itself constituted by language. PMID:20027909

  10. [An unrivalled physician? Family strategies for child care in the late 19th century South Tyrolean countryside].

    PubMed

    Unterkircher, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Who was responsible for the treatment of sick children in the countryside during the second half of the 19th century? This paper investigates the medical complaint accusing the rural population of only reluctantly bringing their sick offspring to academic physicians. The following analyses the role Franz v. Ottenthal (1818-1899), a 'representative' of a private rural medical practice, played in the specialised medical market attending to childhood diseases. An exemplary survey of Ottenthal's medical records for patients from the age of one to 14 years throughout the 1890s has shown that children contributed a relevant percentage of the whole of the physician's patient distribution. It may therefore be assumed that Ottenthal knew how to successfully merchandise his specific therapies. On the demand side, however, parents of sick children were not solely reliant upon this physician. Evidence from the medical records provides information as to when parents regarded medical self-help as no longer supporting the recovery of their children, the cures of lay healers failed, or cases when parents were not satisfied with the therapeutic treatments other physicians had to offer and therefore consulted Ottenthal. PMID:23320379

  11. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  12. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. PMID:26551862

  13. Using sunshine duration data to reconstruct total solar radiation time series since the late 19th century, for Athens area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Kazadzis, Stelios; Pierros, Fragiskos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of surface solar radiation measurements and the lack of long term time series of this variable, sunshine duration (SDu) has been widely considered as a useful proxy for surface total solar radiation (TSR) reaching the earth. Numerous relationships between SDu and TSR have been proposed which vary between sites, as a result of the dependence of the two variables from climatic and astronomical components. At the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), measurements of sunshine duration and surface total solar radiation have been conducted continuously since 1897 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest uninterrupted time series of SDu and TSR in the country. The ability of SDu observations at NOA to serve as a proxy for the estimation of TSR and the detection of its interannual and multi decadal variability is examined in the study. Using the respective time series we have retrieved the relationship between SDu and TSR on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. To test the retrieved functions we have derived them for the period 1985-2013 and tested them for the period 1953-1984, where synchronous SDu and TSR measurements are available. A strong linear relationship between the time series of monthly SDU and TSR was found. The two series were highly correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.95, p<0.001). On a seasonal basis, stronger correlation between SDu and TSR was detected in winter, autumn and spring, when SDu and TSR exhibit larger variability due to cloudiness. The correlation coefficient was lower in summer, when almost clear sky conditions prevail in Athens. The results showed that SDu observations in Athens can successfully provide quantitative information on shortwave solar radiation, particularly under all-sky conditions. The calculated functions can be used for the reconstruction of TSR back to the late 19th century. This unique 115-yrs SDu and TSR retrieved datasets can provide valuable and unknown information of TSR variability over the

  14. Policy Commercializing Nonprofits in Health: The History of a Paradox From the 19th Century to the ACA

    PubMed Central

    FOX, DANIEL M

    2015-01-01

    growth and commercialization of nonprofits in the health sector since the late 19th century remains influential in health policy, especially for the allocation of resources. However, aspects of the implementation of the ACA may constrain some of the effects of the paradox. PMID:25752354

  15. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  16. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19(th) century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach's lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman's observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng's and Rejchman's research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  17. Societal and ecological determinants of urban health: a case study of pre-reproductive mortality in 19th century Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, L A

    1993-04-01

    A historical based enquiry of colonial Gibraltar at the turn of the 19th century was conducted in order to assess what factors gave rise to residential variation of pre-reproductive mortality. Gibraltar's unusual configuration of a port city, garrison town, and commercial centre at the tip of the Iberian peninsula offers a unique opportunity to examine the interplay of ecology, demographic and socio-economic factors on childhood mortality. Communal living under the patio system and the sharing of essential resources were characteristic features of life on the Rock. Using the residential district as the focus of enquiry, stepwise regression results for the period 1879-81, designated as a period of 'low ecological stress', indicated that the number of gallons of potable water per person captured a significant amount of variability in mortality. During the year 1878, a serious shortfall in rainfall was associated with lower life expectancy, a change in the seasonal pattern of mortality, and elevated rates of death attributable to the diarrhea complex. Under this period of 'high ecological stress', the percentage of servants in the household, a proxy for wealth/status, proved to be the single most important factor accounting for 46.6% of the variation in the death rate under 15. Analysis of mortality at the patio level revealed that residents of buildings of two household units had lower mortality than residents living in smaller or larger dwellings, particularly in the period of high ecological stress. The complex pattern of mortality at the district and patio level is explained in terms of the development of residential preferences and decentralized nature of vital resources, such as the water support system and food supply. PMID:8480234

  18. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  19. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach’s lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman’s observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng’s and Rejchman’s research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  20. [Coping with leprosy in the Dutch West Indies in the 19th century; opposing but meaningful views from Suriname].

    PubMed

    Menke, Henk; Snelders, Stephen; Pieters, Toine

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy was highly prevalent among African slaves in the Dutch West Indian colony of Suriname. Largely based on observations in Suriname, Dutch physicians described the aetiology of leprosy in terms of'a substrate' to which all sorts of mixtures of infection, heredity and hygiene contributed ('seed and soil'). This explanatory model with multiple options for prevention and treatment left room for different developmental trajectories to control the spread of the disease in the various tropical colonies of the Dutch empire. In Suriname there was a growing worry in the 19th century regarding the spread of leprosy, threatening the health of slaves, settlers and colonial administrators. And this could be harmful to an already weakening plantation economy. This concern prompted the local administration to develop a rigorous policy of strict isolation of leprosy sufferers. This, in turn, intersected with a changing insight in Europe - including the Netherlands - that leprosy was non-contagious. However,'in splendid isolation' in the economically and politically marginal colony Suriname, Dutch physicians like Charles Landre and his son, Charles Louis Drognat Landré, could afford to ignore the European non-contagious approach and continue to support the strict isolation policies. Moreover, they developed a dissident radical explanation of leprosy as a disease caused only by contagion. In the absence of a receptive Dutch audience Drognat Landré published his contagion theory in French and so succeeded in inspiring the Norwegian Hansen, who subsequently discovered the culpable micro-organism. At the same time colonial administrators and physicians in the economically and politically important Dutch colonies in the East Indies adhered to the prevailing European concept and changed policies: the system of isolation was abolished. Given the rather different trajectories of leprosy health policies in the Dutch East and West Indies we point out the importance of a comparative

  1. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  2. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  3. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, K.; Vandenabeele, P.; Rodríguez-Laso, M. D.; Moens, L.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  4. Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Fitzl, Christine; Vlcek, Alexander; Frommlet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    remains born in the 19(th) to the middle of the 20(th) century. PMID:25776530

  5. [Bright disease in Turin and Italy from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Stratta, P; Bermond, F; Canavese, C; Colla, L; Burdese, M; Quaglia, M; Besso, L; Sandri, L; Dogliani, M

    2001-03-01

    For many years the term nephritis was used to indicate renal diseases (in the sense of Bright s disease) in a larger sense. This review summarizes the history of the concept of glolomerulonephritis from Egyptian Medicine up to the Post-Biopsy Era, in particularly in Turin and in Italy. This study reports an epidemiology survey of Bright s disease in Italy from 1880 up to 1960. Towards the end of the 19th century Bright s disease accounted for 26 deaths/year/105 population (in comparison with more than 200 from tubercolosis) in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bright s disease was the seventh cause of death in Italy. Moreover, in Italy autopsy studies showed a higher percentage of deaths attributed to Bright s disease (5-7%) in comparison with those obtained from vital studies. In 1960, just before the beginning of renal replacement therapy, Bright s disease accounted for 15.7 deaths/year/105 population. Probably it was difficult to recognize in the real incidence of chronic renal diseases leading to death in the 1960s, and vital studies were able to furnish only approximate estimates. However, noteworthy is the fact that these values were very close to those estimated as being the annual need for renal replacement therapy (10-20/year/105 population). PMID:11346720

  6. Adult Learning in the Nineteenth Century in the Mirror of Novels and Short Stories: Czech Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    Czech novels and short stories dealing with life in the 19th century were reviewed for information about how adults in rural areas of Czechoslovakia learned and the topics that interested them. The literature review confirmed that adults living in rural areas of Czechoslovakia in the 19th century generally had a great desire for education,…

  7. The height gap in 19th-century America: net-nutritional advantage of the elite increased at the onset of modern economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We present evidence on the 19th-century trend in the height of male US passport applicants. These men represent a much wealthier segment of contemporary society than found in most stature samples previously analyzed. The height trend among the wealthy is much more robust in comparison to the average population that experienced a decline in stature. The resulting increase in the 'height gap'--by roughly 1 in. between cohorts born around 1820 and 1860--is in congruence with evidence on rising wealth inequality and the notion of dietary change in antebellum America. PMID:23481175

  8. Astronomy and pictorial descriptiveness - images in 19th century popular astronomy. (German Title: Astronomie und Anschaulichkeit - Die Bilder der populären Astronomie des 19. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzt, Susanne

    Initiated by a debate on regaining a pictorial descriptiveness of the sciences, but also by technical developments, popular astronomy was mediated more and more by visual means in the 19th century. Based on illustrations in popular German and French astronomical treatises, this work investigates in what context certain pictures originated, where and for which purpose they were used in publications, how they interacted with accompanying texts, and to what degree they reflect the collision of two contrary aspects which are typical for popular science: the intention to entertain as well as to instruct. Text in German.

  9. ["I would like to so much--but then also; but, but--!!!"--torment of a private lecturer at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bettin, H; Friedrich, C

    2000-01-01

    The biography of Carl Friedrich August Theodor Kastner (1797-after 1841), the brother of the famous chemist and teacher of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857), is an interesting example of the difficult situation of outside lecturers at the universities in the first half of the 19th century; a big group of scientists, which are absolutely underrepresented in the source material and in the historiography too. This paper tries to show the facts and the backgrounds for the problems in the career of outside lecturers. PMID:11305171

  10. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. IV. Development from the middle of the 19th century to the end of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-04-15

    The possibilities of an academic career of Jewish physicians were alleviated by the legalities of the second half of the 19th century, however, up to 1918 in many places restrictive statutes in higher education considerably confined a career as professor in ordinary of specialists of Jewish belief. The conditions at Halle university reflect this situation. A complete equalization beginning after 1918 only at some points of scientific concentration led to a recognizable increase of the Jewish-German members in the teaching staff. But already in this phase on the basis of a quickly spreading racial ideology an increasingly appreciable vulgar antisemitism developed. PMID:2662658

  11. [The problem of reforms in the European medicine between 16th and 19th century in the light of selected concepts of methodology of the history of science].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The article depicts major concepts present in the contemporary historiography of medicine (positivistic and social-cultural trends) and some of the concepts of modern methodology of the history of science, reviewing the possibilities of its use in the analysis of the process of modernizing the European medicine that was implemented between the 16th and the 19th century. The author advocates the social-cultural trend that dominates the contemporary historiography of medicine. She discusses and analyzes the concepts developed by Ludwik Fleck, Samuel Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Kurt Godl, Stefan Amsterdamski in respect of their sue to a historian of modern medicine. PMID:11625427

  12. Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): neurology in France and England in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In 1862 Jean Martin Charcot was appointed Physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and simultaneously John Hughlings Jackson was appointed as assistant physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London. Both men made significant contributions to the development of neurology, many of which remain important to contemporary neurologists. The achievements and the work of Charcot and Hughlings Jackson are considered in the light of their respective localities and medical education, and the structure of hospital institutions and political allegiances are compared in the late 19th century in France and Britain. PMID:20029079

  13. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities. PMID:18173066

  14. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him. PMID:26104166

  15. Matronized nursing service at Mobile City Hospital in the mid-19th century: a paradigm of altruism and indigent patient care.

    PubMed

    Salley, R K; Rodning, C B

    1989-08-01

    Influences upon the development and evolution of nursing groups and the profession have been multifactorial: cultural, economic, political, and social. Although monastic and chivalric orders throughout antiquity provided the beginnings with hierarchical organizations and a sense of voluntarism and vocation, it was not until the mid-19th century that the concept of a nursing service became codified and more hospital-oriented. The inception of a matronized nursing service in the Mobile City Hospital under the tutelage of the Superintendent, Dr. Willis Roberts, antedated the rapid expansion of nursing education and service recommended and instituted by Florence Nightingale. The former served as a paradigm of altruism as "women attendants" became formally associated with a hospital-based "nursing service," initially under the directorship of a lay matron, Mrs. Sarah Dubois, and subsequently under a succession of Sisters of the Roman Catholic Order of the Sisters of Charity (America). Although ostensibly instituted to render care to "female paupers," the matronized nursing service was readily expanded, and subsequently delivered care to the entire, predominantly indigent patient population. The paradigm was worthily perpetuated during the latter half of the 19th century in vitually all hospitals as nursing education and services continued to become more secularized and technologically sophisticated. PMID:2669152

  16. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130year old beers.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen; Wendland, Jürgen; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-09-15

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate profiles, some aldehydes reach up to 40-fold higher levels in the historic samples as compared to present-day references. PMID:25863632

  17. Roots of Physical Medicine, Physical Therapy, and Mechanotherapy in the Netherlands in the 19th Century: A Disputed Area within the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Terlouw, Thomas J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Physical medicine, which in the context of this article includes mechanotherapy, hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, electrotherapy, light therapy, air therapy, and thermotherapy, became a new field of labor in the healthcare domain in the Netherlands around 1900. This article gives an account of the introduction and development of mechanotherapy as a professional activity in the Netherlands in the 19th century. Mechanotherapy, which historically included exercises, manipulations, and massage, was introduced in this country around 1840 and became one of the core elements of physical medicine towards the end of that century. In contrast to what one might expect, mostly physical education teachers, referred to as “heilgymnasts,” dedicated themselves to this kind of treatment, whereas only a few physicians were active in this field until the 1880s. When, in the last quarter of the 19th century, differentiation and specialization within the medical profession took place, physicians specializing in physical medicine and orthopaedics began to claim the field of mechanotherapy exclusively for themselves. This led to tensions between them and the group of heilgymnasts that had already been active in this field for decades. The focus of attention in this article is on interprofessional relationships, on the roles played by the different professional organizations in the fields of physical education and medicine, the local and national governments, and the judicial system, and on the social, political, and cultural circumstances under which developments in the field of mechanotherapy took place. The article concludes with the hypothesis that the intra- and inter-occupational rivalries discussed have had a negative impact on the academic development of physical medicine, orthopaedics, and heilgymnastics/physical therapy in the Netherlands in the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19066646

  18. Historical stocking data and 19th century DNA reveal human-induced changes to native diversity and distribution of cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J L; Love Stowell, S; Kennedy, C M; Rogers, K B; McDonald, D; Epp, J; Keepers, K; Cooper, A; Austin, J J; Martin, A P

    2012-11-01

    Many species are threatened with extinction and efforts are underway worldwide to restore imperilled species to their native ranges. Restoration requires knowledge of species' historical diversity and distribution. For some species, many populations were extirpated or individuals moved beyond their native range before native diversity and distribution were documented, resulting in a lack of accurate information for establishing restoration goals. Moreover, traditional taxonomic assessments often failed to accurately capture phylogenetic diversity. We illustrate a general approach for estimating regional native diversity and distribution for cutthroat trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains. We assembled a large archive of historical records documenting human-mediated change in the distribution of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and combined these data with phylogenetic analysis of 19th century samples from museums collected prior to trout stocking activities and contemporary DNA samples. Our study of the trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains uncovered six divergent lineages, two of which went extinct, probably in the early 20th century. A third lineage, previously declared extinct, was discovered surviving in a single stream outside of its native range. Comparison of the historical and modern distributions with stocking records revealed that the current distribution of trout largely reflects intensive stocking early in the late 19th and early 20th century from two phylogenetically and geographically distinct sources. Our documentation of recent extinctions, undescribed lineages, errors in taxonomy and dramatic range changes induced by human movement of fish underscores the importance of the historical record when developing and implementing conservation plans for threatened and endangered species. PMID:22998121

  19. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  20. [Jules Baretta and the secrets of modeling in pathology in the 19th century. Analysis of wax No. 1364 at the Museum of the Saint Louis hospital].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The Museum of the Saint-Louis hospital in Paris presents life casts produced by Jules Baretta in the 19th century: the casts seem incredible as they captured the complex forms of illness. How could Baretta cast in plaster an irregular epithelium or lupus without damaging the pathology or causing deep pains? From this observation, an investigation on those casts took place and especially one on an epithelium of the nose (no 1364) in order to understand the trade secrets. This investigation shows that Baretta used protective films on these pathologies and that he then interpreted them by modelling. The scientific and artistic interest of this discovery is to revise the mechanical objectivity of the casting through the modelling. PMID:25230526

  1. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  2. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool. PMID:21941694

  3. The Travails of 19th-Century Urban Youth as a Precondition to the Invention of Modern Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Ruskin

    1988-01-01

    One factor leading to the "invention" of modern adolescence was what the reformers saw as the corruption of youth by the city. The plight of youth set the stage for a child-saving movement during the last century, taking youth off the streets, putting them in schools, and stretching out the home-leaving age from 14 to 18. (Author/KS)

  4. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  5. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly

  6. Digital recovery of 19th century surveys in Tampa Bay, Florida: Topographic charts and Public Land Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.; Gleim, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of historic data to a digital setting adresses the need for data integration through time, bridging technical gaps and differences. The goal of this study was to evaluate a marsh-to-mangrove conversion spanning 125 years and the implications for present coastal-resource management (Yates and others, 2011; Raabe and others, 2012). The U.S. Geological Survey in St. Petersburg, Fla., georectified and digitized 1870s T-sheets at four Tampa Bay locations that still supported coastal wetlands in 2000 (table 1). Nineteenth century Public Land Surveys of Township and Range lines were also digitized for each site, as a secondary data source to verify historic landscape features (table 2).

  7. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation.

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F

    2012-02-17

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  8. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  9. Authorities and foundation of the orthopaedic school in Germany in the 19th century: part II: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, Friedrich Trendelenburg and other German authors.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The national achievements of the orthopaedic school of Germany became international in the second part of the 19th century, and from 1860 through 1914 its educational system attracted many physicians and surgeons from all over the world. During this period of 50 years, German surgeons asserted their dominance in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with four famous surgeons: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, and Friedrich Trendelenburg. They held annual meetings, during which papers were read and discussed. We also present contributions to orthopaedic sciences of the other German authors during 19th century according to different cities. PMID:26585866

  10. Agricultural illustrations of 19th century Korea: 'Imwon gyeongjeji' (Treatises on Management of Forest and Garden) by Seo Yugu.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyung-Min

    2011-01-01

    The generative relationship between text and image has long been established. Its structure evolved historically as a result of varying understandings of the functions of art and technology. Agriculture illustration, which emerged in China during the Song dynasty, is a prime example of this creative dialogue in which aspects of both disciplines were combined. Political, technological, and aesthetic concerns informed the reformulations of this new genre. This paper will address agricultural illustrations on nineteenth-century Korea, when notable changes occurred in the visualization of agricultural texts. It will explore changes in the understanding of the roles of agriculture, technology, and labor through an analysis of shifts in modes of illustration and the texts selected. The relationship between technology and visual representations during late Joseon Korea will be contextualized through an exploration of the evolution of technical drawing in East Asia. This paper will suggest that the recognition of imagery's ability to convey textual and technical information provided an important alternative paradigm for the presentation and use of knowledge. PMID:22171414

  11. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  12. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early

  13. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Helama, S.

    2012-09-01

    Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821-1862) was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book) from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  14. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  15. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  16. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24770341

  17. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  18. Non-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Pérez-Alonso, Maite; Rodríguez-Laso, María Dolores; Etxebarria, Nestor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-02-01

    Non-destructive and non-invasive micro-Raman fibre optic and micro-XRF analyses were performed to study a wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century. The complementarity of these two non-destructive techniques is shown in this work. The analysed artwork is considered one of the most beautiful wallpapers ever manufactured according to the catalogues and books; it is known as Chasse de Compiègne, manufactured by Jacquemart, Paris, in 1812. During the analysis, an unexpected pigment was detected by both analytical techniques: lead-tin yellow type II. This pigment was used until ca. 1750, when other yellow pigments replaced it, thus it is very difficult to find it in paintings afterwards. Together with this pigment, red lead, Prussian blue, brochantite, yellow iron oxide, calcium carbonate, vermilion, carbon black of animal origin (bone black), lead white, and raw and burnt sienna were also determined by combining the analytical information provided by both techniques. A possible degradation of brochantite to antlerite is also discussed. PMID:16838156

  19. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  20. Limnological instrumentation in the middle of the 19th century: the first temperature and density profiles measured in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The first modern survey of the Dead Sea was performed by the Geological Survey of Israel in 1959-1960, and the report published remains the baseline study for our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the lake. At the time the Dead Sea was a meromictic lake with a strong salinity gradient separating the deep waters (>40 m depth) from the less saline surface waters. A few results of analyses of deeper water samples collected in the 1930s were reported, but overall we have very little information about the structure of the lake's water column before the 1959-1960 survey. However, it is little known that data on the physical and the chemical structure of the Dead Sea water column were obtained already in the middle of the 19th century, and the information collected then is highly relevant for the reconstruction of the limnological properties of the lake in earlier times. The expedition of Lieutenant William Lynch (U.S. Navy) in 1848 reported the presence of a temperature minimum at a depth of ~18 m, and also retrieved a water sample collected close to the bottom for chemical analysis. In 1864, the French Dead Sea exploration by the Duc de Luynes and his crew yielded detailed density and salinity profiles for a number of sampling stations. The results of these pioneering studies are discussed here, as well as the sampling equipment and measuring instruments used by the 1848 and the 1864 expeditions.

  1. [Medicine and chemistry around the middle of the 19th century in Erlangen. Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (1817--1878) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1981-07-01

    Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, born 1817 in Graz, was appointed on 28. 11. 1846 to the post of lecturer in the faculty of medicine of the University of Erlangen. He had previously studied medicine in Vienna, Padua and Munich, followed by physiological and clinical-chemical studies under Louis Andreas Buchner in Munich, and further studies in organic and analytical chemistry under Friedrich Wöhler in Göttingen. In 1849 in Erlangen he became reader in organic and analytical chemistry, then, in 1855, moved to the faculty of philosophy as professor of chemistry. Von Gorup-Besanez was one of the early representatives of clinical chemistry in Germany. He tried to help clinicians by the analysis of urine, blood and tissues. In his lectures and through his books he was an outstanding teacher. His greatest contribution was the discovery of the amino acid valine. The lack of a laboratory in the medical faculty and his dissatisfaction with what could be achieved in clinical chemistry at that time may chiefly explain his move from the medical to the philosophical faculty. The life of von Gorup-Besanez illustrates the difficulties faced by clinical chemistry and its exponents in the middle of the 19th century. PMID:7035607

  2. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Menie, Michael A. Woodley of; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850–2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  3. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. PMID:26653740

  4. English Translations Of The First Clinical Reports On Narcolepsy And Cataplexy By Westphal And Gélineau In The Late 19th Century, With Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To publish the first English translations, with commentary, of the original reports describing narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal in German (1877) and by Gélineau in French (1880). Methods: A professional translation service translated the 2 reports from either German or French to English, with each translation then being slightly edited by one of the authors. All authors then provided commentary. Results: Both Westphal and Gélineau correctly identified and described the new clinical entities of cataplexy and narcolepsy, with recurrent, self-limited sleep attacks and/or cataplectic attacks affecting 2 otherwise healthy people. Narcolepsy was named by Gélineau (and cataplexy was named by Henneberg in 1916). The evidence in both cases is sufficiently convincing to conclude that they were likely each HLA-DQB1*0602 positive and hypocretin deficient. Conclusions: The original descriptions of narcolepsy and cataplexy are now available in English, allowing for extensive clinical and historical commentary. Citations: Schenck CH; Bassetti CL; Arnulf I et al. English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th century, with commentary. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):301–311 PMID:17561602

  5. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Menie, Michael A Woodley Of; Fernandes, Heitor B F; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850-2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  6. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States. PMID:26126403

  7. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13–20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately 1/3 to 1/7 following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection on reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection on survival-related traits. PMID:23730757

  8. Height as an indicator of economic status in the Polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbińska, Grażyna

    2014-09-01

    Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (Łomża, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and Płock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N = 732 men, N = 569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

  9. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework. PMID:27501548

  10. Biodemographic study of a central Apennine area (Italy) in the 19th and 20th centuries: marriage seasonality and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Danubio, M E; Amicone, E

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates seasonality of marriages and reproductive isolation in six long-isolated communities in the central Apennines (Italy). It had two objectives: (1) the identification of an Apennine biodemographic model in comparison with mountain communities of other regions, and with non-Apennine communities in Abruzzo, and (2) to identify the possible effects of the drainage of Lake Fucino (1854-1876) on that area. Marriages in this region show two very stable seasonal patterns: one is typical of sedentary rural societies, with summer migrations and marriages preferentially celebrated in the winter, and the other has marriages that are strongly concentrated in the summer months, i.e. between 75% and 93.5% of marriages were celebrated between June and October in these communities in the 1800s. These were traditionally pastoral communities with winter transhumance of the flocks and their shepherds towards the lowlands of southern Italy. In both groups, restrictions imposed by the Catholic Church do not seem to have affected the timing of marriages. Indeed, economic factors related to work activities seem to have had more influence. Concerning reproductive isolation, the results show high rates of endogamy: between 85% and 98% in both the 19th and 20th centuries. Rates of consanguineous marriages were between 5% and 20%, and those of isonymous marriages rarely exceeded 9%. The coefficient of inbreeding a shows that there was a delayed, limited period of increased consanguinity in the few decades around the turn of the century. This is different from the national situation, and thus could be a consequence of the Lake Fucino drainage. PMID:11446403