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Sample records for 1b high performance

  1. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum. PMID:24490568

  2. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López Grío, Sergio José; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Romero-González, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed and pet foods by UHPLC-MS/MS. Because the complexity of the evaluated matrices, the proposed method is based on sonication extraction using an ACN/water mixture (80:20 v/v) followed by a clean-up step utilising C(18) as sorbent. Performance parameters of the method were evaluated, including linearity, trueness, precision and LOQ. Good linearity was found for all mycotoxins, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99 in the range considered, using matrix-matched calibration for quantification purposes. Recoveries ranged from 84 to 113%, with RSD lower than 20%, whereas LOQs were 5 microg/kg for the assayed mycotoxins. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 real samples, detecting aflatoxin G2 in two samples at 13 and 17 microg/kg respectively, whereas the other mycotoxins were detected at trace levels (

  3. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Luan, Lianjun; Cai, Zengxuan; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Yongjiang

    2010-04-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The approach was characterized in details and a special focus was placed on the recovery rates of isolation procedure in different TCM matrices, i.e. rhizomes and roots, seeds, flowers, grasses and leaves. For this purpose, [(13)C(17)]-aflatoxinB1 was employed as the internal standard and a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method was developed. The observed recovery rates of the six aflatoxins ranged from 85.6% to 117.6% in different matrices. Then, the established method was successfully applied to the determination of the six aflatoxins in various TCMs. For 30 commercial samples analyzed, 16 were contaminated with aflatoxins. The mean levels (incidence) of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in positive samples were 1.40 (68.8%), 1.27 (50.0%), 0.50 (43.8%) and 0.94 (43.8%) microg kg(-1), respectively. Interestingly, aflatoxin M1 was detected in two samples with the maximal content of 0.70 microg kg(-1). No sample was contaminated with aflatoxin M2. Meanwhile, a possible association between the contamination levels and the selected herbs was clarified in the present study. PMID:20363399

  4. High-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Proof-of-concept and antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Eremophila lucida.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Heskes, Allison Maree; Pateraki, Irini; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) constituted 90% of the global 387 million diabetes cases in 2014. The enzyme protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been recognized as a therapeutic target for treatment of T2D and its adverse complications. With the aim of accelerating the investigation of complex natural sources, such as crude plant extracts, for potential PTP1B inhibitors, we have developed a bio-analytical platform combining high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Human recombinant PTP1B enzyme was used for the microplate-based PTP1B inhibition assay, which was optimized for pH and substrate concentration to be compatible with rate measurements within the 10 min incubation time. Subsequently, analytical-scale HPLC-based microfractionation followed by colorimetric microplate-based PTP1B bioassaying enabled construction of a high-resolution inhibition profile corresponding to the HPLC profile. The high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling was validated using an artificial mixture of known PTP1B inhibitors and non-inhibiting compounds as negative controls. Finally, a proof-of-concept study with a real sample was performed using crude ethyl acetate extract of the phytochemically hitherto unexplored plant Eremophila lucida. This led to the identification of the first viscidane type diterpene, i.e., 5-hydroxyviscida-3,14-dien-20-oic acid (9) as PTP1B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 42.0 ± 5.9 μM. In addition, a series of flavonoids, i.e., luteolin (1), dinatin (3a), tricin (3b), 3,6-dimethoxyapigenin (4), jaceidin (5), and cirsimaritin (6) as well as a cembrene diterpene, (3Z, 7E, 11Z)-15-hydroxycembra-3,7,11-trien-19-oic acid (8), were also identified for the first time from E. lucida. PMID:26882973

  5. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure. PMID:23871563

  6. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifen; Han, Zheng; Cai, Zengxuan; Wu, Yongjiang; Ren, Yiping

    2010-03-01

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products was developed. The sample was extracted by 84% of acetonitrile aqueous solution and the extract was purified by a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method. Then, the analytes were separated on Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile/methanol (50/50, v/v). The separated compounds were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electro-spray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), average recovery (74.7-86.8%) and precision (relative standard deviation < or = 10.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of the six aflatoxins in peanuts and their derivative products. Finally, a total of 73 samples randomly collected from different areas in Zhejiang province were screened for aflatoxins with the proposed method. The results showed that 31 samples of peanut butter, 14 samples of fresh peanut and 5 samples of musty peanut were contaminated with aflatoxins. Meanwhile, this was the first report on aflatoxins M1 and M2, which were found in unprocessed peanuts and their derivative products. PMID:20152266

  7. Review of Terra MODIS thermal emissive band L1B radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; Menzel, W. P.; Quinn, Greg

    2014-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Earth Observing System Terra satellite, launched into orbit on 18 December 1999, will have a "first light" 15th anniversary on 24 February 2015. For nearly 15 years the MODIS instrument has provided radiances in all spectral bands. Though some detectors have fallen below SNR thresholds, the vast majority of spectral bands continue to provide high quality L1B measurements for use in L2 science algorithms supporting global climate research. Radiometric accuracy of the Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the C6 L1B product has been assessed using various approaches over the nearly 15 year Terra MODIS data record, including comparisons with instruments on the ground, in aircraft under-flights, and on other satellites. All of these approaches contribute to the understanding of the Terra MODIS radiometric L1B performance. Early in the lifetime of Terra, ground-based measurements and NASA ER-2 aircraft under-flights revealed that TEBs in the infrared window ("window" bands) are well calibrated and performing within accuracy specifications. The ER-2 under-flights also suggested that many atmospheric bands may be performing outside of specification, especially LWIR CO2 sensitive bands that are subject to optical crosstalk, although analysis uncertainties are larger for atmospheric bands. Beginning in 2007, MetOp-A IASI observations were used to evaluate Terra MODIS TEB performance through Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) comparisons. These inter-satellite comparisons largely affirm the early aircraft and ground-based evaluations, showing that all Terra MODIS window bands have small biases, minimal trending, and minor detector and mirror side striping over the 2007-2013 timeframe. Most atmospheric bands are performing satisfactorily near to specification; however, biases, striping and trending are large and significantly out of specification in the water vapor sensitive band 27 and ozone sensitive

  8. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b Deficient Mice Develop Severe Insulin Resistance After Prolonged High Fat Diet Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Teayoun; Moore, John F; Sharer, Jon D; Yang, Kevin; Wood, Philip A; Yang, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    Background Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme governing the entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into mitochondria. Treatments with CPT1 inhibitors protect against insulin resistance in short-term preclinical animal studies. We recently reported that mice with muscle isoform CPT1b deficiency demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity when fed a High Fat-Diet (HFD) for up to 5 months. In this follow up study, we further investigated whether the insulin sensitizing effects of partial CPT1b deficiency could be maintained under a prolonged HFD feeding condition. Methods We investigated the effects of CPT1b deficiency on HFD-induced insulin resistance using heterozygous CPT1b deficient (Cpt1b+/−) mice compared with Wild Type (WT) mice fed a HFD for a prolonged period of time (7 months). We assessed insulin sensitivity using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. We also examined body composition, skeletal muscle lipid profile, and changes in the insulin signaling pathways of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Results We found that Cpt1b+/− mice became severely insulin resistant after 7 months of HFD feeding. Cpt1b+/− mice exhibited a substantially reduced glucose infusion rate and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. While Cpt1b+/− mice maintained a slower weight gain with less fat mass than WT mice, accumulation of lipid intermediates became evident in the muscle of Cpt1b+/− but not WT mice after 7 months of HFD feeding. Insulin signaling was impaired in the Cpt1b+/− as compared to the WT muscles. Conclusion Partial CPT1b deficiency, mimicking CPT1b inhibition, may lead to impaired insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity under a prolonged HFD feeding condition. Therefore, further studies on the potential detrimental effects of prolonged therapy with CPT1 inhibition are necessary in the development of this potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:25580367

  9. High fat diet deviates PtC-specific B1 B cell phagocytosis in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Hung; Chiu, Joanna; Allaimo, Danielle; Mao, Changchuin; Wang, Yaqi; Gong, Yuefei; Ow, Hooisweng; Porter, Tyrone; Zhong, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytosis had been attributed predominantly to “professional” phagocytes such as macrophages, which play critical roles in adipose tissue inflammation. However, recently, macrophage-like phagocytic activity has been reported in B1 B lymphocytes. Intrigued by the long-established correlation between high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and immune dysfunction, we investigated how HFD affects B1 B cell phagocytosis. A significant number of B1 B cells recognize phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common phospholipid component of cell membrane. We report here that unlike macrophages, B1 B cells have a unique PtC-specific phagocytic function. In the presence of both PtC-coated and non-PtC control fluorescent nano-particles, B1 B cells from healthy lean mice selectively engulfed PtC-coated beads, whereas B1 B cells from HFD-fed obese mice non-discriminately phagocytosed both PtC-coated and control beads. Morphologically, B1 B cells from obese mice resembled macrophages, displaying enlarged cytosol and engulfed more beads. Our study suggests for the first time that HFD can affect B1 B cell phagocytosis, substantiating the link of HFD-induced obesity and immune deviation. PMID:25866632

  10. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Jumonji AT-rich Interactive Domain 1B (JARID1B) Histone Demethylase by a Sensitive High Throughput Screen*

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Joyce; Cao, Jian; Zou, Mike Ran; Morales, Alfonso; Blair, Lauren P.; Norcia, Michael; Hoyer, Denton; Tackett, Alan J.; Merkel, Jane S.; Yan, Qin

    2013-01-01

    JARID1B (also known as KDM5B or PLU1) is a member of the JARID1 family of histone lysine demethylases responsible for the demethylation of trimethylated lysine 27 in histone H3 (H3K4me3), a mark for actively transcribed genes. JARID1B is overexpressed in several cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. In addition, JARID1B is required for mammary tumor formation in syngeneic or xenograft mouse models. JARID1B-expressing melanoma cells are associated with increased self-renewal character. Therefore, JARID1B represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here we characterized JARID1B using a homogeneous luminescence-based demethylase assay. We then conducted a high throughput screen of over 15,000 small molecules to identify inhibitors of JARID1B. From this screen, we identified several known JmjC histone demethylase inhibitors, including 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and catechols. More importantly, we identified several novel inhibitors, including 2-4(4-methylphenyl)-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (PBIT), which inhibits JARID1B with an IC50 of about 3 μm in vitro. Consistent with this, PBIT treatment inhibited removal of H3K4me3 by JARID1B in cells. Furthermore, this compound inhibited proliferation of cells expressing higher levels of JARID1B. These results suggest that this novel small molecule inhibitor is a lead compound that can be further optimized for cancer therapy. PMID:23408432

  11. Identification of PTP1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Serrulatanes from Eremophila spp. by Combined use of Dual High-Resolution PTP1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Tahtah, Yousof; Heskes, Allison M; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Pateraki, Irini; Hamberger, Björn; Møller, Birger L; Staerk, Dan

    2016-04-22

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached epidemic proportions, affecting more than 382 million people worldwide. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase is a recognized therapeutic approach for management of T2D and its associated complications. The lack of clinical drugs targeting PTP1B and side effects of the existing α-glucosidase drugs, emphasize the need for new drug leads for these T2D targets. In the present work, dual high-resolution PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibition profiles of Eremophila gibbosa, E. glabra, and E. aff. drummondii "Kalgoorlie" were used for pinpointing α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibitory constituents directly from the crude extracts. A subsequent targeted high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR) analysis and preparative-scale HPLC isolation led to identification of 21 metabolites from the three species, of which 16 were serrulatane-type diterpenoids (12 new) associated with either α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibition. This is the first report of serrulatane-type diterpenoids as potential α-glucosidase and/or PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:26960032

  12. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines – putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) – are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent

  13. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines - putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) - are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent of

  14. High diversity and no significant selection signal of human ADH1B gene in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADH1B is one of the most studied human genes with many polymorphic sites. One of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1229984, coding for the Arg48His substitution, have been associated with many serious diseases including alcoholism and cancers of the digestive system. The derived allele, ADH1B*48His, reaches high frequency only in East Asia and Southwest Asia, and is highly associated with agriculture. Micro-evolutionary study has defined seven haplogroups for ADH1B based on seven SNPs encompassing the gene. Three of those haplogroups, H5, H6, and H7, contain the ADH1B*48His allele. H5 occurs in Southwest Asia and the other two are found in East Asia. H7 is derived from H6 by the derived allele of rs3811801. The H7 haplotype has been shown to have undergone significant positive selection in Han Chinese, Hmong, Koreans, Japanese, Khazak, Mongols, and so on. Methods In the present study, we tested whether Tibetans also showed evidence for selection by typing 23 SNPs in the region covering the ADH1B gene in 1,175 individuals from 12 Tibetan populations representing all districts of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Multiple statistics were estimated to examine the gene diversities and positive selection signals among the Tibetans and other populations in East Asia. Results The larger Tibetan populations (Qamdo, Lhasa, Nagqu, Nyingchi, Shannan, and Shigatse) comprised mostly farmers, have around 12% of H7, and 2% of H6. The smaller populations, living on hunting or recently switched to farming, have lower H7 frequencies (Tingri 9%, Gongbo 8%, Monba and Sherpa 6%). Luoba (2%) and Deng (0%) have even lower frequencies. Long-range haplotype analyses revealed very weak signals of positive selection for H7 among Tibetans. Interestingly, the haplotype diversity of H7 is higher in Tibetans than in any other populations studied, indicating a longer diversification history for that haplogroup in Tibetans. Network analysis on the long-range haplotypes revealed

  15. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Bruns, Jacob M.; Showman, Adam P.; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  16. Discovery of novel, high potent, ABC type PTP1B inhibitors with TCPTP selectivity and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peihong; Du, Yongli; Song, Lianhua; Shen, Jingkang; Li, Qunyi

    2016-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a key negative regulator of both insulin and leptin receptor pathways has been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. With the goal of enhancing potency and selectivity of the PTP1B inhibitors, a series of methyl salicylate derivatives as ABC type PTP1B inhibitors (P1-P7) were discovered. More importantly, compound P6 exhibited high potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50 nM) for PTP1B with 15-fold selectivity over T-cell PTPase (TCPTP). Further studies on cellular activities revealed that compound P6 could enhance insulin-mediated insulin receptor β (IRβ) phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:27123900

  17. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A hot solar heating and hot water system's operational performance from April 1979 through March 1980 is evaluated. The space heating and hot water loads were near expected values for the year. Solar energy provided 43 percent of the space heating and 53 percent of the hot water energy. The system did not meet the total system solar fraction design value of 69 percent because of a combination of higher estimated space heating load than was actually encountered and the apportioning of solar energy between the space heating and the domestic hot water loads. System losses and high building temperatures also contributed to this deviation. Total net savings were 23.072 million BTUs. Most of the energy savings came during the winter months, but hot water savings were sufficient to justify running the system during the summer months.

  18. Rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of modular fluorogenic substrates with high affinity and selectivity for PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, Silvano; Perruccio, Francesca; Piizzi, Grazia

    2014-05-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key regulatory enzyme in several signal transduction pathways, and its upregulation has been associated with type-2 diabetes, obesity and cancer. Selective determination of the functional significance of PTP1B remains a major challenge because the activity of this crucial enzyme is currently evaluated through the use of fluorescent probes that lack selectivity and are limited to biochemical assays. Here we describe the rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new modular PTP1B fluorogenic substrates. The self-immolative 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol has been used as a key component for the design of phosphotyrosine mimics linked to a latent chromophore, which is released through an enzyme-initiated domino reaction. Preliminary biological investigations showed that, by optimising the stereoelectronic properties and the binding interactions at the enzyme active site, it is possible to achieve substrates with high affinity and promising selectivity. Due to their modular nature, the synthesised fluorogenic probes represent versatile tools; customisation of the different subunits could widen the scope of these probes to a broader range of in vitro assays. Finally, these studies elucidate the critical role played by Asp181 in the PTP1B-catalysed dephosphorylation mechanism: disruption of the native conformation of this key amino acid residue on the WDP loop yields fluorogenic inhibitors, rather than substrates. For this reason, our studies also represent a step forward for the development of improved PTP1B noncovalent inhibitors. PMID:24719298

  19. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  20. Correspondence of high levels of beta-exotoxin I and the presence of cry1B in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, Sylvain; Gohar, Michel; Chaufaux, Josette; Buisson, Christophe; Perchat, Stéphane; Sanchis, Vincent

    2002-09-01

    Examination of 640 natural isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis showed that the 58 strains (9%) whose supernatants were toxic to Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) produced between 10 and 175 micro g of beta-exotoxin I per ml. We also found that 55 (46%) of a sample of 118 strains whose culture supernatants were not toxic to A. grandis nevertheless produced between 2 and 5 micro g/ml. However, these amounts of beta-exotoxin I were below the threshold for detectable toxicity against this insect species. Secretion of large amounts of beta-exotoxin I was strongly associated with the presence of cry1B and vip2 genes in the 640 natural B. thuringiensis isolates studied. We concluded that strains carrying cry1B and vip2 genes also possess, on the same plasmid, genetic determinants necessary to promote high levels of production of beta-exotoxin I. PMID:12200263

  1. CYP1B1 deficiency ameliorates obesity and glucose intolerance induced by high fat diet in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaocong; Huang, Tingting; Li, Lu; Tang, Yumeng; Tian, Yatao; Wang, Suqing; Fan, Cuifang

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression increases in multi-potential mesenchymal stromal cells C3H10T1/2 during adipogenesis, which parallel with PPARγ, a critical transcriptional factor in adipogenic process. To assess the role of CYP1B1 in fatty acid metabolism, adult C57BL/6J wild-type and CYP1B1 deficiency mice were fed with high fat diets (HFD) for 6 weeks. CYP1B1 deficiency attenuated HFD-induced obesity when compared with their wild type counterparts, and improve glucose tolerance. The reduction in body weight gain and white adipose tissue in CYP1B1 deficient mice exhibited coordinate decreases in fatty acid synthesis (PPARγ, CD36, FAS, SCD-1) and increases in fatty acid oxidation (UCP-2, CPT-1a) when compared with wild type ones. Lower hepatocyte TG contents were consistent with hepatic Oil-Red-O staining in the CYP1B1 deficiency mice. AMPK, a nutrient sensors for energy homeostasis, was activated in both fat pad and liver by CYP1B1 deficiency. However, in vitro system, knock down CYP1B1 in C3H10T1/2 cells does not abolish adipogenesis induced by adipogenic agents IDM (Insulin, Dexamethasone, Methylisobutylxanthine). Our in vivo and in vitro findings of CYP1B1 deficiency in fat metabolism suggest a complex regulation network between CYP1B1 and energy homeostasis. PMID:26064443

  2. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  3. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  4. The T4 Phage SF1B Helicase Dda Is Structurally Optimized to Perform DNA Strand Separation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiaoping; Byrd, Alicia K.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Pemble IV, Charles W.; Harrison, David; Yeruva, Laxmi; Dahl, Christopher; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; Raney, Kevin D.; White, Stephen W.

    2012-10-16

    Helicases move on DNA via an ATP binding and hydrolysis mechanism coordinated by well-characterized helicase motifs. However, the translocation along single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and the strand separation of double-stranded (dsDNA) may be loosely or tightly coupled. Dda is a phage T4 SF1B helicase with sequence homology to the Pif1 family of helicases that tightly couples translocation to strand separation. The crystal structure of the Dda-ssDNA binary complex reveals a domain referred to as the pin that was previously thought to remain static during strand separation. The pin contains a conserved phenylalanine that mediates a transient base-stacking interaction that is absolutely required for separation of dsDNA. The pin is secured at its tip by protein-protein interactions through an extended SH3 domain thereby creating a rigid strut. The conserved interface between the pin and the SH3 domain provides the mechanism for tight coupling of translocation to strand separation.

  5. Production and Screening of High Yield Avermectin B1b Mutant of Streptomyces avermitilis 41445 Through Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Samia; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary metabolite production from wild strains is very low for economical purpose therefore certain strain improvement strategies are required to achieve hundred times greater yield of metabolites. Most important strain improvement techniques include physical and chemical mutagenesis. Broad spectrum mutagenesis through UV irradiation is the most important and convenient physical method. Objectives: The present study was conducted for enhanced production of avermectin B1b from Streptomyces avermitilis 41445 by mutagenesis using ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ethidium bromide (EB), and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as mutagens. Materials and Methods: S. avermitilis DSM 41445 maintained on yeast extract malt extract glucose medium (YMG) was used as inoculum for SM2 fermentation medium. Spores of S. avermitilis DSM 41445 were exposed to UV radiation for physical broad spectrum mutagenesis and to EMS and EB for chemical mutagenesis. For each mutagen, the lethality rate and mutation rate were calculated along with positive mutation rate. Results: Avermectin B1b-hyper-producing mutant, produced using these three different methods, was selected according to the HPLC results. The mutant obtained after 45 minutes of UV radiation to the spores of S. avermitilis 41445, was found to be the best mutant for the enhanced production of avermectin B1b component (254.14 mg/L). Other avermectin B1b-hyper-producing mutants, were obtained from EMS (1 µL/mL) and EB (30 µL/mL) treatments, and yielded 202.63 mg/L and 199.30 mg/L of B1b, respectively. Conclusions: The hereditary stability analysis of the UV mentioning 45 minutes revealed the UV exposure time for mutants and 3 represented the colony taken from the plate irradiated for 45 minutes mutant showed that the production of avermectin B1b remained constant and no reverse mutation occurred after 15 generations. PMID:25147669

  6. High performance polymer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The term high performance as applied to polymers is generally associated with polymers that operate at high temperatures. High performance is used to describe polymers that perform at temperatures of 177 C or higher. In addition to temperature, other factors obviously influence the performance of polymers such as thermal cycling, stress level, and environmental effects. Some recent developments at NASA Langley in polyimides, poly(arylene ethers), and acetylenic terminated materials are discussed. The high performance/high temperature polymers discussed are representative of the type of work underway at NASA Langley Research Center. Further improvement in these materials as well as the development of new polymers will provide technology to help meet NASA future needs in high performance/high temperature applications. In addition, because of the combination of properties offered by many of these polymers, they should find use in many other applications.

  7. Environmental Performance Report 2013: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1B (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect

    Schlomberg, K.; Eickhoff, J.; Beatty, B.; Braus, G.; Durbin, L.; Fiehweg, R.; Ray, M.; Ryon, T.; Schmitz, E.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2013, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  8. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  9. PTP1B Deficiency Enables the Ability of a High-Fat Diet to Drive the Invasive Character of PTEN-Deficient Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    Labbé, David P; Uetani, Noriko; Vinette, Valérie; Lessard, Laurent; Aubry, Isabelle; Migon, Eva; Sirois, Jacinthe; Haigh, Jody J; Bégin, Louis R; Trotman, Lloyd C; Paquet, Marilène; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-06-01

    Diet affects the risk and progression of prostate cancer, but the interplay between diet and genetic alterations in this disease is not understood. Here we present genetic evidence in the mouse showing that prostate cancer progression driven by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten is mainly unresponsive to a high-fat diet (HFD), but that coordinate loss of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn1 (encoding PTP1B) enables a highly invasive disease. Prostate cancer in Pten(-/-)Ptpn1(-/-) mice was characterized by increased cell proliferation and Akt activation, interpreted to reflect a heightened sensitivity to IGF-1 stimulation upon HFD feeding. Prostate-specific overexpression of PTP1B was not sufficient to initiate prostate cancer, arguing that it acted as a diet-dependent modifier of prostate cancer development in Pten(-/-) mice. Our findings offer a preclinical rationale to investigate the anticancer effects of PTP1B inhibitors currently being studied clinically for diabetes treatment as a new modality for management of prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3130-5. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020859

  10. High Performance Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venumbaka, Sreenivasulu R.; Cassidy, Patrick E.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes results from research on high performance polymers. The research areas proposed in this report include: 1) Effort to improve the synthesis and to understand and replicate the dielectric behavior of 6HC17-PEK; 2) Continue preparation and evaluation of flexible, low dielectric silicon- and fluorine- containing polymers with improved toughness; and 3) Synthesis and characterization of high performance polymers containing the spirodilactam moiety.

  11. Simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and niacinamide in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by paired-ion reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, R P; Rose, W P; Tabor, R; Pattison, T S

    1981-09-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and niacinamide in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations was developed and evaluated. The method uses paired-ion reversed-phase partition chromatography for baseline separation of the four water-soluble vitamins. This method was applied to the analysis of a multivitamin and multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and a technique was developed to reduce vitamin adsorption by the minerals. The results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by the official methods. It was concluded that this method is fast, accurate, specific, and suitable for routine quality control use. PMID:6101144

  12. High performance polymeric foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-08-28

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  13. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. High-Performance Happy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the high-performance computing (HPC) systems used to conduct research at universities have amounted to silos of technology scattered across the campus and falling under the purview of the researchers themselves. This article reports that a growing number of universities are now taking over the management of those systems and…

  15. High Performance, Dependable Multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Jeremy; Samson, John R.; Troxel, Ian; Subramaniyan, Rajagopal; Jacobs, Adam; Greco, James; Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Curreri, John; Fischer, Michael; Grobelny, Eric; George, Alan; Aggarwal, Vikas; Patel, Minesh; Some, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    With the ever increasing demand for higher bandwidth and processing capacity of today's space exploration, space science, and defense missions, the ability to efficiently apply commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processors for on-board computing is now a critical need. In response to this need, NASA's New Millennium Program office has commissioned the development of Dependable Multiprocessor (DM) technology for use in payload and robotic missions. The Dependable Multiprocessor technology is a COTS-based, power efficient, high performance, highly dependable, fault tolerant cluster computer. To date, Honeywell has successfully demonstrated a TRL4 prototype of the Dependable Multiprocessor [I], and is now working on the development of a TRLS prototype. For the present effort Honeywell has teamed up with the University of Florida's High-performance Computing and Simulation (HCS) Lab, and together the team has demonstrated major elements of the Dependable Multiprocessor TRLS system.

  16. RUNX1B Expression Is Highly Heterogeneous and Distinguishes Megakaryocytic and Erythroid Lineage Fate in Adult Mouse Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Julia E.; Sroczynska, Patrycja; Tsoulaki, Olga; Leong, Hui Sun; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z. H.; Miller, Crispin; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    The Core Binding Factor (CBF) protein RUNX1 is a master regulator of definitive hematopoiesis, crucial for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence during ontogeny. RUNX1 also plays vital roles in adult mice, in regulating the correct specification of numerous blood lineages. Akin to the other mammalian Runx genes, Runx1 has two promoters P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal) which generate distinct protein isoforms. The activities and specific relevance of these two promoters in adult hematopoiesis remain to be fully elucidated. Utilizing a dual reporter mouse model we demonstrate that the distal P1 promoter is broadly active in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. By contrast the activity of the proximal P2 promoter is more restricted and its upregulation, in both the immature Lineage- Sca1high cKithigh (LSK) and bipotential Pre-Megakaryocytic/Erythroid Progenitor (PreMegE) populations, coincides with a loss of erythroid (Ery) specification. Accordingly the PreMegE population can be prospectively separated into “pro-erythroid” and “pro-megakaryocyte” populations based on Runx1 P2 activity. Comparative gene expression analyses between Runx1 P2+ and P2- populations indicated that levels of CD34 expression could substitute for P2 activity to distinguish these two cell populations in wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM). Prospective isolation of these two populations will enable the further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in megakaryocytic/erythroid (Mk/Ery) cell fate decisions. Having characterized the extensive activity of P1, we utilized a P1-GFP homozygous mouse model to analyze the impact of the complete absence of Runx1 P1 expression in adult mice and observed strong defects in the T cell lineage. Finally, we investigated how the leukemic fusion protein AML1-ETO9a might influence Runx1 promoter usage. Short-term AML1-ETO9a induction in BM resulted in preferential P2 upregulation, suggesting its expression may be important to

  17. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-12-31

    DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

  18. High Performance FORTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1994-01-01

    High performance FORTRAN is a set of extensions for FORTRAN 90 designed to allow specification of data parallel algorithms. The programmer annotates the program with distribution directives to specify the desired layout of data. The underlying programming model provides a global name space and a single thread of control. Explicitly parallel constructs allow the expression of fairly controlled forms of parallelism in particular data parallelism. Thus the code is specified in a high level portable manner with no explicit tasking or communication statements. The goal is to allow architecture specific compilers to generate efficient code for a wide variety of architectures including SIMD, MIMD shared and distributed memory machines.

  19. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  20. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  1. ESA Swarm Mission - Level 1b Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Floberghagen, Rune; Mecozzi, Riccardo; Menard, Yvon

    2014-05-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. The Level 1b Products of the Swarm mission contain time-series of the quality screened, calibrated, corrected, and fully geo-localized measurements of the magnetic field intensity, the magnetic field vector (provided in both instrument and Earth-fixed frames), the plasma density, temperature, and velocity. Additionally, quality screened and pre-calibrated measurements of the nongravitational accelerations are provided. Geo-localization is performed by 24- channel GPS receivers and by means of unique, three head Advanced Stellar Compasses for high-precision satellite attitude information. The Swarm Level 1b data will be provided in daily products separately for each of the three Swarm spacecrafts. This poster will present detailed lists of the contents of the Swarm Level 1b Products and brief descriptions of the processing algorithms used in the generation of these data.

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  3. High Performance Work Practices and Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Office of the American Workplace.

    A literature survey established that a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between productivity and the following specific high performance work practices: employee involvement in decision making, compensation linked to firm or worker performance, and training. According to these studies, high performance work…

  4. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  5. Possible modulation of FAS and PTP-1B signaling in ameliorative potential of Bombax ceiba against high fat diet induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bombax ceiba Linn., commonly called as Semal, is used in various gastro-intestinal disturbances. It contains Lupeol which inhibits PTP-1B, adipogenesis, TG synthesis and accumulation of lipids in adipocytes and adipokines whereas the flavonoids isolated from B. ceiba has FAS inhibitory activity. The present study was aimed to investigate ameliorative potential of Bombax ceiba to experimental obesity in Wistar rats, and its possible mechanism of action. Methods Male Wistar albino rats weighing 180-220 g were employed in present study. Experimental obesity was induced by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Methanolic extract of B. ceiba extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and Gemfibrozil 50 mg/kg as standard drug were given orally from 7th to 10th week. Results Induction with HFD for 10 weeks caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in % body wt, BMI, LEE indices; serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, free fatty acid, ALT, AST; tissue TBARS, nitrate/nitrite levels; different fat pads and relative liver weight; and significant decrease in food intake (g and kcal), serum HDL and tissue glutathione levels in HFD control rats. Treatment with B. ceiba extract and Gemfibrozil significantly attenuated these HFD induced changes, as compared to HFD control. The effect of B. ceiba 200 and 400 mg/kg was more pronounced in comparison to Gemfibrozil. Conclusion On the basis of results obtained, it may be concluded that the methanolic extract of stem bark of Bombax ceiba has significant ameliorative potential against HFD induced obesity in rats, possibly through modulation of FAS and PTP-1B signaling due to the presence of flavonoids and lupeol. PMID:24160453

  6. High-throughput screen for inhibitors of transglycosylase and/or transpeptidase activities of Escherichia coli penicillin binding protein 1b.

    PubMed

    Chandrakala, B; Shandil, Radha K; Mehra, Upasana; Ravishankar, Sudha; Kaur, Parvinder; Usha, Veeraraghavan; Joe, Bina; deSousa, Sunita M

    2004-01-01

    Penicillin binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli has both transglycosylase and transpeptidase activities, which are attractive targets for the discovery of new antibacterial agents. A high-throughput assay that detects inhibitors of the PBPs was described previously, but it cannot distinguish them from inhibitors of the MraY, MurG, and lipid pyrophosphorylase. We report on a method that distinguishes inhibitors of both activities of the PBPs from those of the other three enzymes. Radioactive peptidoglycan was synthesized by using E. coli membranes. Following termination of the reaction the products were analyzed in three ways. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-coated scintillation proximity assay (SPA) beads were added to one set, and the same beads together with a detergent were added to a second set. Type A polyethylenimine-coated WGA-coated SPA beads were added to a third set. By comparison of the results of assays run in parallel under the first two conditions, inhibitors of the transpeptidase and transglycosylase could be distinguished from inhibitors of the other enzymes, as the inhibitors of the other enzymes showed similar inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) under both conditions but the inhibitors of the PBPs showed insignificant inhibition in the absence of detergent. Furthermore, comparison of the results of assays run under conditions two and three enabled the distinction of transpeptidase inhibitors. Penicillin and other beta-lactams showed insignificant inhibition with type A beads compared with that shown with WGA-coated SPA beads plus detergent. However, inhibitors of the other four enzymes (tunicamycin, nisin, bacitracin, and moenomycin) showed similar IC(50)s under both conditions. We show that the main PBP being measured under these conditions is PBP 1b. This screen can be used to find novel transglycosylase or transpeptidase inhibitors. PMID:14693515

  7. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  8. High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A review of 17 studies of high-performance work systems concludes that benefits of employee involvement, skill training, and other high-performance work practices tend to be greater when new methods are adopted as part of a consistent whole. (Author)

  9. High Performance Network Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Jesse E

    2012-08-10

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  10. Commoditization of High Performance Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Studham, Scott S.

    2004-04-01

    The commoditization of high performance computers started in the late 80s with the attack of the killer micros. Previously, high performance computers were exotic vector systems that could only be afforded by an illustrious few. Now everyone has a supercomputer composed of clusters of commodity processors. A similar commoditization of high performance storage has begun. Commodity disks are being used for high performance storage, enabling a paradigm change in storage and significantly changing the price point of high volume storage.

  11. High Performance Computing Today

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Meuer,Hans; Simon,Horst D.; Strohmaier,Erich

    2000-04-01

    In last 50 years, the field of scientific computing has seen a rapid change of vendors, architectures, technologies and the usage of systems. Despite all these changes the evolution of performance on a large scale however seems to be a very steady and continuous process. Moore's Law is often cited in this context. If the authors plot the peak performance of various computers of the last 5 decades in Figure 1 that could have been called the supercomputers of their time they indeed see how well this law holds for almost the complete lifespan of modern computing. On average they see an increase in performance of two magnitudes of order every decade.

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Naphthalene: the 000 and 3301 Bands of the A~1B1u<--X~1Ag Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Duck-Lae; Takahashi, Rika; O'Reilly, John; Katô, Hajime; Baba, Masaaki

    2002-09-01

    Rotationally resolved excitation spectra of the 0 00 and 33 01 bands of the Ã1B1 u← X˜1Ag electronic transition of naphthalene were measured by a frequency-doubled single-mode tunable laser and a jet-cooled collimated molecular beam. The observed linewidth was 18 MHz, and the absolute wavenumber was determined with an accuracy of better than 0.0002 cm -1. The molecular constants of the X˜1Ag( v=0), Ã1B1 u( v=0), and Ã1B1 u( v33=1) levels were determined and represent the most accurate measurements to date. Three rotational constants were sufficient to fit 3386 lines of J=1-43 and Ka=0-21 with a standard deviation 0.0002 cm -1. This indicates that the molecular structures are rigid both in the X˜1Ag and Ã1B1 u states. When a magnetic field was applied, spectral line broadening was observed for levels with small Ka value in the Ã1B1 u( v33=1) state, and the Zeeman splitting was observed to increase with increasing J. No broadening, however, was observed in the 0 00 band up to H=0.65 T.

  13. High Voltage TAL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Manzella, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage, anode layer Hall thruster was evaluated. Experiments were conducted in single and two-stage configurations. In single-stage configuration, the thruster was operated with discharge voltages ranging from 300 to 1700 V. Discharge specific impulses ranged from 1630 to 4140 sec. Thruster investigations were conducted with input power ranging from 1 to 8.7 kW, corresponding to power throttling of nearly 9: 1. An extensive two-stage performance map was generated. Data taken with total voltage (sum of discharge and accelerating voltage) constant revealed a decrease in thruster efficiency as the discharge voltage was increased. Anode specific impulse values were comparable in the single and two-stage configurations showing no strong advantage for two-stage operation.

  14. High Performance Arcjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, Elliot B.; Ivanov, Alexey Nikolayevich; Nikolayev, Yuri Vyacheslavovich

    1994-01-01

    This effort sought to exploit advanced single crystal tungsten-tantalum alloy material for fabrication of a high strength, high temperature arcjet anode. The use of this material is expected to result in improved strength, temperature resistance, and lifetime compared to state of the art polycrystalline alloys. In addition, the use of high electrical and thermal conductivity carbon-carbon composites was considered, and is believed to be a feasible approach. Highly conductive carbon-carbon composite anode capability represents enabling technology for rotating-arc designs derived from the Russian Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes (NIITP) because of high heat fluxes at the anode surface. However, for US designs the anode heat flux is much smaller, and thus the benefits are not as great as in the case of NIITP-derived designs. Still, it does appear that the tensile properties of carbon-carbon can be even better than those of single crystal tungsten alloys, especially when nearly-single-crystal fibers such as vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) are used. Composites fabricated from such materials must be coated with a refractory carbide coating in order to ensure compatibility with high temperature hydrogen. Fabrication of tungsten alloy single crystals in the sizes required for fabrication of an arcjet anode has been shown to be feasible. Test data indicate that the material can be expected to be at least the equal of W-Re-HfC polycrystalline alloy in terms of its tensile properties, and possibly superior. We are also informed by our colleagues at Scientific Production Association Luch (NP0 Luch) that it is possible to use Russian technology to fabricate polycrystalline W-Re-HfC or other high strength alloys if desired. This is important because existing engines must rely on previously accumulated stocks of these materials, and a fabrication capability for future requirements is not assured.

  15. High performance cyclone development

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of cold flow experiments at atmospheric conditions of an air-shielded 18 in-dia electrocyclone with a central cusped electrode are reported using fine test dusts of both flyash and nickel powder. These results are found to confirm expectations of enhanced performance, similar to earlier work on a 12 in-dia model. An analysis of the combined inertial-electrostatic force field is also presented which identifies general design goals and scaling laws. From this, it is found that electrostatic enhancement will be particularly beneficial for fine dusts in large cyclones. Recommendations for further improvement in cyclone collection efficiency are proposed.

  16. START High Performance Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.

    1997-11-01

    Improvements to START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak), the first spherical tokamak in the world to achieve high plasma temperature with both a significant pulse length and confinement time, have been ongoing since 1991. Recent modifications include: expansion of the existing capacitor banks allowing plasma currents as high as 300kA, an increase in the available neutral beam heating power ( ~ 500kW), and improvements to the vacuum system. These improvements have led to the achievement of the world record plasma β (≡ 2μ_0 /B^2) of ~ 30% in a tokamak. The normalised β ( βN ≡ β aB/I_p) reached 4.5 with q_95 = 2.3. Properties of the reconstructed equilibrium will be discussed in detail. The theoretical limit to β is higher in a spherical tokamak than in a conventional machine, due to the higher values of normalised current (IN ≡ I_p/aB) achievable at low aspect ratio. The record β was achieved with IN ~ 8 while conventional tokamaks are limited to IN ~ 3, or less. Calculations of the ideal MHD stability of the record discharge indicate high β low-n kink modes are stable, but that the entire profile is at or near marginal stability for high-n ballooning modes. The phenomenology of the events leading up to the plasma termination is discussed. An important aspect of the START program is to explore the physics of neutral beam absorption at low aspect ratio. A passive neutral particle analyser has been used to study the temporal and spatial dependence of the fast hydrogen beam ions. These measurements have been used in conjunction with a single particle orbit code to estimate the fast ion losses due to collisions with slow neutrals from the plasma edge. Numerical analysis of neutral beam power deposition profiles are compared with the data from an instrumented beam stop. The global energy confinement time τE in beam heated discharges on START is similar to that obtained in Ohmic discharges, even though the input power has roughly doubled over the Ohmic case

  17. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  18. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  19. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  20. Environmental Performance Report 2011: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1B (Management Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: NREL's Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the lab's environmental activities for 2011 including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes.

  1. High performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Winkelman, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Electroformed copper and nickel are used in structural applications for advanced propellant combustion chambers. An improved process has been developed by Bell Aerospace Textron, Inc. wherein electroformed nickel-manganese alloy has demonstrated superior mechanical and thermal stability when compared to previously reported deposits from known nickel plating processes. Solution chemistry and parametric operating procedures are now established and material property data is established for deposition of thick, large complex shapes such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The critical operating variables are those governing the ratio of codeposited nickel and manganese. The deposition uniformity which in turn affects the manganese concentration distribution is affected by solution resistance and geometric effects as well as solution agitation. The manganese concentration in the deposit must be between 2000 and 3000 ppm for optimum physical properties to be realized. The study also includes data regarding deposition procedures for achieving excellent bond strength at an interface with copper, nickel-manganese or INCONEL 718. Applications for this electroformed material include fabrication of complex or re-entry shapes which would be difficult or impossible to form from high strength alloys such as INCONEL 718.

  2. High Poverty, High Performing Schools. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles on high performance by poor Texas schools. In "Principal of National Blue Ribbon School Says High Poverty Schools Can Excel" (interview with Robert Zarate by Christie L. Goodman), the principal of Mary Hull Elementary School (San Antonio, Texas) describes how the high-poverty, high-minority school…

  3. High Performance Fortran: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Zosel, M.E.

    1992-12-23

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the work of the High Performance Fortran Forum (HPFF). This group of industry, academic, and user representatives has been meeting to define a set of extensions for Fortran dedicated to the special problems posed by a very high performance computers, especially the new generation of parallel computers. The paper describes the HPFF effort and its goals and gives a brief description of the functionality of High Performance Fortran (HPF).

  4. Aldo-keto Reductase 1B15 (AKR1B15)

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Susanne; Salabei, Joshua K.; Möller, Gabriele; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Adamski, Jerzy; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) comprise a superfamily of proteins involved in the reduction and oxidation of biogenic and xenobiotic carbonyls. In humans, at least 15 AKR superfamily members have been identified so far. One of these is a newly identified gene locus, AKR1B15, which clusters on chromosome 7 with the other human AKR1B subfamily members (i.e. AKR1B1 and AKR1B10). We show that alternative splicing of the AKR1B15 gene transcript gives rise to two protein isoforms with different N termini: AKR1B15.1 is a 316-amino acid protein with 91% amino acid identity to AKR1B10; AKR1B15.2 has a prolonged N terminus and consists of 344 amino acid residues. The two gene products differ in their expression level, subcellular localization, and activity. In contrast with other AKR enzymes, which are mostly cytosolic, AKR1B15.1 co-localizes with the mitochondria. Kinetic studies show that AKR1B15.1 is predominantly a reductive enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of androgens and estrogens with high positional selectivity (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity) as well as 3-keto-acyl-CoA conjugates and exhibits strong cofactor selectivity toward NADP(H). In accordance with its substrate spectrum, the enzyme is expressed at the highest levels in steroid-sensitive tissues, namely placenta, testis, and adipose tissue. Placental and adipose expression could be reproduced in the BeWo and SGBS cell lines, respectively. In contrast, AKR1B15.2 localizes to the cytosol and displays no enzymatic activity with the substrates tested. Collectively, these results demonstrate the existence of a novel catalytically active AKR, which is associated with mitochondria and expressed mainly in steroid-sensitive tissues. PMID:25577493

  5. Processing TES Level-1B Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBaca, Richard C.; Sarkissian, Edwin; Madatyan, Mariyetta; Shepard, Douglas; Gluck, Scott; Apolinski, Mark; McDuffie, James; Tremblay, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    TES L1B Subsystem is a computer program that performs several functions for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The term "L1B" (an abbreviation of "level 1B"), refers to data, specific to the TES, on radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESRs), plus ancillary geolocation, quality, and engineering data. The functions performed by TES L1B Subsystem include shear analysis, monitoring of signal levels, detection of ice build-up, and phase correction and radiometric and spectral calibration of TES target data. Also, the program computes NESRs for target spectra, writes scientific TES level-1B data to hierarchical- data-format (HDF) files for public distribution, computes brightness temperatures, and quantifies interpixel signal variability for the purpose of first-order cloud and heterogeneous land screening by the level-2 software summarized in the immediately following article. This program uses an in-house-developed algorithm, called "NUSRT," to correct instrument line-shape factors.

  6. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  7. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Samuel J.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies where in the scheme of modern chromatography high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) fits and why in some situations it is a viable alternative to gas and high performance liquid chromatography. New TLC plates, sample applications, plate development, and instrumental techniques are considered. (JN)

  8. Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and analysis of its subclades in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Reguig, Ahmed; Harich, Nourdin; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Rouba, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from northern, central, and southern Morocco to characterize frequency of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183, and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183, and M165. A large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belonged to the Y-chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1% to 98.5% in all localities sampled. E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, ranging from 65.1% to 83.1%. In contrast, the E1b1b1b1-M107 and E1b1b1b2a-M165 subclades were not found in our samples. Our results suggest a predominance of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup among Moroccan Berber-speaking males with a decreasing gradient from south to north. The most prevalent subclade in this haplogroup was E1b1b1b2-M183, for which diffferences among these three groups were statistically significant between central and southern groups. PMID:25397701

  9. Allele mining across DREB1A and DREB1B in diverse rice genotypes suggest a highly conserved pathway inducible by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Challam, Clarissa; Ghosh, Tapu; Rai, Mayank; Tyagi, Wricha

    2015-06-01

    Low temperature stress is one of the major limiting factors affecting rice productivity in higher altitudes. DREB1A and DREB1B, are two transcription factors that have been reported to play key regulatory role in low temperature tolerance. In order to understand whether natural genetic variation in these two loci leads to cold tolerance or susceptibility, OsDREB1A and OsDREB1B were targeted across several rice genotypes showing differential response to low temperature. Expression data suggests induction of gene expression in shoots in response to low temperature in both tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Upon sequence analysis of 20 rice genotypes, eight nucleotide changes were identified including two in the coding region and six in the 5'UTR. None of the discovered novel variations lie in the conserved region of the genes under study, thereby causing little or no changes in putative function of the corresponding proteins. In silico analysis using a diverse set of 400 O. sativa revealed much lower nucleotide diversity estimates across two DREB loci and one other gene (MYB2) involved in DREB pathway than those observed for other rice genes. None of the changes showed association with seedling stage cold tolerance, suggesting that nucleotide changes in DREB loci are unlikely to contribute to low temperature tolerance. So far, data concerning the physiological role and regulation of DREB1 in different genetic background are very limited; it is to be expected that they will be studied extensively in the near future. PMID:26174670

  10. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  11. KELT-1b: A STRONGLY IRRADIATED, HIGHLY INFLATED, SHORT PERIOD, 27 JUPITER-MASS COMPANION TRANSITING A MID-F STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Scott Gaudi, B.; Eastman, Jason D.; Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Collins, Karen; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Crepp, Justin R.; DePoy, D. L.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present the discovery of KELT-1b, the first transiting low-mass companion from the wide-field Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-North (KELT-North) transit survey. A joint analysis of the spectroscopic, radial velocity, and photometric data indicates that the V = 10.7 primary is a mildly evolved mid-F star with T{sub eff} = 6516 {+-} 49 K, log g 4.228{sup +0.014}{sub -0.021}, and [Fe/H] = 0.052 {+-} 0.079, with an inferred mass M{sub *} = 1.335 {+-} 0.063 M{sub Sun} and radius R{sub *} 1.471{sup +0.045}{sub -0.035} R{sub Sun }. The companion is a low-mass brown dwarf or a super-massive planet with mass M{sub P} = 27.38 {+-} 0.93 M{sub Jup} and radius R{sub P} = 1.116{sup +0.038}{sub -0.029} R{sub Jup}. The companion is on a very short ({approx}29 hr) period circular orbit, with an ephemeris T{sub c} (BJD{sub TDB}) = 2455909.29280 {+-} 0.00023 and P = 1.217501 {+-} 0.000018 days. KELT-1b receives a large amount of stellar insolation, resulting in an estimated equilibrium temperature assuming zero albedo and perfect redistribution of T{sub eq} = 2423{sup +34}{sub -27} K. Comparison with standard evolutionary models suggests that the radius of KELT-1b is likely to be significantly inflated. Adaptive optics imaging reveals a candidate stellar companion to KELT-1 with a separation of 588 {+-} 1 mas, which is consistent with an M dwarf if it is at the same distance as the primary. Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements during transit imply a projected spin-orbit alignment angle {lambda} = 2 {+-} 16 deg, consistent with a zero obliquity for KELT-1. Finally, the vsin I{sub *} = 56 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1} of the primary is consistent at {approx}2{sigma} with tidal synchronization. Given the extreme parameters of the KELT-1 system, we expect it to provide an important testbed for theories of the emplacement and evolution of short-period companions, as well as theories of tidal dissipation and irradiated brown dwarf atmospheres.

  12. KELT-1b: A Strongly Irradiated, Highly Inflated, Short Period, 27 Jupiter-mass Companion Transiting a Mid-F Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Pepper, Joshua; Eastman, Jason D.; Collins, Karen; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Crepp, Justin R.; Street, Rachel; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; DePoy, D. L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Fűrész, Gábor; Geary, John C.; Gould, Andrew; Hebb, Leslie; Kielkopf, John F.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Pogge, Richard; Stanek, K. Z.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia; Stutz, Amelia M.; van Saders, Jennifer L.

    2012-12-01

    We present the discovery of KELT-1b, the first transiting low-mass companion from the wide-field Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-North (KELT-North) transit survey. A joint analysis of the spectroscopic, radial velocity, and photometric data indicates that the V = 10.7 primary is a mildly evolved mid-F star with T eff = 6516 ± 49 K, log g = 4.228+0.014 -0.021, and [Fe/H] = 0.052 ± 0.079, with an inferred mass M * = 1.335 ± 0.063 M ⊙ and radius R * = 1.471+0.045 -0.035 R ⊙. The companion is a low-mass brown dwarf or a super-massive planet with mass MP = 27.38 ± 0.93 M Jup and radius RP = 1.116+0.038 -0.029 R Jup. The companion is on a very short (~29 hr) period circular orbit, with an ephemeris Tc (BJDTDB) = 2455909.29280 ± 0.00023 and P = 1.217501 ± 0.000018 days. KELT-1b receives a large amount of stellar insolation, resulting in an estimated equilibrium temperature assuming zero albedo and perfect redistribution of T eq = 2423+34 -27 K. Comparison with standard evolutionary models suggests that the radius of KELT-1b is likely to be significantly inflated. Adaptive optics imaging reveals a candidate stellar companion to KELT-1 with a separation of 588 ± 1 mas, which is consistent with an M dwarf if it is at the same distance as the primary. Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements during transit imply a projected spin-orbit alignment angle λ = 2 ± 16 deg, consistent with a zero obliquity for KELT-1. Finally, the vsin I * = 56 ± 2 km s-1 of the primary is consistent at ~2σ with tidal synchronization. Given the extreme parameters of the KELT-1 system, we expect it to provide an important testbed for theories of the emplacement and evolution of short-period companions, as well as theories of tidal dissipation and irradiated brown dwarf atmospheres.

  13. High performance flexible heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  14. High performance dielectric materials development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piche, Joe; Kirchner, Ted; Jayaraj, K.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of polymer composites materials technology is to develop materials and processing technology to meet DoD and commercial needs. The following are outlined in this presentation: high performance capacitors, high temperature aerospace insulation, rationale for choosing Foster-Miller (the reporting industry), the approach to the development and evaluation of high temperature insulation materials, and the requirements/evaluation parameters. Supporting tables and diagrams are included.

  15. GST, NAT, SULT1A1, CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Scotto di Carlo, Antonio; Porru, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupation are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1 and P1 are involved in the detoxification of PAH reactive metabolites. Two N-acetyltransferase isozymes, NAT2 and NAT1, have major roles in catalyzing the N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic amines. Cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are also involved in the metabolism of PAHs and aromatic amines. It is hypothesized that the genetic polymorphisms of these metabolic enzymes have an effect on the individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in particular by interacting with relevant environmental exposures. A hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy recruited 201 incidence cases and 214 controls from 1997-2000. Occupational exposures were blindly coded by occupational physicians. Genotyping of polymorphisms were carried out with PCR-RFLP method. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Effect modifications by age of onset, smoking and occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were evaluated. We also conducted an analysis of interaction between genetic factors. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.56) and 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.95), respectively. The effect of GSTM1 null was seen particularly in heavy smokers, and there was a combined effect with occupational exposure of aromatic amines (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.08-7.10). We observed a trend (p-value < 0.01) of increasing cancer risk comparing subjects with normal GSTM1 and T1 activity to subjects with one (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.16-2.85) or both null genotypes (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.27-5.23). NAT2 slow acetylator was associated with marginally

  16. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  17. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  18. Effects of Al-5Ti-1B master alloy on the microstructural evaluation of a highly alloyed aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process

    SciTech Connect

    Alipour, M.; Emamy, M.; Azarbarmas, M.; Karamouz, M.

    2010-06-15

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of Al-5Ti-1B master alloy on the structural characteristics of Al-12Zn-3 Mg-2.5Cu aluminum alloy. The optimum amount of Ti containing master alloy for proper grain refining was selected as 6 wt.%. A modified strain-induced, melt-activated (SIMA) process for semi-solid processing of alloys was proposed. In order to examine the effectiveness of the modified SIMA process, the recrystallized microstructures of the Al alloy (Al-12Zn-3 Mg-2.5Cu) prepared by the modified SIMA processes were macroscopically. The modified SIMA process employed casting, warm multi-forging, recrystallization and partial melting instead of the conventional process. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. The microstructure evolution of reheated Al-12Zn-3 Mg-2.5Cu aluminum alloy was characterized by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and optical microscopy. In this study the relation between the induced strain with size and shape of grain size has been studied. Results indicated that with the increase of strain sphericity of particles, their size decreases and sphericity takes place in less reahiting time.

  19. Pharmacophore modeling for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bharatham, Kavitha; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Lee, Keun Woo

    2007-05-01

    A three dimensional chemical feature based pharmacophore model was developed for the inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) using the CATALYST software, which would provide useful knowledge for performing virtual screening to identify new inhibitors targeted toward type II diabetes and obesity. A dataset of 27 inhibitors, with diverse structural properties, and activities ranging from 0.026 to 600 microM, was selected as a training set. Hypol, the most reliable quantitative four featured pharmacophore hypothesis, was generated from a training set composed of compounds with two H-bond acceptors, one hydrophobic aromatic and one ring aromatic features. It has a correlation coefficient, RMSD and cost difference (null cost-total cost) of 0.946, 0.840 and 65.731, respectively. The best hypothesis (Hypol) was validated using four different methods. Firstly, a cross validation was performed by randomizing the data using the Cat-Scramble technique. The results confirmed that the pharmacophore models generated from the training set were valid. Secondly, a test set of 281 molecules was scored, with a correlation of 0.882 obtained between the experimental and predicted activities. Hypol performed well in correctly discriminating the active and inactive molecules. Thirdly, the model was investigated by mapping on two PTP1B inhibitors identified by different pharmaceutical companies. The Hypol model correctly predicted these compounds as being highly active. Finally, docking simulations were performed on few compounds to substantiate the role of the pharmacophore features at the binding site of the protein by analyzing their binding conformations. These multiple validation approaches provided confidence in the utility of this pharmacophore model as a 3D query for virtual screening to retrieve new chemical entities showing potential as potent PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:17615669

  20. High-Performance Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Borshchevsky, Alexander

    1994-01-01

    Figures of merit almost double current state-of-art thermoelectric materials. IrSb3 is semiconductor found to exhibit exceptional thermoelectric properties. CoSb3 and RhSb3 have same skutterudite crystallographic structure as IrSb3, and exhibit exceptional transport properties expected to contribute to high thermoelectric performance. These three compounds form solid solutions. Combination of properties offers potential for development of new high-performance thermoelectric materials for more efficient thermoelectric power generators, coolers, and detectors.

  1. High-performance membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Malt'sev, V G

    1995-02-01

    In gradient chromatography for proteins migrating along the chromatographic column, the critical distance X0 has been shown to exist at which the separation of zones is at a maximum and band spreading is at a minimum. With steep gradients and small elution velocity, the column length may be reduced to the level of membrane thickness--about one millimeter. The peculiarities of this novel separation method for proteins, high-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC), are discussed and stepwise elution is shown to be especially effective. HPMC combines the advantages of membrane technology and high-performance liquid chromatography, and avoids their drawbacks. PMID:7727132

  2. High Performance Photovoltaic Project Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Symko-Davies, M.; McConnell, R.

    2005-01-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and environment in the 21st century. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. In this paper, we describe the recent research accomplishments in the in-house directed efforts and the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  3. Panelized high performance multilayer insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkley, R. A.; Shriver, C. B.; Stuckey, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Multilayer insulation coverings with low conductivity foam spacers are interleaved with quarter mil aluminized polymer film radiation shields to cover flight type liquid hydrogen tankage of space vehicles with a removable, structurally compatible, lightweight, high performance cryogenic insulation capable of surviving extended space mission environments.

  4. High performance rolling element bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

  5. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhifeng

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  6. High performance storable propellant resistojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    From 1965 until 1985 resistojets were used for a limited number of space missions. Capability increased in stages from an initial application using a 90 W gN2 thruster operating at 123 sec specific impulse (Isp) to a 830 W N2H4 thruster operating at 305 sec Isp. Prior to 1985 fewer than 100 resistojets were known to have been deployed on spacecraft. Building on this base NASA embarked upon the High Performance Storable Propellant Resistojet (HPSPR) program to significantly advance the resistojet state-of-the-art. Higher performance thrusters promised to increase the market demand for resistojets and enable space missions requiring higher performance. During the program three resistojets were fabricated and tested. High temperature wire and coupon materials tests were completed. A life test was conducted on an advanced gas generator.

  7. High performance bilateral telerobot control.

    PubMed

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Finger, William; Hogan, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Telerobotic systems are used when the environment that requires manipulation is not easily accessible to humans, as in space, remote, hazardous, or microscopic applications or to extend the capabilities of an operator by scaling motions and forces. The Creare control algorithm and software is an enabling technology that makes possible guaranteed stability and high performance for force-feedback telerobots. We have developed the necessary theory, structure, and software design required to implement high performance telerobot systems with time delay. This includes controllers for the master and slave manipulators, the manipulator servo levels, the communication link, and impedance shaping modules. We verified the performance using both bench top hardware as well as a commercial microsurgery system. PMID:15458092

  8. High Performance Tools And Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, M R; Corey, I R; Johnson, J R

    2005-01-24

    This goal of this project was to evaluate the capability and limits of current scientific simulation development tools and technologies with specific focus on their suitability for use with the next generation of scientific parallel applications and High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and reflect the authors' current understanding and functionality of the many tools investigated. As a deliverable for this effort, we are presenting this report describing our findings along with an associated spreadsheet outlining current capabilities and characteristics of leading and emerging tools in the high performance computing arena. This first chapter summarizes our findings (which are detailed in the other chapters) and presents our conclusions, remarks, and anticipations for the future. In the second chapter, we detail how various teams in our local high performance community utilize HPC tools and technologies, and mention some common concerns they have about them. In the third chapter, we review the platforms currently or potentially available to utilize these tools and technologies on to help in software development. Subsequent chapters attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of the available parallel software development tools and technologies, including their strong and weak points and future concerns. We categorize them as debuggers, memory checkers, performance analysis tools, communication libraries, data visualization programs, and other parallel development aides. The last chapter contains our closing information. Included with this paper at the end is a table of the discussed development tools and their operational environment.

  9. High performance magnetically controllable microturbines.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Ku, Jin-Feng; He, Yan; Xu, Bin-Bin; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xia, Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2010-11-01

    Reported in this paper is two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) fabrication of magnetic microturbines with high surface smoothness towards microfluids mixing. As the key component of the magnetic photoresist, Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were carefully screened for homogeneous doping. In this work, oleic acid stabilized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles synthesized via high-temperature induced organic phase decomposition of an iron precursor show evident advantages in particle morphology. After modification with propoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (PO(3)-TMPTA, a kind of cross-linker), the magnetic nanoparticles were homogeneously doped in acrylate-based photoresist for TPP fabrication of microstructures. Finally, a magnetic microturbine was successfully fabricated as an active mixing device for remote control of microfluids blending. The development of high quality magnetic photoresists would lead to high performance magnetically controllable microdevices for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. PMID:20721411

  10. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  11. New, high performance rotating parachute

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A new rotating parachute has been designed primarily for recovery of high performance reentry vehicles. Design and development/testing results are presented from low-speed wind tunnel testing, free-flight deployments at transonic speeds and tests in a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach 2.0. Drag coefficients of 1.15 based on the 2-ft diameter of the rotor have been measured in the wind tunnel. Stability of the rotor is excellent.

  12. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  13. High Performance Parallel Computational Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At a recent press conference, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin encouraged NASA Ames Research Center to take a lead role in promoting research and development of advanced, high-performance computer technology, including nanotechnology. Manufacturers of leading-edge microprocessors currently perform large-scale simulations in the design and verification of semiconductor devices and microprocessors. Recently, the need for this intensive simulation and modeling analysis has greatly increased, due in part to the ever-increasing complexity of these devices, as well as the lessons of experiences such as the Pentium fiasco. Simulation, modeling, testing, and validation will be even more important for designing molecular computers because of the complex specification of millions of atoms, thousands of assembly steps, as well as the simulation and modeling needed to ensure reliable, robust and efficient fabrication of the molecular devices. The software for this capacity does not exist today, but it can be extrapolated from the software currently used in molecular modeling for other applications: semi-empirical methods, ab initio methods, self-consistent field methods, Hartree-Fock methods, molecular mechanics; and simulation methods for diamondoid structures. In as much as it seems clear that the application of such methods in nanotechnology will require powerful, highly powerful systems, this talk will discuss techniques and issues for performing these types of computations on parallel systems. We will describe system design issues (memory, I/O, mass storage, operating system requirements, special user interface issues, interconnects, bandwidths, and programming languages) involved in parallel methods for scalable classical, semiclassical, quantum, molecular mechanics, and continuum models; molecular nanotechnology computer-aided designs (NanoCAD) techniques; visualization using virtual reality techniques of structural models and assembly sequences; software required to

  14. High Performance Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Roth, E.; Champagne, P.; Evtimov, B.; Nast, T. C.

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center has been developing pulse tube cryocoolers for more than ten years. Recent innovations include successful testing of four-stage coldheads, no-load temperature below 4 K, and the recent development of a high-efficiency compressor. This paper discusses the predicted performance of single and multiple stage pulse tube coldheads driven by our new 6 kg "M5Midi" compressor, which is capable of 90% efficiency with 200 W input power, and a maximum input power of 1000 W. This compressor retains the simplicity of earlier LM-ATC compressors: it has a moving magnet and an external electrical coil, minimizing organics in the working gas and requiring no electrical penetrations through the pressure wall. Motor losses were minimized during design, resulting in a simple, easily-manufactured compressor with state-of-the-art motor efficiency. The predicted cryocooler performance is presented as simple formulae, allowing an engineer to include the impact of a highly-optimized cryocooler into a full system analysis. Performance is given as a function of the heat rejection temperature and the cold tip temperatures and cooling loads.

  15. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  16. HIGH PERFORMANCE EBIS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.; BEEBE, E.; GOULD, O.; KPONOU, A.; LOCKEY, R.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; SNYDSTRUP, L.

    2007-06-25

    An Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), capable of producing high charge states and high beam currents of any heavy ion species in short pulses, is ideally suited for injection into a synchrotron. An EBIS-based, high current, heavy ion preinjector is now being built at Brookhaven to provide increased capabilities for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Benefits of the new preinjector include the ability to produce ions of any species, fast switching between species to serve the simultaneous needs of multiple programs, and lower operating and maintenance costs. A state-of-the-art EBIS, operating with an electron beam current of up to 10 A, and producing multi-milliamperes of high charge state heavy ions, has been developed at Brookhaven, and has been operating very successfully on a test bench for several years. The present performance of this high-current EBIS is presented, along with details of the design of the scaled-up EBIS for RHIC, and the status of its construction. Other aspects of the project, including design and construction of the heavy ion RFQ, Linac, and matching beamlines, are also mentioned.

  17. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  18. The new powder diffractometer D1B of the Institut Laue Langevin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Orench, I.; Clergeau, J. F.; Martínez, S.; Olmos, M.; Fabelo, O.; Campo, J.

    2014-11-01

    D1B is a medium resolution high flux powder diffractometer located at the Institut Laue Langevin, ILL. D1B a suitable instrument for studying a large variety of polycrystalline materials. D1B runs since 1998 as a CRG (collaborating research group) instrument, being exploited by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain). In 2008 the Spanish CRG started an updating program which included a new detector and a radial oscillating collimator (ROC). The detector, which has a sensitive height of 100mm, covers an angular range of 128°. Its 1280 gold wires provide a neutron detection point every 0.1°. The ROC is made of 198 gadolinium- based absorbing collimation blades, regular placed every 0.67°. Here the present characteristics of D1B are reviewed and the different experimental performances will be presented.

  19. High-performance combinatorial algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali

    2003-10-31

    Combinatorial algorithms have long played an important role in many applications of scientific computing such as sparse matrix computations and parallel computing. The growing importance of combinatorial algorithms in emerging applications like computational biology and scientific data mining calls for development of a high performance library for combinatorial algorithms. Building such a library requires a new structure for combinatorial algorithms research that enables fast implementation of new algorithms. We propose a structure for combinatorial algorithms research that mimics the research structure of numerical algorithms. Numerical algorithms research is nicely complemented with high performance libraries, and this can be attributed to the fact that there are only a small number of fundamental problems that underlie numerical solvers. Furthermore there are only a handful of kernels that enable implementation of algorithms for these fundamental problems. Building a similar structure for combinatorial algorithms will enable efficient implementations for existing algorithms and fast implementation of new algorithms. Our results will promote utilization of combinatorial techniques and will impact research in many scientific computing applications, some of which are listed.

  20. High-Performance Bipropellant Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    TRW, under contract to the NASA Lewis Research Center, has successfully completed over 10 000 sec of testing of a rhenium thrust chamber manufactured via a new-generation powder metallurgy. High performance was achieved for two different propellants, N2O4- N2H4 and N2O4 -MMH. TRW conducted 44 tests with N2O4-N2H4, accumulating 5230 sec of operating time with maximum burn times of 600 sec and a specific impulse Isp of 333 sec. Seventeen tests were conducted with N2O4-MMH for an additional 4789 sec and a maximum Isp of 324 sec, with a maximum firing duration of 700 sec. Together, the 61 tests totalled 10 019 sec of operating time, with the chamber remaining in excellent condition. Of these tests, 11 lasted 600 to 700 sec. The performance of radiation-cooled rocket engines is limited by their operating temperature. For the past two to three decades, the majority of radiation-cooled rockets were composed of a high-temperature niobium alloy (C103) with a disilicide oxide coating (R512) for oxidation resistance. The R512 coating practically limits the operating temperature to 1370 C. For the Earth-storable bipropellants commonly used in satellite and spacecraft propulsion systems, a significant amount of fuel film cooling is needed. The large film-cooling requirement extracts a large penalty in performance from incomplete mixing and combustion. A material system with a higher temperature capability has been matured to the point where engines are being readied for flight, particularly the 100-lb-thrust class engine. This system has powder rhenium (Re) as a substrate material with an iridium (Ir) oxidation-resistant coating. Again, the operating temperature is limited by the coating; however, Ir is capable of long-life operation at 2200 C. For Earth-storable bipropellants, this allows for the virtual elimination of fuel film cooling (some film cooling is used for thermal control of the head end). This has resulted in significant increases in specific impulse performance

  1. Phase 1b Study of New Posaconazole Tablet for Prevention of Invasive Fungal Infections in High-Risk Patients with Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Javier; Cornely, Oliver A.; Laverdiere, Michel; Helfgott, David; Haider, Shariq; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Langston, Amelia; Perfect, John; Ma, Lei; van Iersel, Marlou L. P. S.; Connelly, Nancy; Kartsonis, Nicholas; Waskin, Hetty

    2014-01-01

    Posaconazole tablets, a new oral formulation of posaconazole, can be effective when given as antifungal prophylaxis to neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection (e.g., those with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome). Such effectiveness might be specifically important to patients with poor oral intake because of nausea, vomiting, or chemotherapy-associated mucositis. This was a prospective, global study in high-risk patients to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of posaconazole tablets and to identify the dose of posaconazole tablets that would provide exposure within a predefined range of exposures (steady-state average concentration [area under the concentration-time curve/24 h] of ≥500 ng/ml and ≤2,500 ng/ml in >90% of patients). The study evaluated two sequential dosing cohorts: 200 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 20) and 300 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 34) (both cohorts had a twice-daily loading dose on day 1) taken without regard to food intake during the neutropenic period for ≤28 days. The exposure target was reached (day 8) in 15 of 19 (79%) pharmacokinetic-evaluable patients taking 200 mg posaconazole once daily and in 31 of 32 (97%) patients taking 300 mg posaconazole once daily; 300 mg posaconazole once daily achieved the desired exposure target. Posaconazole tablets were generally well tolerated in high-risk neutropenic patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01777763.) PMID:25049247

  2. B-1B excels in conventional role

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.B.

    1992-07-01

    A report is presented of an observational flight performed in a USAF B-1B to better understand the operational aspects of the aircraft's new conventional bombing mission as an integral element of a multiaircraft tactical strike package. The basic flight plan consisted of a standard takeoff and climb, cruising to the training area at 22,000 ft, descending for a 400 ft low-level run, making two simulated bomb drops, and climbing back to 25,000 ft for the return to base. Attention is given the new/enhanced avionics, the ALQ-161 defensive electronic warfare system and ripple-release Mk. 82 bombing procedures.

  3. Effect of copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and mineral status of calves following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Step, D L; Moyer, K D; Haviland, C L; Maxwell, C L; O'Neill, C F; Gifford, C A; Krehbiel, C R; Richards, C J

    2016-03-01

    Research has indicated that trace mineral (TM) supplementation may alter immune function and reduce morbidity associated with bovine respiratory disease. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of dietary Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and TM balance of calves following a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and (MH) combination respiratory pathogen challenge. Steers ( = 16; 225 ± 20 kg BW) from a single ranch were processed, weaned, and randomly pairwise assigned to either the TM-supplemented (MIN) or the control (CON) experimental treatments. The MIN calves received an additional 150 mg of Cu, 130 mg of Mn, and 320 mg of Zn daily and the CON calves received the basal diet with no additional Cu, Mn, or Zn supplementation. The basal diet contained sufficient Mn and Zn but inadequate Cu based on published nutrient requirements. After 46 d on the experimental treatments, all calves were naturally exposed to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV type 1b for 4 d and then subsequently intratracheally challenged with MH. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with sampling time serving as a repeated measure and calf serving as the experimental unit. The respiratory challenge was validated via increased BVDV type 1b antibody concentrations, MH whole cell and leukotoxin antibody concentrations, rectal temperatures (TEMP), and subjective clinical severity scores (CS). Calf performance ( ≥ 0.48) was not affected by TM supplementation. Mineral supplementation also did not impact the CS or TEMP of calves ( ≥ 0.53). There was a treatment × time ( < 0.001) interaction observed for liver Cu concentrations. The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe within the liver; Cu, Mn, and Zn within the muscle; and Cu, Zn, and Fe within the serum were all impacted by time ( ≤ 0.03). Calves receiving the MIN treatment had greater ( < 0.01) liver Cu and Mn concentrations compared with CON calves. In contrast

  4. High Performance Field Reversed Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binderbauer, Michl

    2014-10-01

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a prolate compact toroid with poloidal magnetic fields. FRCs could lead to economic fusion reactors with high power density, simple geometry, natural divertor, ease of translation, and possibly capable of burning aneutronic fuels. However, as in other high-beta plasmas, there are stability and confinement concerns. These concerns can be addressed by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the approach adopted by TAE and implemented for the first time in the C-2 device. Studying the physics of FRCs driven by Neutral Beam (NB) injection, significant improvements were made in confinement and stability. Early C-2 discharges had relatively good confinement, but global power losses exceeded the available NB input power. The addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs as well as advanced surface conditioning leads to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. As a result, fast ion confinement significantly improved and allowed for build-up of a dominant fast particle population. Under such appropriate conditions we achieved highly reproducible, long-lived, macroscopically stable FRCs with record lifetimes. This demonstrated many beneficial effects of large orbit particles and their performance impact on FRCs Together these achievements point to the prospect of beam-driven FRCs as a path toward fusion reactors. This presentation will review and expand on key results and present context for their interpretation.

  5. High-resolution prediction of leaf onset date in Japan in the 21st century under the IPCC A1B scenario

    PubMed Central

    Hadano, Mayumi; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Motohka, Takeshi; Noda, Hibiki Muraoka; Murakami, Kazutaka; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Reports indicate that leaf onset (leaf flush) of deciduous trees in cool-temperate ecosystems is occurring earlier in the spring in response to global warming. In this study, we created two types of phenology models, one driven only by warmth (spring warming [SW] model) and another driven by both warmth and winter chilling (parallel chill [PC] model), to predict such phenomena in the Japanese Islands at high spatial resolution (500 m). We calibrated these models using leaf onset dates derived from satellite data (Terra/MODIS) and in situ temperature data derived from a dense network of ground stations Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System. We ran the model using future climate predictions created by the Japanese Meteorological Agency's MRI-AGCM3.1S model. In comparison to the first decade of the 2000s, our results predict that the date of leaf onset in the 2030s will advance by an average of 12 days under the SW model and 7 days under the PC model throughout the study area. The date of onset in the 2090s will advance by 26 days under the SW model and by 15 days under the PC model. The greatest impact will occur on Hokkaido (the northernmost island) and in the central mountains. PMID:23789086

  6. High-resolution prediction of leaf onset date in Japan in the 21st century under the IPCC A1B scenario.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Mayumi; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Motohka, Takeshi; Noda, Hibiki Muraoka; Murakami, Kazutaka; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Reports indicate that leaf onset (leaf flush) of deciduous trees in cool-temperate ecosystems is occurring earlier in the spring in response to global warming. In this study, we created two types of phenology models, one driven only by warmth (spring warming [SW] model) and another driven by both warmth and winter chilling (parallel chill [PC] model), to predict such phenomena in the Japanese Islands at high spatial resolution (500 m). We calibrated these models using leaf onset dates derived from satellite data (Terra/MODIS) and in situ temperature data derived from a dense network of ground stations Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System. We ran the model using future climate predictions created by the Japanese Meteorological Agency's MRI-AGCM3.1S model. In comparison to the first decade of the 2000s, our results predict that the date of leaf onset in the 2030s will advance by an average of 12 days under the SW model and 7 days under the PC model throughout the study area. The date of onset in the 2090s will advance by 26 days under the SW model and by 15 days under the PC model. The greatest impact will occur on Hokkaido (the northernmost island) and in the central mountains. PMID:23789086

  7. High performance solar Stirling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.; Haglund, R.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale Dish-Stirling system experiment, at a power level of 25 kWe, has been tested during 1981 on the Test Bed Concentrator No. 2 at the Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, CA. Test components, designed and developed primarily by industrial contractors for the Department of Energy, include an advanced Stirling engine driving an induction alternator, a directly-coupled solar receiver with a natural gas combustor for hybrid operation and a breadboard control system based on a programmable controller and standard utility substation components. The experiment demonstrated practicality of the solar Stirling application and high system performance into a utility grid. This paper describes the design and its functions, and the test results obtained.

  8. FPGA Based High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Dave; Mason, Jeff; Sundararajan, Prasanna; Dellinger, Erik; Putnam, Andrew; Storaasli, Olaf O

    2008-01-01

    Current high performance computing (HPC) applications are found in many consumer, industrial and research fields. From web searches to auto crash simulations to weather predictions, these applications require large amounts of power by the compute farms and supercomputers required to run them. The demand for more and faster computation continues to increase along with an even sharper increase in the cost of the power required to operate and cool these installations. The ability of standard processor based systems to address these needs has declined in both speed of computation and in power consumption over the past few years. This paper presents a new method of computation based upon programmable logic as represented by Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that addresses these needs in a manner requiring only minimal changes to the current software design environment.

  9. High power ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The ion thruster is one of several forms of space electric propulsion being considered for use on future SP-100-based missions. One possible major mission ground rule is the use of a single Space Shuttle launch. Thus, the mass in orbit at the reactor activation altitude would be limited by the Shuttle mass constraints. When the spacecraft subsystem masses are subtracted from this available mass limit, a maximum propellant mass may be calculated. Knowing the characteristics of each type of electric thruster allows maximum values of total impulse, mission velocity increment, and thrusting time to be calculated. Because ion thrusters easily operate at high values of efficiency (60 to 70%) and specific impulse (3000 to 5000 sec), they can impart large values of total impulse to a spacecraft. They also can be operated with separate control of the propellant flow rate and exhaust velocity. This paper presents values of demonstrated and projected performance of high power ion thrusters used in an analysis of electric propulsion for an SP-100 based mission.

  10. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A. Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions. PMID:27499746

  11. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Endocrinology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Volat, Fanny; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The aldose reductase (AR; human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3) has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of AR function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. AR-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7, and Akr1b8) are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide AR, making functional analysis of one or the other isoform a challenging task. AKR1B/Akr1b members share at least 65% protein identity and the general ability to reduce many redundant substrates such as aldehydes provided from lipid peroxidation, steroids and their by-products, and xenobiotics in vitro. Based on these properties, AKR1B/Akr1b are generally considered as detoxifying enzymes. Considering that divergences should be more informative than similarities to help understanding their physiological functions, we chose to review specific hallmarks of each human/mouse isoforms by focusing on tissue distribution and specific mechanisms of gene regulation. Indeed, although the AR shows ubiquitous expression, AR-like proteins exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression. We focused on three organs where certain isoforms are enriched, the adrenal gland, enterohepatic, and adipose tissues and tried to connect recent enzymatic and regulation data with endocrine and metabolic functions of these organs. We presented recent mouse models showing unsuspected physiological functions in the regulation of glucido-lipidic metabolism and adipose tissue homeostasis. Beyond the widely accepted idea that AKR1B/Akr1b are detoxification enzymes, these recent reports provide growing evidences that they are able to modify or generate signal molecules. This conceptually shifts this class of enzymes from unenviable status of scavenger to upper class of messengers. PMID:22876234

  12. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  13. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  17. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b.21 Section 1b.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.21 Enforcement hotline. (a)...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  20. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  1. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  2. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  3. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  4. 7 CFR 1b.3 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusions. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.3 Categorical exclusions. (a) The following are categories of activities which have been determined not to have a significant individual or cumulative effect on the...

  5. High Performance Solution Processable TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, David

    2008-03-01

    Organic-based electronic devices offer the potential to significantly impact the functionality and pervasiveness of large-area electronics. We report on soluble acene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) where the microstructure of as-cast films can be precisely controlled via interfacial chemistry. Chemically tailoring the source/drain contact interface is a novel route to self-patterning of soluble small molecule organic semiconductors and enables the growth of highly ordered regions along opposing contact edges which extend into the transistor channel. The unique film forming properties of soluble fluorinated anthradithiophenes allows us to fabricate high performance OTFTs, OTFT circuits, and to deterministically study the influence of the film microstructure on the electrical characteristics of devices. Most recently we have grown single crystals of soluble fluorinated anthradithiophenes by vapor transport method allowing us to probe deeper into their intrinsic properties and determine the potential and limitations of this promising family of oligomers for use in organic-based electronic devices. Co-Authors: O. D. Jurchescu^1,4, B. H. Hamadani^1, S. K. Park^4, D. A. Mourey^4, S. Subramanian^5, A. J. Moad^2, R. J. Kline^3, L. C. Teague^2, J. G. Kushmerick^2, L. J. Richter^2, T. N. Jackson^4, and J. E. Anthony^5 ^1Semiconductor Electronics Division, ^2Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, ^3Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 ^4Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 ^5Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055

  6. High performance Cu adhesion coating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.W.; Viehbeck, A.; Chen, W.R.; Ree, M.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (PAEBI) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with imidazole functional groups forming the polymer backbone structure. It is proposed that upon coating PAEBI onto a copper surface the imidazole groups of PAEBI form a bond with or chelate to the copper surface resulting in strong adhesion between the copper and polymer. Adhesion of PAEBI to other polymers such as poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide is also quite good and stable. The resulting locus of failure as studied by XPS and IR indicates that PAEBI gives strong cohesive adhesion to copper. Due to its good adhesion and mechanical properties, PAEBI can be used in fabricating thin film semiconductor packages such as multichip module dielectric (MCM-D) structures. In these applications, a thin PAEBI coating is applied directly to a wiring layer for enhancing adhesion to both the copper wiring and the polymer dielectric surface. In addition, a thin layer of PAEBI can also function as a protection layer for the copper wiring, eliminating the need for Cr or Ni barrier metallurgies and thus significantly reducing the number of process steps.

  7. ALMA high performance nutating subreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasho, Victor L.; Radford, Simon J. E.; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    For the international ALMA project"s prototype antennas, we have developed a high performance, reactionless nutating subreflector (chopping secondary mirror). This single axis mechanism can switch the antenna"s optical axis by +/-1.5" within 10 ms or +/-5" within 20 ms and maintains pointing stability within the antenna"s 0.6" error budget. The light weight 75 cm diameter subreflector is made of carbon fiber composite to achieve a low moment of inertia, <0.25 kg m2. Its reflecting surface was formed in a compression mold. Carbon fiber is also used together with Invar in the supporting structure for thermal stability. Both the subreflector and the moving coil motors are mounted on flex pivots and the motor magnets counter rotate to absorb the nutation reaction force. Auxiliary motors provide active damping of external disturbances, such as wind gusts. Non contacting optical sensors measure the positions of the subreflector and the motor rocker. The principle mechanical resonance around 20 Hz is compensated with a digital PID servo loop that provides a closed loop bandwidth near 100 Hz. Shaped transitions are used to avoid overstressing mechanical links.

  8. Nucleotide sequences of genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus oralis with high homology to Escherichia coli penicillin-binding proteins 1a and 1b.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Briese, T; Hakenbeck, R

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 3,378-bp DNA fragment of Streptococcus pneumoniae that included the structural gene for penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1a (ponA), which encodes 719 amino acids, was determined. Homologous DNA fragments from an S. oralis strain were amplified with ponA-specific oligonucleotides. The 2,524-bp S. oralis sequence contained the coding region for the first 636 amino acids of a PBP. The coding sequence differed by 437 nucleotides (27%) and one additional triplet, resulting in 87 amino acid substitutions (14%), from S. pneumoniae PBP 1a. Both PBPs are highly homologous to bifunctional high-M(r) Escherichia coli PBPs 1a and 1b. Images PMID:1624444

  9. Expression Patterns of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 Protein in Human Pediatric Liver.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Margaret M S; Hines, Ronald N; Schuetz, Erin G; Meibohm, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Determining appropriate pharmacotherapy in young children can be challenging due to uncertainties in the development of drug disposition pathways. With knowledge of the ontogeny of drug-metabolizing enzymes and an emerging focus on drug transporters, the developmental pattern of the uptake transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 was assessed by relative protein quantification using Western blotting in 80 human pediatric liver specimens covering an age range from 9 days to 12 years. OATP1B3 exhibited high expression at birth, which declined over the first months of life, and then increased again in the preadolescent period. In comparison with children 6-12 years of age, the relative protein expression of highly glycosylated (total) OATP1B3 was 235% (357%) in children <3 months of age, 33% (64%) in the age group from 3 months to 2 years, and 50% (59%) in children 2-6 years of age. The fraction of highly glycosylated to total OATP1B3 increased with age, indicating ontogenic processes not only at the transcriptional level but also at the post-translational level. Similar to OATP1B3, OATP1B1 showed high interindividual variability in relative protein expression but no statistically significant difference among the studied age groups. PMID:27098745

  10. Skylab Saturn 1B flight manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A Saturn 1B Flight Manual provides launch vehicle systems descriptions and predicted performance data for the Skylab missions. Vehicle SL-2 (SA-206) is the baseline for this manual; but, as a result of the great similarity, the material is representative of SL-3 and SL-4 launch vehicles, also. The Flight Manual is not a control document but is intended primarily as an aid to astronauts who are training for Skylab missions. In order to provide a comprehensive reference for that purpose, the manual also contains descriptions of the ground support interfaces, prelaunch operations, and emergency procedures. Mission variables and constraints are summarized, and mission control monitoring and data flow during launch preparation and flight are discussed.

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  12. Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) Using a Consensus Vote of Six Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 are transporters selectively expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte. Several studies reveal that they are involved in drug–drug interactions, cancer, and hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we developed a set of classification models for OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition based on more than 1700 carefully curated compounds from literature, which were validated via cross-validation and by use of an external test set. After combining several sets of descriptors and classifiers, the 6 best models were selected according to their statistical performance and were used for virtual screening of DrugBank. Consensus scoring of the screened compounds resulted in the selection and purchase of nine compounds as potential dual inhibitors and of one compound as potential selective OATP1B3 inhibitor. Biological testing of the compounds confirmed the validity of the models, yielding an accuracy of 90% for OATP1B1 and 80% for OATP1B3, respectively. Moreover, at least half of the new identified inhibitors are associated with hyperbilirubinemia or hepatotoxicity, implying a relationship between OATP inhibition and these severe side effects. PMID:26469880

  13. High Performance Torso Cooling Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Makinen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The concept proposed in this paper is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area, which could facilitate removal of LCVG tubing from the arms and legs, thereby increasing suited crew member mobility. EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is challenging, and it becomes even more challenging in the gravity of Mars. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased. This increase in efficiency could provide the required liquid cooling via torso tubing only; no arm or leg LCVG tubing would be required. Benefits of this approach include increased crewmember mobility, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development. This report describes analysis and test activities performed to evaluate the potential improvements to the thermal performance of the LCVG. Analyses evaluated potential tube shapes for improving the thermal performance of the LCVG. The analysis results fed into the selection of flat flow strips to improve thermal contact with the skin of the suited test subject. Testing of small segments was performed to compare thermal performance of the tubing approach of the current LCVG to the flat flow strips proposed as the new concept. Results of the testing is presented along with recommendations for future development of this new concept.

  14. A high performance thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M. E. H.; Spoelstra, S.

    2011-11-01

    In thermoacoustic systems heat is converted into acoustic energy and vice versa. These systems use inert gases as working medium and have no moving parts which makes the thermoacoustic technology a serious alternative to produce mechanical or electrical power, cooling power, and heating in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine is designed and built which achieves a record performance of 49% of the Carnot efficiency. The design and performance of the engine is presented. The engine has no moving parts and is made up of few simple components.

  15. High-performance composite chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  16. Sustaining High Performance in Bad Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; Van Buren, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the results of the American Society for Training and Development Human Resource and Performance Management Survey of 1996 that examined the performance outcomes of downsizing and high performance work systems, explored the relationship between high performance work systems and downsizing, and asked whether some downsizing practices were…

  17. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals and to follow the procedures declared by...

  18. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  19. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  20. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  1. High-Performance Schools Make Cents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen-Palacios, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Describes the educational benefits of high-performance schools, buildings that are efficient, healthy, safe, and easy to operate and maintain. Also briefly describes how to create a high-performance school drawn from volume I (Planning) of the three-volume Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) "Best Practices Manual." (For more…

  2. High performance, high density hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankenfeld, J. W.; Hastings, T. W.; Lieberman, M.; Taylor, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The fuels were selected from 77 original candidates on the basis of estimated merit index and cost effectiveness. The ten candidates consisted of 3 pure compounds, 4 chemical plant streams and 3 refinery streams. Critical physical and chemical properties of the candidate fuels were measured including heat of combustion, density, and viscosity as a function of temperature, freezing points, vapor pressure, boiling point, thermal stability. The best all around candidate was found to be a chemical plant olefin stream rich in dicyclopentadiene. This material has a high merit index and is available at low cost. Possible problem areas were identified as low temperature flow properties and thermal stability. An economic analysis was carried out to determine the production costs of top candidates. The chemical plant and refinery streams were all less than 44 cent/kg while the pure compounds were greater than 44 cent/kg. A literature survey was conducted on the state of the art of advanced hydrocarbon fuel technology as applied to high energy propellents. Several areas for additional research were identified.

  3. Arterial expression of 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptors during development of DOCA-salt hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Banes, Amy KL; Watts, Stephanie W

    2003-01-01

    Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2B and 5-HT1B receptors are upregulated in arteries from hypertensive DOCA-salt rats and directly by mineralocorticoids. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptor density and contractile function would precede increased blood pressure in DOCA-high salt rats. We performed DOCA-salt time course (days 1, 3, 5 and 7) studies using treatment groups of: DOCA-high salt, DOCA-low salt, Sham and Sham-high salt rats. Results In isolated-tissue baths, DOCA-high salt aorta contracted to the 5-HT2B receptor agonist BW723C86 on day 1; Sham aorta did not contract. The 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP93129 had no effect in arteries from any group. On days 3, 5 and 7 CP93129 and BW723C86 contracted DOCA-high salt and Sham-high salt aorta; Sham and DOCA-low salt aorta did not respond. Western analysis of DOCA-high salt aortic homogenates revealed increased 5-HT2B receptor levels by day 3; 5-HT1B receptor density was unchanged. Aortic homogenates from the other groups showed unchanged 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptor levels. Conclusion These data suggest that functional changes of 5-HT2B but not 5-HT1B receptors may play a role in the development of DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:12974983

  4. High-Performance Miniature Hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Crisp, David

    1994-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive hygrometer that occupies volume less than 4 in.(3) measures dewpoints as much as 100 degrees C below ambient temperatures, with accuracy of 0.1 degrees C. Field tests indicate accuracy and repeatability identical to those of state-of-the-art larger dewpoint hygrometers. Operates up to 100 times as fast as older hygrometers, and offers simplicity and small size needed to meet cost and performance requirements of many applications.

  5. Introduction to Session 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Topics presented in the "Plant Biotechnology and Genomics" session focused on technologies that highlight the important role of plant biotechnology and genomics in the development of future energy crops. Several excellent presentations demonstrated the latest advances in energy crop development through the use of plant cell wall regulation and by engineering new energy crops such as brown midrib sweet sorghum. Approaches included the control of cellulose production by increased expression of cellulase synthase genes and the selection of high-yield varieties of shrub willows. The potential of producing hydrolytic enzymes using transgenic plants as a cost-effective means for the large-scale production of these enzymes was also explored in the session, as was the role of posttranslational modifications on the activities of heterologous expressed cellulases in hosts such as Pichia pastoris.

  6. High performance fibers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Economy, J.

    1994-01-01

    A two and a half year ONR/ARPA funded program to develop a low cost process for manufacture of a high strength/high modulus sigma/E boron nitride (BN) fiber was initiated on 7/1/90 and ended on 12/31/92. The preparation of high sigma/E BN fibers had been demonstrated in the late 1960's by the PI using a batch nitriding of B2O3 fiber with NH3 followed by stress graphitization at approx. 2000 deg C. Such fibers displayed values comparable to PAN based carbon fibers but the mechanicals were variable most likely because of redeposition of volatiles at 2000 deg C. In addition, the cost of the fibers was very high due to the need for many hours of nitriding necessary to convert the B2O3 fibers. The use of batch nitriding negated two possible cost advantages of this concept, namely, the ease of drawing very fine, multi-filament yarn of B2O3 and more importantly the very low cost of the starting materials.

  7. High performance rotational vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  8. A high performance magnetoplasmadynamic thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, M.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A flared-anode MPD thruster has been modified to permit injection of propellant through the backplate near the anode wall. At 6 g/sec argon, this thruster displays an onset current of 41.4 kA, almost double the value observed for propellant injection at the cathode and intermediate radial positions. A magnetic field survey of the interelectrode region shows current density is highest at the upstream and downstream ends of the chamber. The operating efficiency at onset current inferred from magnetic field data exceeds 50 percent, but swinging-gate thrust stand measurements reveal a progressive divergence between inferred and actual thrust with increasing power. Near onset, the measured thrust is approximately 20 percent lower than that inferred from magnetic probing. Explanations for this behavior have been explored with viscous drag emerging as the most probable cause of performance degradation.

  9. CX3CR1(+) B Cells Show Immune Suppressor Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The immune regulatory functions of B cells are not fully understood yet. The present study aims to characterize a subtype of B cells that expresses CX3CR1. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with food allergies and healthy subjects. Peripheral B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. T cell proliferation was assessed by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assay. The results showed that the CX3CR1+ B cells were detected in the peripheral blood samples of healthy subjects and were significantly less in patients with food allergies. CX3CR1+ B cells expressed high levels of TGF-β and integrin αvβ6. CX3CR1+ B cells could efficiently suppress other effector CD4+ T cell activation. We conclude that human peripheral CX3CR1+ B cells have immune suppressor properties. PMID:24970890

  10. An Associate Degree in High Performance Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Arnold

    In order for more individuals to enter higher paying jobs, employers must create a sufficient number of high-performance positions (the demand side), and workers must acquire the skills needed to perform in these restructured workplaces (the supply side). Creating an associate degree in High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) will help address four…

  11. Designing high-performance jobs.

    PubMed

    Simons, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Tales of great strategies derailed by poor execution are all too common. That's because some organizations are designed to fail. For a company to achieve its potential, each employee's supply of organizational resources should equal the demand, and the same balance must apply to every business unit and to the company as a whole. To carry out his or her job, each employee has to know the answers to four basic questions: What resources do I control to accomplish my tasks? What measures will be used to evaluate my performance? Who do I need to interact with and influence to achieve my goals? And how much support can I expect when I reach out to others for help? The questions correspond to what the author calls the four basic spans of a job-control, accountability, influence, and support. Each span can be adjusted so that it is narrow or wide or somewhere in between. If you get the settings right, you can design a job in which a talented individual can successfully execute on your company's strategy. If you get the settings wrong, it will be difficult for an employee to be effective. The first step is to set the span of control to reflect the resources allocated to each position and unit that plays an important role in delivering customer value. This setting, like the others, is determined by how the business creates value for customers and differentiates its products and services. Next, you can dial in different levels of entrepreneurial behavior and creative tension by widening or narrowing spans of accountability and influence. Finally, you must adjust the span of support to ensure that the job or unit will get the informal help it needs. PMID:16028816

  12. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  13. Characterization of structure and activity of garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)).

    PubMed

    El Ichi, Sarra; Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Céline; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization and study of the activity of new POX(1B) protein from garlic which has a high peroxidase activity and can be used as a biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds were performed and compared with the findings for other heme peroxidases. The structure-function relationship was investigated by analysis of the spectroscopic properties and correlated to the structure determined by a new generation of high-performance hybrid mass spectrometers. The reactivity of the enzyme was analyzed by studies of the redox activity toward various ligands and the reactivity with various substrates. We demonstrated that, in the case of garlic peroxidase, the heme group is pentacoordinated, and has an histidine as a proximal ligand. POX(1B) exhibited a high affinity for hydrogen peroxide as well as various reducing cosubstrates. In addition, high enzyme specificity was demonstrated. The k(cat) and K(M) values were 411 and 400 mM(-1) s(-1) for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), respectively. Furthermore, the reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of POX(1B) was demonstrated by iron(II) nitrosoalkane complex assay. In addition, POX(1B) showed a great potential for application for drug metabolism since its ability to react with 1-nitrohexane in the presence of sodium dithionite was demonstrated by the appearance of a characteristic Soret band at 411 nm. The high catalytic efficiency obtained in the case of the new garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)) is suitable for the monitoring of different analytes and biocatalysis. PMID:21042820

  14. High performance computing and communications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee

    1992-01-01

    A review of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is provided in vugraph format. The goals and objectives of this federal program are as follows: extend U.S. leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; disseminate the technologies to speed innovation and to serve national goals; and spur gains in industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing integral to design and production.

  15. Statistical properties of high performance cesium standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediate term frequency stability of a group of new high-performance cesium beam tubes at the U.S. Naval Observatory were analyzed from two viewpoints: (1) by comparison of the high-performance standards to the MEAN(USNO) time scale and (2) by intercomparisons among the standards themselves. For sampling times up to 5 days, the frequency stability of the high-performance units shows significant improvement over older commercial cesium beam standards.

  16. Usefulness of a new immunoradiometric assay of HCV core antigen to predict virological response during PEG-IFN/RBV combination therapy for chronic hepatitis with high viral load of serum HCV RNA genotype 1b.

    PubMed

    Sasase, Noriko; Kim, Soo Ryang; Kim, Ke Ih; Taniguchi, Miyuki; Imoto, Susumu; Mita, Keiji; Hotta, Hak; Shouji, Ikuo; El-Shamy, Ahmed; Kawada, Norifumi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the clinical usefulness of a new immunoradiometric (IRM) assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen in predicting virological response during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) combination therapy for chronic hepatitis with high viral loads of serum HCV RNA genotype 1b. Thirty-nine patients received a regimen of PEG-IFNalpha-2b (1.5 microg/kg/week s.c.) in combination with RBV (600-1,000 mg/day). Of the 39 patients, 18 (46.2%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR), 11 (28.2%) attained partial response (PR) and 10 (25.6%) showed no response (NR). Four weeks after the start of therapy, 1- and 2-log reductions in the amount of HCV core antigen were observed in 20 (2/10) and 0% (0/10) showing NR, 91 (10/11) and 63.6% (7/11) with PRs, and 88.9 (16/18) and 55.6% (10/18) of patients with SVR, respectively. The 1- and 2-log reductions 4 weeks after the start of therapy were not a defining condition for PR and SVR. The amount of HCV core antigen was significantly different between SVR and PR patients on days 1 and 7, and between patients with NR and SVR at all points of time. In conclusion, this new IRM assay is useful in predicting virological response during PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. PMID:18544951

  17. Method of making a high performance ultracapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    2000-05-09

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  18. Method of making a high performance ultracapacitor

    DOEpatents

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    2000-07-26

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  19. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  20. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  1. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  2. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  3. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  4. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the ν3(') progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v3('), which allows us-in the current work-to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamically important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 (1)A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 (1)A1 state. The degree of staggering in the ν3(') levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C̃ state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 (1)A1 surface at a bond angle of ∼145°. PMID:27083727

  5. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C1B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here the C1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the v'3 progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v'3, which allows us--in the current work--to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamicallymore » important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 1A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 1A1 state. The degree of staggering in the v'3 levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 1A1 surface at a bond angle of ~145°.« less

  6. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    The C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the ν3' progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v3', which allows us—in the current work—to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamically important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 1A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 1A1 state. The degree of staggering in the ν3' levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C ˜ state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 1A1 surface at a bond angle of ˜145°.

  7. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  8. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  9. High performance computing at Sandia National Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, R.M.; Noe, J.P.; Vandevender, W.H.

    1995-10-01

    Sandia`s High Performance Computing Environment requires a hierarchy of resources ranging from desktop, to department, to centralized, and finally to very high-end corporate resources capable of teraflop performance linked via high-capacity Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The mission of the Scientific Computing Systems Department is to provide the support infrastructure for an integrated corporate scientific computing environment that will meet Sandia`s needs in high-performance and midrange computing, network storage, operational support tools, and systems management. This paper describes current efforts at SNL/NM to expand and modernize centralized computing resources in support of this mission.

  10. AIRS Level 1b Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.; Gregorich, D.; Gaiser, S.; Hagan, D.; Pagano, T.; Ting, D.

    2000-01-01

    The level 1b Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) describes the theoretical bases of the algorithms used to convert the raw detector output (data numbers) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Humidity Sounder Brazil (HSB) to physical radiance units and, in the case of AIRS, perform in-orbit spectral calibrations.

  11. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  12. Common Elements of High Performing, High Poverty Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined over 3 years high-achieving high-poverty middle schools to determine school practices and policies associated with higher student achievement. Found that high-poverty middle schools that are high performing acquire grants and manage money well, use a variety of teaming configurations, and use data-based goals to improve student…

  13. (/sup 3/H)dihydroergotamine as a high-affinity, slowly dissociating radioligand for 5-HT1B binding sites in rat brain membranes: evidence for guanine nucleotide regulation of agonist affinity states

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, M.W.; Ariani, K.; Adriaenssens, P.I.; Ciaranello, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    (/sup 3/H)Dihydroergotamine (DE) labels a population of binding sites in rat brain membranes with an affinity of approximately 70 pM in both hippocampus (maximal binding at saturation (Bmax) = 340 fmol/mg of protein) and cerebral cortex (Bmax = 250 fmol/mg of protein). Specific binding typically comprises about 97% of total binding at the Kd of the radioligand when nonspecific binding is determined in the presence of 100 nM unlabeled DE. Association kinetics at 37 degrees C are consistent with a uniform association rate constant for all sites labeled. Specific binding is completely reversible with addition of excess unlabeled DE, but dissociation does not proceed with simple first-order kinetics, suggesting the presence of more than one discrete binding site. Competition studies with selective drugs reveal alpha adrenergic, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B components of (/sup 3/H)DE specific binding. When phentolamine (500 nM) is included to block alpha receptors and DPAT (100 nM) or spiroxatrine (500 nM) is included to block 5-HT1A receptors, specific binding is exclusively to sites with drug affinities characteristic of 5-HT1B receptors. Under these 5-HT1B-selective conditions, (/sup 3/H)DE binding is about 90% specific, with a Kd of about 50 to 60 pM and a Bmax of 96 fmol/mg of protein in hippocampus and 77 fmol/mg of protein in cortex. (/sup 3/H)DE binding to 5-HT1B sites is very slowly dissociable, with a T1/2 of greater than 2 h at 37 degrees C. 5-HT1B antagonists and DE itself yield competition curves at (/sup 3/H)DE-labeled 5-HT1B sites that are adequately fit assuming a single site in nonlinear regression analysis. Addition of 100 microM guanylyl 5'-imidodiphosphate appears to convert nearly all 5-HT1B sites to those having low affinity for agonists while having a much smaller effect on the binding of (/sup 3/H)DE.

  14. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  15. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L; McMasters, Kelly M; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viralmRNAexport, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  16. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  17. Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, J.E.

    1995-09-01

    High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

  18. High performance pitch-based carbon fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Tadokoro, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Hirotaka; Furuyama, Masatoshi

    1996-12-31

    The high performance pitch-based carbon fiber with smaller diameter, six micro in developed by Nippon Graphite Fiber Corporation. This fiber possesses high tensile modulus, high tensile strength, excellent yarn handle ability, low thermal expansion coefficient, and high thermal conductivity which make it an ideal material for space applications such as artificial satellites. Performance of this fiber as a reinforcement of composites was sufficient. With these characteristics, this pitch-based carbon fiber is expected to find wide variety of possible applications in space structures, industrial field, sporting goods and civil infrastructures.

  19. Gene profiling of growth factor independence 1B gene (Gfi-1B) in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Koldehoff, Michael; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Beelen, Dietrich W; Elmaagacli, Ahmet H

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the molecular effects of growth factor independence 1B (Gfi-1B), a transcription factor essential for the development of hematopoietic cells and differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, the naturally Gfi-1B overexpressing cell line K562 was cultured in the presence of Gfi-1B target-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). SiRNA treatment significantly knocked down Gfi-1B expression with an efficiency of nearly 90%. Analysis of the siRNA silencing protocol by colony-forming units ensured that it was not cytotoxic. Samples from Gfi-1B overexpressing cells and cells with knocked-down Gfi-1B were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray technology and based upon rigorous statistical analysis of the data; relevant genes were chosen for confirmation by reserve transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, including MYC/MYCBP and CDKN1A. Interestingly, transcripts within components of the signalling cascade of immune cells (PLD1, LAMP1, HSP90, IL6ST), of the tyrosine kinase pathway (TPR, RAC3) and of the transcription factors (RAC3, CEP290, JEM-1, ATR, MYC, SMC3, RARA, RBBP6) were found to be differentially expressed in Gfi-1B overexpressing cells compared to controls. Individual genes such as ZDHHC17, DMXL1, ZNF292 were found to be upregulated in Gfi-1B overexpressing cells. In addition, down-regulated transcripts showed cell signaling transcripts for several chemokine gene members including GNAL, CXCL5, GNL3L, GPR65, TMEM30, BCL11B and transcription factors (GTF2H3, ATXN3). In conclusion, several essential cell signalling factors, as well as transcriptional and post-translational regulation genes were differentially expressed in cells that overexpressed Gfi-1B compared to control cells with knocked-down Gfi-1B. Our data indicate that Gfi-1B signalling is important for commitment and maturation of hematopoietic cell populations. PMID:18224412

  20. High-performance computing — an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  1. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  2. Experimental Reproduction of Type 1B Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Le, L.

    2002-01-01

    We have replicated type 1B chondrule textures and compositions with crystallization experiments in which UOC material was melted at 1400 deg.C and cooled at 5-1000 deg.C/hr using graphite crucibles in evacuated silica tubes to provide a reducing environment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  4. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  5. Development of a high performance peristaltic micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, My; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a high performance peristaltic micropump has been developed and investigated. The micropump has three cylinder chambers which are connected through micro-channels for high pumping pressure performance. A circular-shaped mini LIPCA has been designed and manufactured for actuating diaphragm. In this LIPCA, a 0.1mm thickness PZT ceramic is used as an active layer. As a result, the actuator has shown to produce large out of plane deflection and consumed low power. During the design process, a coupled field analysis was conducted to predict the actuating behavior of a diaphragm and pumping performance. MEMS technique was used to fabricate the peristaltic micropump. Pumping performance of the present micropump was investigated both numerically and experimentally. The present peristaltic micropump was shown to have higher performance than the same kind of micropump developed else where.

  6. Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Eurypsychrophile Rhodotorula sp. JG1b, Isolated from Permafrost in the Hyperarid Upper-Elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Riley, Robert; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; LaButti, Kurt M; Tice, Hope; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Grigoriev, Igor V; Greer, Charles; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Rhodotorula sp. strain JG1b, a yeast that was isolated from ice-cemented permafrost in the upper-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The sequenced genome size is 19.39 Mb, consisting of 156 scaffolds and containing a total of 5,625 predicted genes. This is the first known cold-adapted Rhodotorula sp. sequenced to date. PMID:26988035

  7. Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Eurypsychrophile Rhodotorula sp. JG1b, Isolated from Permafrost in the Hyperarid Upper-Elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Riley, Robert; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; LaButti, Kurt M.; Tice, Hope; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Greer, Charles; Bakermans, Corien

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Rhodotorula sp. strain JG1b, a yeast that was isolated from ice-cemented permafrost in the upper-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The sequenced genome size is 19.39 Mb, consisting of 156 scaffolds and containing a total of 5,625 predicted genes. This is the first known cold-adapted Rhodotorula sp. sequenced to date. PMID:26988035

  8. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  9. Anti-Chol-1 Antigen, GQ1bα, Antibodies Are Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Toshio; Kubota, Masaru; Nakane, Makoto; Oguro, Kenji; Yu, Robert K.; Ando, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of amyloid β-proteins (Aβ) with membrane gangliosides has been reported to be an early event in Aβ fibril formation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuronal degeneration in AD has been postulated to be associated with the presence of anti-ganglioside antibodies in patient sera. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) immunostaining, sera from 27 individuals (10 with AD, 6 with vascular dementia (VD), and 11 non-demented age-matched pathological controls) were examined in order to detect anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) antibodies, including anti-cholinergic-specific antigen (Chol-1α; GQ1bα) antibodies. All sera had natural antibodies against ganglio-N-tetraosyl gangliosides (brain-type gangliosides). However, sera of demented patients with AD and VD had significantly higher titers of anti-GSL antibodies than those in age-matched pathological controls. Although most serum antibodies, including anti- GM1, -GT1b, -GQ1b, -GQ1bα, were of the IgM type, the presence of the IgG type antibodies was also significantly elevated in the sera of demented patients with AD. Anti-GT1b antibodies of the IgG type were elevated in AD (90%, 9 of 10 cases) and VD (100%), respectively. Most surprisingly, anti-GQ1bα antibodies (IgM) were found in 90% (9/10) and 100% (6/6) in the sera of patients with AD and VD, respectively. Since GQ1bα is present in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, the presence of anti-GQ1bα antibodies may play an important role in disrupting cholinergic synaptic transmission and may participate in the pathogenesis of dementia. We conclude that elevated anti-GSL antibody titers may be useful as an aid for clinical diagnosis of those dementias. PMID:23717411

  10. High Performance Computing in Solid Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Manea, M.; Pomeran, M.; Besutiu, L.; Zlagnean, L.

    2012-04-01

    Presently, the solid earth sciences started to move towards implementing high performance computational (HPC) research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, and designing a HPC solution tailored to a specific research field as solid earth that represents an optimum price/performance ratio is often a challenge. The HPC system performance strongly depends on the software-hardware interaction, and therefore prior knowledge on how well specific parallelized software performs on different HPC architectures can weight significantly on choosing the final configuration. In this paper we present benchmark results from two different HPC systems: one low-end HPCC (Horus) with 300 cores and 1.6 TFlops theoretical peak performance, and one high-end HPCC (CyberDyn) with 1344 cores and 11.2 TFlops theoretical peak performance. The software benchmark used in this paper is the open source package CitcomS, which is widely used in the solid earth community (www.geodynamics.org). Testing a CFD code specific for earth sciences, the HPC system Horus based on Gigabit Ethernet performed remarkably well compared with its counterpart Cyeberdyn which is based on Infiniband QDR fabric, but only for a relatively small number of computing cores (96). However, increasing the mesh size and the number of computing cores the HPCC CyberDyn starts outperforming the HPCC Horus because of the low-latency high-speed QDR network dedicated to MPI traffic. Since presently we are moving towards high-resolution simulations for geodynamic predictions that require the same scale as observations, HPC facilities used in earth sciences should benefit from larger up-front investment in future systems that are based on high-speed interconnects.

  11. High performance bio-integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  12. Engineering high-performance vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Hou, H.Q.; Hietala, V.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The cw and high-speed performance of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors and Al-oxide confinement layers address these issues and have produced record performance including 50% power conversion efficiency and modulation bandwidths up to 20 GHz at small bias currents.

  13. Programming high-performance reconfigurable computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melissa C.; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2001-07-01

    High Performance Computers (HPC) provide dramatically improved capabilities for a number of defense and commercial applications, but often are too expensive to acquire and to program. The smaller market and customized nature of HPC architectures combine to increase the cost of most such platforms. To address the problems with high hardware costs, one may create more inexpensive Beowolf clusters of dedicated commodity processors. Despite the benefit of reduced hardware costs, programming the HPC platforms to achieve high performance often proves extremely time-consuming and expensive in practice. In recent years, programming productivity gains come from the development of common APIs and libraries of functions to support distributed applications. Examples include PVM, MPI, BLAS, and VSIPL. The implementation of each API or library is optimized for a given platform, but application developers can write code that is portable across specific HPC architectures. The application of reconfigurable computing (RC) into HPC platforms promises significantly enhanced performance and flexibility at a modest cost. Unfortunately, configuring (programming) the reconfigurable computing nodes remains a challenging task and relatively little work to date has focused on potential high performance reconfigurable computing (HPRC) platforms consisting of reconfigurable nodes paired with processing nodes. This paper addresses the challenge of effectively exploiting HPRC resources by first considering the performance evaluation and optimization problem before turning to improving the programming infrastructure used for porting applications to HPRC platforms.

  14. Performance variability of highly parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William T.C.; Ryan, Clint

    2003-05-01

    The design and evaluation of high performance computers has concentrated on increasing computational speed for applications. This performance is often measured on a well configured dedicated system to show the best case. In the real environment, resources are not always dedicated to a single task, and systems run tasks that may influence each other, so run times vary, sometimes to an unreasonably large extent. This paper explores the amount of variation seen across four large distributed memory systems in a systematic manner. It then analyzes the causes for the variations seen and discusses what can be done to decrease the variation without impacting performance.

  15. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  16. Performance analysis of memory hierachies in high performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesh, A.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis studies memory bandwidth as a performance predictor of programs. The focus of this work is on computationally intensive programs. These programs are the most likely to access large amounts of data, stressing the memory system. Computationally intensive programs are also likely to use highly optimizing compilers to produce the fastest executables possible. Methods to reduce the amount of data traffic by increasing the average number of references to each item while it resides in the cache are explored. Increasing the average number of references to each cache item reduces the number of memory requests. Chapter 2 describes the DLX architecture. This is the architecture on which all the experiments were performed. Chapter 3 studies memory moves as a performance predictor for a group of application programs. Chapter 4 introduces a model to study the performance of programs in the presence of memory hierarchies. Chapter 5 explores some compiler optimizations that can help increase the references to each item while it resides in the cache.

  17. Interleukin 1B Variant -1473G/C (rs1143623) Influences Triglyceride and Interleukin 6 Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Solivera, Juan; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M.; Fuentes, Francisco; Parnell, Laurence D.; Shen, Jian; Gomez, Purificacion; Jimenez-Gomez, Yolanda; Gomez-Luna, Maria J.; Marin, Carmen; Belisle, Sarah E.; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Meydani, Simin N.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Context: IL1b (IL1B or IL1β), a key modulator of the immune response, exerts its functions mainly via IL6 regulation. Fatty meals cause transient hypertriglyceridemia and are considered to be proinflammatory, but the extent of these responses shows high interindividual susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the influence of a genetic variant located in the promoter region of IL1B (-1473G/C) on fasting and postprandial lipids and IL6. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 477 people over age 65 yr were genotyped for IL1B -1473G/C, and we evaluated fasting lipids depending on genotype. Then, 88 healthy young men were also genotyped and were fed a saturated fatty acid-rich meal. Serial blood samples were drawn for 11 h after the meal, and lipid fractions and IL6 were assayed. Main Outcome and Interventions: Fasting lipids were studied in the aged persons. Fasting and postprandial measurements of lipids and IL6 were performed in the healthy young men. Results: In the aged persons, CC subjects (minor allele homozygotes) showed higher triglyceride (P = 0.002) and cholesterol (P = 0.011) levels. Healthy young male carriers of the minor C allele showed higher postprandial triglycerides (P = 0.037), and those carried into large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (P = 0.004). In addition, they showed higher postprandial IL6 concentrations (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Our work shows that inflammatory genes may regulate fasting and postprandial lipids because the carriers of the minor allele of an IL gene variant have altered lipid metabolism. To reinforce these gene-phenotype findings, IL6 (the natural effector of IL1B) was increased in these persons. PMID:21307135

  18. An engineered heterodimeric model to investigate SULT1B1 dependence on intersubunit communication.

    PubMed

    Tibbs, Zachary E; Falany, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) biotransform small molecules to polar sulfate esters as a means to alter their activities within the body. Understanding the molecular mechanism by which the SULTs perform their function is important for optimizing future therapeutic applications. Recent evidence suggests each SULT isoform acts by a half-site reaction (HSR) mechanism, in which a single SULT dimer subunit is active at any given time. HSR requires communication through the highly conserved KxxxTVxxxE dimerization motif. In this investigation, we sought to test the intersubunit interactions of SULT1B1 as it relates to enzyme activity. We generated two populations of SULT1B1 isoforms that efficiently heterodimerize upon mixing by targeted point mutation of the KxxxTVxxxE motif to KxxxTVxxxK or ExxxTVxxxE. The heterodimer exhibited wildtype-like activity with regard to native size, thermal integrity, PAP affinity, and PAPS Km, therefore serving as a valid model for investigating SULT1B1 dimer subunit interactions. The approach granted control over each independent subunit, permitting mutation of the critical 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) binding residue Arg258 and/or the catalytic base His109 in a single subunit of the dimer. Substitution of the dysfunctional subunits for fully active subunits yielded dimeric SULT1B1 with 50% the activity of the fully competent dimer, suggesting SULT1B1 intersubunit communication does not significantly contribute to the isoform's activity. These results are a testament to the unique properties of individual SULT isoforms. The dimerization system described in this manuscript can be used to study subunit interactions in other SULT isoforms as well as proteins in other families. PMID:27338799

  19. Effect of the strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process on the tensile properties of a new developed super high strength aluminum alloy modified by Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Haghparast, Amin; Nourimotlagh, Masoud; Alipour, Mohammad

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the effect of Al-5Ti-1B grain refiners and modified strain-induced melt activation process on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The optimum level of Ti was found to be 0.1 wt.%. The specimens subjected to deformation ratio of 40% (at 300 Degree-Sign C) and various heat treatment times (10-40 min) and temperature (550-600 Degree-Sign C) regimes were characterized in this study. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Microstructural examinations were conducted by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt activation process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment including quenching to room temperature and aging at 120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 and 332 MPa to 617 for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al-5Ti-1B before and after strain-induced melt activation process and extrusion process, respectively. Ultimate strength of Ti-refined specimens without SIMA process has a lower value than globular microstructure specimens after SIMA and extrusion process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Al-5Ti-1B on the aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-5Ti-1B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum temperature and time in SIMA process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UTS of globular structure specimens have a more value than Ti-refined specimens.

  20. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  1. Crystal structure of PTP1B complexed with a potent and selective bidentate inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Peng; Fedorov, Alexander A; Lee, Seung-Yub; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Kui; Lawrence, David S; Almo, Steven C; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2003-04-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been implicated as an important regulator in several signaling pathways including those initiated by insulin and leptin. Potent and specific PTP1B inhibitors could serve as useful tools in elucidating the physiological functions of PTP1B and may constitute valuable therapeutics in the treatment of several human diseases. We have determined the crystal structure of PTP1B in complex with compound 2, the most potent and selective PTP1B inhibitor reported to date. The structure at 2.15-A resolution reveals that compound 2 simultaneously binds to the active site and a unique proximal noncatalytic site formed by Lys-41, Arg-47, and Asp-48. The structural data are further corroborated by results from kinetic analyses of the interactions of PTP1B and its site-directed mutants with compound 2 and several of its variants. Although many of the residues important for interactions between PTP1B and compound 2 are not unique to PTP1B, the combinations of all contact residues differ between PTP isozymes, which provide a structural basis for potent and selective PTP1B inhibition. Our data further suggest that potent, yet highly selective, PTP1B inhibitory agents can be acquired by targeting the area defined by residues Lys-41, Arg-47, and Asp-48, in addition to the previously identified second aryl phosphate-binding pocket. PMID:12547827

  2. High Performance Computing and Communications Panel Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    This report offers advice on the strengths and weaknesses of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative, one of five presidential initiatives launched in 1992 and coordinated by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The HPCC program has the following objectives: (1) to extend U.S.…

  3. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Imagine Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Imagine Homes, working with the DOE's Building America research team member IBACOS, has developed a system that can be replicated by other contractors to build affordable, high-performance homes. Imagine Homes has used the system to produce more than 70 Builders Challenge-certified homes per year in San Antonio over the past five years.

  4. Co-design for high performance computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, Sudip Singh; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Rodrigues, Arun F.

    2010-07-01

    Co-design has been identified as a key strategy for achieving Exascale computing in this decade. This paper describes the need for co-design in High Performance Computing related research in embedded computing the development of hardware/software co-simulation methods.

  5. Performing Arts High Schools: A Burgeoning Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses performing arts high schools that train students in general education and music, visual arts, theater, and dance. Enumerates purposes, advantages (mainly, a challenging and motivating atmosphere with opportunities to concentrate in one area), and problems (funding, understaffing, academic standards, and admission criteria). Advises…

  6. Debugging a high performance computing program

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2014-08-19

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  7. Debugging a high performance computing program

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  8. High Performance Work Organizations. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Organizations are being urged to become "high performance work organizations" (HPWOs) and vocational teachers have begun considering how best to prepare workers for them. Little consensus exists as to what HPWOs are. Several common characteristics of HPWOs have been identified, and two distinct models of HPWOs are emerging in the United States.…

  9. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  10. Using LEADS to shift to high performance.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Shauna; Hagge, Erna

    2016-03-01

    Health systems across Canada are tasked to measure results of all their strategic initiatives. Included in most strategic plans is leadership development. How to measure leadership effectiveness in relation to organizational objectives is key in determining organizational effectiveness. The following findings offer considerations for a 21(st)-century approach to shifting to high-performance systems. PMID:26872796

  11. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  12. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  13. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  14. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatola, Jennifer S.

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mode changes in the fiber fracture when transversely loaded by indenters of different shapes. An experimental design mimicking transverse impact was used to determine any such effects. Three different indenters were used: round, FSP, and razor blade. The indenter height was changed to change the angle of failure tested. Five high performance fibers were examined: KevlarRTM KM2, SpectraRTM 130d, DyneemaRTM SK-62 and SK-76, and ZylonRTM 555. Failed fibers were analyzed using an SEM to determine failure mechanisms. The results show that the round and razor blade indenters produced a constant failure strain, as well as failure mechanisms independent of testing angle. The FSP indenter produced a decrease in failure strain as the angle increased. Fibrillation was the dominant failure mechanism at all angles for the round indenter, while through thickness shearing was the failure mechanism for the razor blade. The FSP indenter showed a transition from fibrillation at low angles to through thickness shearing at high angles, indicating that the round and razor blade indenters are extreme cases of the FSP indenter. The failure mechanisms observed with the FSP indenter at various angles correlated with the experimental strain data obtained during fiber testing. This indicates that geometry of the indenter tip in compression is a contributing factor in lowering the failure strain of the high performance fibers. TEM analysis of the fiber failure mechanisms was also attempted, though without

  15. Multiple Intravenous Infusions Phase 1b

    PubMed Central

    Cassano-Piché, A; Fan, M; Sabovitch, S; Masino, C; Easty, AC

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimal research has been conducted into the potential patient safety issues related to administering multiple intravenous (IV) infusions to a single patient. Previous research has highlighted that there are a number of related safety risks. In Phase 1a of this study, an analysis of 2 national incident-reporting databases (Institute for Safe Medical Practices Canada and United States Food and Drug Administration MAUDE) found that a high percentage of incidents associated with the administration of multiple IV infusions resulted in patient harm. Objectives The primary objectives of Phase 1b of this study were to identify safety issues with the potential to cause patient harm stemming from the administration of multiple IV infusions; and to identify how nurses are being educated on key principles required to safely administer multiple IV infusions. Data Sources and Review Methods A field study was conducted at 12 hospital clinical units (sites) across Ontario, and telephone interviews were conducted with program coordinators or instructors from both the Ontario baccalaureate nursing degree programs and the Ontario postgraduate Critical Care Nursing Certificate programs. Data were analyzed using Rasmussen’s 1997 Risk Management Framework and a Health Care Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. Results Twenty-two primary patient safety issues were identified with the potential to directly cause patient harm. Seventeen of these (critical issues) were categorized into 6 themes. A cause-consequence tree was established to outline all possible contributing factors for each critical issue. Clinical recommendations were identified for immediate distribution to, and implementation by, Ontario hospitals. Future investigation efforts were planned for Phase 2 of the study. Limitations This exploratory field study identifies the potential for errors, but does not describe the direct observation of such errors, except in a few cases where errors were observed. Not all

  16. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  17. High performance RGB LED backlight in high temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabski, Grzegorz; Gurr, Walter; Green, John

    2008-04-01

    The Aerospace and Defense display industry is in the midst of converting light the sources used in AMLCD backlighting technology from fluorescent lamps to LEDs. Although challenging, the fluorescent backlighting technology delivered good product in high end applications. LEDs, however, have the promise of even greater efficiency and lower cost. The history of LED backlighting is short and very dynamic; expectations are high and promises are many. It appears that for engineers developing backlights for high performance displays life has not become easier with the change of the technology. This paper will discuss just one of many challenges engineer's face: operation of LED backlights in high temperature environments. It will present experimental data showing several advantages of the RGB LED technology over other lamp technologies for high performance commercial and military application.

  18. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  19. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  20. An Introduction to High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sérgio

    2013-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) has become an essential tool in every researcher's arsenal. Most research problems nowadays can be simulated, clarified or experimentally tested by using computational simulations. Researchers struggle with computational problems when they should be focusing on their research problems. Since most researchers have little-to-no knowledge in low-level computer science, they tend to look at computer programs as extensions of their minds and bodies instead of completely autonomous systems. Since computers do not work the same way as humans, the result is usually Low Performance Computing where HPC would be expected.

  1. High speed, high performance /Hg,Cd/Te photodiode detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, D. A.; Pinkston, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The current performance of high speed photodiode detectors for the 1 to 10 micron spectral region is discussed. The (Hg,Cd)Te photodiode configuration, detector properties, integration in laser receiver modules, and frequency response are considered for near infrared and far infrared wavelengths. The recent advances in (Hg,Cd)Te material and device development are indicated by the realization not only of exceptionally high speed detectors but of detectors that exhibit excellent detectivities. The performance improves substantially when the detector is cooled. This detector junction technology has been extended to other compositions of (Hg,Cd)Te for peak spectral responses at 5 and 10 micron.

  2. COMMIX-1B. 3-D Single-Phase Thermal Hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.

    1986-01-31

    COMMIX-1B is designed to perform steady-state or transient, single-phase, three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a single-component or multicomponent system. The program was developed for the analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow processes in a nuclear reactor system; however, it can easily be applied to non-nuclear systems requiring heat transfer and/or fluid flow analysis. COMMIX-1B solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, and transport equations of turbulence parameters and provides detailed local velocity, temperature, and pressure fields for the problem under consideration. It is capable of solving thermal-hydraulic problems involving either a single component, such as a rod bundle, reactor plenum, piping system, heat exchanger, etc., or a multicomponent system that is a combination of these components.

  3. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 from Cases of Hemorrhagic Disease Are Highly Diverged from Other Mammalian Herpesviruses and May Form a New Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Laura K.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin M.; Lock, Justin; Fleischer, Robert C.; Heaggans, Sarah Y.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A family of novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) assigned to the genus Proboscivirus have been identified as the cause of fatal hemorrhagic disease in 70 young Asian elephants worldwide. Although EEHV cannot be grown in cell culture, we have determined a total of 378 kb of viral genomic DNA sequence directly from clinical tissue samples from six lethal cases and two survivors. Overall, the data obtained encompass 57 genes, including orthologues of 32 core genes common to all herpesviruses, 14 genes found in some other herpesviruses, plus 10 novel genes, including a single large putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ORF-L). On the basis of differences in gene content and organization plus phylogenetic analyses of conserved core proteins that have just 20% to 50% or less identity to orthologues in other herpesviruses, we propose that EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 could be considered a new Deltaherpesvirinae subfamily of mammalian herpesviruses that evolved as an intermediate branch between the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. Unlike cytomegaloviruses, EEHV genomes encode ribonucleotide kinase B subunit (RRB), thymidine kinase (TK), and UL9-like origin binding protein (OBP) proteins and have an alphaherpesvirus-like dyad symmetry Ori-Lyt domain. They also differ from all known betaherpesviruses by having a 40-kb large-scale inversion of core gene blocks I, II, and III. EEHV1 and EEHV2 DNA differ uniformly by more than 25%, but EEHV1 clusters into two major subgroups designated EEHV1A and EEHV1B with ancient partially chimeric features. Whereas large segments are nearly identical, three nonadjacent loci totaling 15 kb diverge by between 21 and 37%. One strain of EEHV1B analyzed is interpreted to be a modern partial recombinant with EEHV1A. IMPORTANCE Asian elephants are an endangered species whose survival is under extreme pressure in wild range countries and whose captive breeding populations in zoos are not self-sustaining. In 1999, a

  4. Recurrent CDKN1B (p27) mutations in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Sascha; Hüllein, Jennifer; Lee, Stanley Chun-Wei; Hutter, Barbara; Gonzalez, David; Jayne, Sandrine; Dyer, Martin J S; Oleś, Małgorzata; Else, Monica; Liu, Xiyang; Słabicki, Mikołaj; Wu, Bian; Troussard, Xavier; Dürig, Jan; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Dearden, Claire; von Kalle, Christof; Granzow, Martin; Jauch, Anna; Fröhling, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Torsten; Ho, Anthony D; Richter, Daniela; Brors, Benedikt; Glimm, Hanno; Matutes, Estella; Abdel Wahab, Omar; Zenz, Thorsten

    2015-08-20

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is marked by near 100% mutational frequency of BRAFV600E mutations. Recurrent cooperating genetic events that may contribute to HCL pathogenesis or affect the clinical course of HCL are currently not described. Therefore, we performed whole exome sequencing to explore the mutational landscape of purine analog refractory HCL. In addition to the disease-defining BRAFV600E mutations, we identified mutations in EZH2, ARID1A, and recurrent inactivating mutations of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1B (p27). Targeted deep sequencing of CDKN1B in a larger cohort of HCL patients identify deleterious CDKN1B mutations in 16% of patients with HCL (n = 13 of 81). In 11 of 13 patients the CDKN1B mutation was clonal, implying an early role of CDKN1B mutations in the pathogenesis of HCL. CDKN1B mutations were not found to impact clinical characteristics or outcome in this cohort. These data identify HCL as having the highest frequency of CDKN1B mutations among cancers and identify CDNK1B as the second most common mutated gene in HCL. Moreover, given the known function of CDNK1B, these data suggest a novel role for alterations in regulation of cell cycle and senescence in HCL with CDKN1B mutations. PMID:26065650

  5. Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, B.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines an experimental and numerical study on Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete subjected to air or sealed curing. Eight qualities of concrete (about 100 cylinders and 900 cubes) were studied, both young and in the mature state. The concretes contained between 5 and 10% silica fume, and two concretes in addition contained air-entrainment. Parallel studies of strength and internal relative humidity were carried out. The results indicate that Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete is slightly smaller than that of normal-strength concrete. Analyses of the influence of maturity, type of aggregate, and moisture on Poisson's ratio are also presented. The project was carried out from 1991 to 1998.

  6. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J.; Rowan, T.

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  7. High-performance parallel input device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, R. W.; Fischer, Patrick J.; Hunter, B.

    1993-12-01

    Research into force reflecting remote manipulation has recently started to move away from common error systems towards explicit force control. In order to maximize the benefit provided by explicit force reflection the designer has to take into account the asymmetry of the bandwidths of the forward and reflecting loops. This paper reports on a high performance system designed and built at Oxford University and Harwell Laboratories and on the preliminary results achieved when performing simple force reflecting tasks. The input device is based on a modified Stewart Platform, which offers the potential of very high bandwidth force reflection, well above the normal 2 - 10 Hz range achieved with common error systems. The slave is a nuclear hardened Puma industrial robot, offering a low cost, reliable solution to remote manipulation tasks.

  8. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lettsome, Annette K.; /Bethune-Cookman Coll. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface.

  9. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  10. Toward a theory of high performance.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance. PMID:16028814

  11. Design of high performance piezo composites actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

    Design of high performance piezo composites actuators are developed. Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM) piezoelectric actuators are designed to reduce the stress concentration at the middle interface existed in the standard bimorph actuators while maintaining high actuation performance. The FGM piezoelectric laminates are composite materials with electroelastic properties varied through the laminate thickness. The elastic behavior of piezo-laminates actuators is developed using a 2D-elasticity model and a modified classical lamination theory (CLT). The stresses and out-of-plane displacements are obtained for standard and FGM piezoelectric bimorph plates under cylindrical bending generated by an electric field throughout the thickness of the laminate. The analytical model is developed for two different actuator geometries, a rectangular plate actuator and a disk shape actuator. The limitations of CLT are investigated against the 2D-elasticity model for the rectangular plate geometry. The analytical models based on CLT (rectangular and circular) and 2D-elasticity are compared with a model based on Finite Element Method (FEM). The experimental study consists of two FGM actuator systems, the PZT/PZT FGM system and the porous FGM system. The electroelastic properties of each layer in the FGM systems were measured and input in the analytical models to predict the FGM actuator performance. The performance of the FGM actuator is optimized by manipulating the thickness of each layer in the FGM system. The thickness of each layer in the FGM system is made to vary in a linear or non-linear manner to achieve the best performance of the FGM piezoelectric actuator. The analytical and FEM results are found to agree well with the experimental measurements for both rectangular and disk actuators. CLT solutions are found to coincide well with the elasticity solutions for high aspect ratios while the CLT solutions gave poor results compared to the 2D elasticity solutions for

  12. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  13. High Performance Databases For Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James C.; Grimshaw, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal for this task is to develop an Extensible File System (ELFS). ELFS attacks the problem of the following: 1. Providing high bandwidth performance architectures; 2. Reducing the cognitive burden faced by applications programmers when they attempt to optimize; and 3. Seamlessly managing the proliferation of data formats and architectural differences. The approach for ELFS solution consists of language and run-time system support that permits the specification on a hierarchy of file classes.

  14. High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

  15. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  16. SOAR Telescope: 4-meter high-performance-mount performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael; Krabbendam, Victor; Schumacher, German; Delgadillo, Juan C.

    2004-09-01

    The 4.1-meter SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope mount and drive systems have been commissioned and are in routine operation. The telescope mount, the structure and its full drive systems, was fully erected and tested at the factory prior to reassembly and commissioning at the observatory. This successful approach enabled complete integration, from a concrete pier to a pointing and tracking telescope, on the mountain, in a rapid 3-month period. The telescope mount with its high instrument payload and demanding efficiency requirements is an important component for the success of the SOAR scientific mission. The SOAR mount utilizes rolling element bearings for both azimuth and elevation support, counter torqued sets of gear motors on azimuth and two frameless torque motors built into the elevation axles. Tracking jitter and its associated spectra, pointing errors and their sources, bearing friction and servo performances are critical criteria for this mount concept and are important factors in achieving the mission. This paper addresses the performance results obtained during the integration, commissioning, and first light periods of the telescope mount system.

  17. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  18. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  19. High Performance Oxides-Based Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guangkun; Lan, Jinle; Zeng, Chengcheng; Liu, Yaochun; Zhan, Bin; Butt, Sajid; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to their applications in waste-heat recovery, power generation, and solid state cooling. In comparison with thermoelectric alloys, oxide semiconductors, which are thermally and chemically stable in air at high temperature, are regarded as the candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric applications. However, their figure-of-merit ZT value has remained low, around 0.1-0.4 for more than 20 years. The poor performance in oxides is ascribed to the low electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Since the electrical transport properties in these thermoelectric oxides are strongly correlated, it is difficult to improve both the thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity simultaneously by conventional methods. This review summarizes recent progresses on high-performance oxide-based thermoelectric bulk-materials including n-type ZnO, SrTiO3, and In2O3, and p-type Ca3Co4O9, BiCuSeO, and NiO, enhanced by heavy-element doping, band engineering and nanostructuring.

  20. PLU-1/JARID1B overexpression predicts proliferation properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhibin; Song, Liwei; Hou, Zhaoyuan; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuhua; Wu, Yadi; Chen, Wantao; Mao, Li

    2015-05-01

    PLU-1/JARID1B (jumonji AT rich interactive domain 1B) is one of the testis cancer antigens and functions as a histone demethylase in the regulation of various human types of cancers. However, its functions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to examine PLU-1/JARID1B expression levels in HNSCCs and to investigate its role in cancer cell proliferation. In the present study, we found that PLU-1/JARID1B mRNA was upregulated in all tested HNSCC cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining showed that PLU-1/JARID1B protein expression was detected in 87.8% (87/99) of the HNSCC cases. A positive association was observed between high PLU-1/JARID1B expression and higher Ki-67 labeling in the HNSCC samples (Pearson r=0.6514, P=0.0003). Stable PLU-1/JARID1B knockdown by PLU-1-shRNAs in the HNSCC cell lines suppressed cell growth both in the in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, PLU-1/JARID1B knockdown resulted in G1 arrest and early apoptosis by suppressing Bcl-2 family members in the HNSCCs. These data indicate that PLU-1/JARID1B is overexpressed in HNSCCs and is associated with tumor proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore, PLU-1/JARID1B represents a candidate proliferation biomarker for HNSCC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25777981

  1. High Performance High-Tc Superconducting Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sukill; Goyal, Amit; Li, Jing; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili; Martin, Patrick M; Heatherly Jr, Lee; Thompson, James R; Christen, David K; List III, Frederick Alyious; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Lee, Dominic F

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated short segments of a superconducting wire that meets or exceeds performance requirements for many large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting materials, especially those requiring a high supercurrent and/or a high engineering critical current density in applied magnetic fields. The performance requirements for these varied applications were met in 3-micrometer-thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films epitaxially grown via pulsed laser ablation on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates. Enhancements of the critical current in self-field as well as excellent retention of this current in high applied magnetic fields were achieved in the thick films via incorporation of a periodic array of extended columnar defects, composed of self-aligned nanodots of nonsuperconducting material extending through the entire thickness of the film. These columnar defects are highly effective in pinning the superconducting vortices or flux lines, thereby resulting in the substantially enhanced performance of this wire.

  2. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-06-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a "High Performance" implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit best from

  3. High Performance Fortran for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of High Performance Fortran (HPF) for important classes of algorithms employed in aerospace applications. HPF is a set of Fortran extensions designed to provide users with a high-level interface for programming data parallel scientific applications, while delegating to the compiler/runtime system the task of generating explicitly parallel message-passing programs. We begin by providing a short overview of the HPF language. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the efficient use of HPF for applications involving multiple structured grids such as multiblock and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes as well as unstructured grid codes. We focus on the data structures and computational structures used in these codes and on the high-level strategies that can be expressed in HPF to optimally exploit the parallelism in these algorithms.

  4. High Performance Database Management for Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishe, Naphtali; Barton, David; Urban, Frank; Chekmasov, Maxim; Martinez, Maria; Alvarez, Elms; Gutierrez, Martha; Pardo, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The High Performance Database Research Center at Florida International University is completing the development of a highly parallel database system based on the semantic/object-oriented approach. This system provides exceptional usability and flexibility. It allows shorter application design and programming cycles and gives the user control via an intuitive information structure. It empowers the end-user to pose complex ad hoc decision support queries. Superior efficiency is provided through a high level of optimization, which is transparent to the user. Manifold reduction in storage size is allowed for many applications. This system allows for operability via internet browsers. The system will be used for the NASA Applications Center program to store remote sensing data, as well as for Earth Science applications.

  5. Heavily Doped PBSE with High Thermoelectric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Wang, Heng (Inventor); Pei, Yanzhong (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses heavily doped PbSe with high thermoelectric performance. Thermoelectric property measurements disclosed herein indicated that PbSe is high zT material for mid-to-high temperature thermoelectric applications. At 850 K a peak zT (is) greater than 1.3 was observed when n(sub H) approximately 1.0 X 10(exp 20) cm(exp -3). The present invention also discloses that a number of strategies used to improve zT of PbTe, such as alloying with other elements, nanostructuring and band modification may also be used to further improve zT in PbSe.

  6. Performance of annular high frequency thermoacoustic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ivan A.

    This thesis presents studies of the behavior of miniature annular thermoacoustic prime movers and the imaging of the complex sound fields using PIV inside the small acoustic wave guides when driven by a temperature gradient. Thermoacoustic engines operating in the standing wave mode are limited in their acoustic efficiency by a high degree of irreversibility that is inherent in how they work. Better performance can be achieved by using traveling waves in the thermoacoustic devices. This has led to the development of an annular high frequency thermoacoustic prime mover consisting of a regenerator, which is a random stack in-between a hot and cold heat exchanger, inside an annular waveguide. Miniature devices were developed and studied with operating frequencies in the range of 2-4 kHz. This corresponds to an average ring circumference of 11 cm for the 3 kHz device, the resonator bore being 6 mm. A similar device of 11 mm bore, length of 18 cm was also investigated; its resonant frequency was 2 kHz. Sound intensities as high as 166.8 dB were generated with limited heat input. Sound power was extracted from the annular structure by an impedance-matching side arm. The nature of the acoustic wave generated by heat was investigated using a high speed PIV instrument. Although the acoustic device appears symmetric, its performance is characterized by a broken symmetry and by perturbations that exist in its structure. Effects of these are observed in the PIV imaging; images show axial and radial components. Moreover, PIV studies show effects of streaming and instabilities which affect the devices' acoustic efficiency. The acoustic efficiency is high, being of 40% of Carnot. This type of device shows much promise as a high efficiency energy converter; it can be reduced in size for microcircuit applications.

  7. Small-Scale High-Performance Optics

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON, CHRISTOPHER W.; LEGER, CHRIS L.; SPLETZER, BARRY L.

    2002-06-01

    Historically, high resolution, high slew rate optics have been heavy, bulky, and expensive. Recent advances in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology and micro-machining may change this. Specifically, the advent of steerable sub-millimeter sized mirror arrays could provide the breakthrough technology for producing very small-scale high-performance optical systems. For example, an array of steerable MEMS mirrors could be the building blocks for a Fresnel mirror of controllable focal length and direction of view. When coupled with a convex parabolic mirror the steerable array could realize a micro-scale pan, tilt and zoom system that provides full CCD sensor resolution over the desired field of view with no moving parts (other than MEMS elements). This LDRD provided the first steps towards the goal of a new class of small-scale high-performance optics based on MEMS technology. A large-scale, proof of concept system was built to demonstrate the effectiveness of an optical configuration applicable to producing a small-scale (< 1cm) pan and tilt imaging system. This configuration consists of a color CCD imager with a narrow field of view lens, a steerable flat mirror, and a convex parabolic mirror. The steerable flat mirror directs the camera's narrow field of view to small areas of the convex mirror providing much higher pixel density in the region of interest than is possible with a full 360 deg. imaging system. Improved image correction (dewarping) software based on texture mapping images to geometric solids was developed. This approach takes advantage of modern graphics hardware and provides a great deal of flexibility for correcting images from various mirror shapes. An analytical evaluation of blur spot size and axi-symmetric reflector optimization were performed to address depth of focus issues that occurred in the proof of concept system. The resulting equations will provide the tools for developing future system designs.

  8. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S.; Burris, R.

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  9. High capacity heat pipe performance demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A high capacity heat pipe which will operate in one-g and in zero-g is investigated. An artery configuration which is self-priming in one-g was emphasized. Two artery modifications were evolved as candidates to achieve one-g priming and will provide the very high performance: the four artery and the eight artery configurations. These were each evaluated analytically for performance and priming capability. The eight artery configuration was found to be inadequate from a performance standpoint. The four artery showed promise of working. A five-inch long priming element test article was fabricated using the four artery design. Plexiglas viewing windows were made on each end of the heat pipe to permit viewing of the priming activity. The five-inch primary element would not successfully prime in one-g. Difficulties on priming in one-g raised questions about zero-g priming. Therefore a small test element heat pipe for verifying that the proposed configuration will self-prime in zero-g was fabricated and delivered.

  10. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  11. Cytochrome P450 1B1: An Unexpected Modulator of Liver Fatty Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Bushkofsky, Justin R.; Gorman, Tyler; Adhami, Vaqar; Mukhtar, Hasan; Wang, Suqing; Reeder, Scott B.; Sheibani, Nader; Jefcoate, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1) expression is absent in mouse hepatocytes, but present in liver endothelia and activated stellate cells. Increased expression during adipogenesis suggests a role of Cyp1b1 metabolism in fatty acid homeostasis. Wild-type C57BL/6j (WT) and Cyp1b1-null (Cyp1b1-ko) mice were provided low or high fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively). Cyp1b1-deletion suppressed HFD-induced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and prevented liver steatosis. Suppression of lipid droplets in sinusoidal hepatocytes, concomitant with enhanced glycogen granules, was a consistent feature of Cyp1b1-ko mice. Cyp1b1 deletion altered the in vivo expression of 560 liver genes, including suppression of PPARγ, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and many genes stimulated by PPARα, each consistent with this switch in energy storage mechanism. Ligand activation of PPARα in Cyp1b1-ko mice by WY-14643 was, nevertheless, effective. Seventeen gene changes in Cyp1b1-ko mice correspond to mouse transgenic expression that attenuated diet-induced diabetes. The absence of Cyp1b1 in mouse hepatocytes indicates participation in energy homeostasis through extra-hepatocyte signaling. Extensive sexual dimorphism in hepatic gene expression suggests a developmental impact of estrogen metabolism by Cyp1b1. Suppression of Scd1 and increased leptin turnover support enhanced leptin participation from the hypothalamus. Cyp1b1-mediated effects on vascular cells may underlie these changes. PMID:25703193

  12. Frequent amplification of PTP1B is associated with poor survival of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; She, Junjun; Liu, Wei; Shi, Jing; Yang, Qi; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, has been implicated in gastric pathogenesis. Several lines of recent evidences have shown that PTP1B is highly amplified in breast and prostate cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate PTP1B amplification in gastric cancer and its association with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and further determine the role of PTP1B in gastric tumorigenesis. Our data demonstrated that PTP1B was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched normal gastric tissues by using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay. In addition, copy number analysis showed that PTP1B was amplified in 68/131 (51.9%) gastric cancer cases, whereas no amplification was found in the control subjects. Notably, PTP1B amplification was positively associated with its protein expression, and was significantly related to poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Knocking down PTP1B expression in gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrested and apoptosis. Mechanically, PTP1B promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasiveness through modulating Src-related signaling pathways, such as Src/Ras/MAPK and Src/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Collectively, our data demonstrated frequent overexpression and amplification PTP1B in gastric cancer, and further determined the oncogenic role of PTP1B in gastric carcinogenesis. Importantly, PTP1B amplification predicts poor survival of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25590580

  13. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  14. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  15. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In this tutorial, we will discuss top five current RISC microprocessors: The IBM Power2, which is used in the IBM RS6000/590 workstation and in the IBM SP2 parallel supercomputer, the DEC Alpha, which is in the DEC Alpha workstation and in the Cray T3D; the MIPS R8000, which is used in the SGI Power Challenge; the HP PA-RISC 7100, which is used in the HP 700 series workstations and in the Convex Exemplar; and the Cray proprietary processor, which is used in the new Cray J916. The architecture of these microprocessors will first be presented. The effective performance of these processors will then be compared, both by citing standard benchmarks and also in the context of implementing a real applications. In the process, different programming models such as data parallel (CM Fortran and HPF) and message passing (PVM and MPI) will be introduced and compared. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB) absolute performance and performance per dollar figures will be presented. The next generation of the NP13 will also be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of general trends in the field of high performance computing, including likely future developments in hardware and software technology, and the relative roles of vector supercomputers tightly coupled parallel computers, and clusters of workstations. This tutorial will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere.

  16. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  17. High-performance computing in seismology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  18. High Power MPD Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Strzempkowski, Eugene; Pencil, Eric

    2004-01-01

    High power magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters are being developed as cost effective propulsion systems for cargo transport to lunar and Mars bases, crewed missions to Mars and the outer planets, and robotic deep space exploration missions. Electromagnetic MPD thrusters have demonstrated, at the laboratory level, the ability to process megawatts of electrical power while providing significantly higher thrust densities than electrostatic electric propulsion systems. The ability to generate higher thrust densities permits a reduction in the number of thrusters required to perform a given mission, and alleviates the system complexity associated with multiple thruster arrays. The specific impulse of an MPD thruster can be optimized to meet given mission requirements, from a few thousand seconds with heavier gas propellants up to 10,000 seconds with hydrogen propellant. In support of programs envisioned by the NASA Office of Exploration Systems, Glenn Research Center is developing and testing quasi-steady MW-class MPD thrusters as a prelude to steady state high power thruster tests. This paper provides an overview of the GRC high power pulsed thruster test facility, and presents preliminary performance data for a quasi-steady baseline MPD thruster geometry.

  19. The design strategy of selective PTP1B inhibitors over TCPTP.

    PubMed

    Li, XiangQian; Wang, LiJun; Shi, DaYong

    2016-08-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has already been well studied as a highly validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. However, the lack of selectivity limited further studies and clinical applications of PTP1B inhibitors, especially over T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). In this review, we enumerate the published specific inhibitors of PTP1B, discuss the structure-activity relationships by analysis of their X-ray structures or docking results, and summarize the characteristic of selectivity related residues and groups. Furthermore, the design strategy of selective PTP1B inhibitors over TCPTP is also proposed. We hope our work could provide an effective way to gain specific PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:27353889

  20. High performance Split-Stirling cooler program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, R. P.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the physical characteristics of the final design configuration of the 1 Watt Split-Stirling Cryogenic Cooler. Qualification testing included evaluation of the 1.0 Watt Cryogenic Cooler under the following conditions: Performance tests over the temperature range of -40 degrees C to +55 degrees C; High and Low Temperature Shock Tests; Mechanical Shock Tests; Sinsoidal Vibration; Self-Induced Vibration; Acoustical Testing; and 1000-Hour Mean Time Between Failure Life Tests. The cryogenic cooler design consists of a motor and compressor assembly, and a remote expander assembly, interconnected by a stainless steel capillary line. The system is nominally a 18.5 VDC, 60 Watt cooler and has a maximum weight of 4 pounds. This report summarizes the results of the performance, environmental and life qualification tests conducted under the contract and provides supporting data for each of the test categories.

  1. Roof support performance in high stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mucho, T.P.; Mark, C.; Zelanko, J.C.; Compton, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    To document the performance of mine roof and roof support systems the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) has been installing instrumentation at selected sites in US coal mines. Much of this support and roof instrumentation has been installed in high stress conditions to maximize differences in performance. Summarized in this paper are the results of four such site investigations. The roof geology at the four sites is quite different and is quantified using the USBM`s Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR). The studies included detailed measurements of roof movement using multi-point extensometers, as well as measurements and monitoring of bolt loading. The investigations include developmental loading and abutment loading from longwall and room-and-pillar mining operations. Some of the issues examined are the effect of the horizontal stress field, the effect of installed tension (torque-tension versus resin bolts), the effect of reduced annulus bolt holes, and the differences between similar bolts supplied by different manufacturers.

  2. High performance robotic traverse of desert terrain.

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, William

    2004-09-01

    This report presents tentative innovations to enable unmanned vehicle guidance for a class of off-road traverse at sustained speeds greater than 30 miles per hour. Analyses and field trials suggest that even greater navigation speeds might be achieved. The performance calls for innovation in mapping, perception, planning and inertial-referenced stabilization of components, hosted aboard capable locomotion. The innovations are motivated by the challenge of autonomous ground vehicle traverse of 250 miles of desert terrain in less than 10 hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. GPS coverage is assumed to be available with localized blackouts. Terrain and vegetation are assumed to be akin to that of the Mojave Desert. This terrain is interlaced with networks of unimproved roads and trails, which are a key to achieving the high performance mapping, planning and navigation that is presented here.

  3. High performance railgun barrels for laboratory use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, David P.; Newman, Duane C.

    1993-01-01

    High performance low-cost, laboratory railgun barrels are now available, comprised of an inherently stiff containment structure which surrounds the bore components machined from 'off the-shelf' materials. The shape of the containment structure was selected to make the barrel inherently stiff. The structure consists of stainless steel laminations which do not compromise the electrical efficiency of the railgun. The modular design enhances the utility of the barrel, as it is easy to service between shots, and can be 're-cored' to produce different configurations and sizes using the same structure. We have produced barrels ranging from 15 mm to 90 mm square bore, a 30 mm round bore, and in lengths varying from 0.25 meters to 10 meters long. Successful tests with both plasma and solid metal armatures have demonstrated the versatility and performance of this design.

  4. Advanced solidification system using high performance cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Izumida, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Advanced cement solidification is proposed for the solidification of radioactive waste such as spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash and liquid waste. A new, high performance cement has been developed to raise volume reduction efficiency and lower radioactivity release into the environment. It consists of slag cement, reinforcing fiber, natural zeolite and lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}). The fiber allows waste loading to be increased from 20 to 55kg-dry resin/200L. The zeolite, whose main constituent is clinoptilolite, reduces cesium leachability from the waste form to about 1/10. Lithium nitrate prevents alkaline corrosion of the aluminum, contained in ash, and reduces hydrogen gas generation. Laboratory and full-scale pilot plant experiments were performed to evaluate properties of the waste form, using simulated wastes. Emphasis was laid on improvement of solidification of spent resin and ash.

  5. Improving UV Resistance of High Performance Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, Ahmed

    High performance fibers are characterized by their superior properties compared to the traditional textile fibers. High strength fibers have high modules, high strength to weight ratio, high chemical resistance, and usually high temperature resistance. It is used in application where superior properties are needed such as bulletproof vests, ropes and cables, cut resistant products, load tendons for giant scientific balloons, fishing rods, tennis racket strings, parachute cords, adhesives and sealants, protective apparel and tire cords. Unfortunately, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes serious degradation to the most of high performance fibers. UV lights, either natural or artificial, cause organic compounds to decompose and degrade, because the energy of the photons of UV light is high enough to break chemical bonds causing chain scission. This work is aiming at achieving maximum protection of high performance fibers using sheathing approaches. The sheaths proposed are of lightweight to maintain the advantage of the high performance fiber that is the high strength to weight ratio. This study involves developing three different types of sheathing. The product of interest that need be protected from UV is braid from PBO. First approach is extruding a sheath from Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) loaded with different rutile TiO2 % nanoparticles around the braid from the PBO. The results of this approach showed that LDPE sheath loaded with 10% TiO2 by weight achieved the highest protection compare to 0% and 5% TiO2. The protection here is judged by strength loss of PBO. This trend noticed in different weathering environments, where the sheathed samples were exposed to UV-VIS radiations in different weatheromter equipments as well as exposure to high altitude environment using NASA BRDL balloon. The second approach is focusing in developing a protective porous membrane from polyurethane loaded with rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. Membrane from polyurethane loaded with 4

  6. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  7. High-performance neural networks. [Neural computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    The new Forth hardware architectures offer an intermediate solution to high-performance neural networks while the theory and programming details of neural networks for synthetic intelligence are developed. This approach has been used successfully to determine the parameters and run the resulting network for a synthetic insect consisting of a 200-node ''brain'' with 1760 interconnections. Both the insect's environment and its sensor input have thus far been simulated. However, the frequency-coded nature of the Browning network allows easy replacement of the simulated sensors by real-world counterparts.

  8. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A A

    2007-02-05

    The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Climate and Carbon Science Group of Energy and Environment (E and E) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. Through the addition of relevant physical processes, we are developing an earth systems modeling capability as well.

  9. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuated Gimbal (HIERAX)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Tschaggeny; Warren Jones; Eberhard Bamberg

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-axis gimbal whose three rotational axes are actuated by a novel drive system: linear piezoelectric motors whose linear output is converted to rotation by using drive disks. Advantages of this technology are: fast response, high accelerations, dither-free actuation and backlash-free positioning. The gimbal was developed to house a laser range finder for the purpose of tracking and guiding unmanned aerial vehicles during landing maneuvers. The tilt axis was built and the test results indicate excellent performance that meets design specifications.

  10. Portability Support for High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Doreen Y.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    While a large number of tools have been developed to support application portability, high performance application developers often prefer to use vendor-provided, non-portable programming interfaces. This phenomena indicates the mismatch between user priorities and tool capabilities. This paper summarizes the results of a user survey and a developer survey. The user survey has revealed the user priorities and resulted in three criteria for evaluating tool support for portability. The developer survey has resulted in the evaluation of portability support and indicated the possibilities and difficulties of improvements.

  11. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current

  13. Auranofin Protects against Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Activation of the Nlrp1b Inflammasome ▿

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Zachary L.; Sirianni, Nicole; Mawhinney, Christina; Lee, Margaret S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Johansen, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis. The lethal factor (LF) component of this bipartite toxin is a protease which, when transported into the cellular cytoplasm, cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) family proteins and induces rapid toxicity in mouse macrophages through activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome. A high-throughput screen was performed to identify synergistic LT-inhibitory drug combinations from within a library of approved drugs and molecular probes. From this screen we discovered that auranofin, an organogold compound with anti-inflammatory activity, strongly inhibited LT-mediated toxicity in mouse macrophages. Auranofin did not inhibit toxin transport into cells or MEK cleavage but inhibited both LT-mediated caspase-1 activation and caspase-1 catalytic activity. Thus, auranofin inhibited LT-mediated toxicity by preventing activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome and the downstream actions that occur in response to the toxin. Idebenone, an analog of coenzyme Q, synergized with auranofin to increase its protective effect. We found that idebenone functions as an inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium channels and thus likely mediates synergy through inhibition of the potassium fluxes which have been shown to be required for Nlrp1b inflammasome activation. PMID:21149629

  14. High-temperature testing of high performance fiber reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fořt, Jan; Vejmelková, Eva; Pavlíková, Milena; Trník, Anton; Čítek, David; Kolísko, Jiří; Černý, Robert; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    The effect of high-temperature exposure on properties of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) is researched in the paper. At first, reference measurements are done on HPFRC samples without high-temperature loading. Then, the HPFRC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C. For the temperature loaded samples, measurement of residual mechanical and basic physical properties is done. Linear thermal expansion coefficient as function of temperature is accessed on the basis of measured thermal strain data. Additionally, simultaneous difference scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis is performed in order to observe and explain material changes at elevated temperature. It is found that the applied high temperature loading significantly increases material porosity due to the physical, chemical and combined damage of material inner structure, and negatively affects also the mechanical strength. Linear thermal expansion coefficient exhibits significant dependence on temperature and changes of material structure. The obtained data will find use as input material parameters for modelling the damage of HPFRC structures exposed to the fire and high temperature action.

  15. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

  16. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  17. Study of external dynamic flap loads on a 6 percent B-1B model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M.; Manning, James C.; Capone, Francis J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of dynamic pressure loads on external divergent engine nozzle flaps of the B-1B aircraft was investigated in the NASA/LaRC 16 foot transonic tunnel using a 6 percent full span model with powered engine nacelles. External flap dynamic loads and afterbody drag associated with flap removal were measured using this model. Both dry and max. A/B power nozzles were evaluated in this study. As a result of this study, the principal mechanisms responsible for high dynamic external flap loads were determined along with performance penalty associated with flap removal.

  18. High Performance Data Distribution for Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirado, Juan M.; Higuero, Daniel; Carretero, Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Institutions such as NASA, ESA or JAXA find solutions to distribute data from their missions to the scientific community, and their long term archives. This is a complex problem, as it includes a vast amount of data, several geographically distributed archives, heterogeneous architectures with heterogeneous networks, and users spread around the world. We propose a novel architecture (HIDDRA) that solves this problem aiming to reduce user intervention in data acquisition and processing. HIDDRA is a modular system that provides a highly efficient parallel multiprotocol download engine, using a publish/subscribe policy which helps the final user to obtain data of interest transparently. Our system can deal simultaneously with multiple protocols (HTTP,HTTPS, FTP, GridFTP among others) to obtain the maximum bandwidth, reducing the workload in data server and increasing flexibility. It can also provide high reliability and fault tolerance, as several sources of data can be used to perform one file download. HIDDRA architecture can be arranged into a data distribution network deployed on several sites that can cooperate to provide former features. HIDDRA has been addressed by the 2009 e-IRG Report on Data Management as a promising initiative for data interoperability. Our first prototype has been evaluated in collaboration with the ESAC centre in Villafranca del Castillo (Spain) that shows a high scalability and performance, opening a wide spectrum of opportunities. Some preliminary results have been published in the Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science [1]. [1] D. Higuero, J.M. Tirado, J. Carretero, F. Félix, and A. de La Fuente. HIDDRA: a highly independent data distribution and retrieval architecture for space observation missions. Astrophysics and Space Science, 321(3):169-175, 2009

  19. The Mechanism of Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Huang, Wenkang; Geng, Lv; Shen, Qiancheng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    As the prototypical member of the PTP family, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in type 2 diabetes. The extremely conserved catalytic site of PTP1B renders the design of selective PTP1B inhibitors intractable. Although discovered allosteric inhibitors containing a benzofuran sulfonamide scaffold offer fascinating opportunities to overcome selectivity issues, the allosteric inhibitory mechanism of PTP1B has remained elusive. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, coupled with a dynamic weighted community analysis, were performed to unveil the potential allosteric signal propagation pathway from the allosteric site to the catalytic site in PTP1B. This result revealed that the allosteric inhibitor compound-3 induces a conformational rearrangement in helix α7, disrupting the triangular interaction among helix α7, helix α3, and loop11. Helix α7 then produces a force, pulling helix α3 outward, and promotes Ser190 to interact with Tyr176. As a result, the deviation of Tyr176 abrogates the hydrophobic interactions with Trp179 and leads to the downward movement of the WPD loop, which forms an H-bond between Asp181 and Glu115. The formation of this H-bond constrains the WPD loop to its open conformation and thus inactivates PTP1B. The discovery of this allosteric mechanism provides an overall view of the regulation of PTP1B, which is an important insight for the design of potent allosteric PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:24831294

  20. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-07-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations--primarily safety driven--that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities.

  1. High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

    2012-03-01

    Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

  2. Achieving high performance on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Maccabe, B.; Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.; Womble, D.

    1993-11-01

    When presented with a new supercomputer most users will first ask {open_quotes}How much faster will my applications run?{close_quotes} and then add a fearful {open_quotes}How much effort will it take me to convert to the new machine?{close_quotes} This paper describes some lessons learned at Sandia while asking these questions about the new 1800+ node Intel Paragon. The authors conclude that the operating system is crucial to both achieving high performance and allowing easy conversion from previous parallel implementations to a new machine. Using the Sandia/UNM Operating System (SUNMOS) they were able to port a LU factorization of dense matrices from the nCUBE2 to the Paragon and achieve 92% scaled speed-up on 1024 nodes. Thus on a 44,000 by 44,000 matrix which had required over 10 hours on the previous machine, they completed in less than 1/2 hour at a rate of over 40 GFLOPS. Two keys to achieving such high performance were the small size of SUNMOS (less than 256 kbytes) and the ability to send large messages with very low overhead.

  3. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  4. High Performance Computing CFRD -- Final Technial Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hope Forsmann; Kurt Hamman

    2003-01-01

    The Bechtel Waste Treatment Project (WTP), located in Richland, WA, is comprised of many processes containing complex physics. Accurate analyses of the underlying physics of these processes is needed to reduce the amount of added costs during and after construction that are due to unknown process behavior. The WTP will have tight operating margins in order to complete the treatment of the waste on schedule. The combination of tight operating constraints coupled with complex physical processes requires analysis methods that are more accurate than traditional approaches. This study is focused specifically on multidimensional computer aided solutions. There are many skills and tools required to solve engineering problems. Many physical processes are governed by nonlinear partial differential equations. These governing equations have few, if any, closed form solutions. Past and present solution methods require assumptions to reduce these equations to solvable forms. Computational methods take the governing equations and solve them directly on a computational grid. This ability to approach the equations in their exact form reduces the number of assumptions that must be made. This approach increases the accuracy of the solution and its applicability to the problem at hand. Recent advances in computer technology have allowed computer simulations to become an essential tool for problem solving. In order to perform computer simulations as quickly and accurately as possible, both hardware and software must be evaluated. With regards to hardware, the average consumer personal computers (PCs) are not configured for optimal scientific use. Only a few vendors create high performance computers to satisfy engineering needs. Software must be optimized for quick and accurate execution. Operating systems must utilize the hardware efficiently while supplying the software with seamless access to the computer’s resources. From the perspective of Bechtel Corporation and the Idaho

  5. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  6. Scalable resource management in high performance computers.

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, E.; Petrini, F.; Fernandez Peinador, J.; Coll, S.

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of workstations have emerged as an important platform for building cost-effective, scalable and highly-available computers. Although many hardware solutions are available today, the largest challenge in making large-scale clusters usable lies in the system software. In this paper we present STORM, a resource management tool designed to provide scalability, low overhead and the flexibility necessary to efficiently support and analyze a wide range of job scheduling algorithms. STORM achieves these feats by closely integrating the management daemons with the low-level features that are common in state-of-the-art high-performance system area networks. The architecture of STORM is based on three main technical innovations. First, a sizable part of the scheduler runs in the thread processor located on the network interface. Second, we use hardware collectives that are highly scalable both for implementing control heartbeats and to distribute the binary of a parallel job in near-constant time, irrespective of job and machine sizes. Third, we use an I/O bypass protocol that allows fast data movements from the file system to the communication buffers in the network interface and vice versa. The experimental results show that STORM can launch a job with a binary of 12MB on a 64 processor/32 node cluster in less than 0.25 sec on an empty network, in less than 0.45 sec when all the processors are busy computing other jobs, and in less than 0.65 sec when the network is flooded with a background traffic. This paper provides experimental and analytical evidence that these results scale to a much larger number of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, STORM is at least two orders of magnitude faster than existing production schedulers in launching jobs, performing resource management tasks and gang scheduling.

  7. PREFACE: High Performance Computing Symposium 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talon, Suzanne; Mousseau, Normand; Peslherbe, Gilles; Bertrand, François; Gauthier, Pierre; Kadem, Lyes; Moitessier, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy; Wittig, Rod

    2012-02-01

    HPCS (High Performance Computing Symposium) is a multidisciplinary conference that focuses on research involving High Performance Computing and its application. Attended by Canadian and international experts and renowned researchers in the sciences, all areas of engineering, the applied sciences, medicine and life sciences, mathematics, the humanities and social sciences, it is Canada's pre-eminent forum for HPC. The 25th edition was held in Montréal, at the Université du Québec à Montréal, from 15-17 June and focused on HPC in Medical Science. The conference was preceded by tutorials held at Concordia University, where 56 participants learned about HPC best practices, GPU computing, parallel computing, debugging and a number of high-level languages. 274 participants from six countries attended the main conference, which involved 11 invited and 37 contributed oral presentations, 33 posters, and an exhibit hall with 16 booths from our sponsors. The work that follows is a collection of papers presented at the conference covering HPC topics ranging from computer science to bioinformatics. They are divided here into four sections: HPC in Engineering, Physics and Materials Science, HPC in Medical Science, HPC Enabling to Explore our World and New Algorithms for HPC. We would once more like to thank the participants and invited speakers, the members of the Scientific Committee, the referees who spent time reviewing the papers and our invaluable sponsors. To hear the invited talks and learn about 25 years of HPC development in Canada visit the Symposium website: http://2011.hpcs.ca/lang/en/conference/keynote-speakers/ Enjoy the excellent papers that follow, and we look forward to seeing you in Vancouver for HPCS 2012! Gilles Peslherbe Chair of the Scientific Committee Normand Mousseau Co-Chair of HPCS 2011 Suzanne Talon Chair of the Organizing Committee UQAM Sponsors The PDF also contains photographs from the conference banquet.

  8. Study of High-Performance Coronagraphic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Aziz, M. J.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Korzennik, S. G.; Labeyrie, A.; Lyon, R. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Somerstein, S.; Vasudevan, G.; Woodruff, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    We will provide a progress report about our study of high-performance coronagraphic techniques. At SAO we have set up a testbed to test coronagraphic masks and to demonstrate Labeyrie's multi-step speckle reduction technique. This technique expands the general concept of a coronagraph by incorporating a speckle corrector (phase or amplitude) and second occulter for speckle light suppression. The testbed consists of a coronagraph with high precision optics (2 inch spherical mirrors with lambda/1000 surface quality), lasers simulating the host star and the planet, and a single Labeyrie correction stage with a MEMS deformable mirror (DM) for the phase correction. The correction function is derived from images taken in- and slightly out-of-focus using phase diversity. The testbed is operational awaiting coronagraphic masks. The testbed control software for operating the CCD camera, the translation stage that moves the camera in- and out-of-focus, the wavefront recovery (phase diversity) module, and DM control is under development. We are also developing coronagraphic masks in collaboration with Harvard University and Lockheed Martin Corp. (LMCO). The development at Harvard utilizes a focused ion beam system to mill masks out of absorber material and the LMCO approach uses patterns of dots to achieve the desired mask performance. We will present results of both investigations including test results from the first generation of LMCO masks obtained with our high-precision mask scanner. This work was supported by NASA through grant NNG04GC57G, through SAO IR&D funding, and by Harvard University through the Research Experience for Undergraduate Program of Harvard's Materials Science and Engineering Center. Central facilities were provided by Harvard's Center for Nanoscale Systems.

  9. New cis-regulatory elements in the Rht-D1b locus region of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen gene-containing BACs with accumulated length of 1.82-Mb from the Rht-D1b locus region weresequenced and compared in detail with the orthologous regions of rice, sorghum, and maize. Our results show that Rht-D1b represents a conserved genomic region as implied by high gene sequence identity...

  10. Interleukin 1B variant -1473G/C (rs1143623) influences triglyceride and interleukin 6 metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 1b (IL1B or IL-1ß), is a key modulator of the immune response which exerts its functions mainly via interleukin 6 (IL6) regulation. Fatty meals cause transient hypertriglyceridemia and are considered to be proinflammatory, but the extent of these responses shows high interindividual susc...

  11. MISR Level 1A CCD, 1B1, 1B2, and Browse Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Mode L1B2 data processing. Added ProductVersion Attribute to metadata of all products. New ancillary files: ... and AN data, as well as Band-to-Band transform fix. ROI Image Matching improvements to blunder detection algorithm and to Image Coordinate Correction. New ancillary files: ...

  12. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI.

    PubMed

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E J; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm(3) imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  13. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5–3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  14. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  15. Mutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Julian; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Langlois, Mélanie; May, Patrick; Huneau, Clément; Becker, Felicitas; Muhle, Hiltrud; Suls, Arvid; Lemke, Johannes R; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Thiele, Holger; Konrad, Kathryn; Kawalia, Amit; Toliat, Mohammad R; Sander, Thomas; Rüschendorf, Franz; Caliebe, Almuth; Nagel, Inga; Kohl, Bernard; Kecskés, Angela; Jacmin, Maxime; Hardies, Katia; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Riesch, Erik; Dorn, Thomas; Brilstra, Eva H; Baulac, Stephanie; Møller, Rikke S; Hjalgrim, Helle; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Lehman-Horn, Frank; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo; Hood, Leroy; Galas, David J; Martin, Benoit; de Witte, Peter A M; Biskup, Saskia; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Balling, Rudi; Nürnberg, Peter; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V; Weber, Yvonne G; Lerche, Holger

    2014-12-01

    Febrile seizures affect 2-4% of all children and have a strong genetic component. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2) have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes. PMID:25362483

  16. Temporal lobe epilepsy and GEFS+ phenotypes associated with SCN1B mutations.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Ingrid E; Harkin, Louise A; Grinton, Bronwyn E; Dibbens, Leanne M; Turner, Samantha J; Zielinski, Marta A; Xu, Ruwei; Jackson, Graeme; Adams, Judith; Connellan, Mary; Petrou, Steven; Wellard, R Mark; Briellmann, Regula S; Wallace, Robyn H; Mulley, John C; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    SCN1B, the gene encoding the sodium channel beta 1 subunit, was the first gene identified for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Only three families have been published with SCN1B mutations. Here, we present four new families with SCN1B mutations and characterize the associated phenotypes. Analysis of SCN1B was performed on 402 individuals with various epilepsy syndromes. Four probands with missense mutations were identified. Detailed electroclinical phenotyping was performed on all available affected family members including quantitative MR imaging in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two new families with the original C121W SCN1B mutation were identified; novel mutations R85C and R85H were each found in one family. The following phenotypes occurred in the six families with SCN1B missense mutations: 22 febrile seizures, 20 febrile seizures plus, five TLE, three other GEFS+ phenotypes, two unclassified and ten unaffected individuals. All individuals with confirmed TLE had the C121W mutation; two underwent temporal lobectomy (one with hippocampal sclerosis and one without) and both are seizure free. We confirm the role of SCN1B in GEFS+ and show that the GEFS+ spectrum may include TLE alone. TLE with an SCN1B mutation is not a contraindication to epilepsy surgery. PMID:17020904

  17. Thermal interface pastes nanostructured for high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuangang

    Thermal interface materials in the form of pastes are needed to improve thermal contacts, such as that between a microprocessor and a heat sink of a computer. High-performance and low-cost thermal pastes have been developed in this dissertation by using polyol esters as the vehicle and various nanoscale solid components. The proportion of a solid component needs to be optimized, as an excessive amount degrades the performance, due to the increase in the bond line thickness. The optimum solid volume fraction tends to be lower when the mating surfaces are smoother, and higher when the thermal conductivity is higher. Both a low bond line thickness and a high thermal conductivity help the performance. When the surfaces are smooth, a low bond line thickness can be even more important than a high thermal conductivity, as shown by the outstanding performance of the nanoclay paste of low thermal conductivity in the smooth case (0.009 mum), with the bond line thickness less than 1 mum, as enabled by low storage modulus G', low loss modulus G" and high tan delta. However, for rough surfaces, the thermal conductivity is important. The rheology affects the bond line thickness, but it does not correlate well with the performance. This study found that the structure of carbon black is an important parameter that governs the effectiveness of a carbon black for use in a thermal paste. By using a carbon black with a lower structure (i.e., a lower DBP value), a thermal paste that is more effective than the previously reported carbon black paste was obtained. Graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) was found to be comparable in effectiveness to carbon black (CB) pastes for rough surfaces, but it is less effective for smooth surfaces. At the same filler volume fraction, GNP gives higher thermal conductivity than carbon black paste. At the same pressure, GNP gives higher bond line thickness than CB (Tokai or Cabot). The effectiveness of GNP is limited, due to the high bond line thickness. A

  18. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  19. High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

  20. High performance computing applications in neurobiological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cheng, Rei; Doshay, David G.; Linton, Samuel W.; Montgomery, Kevin; Parnas, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The human nervous system is a massively parallel processor of information. The vast numbers of neurons, synapses and circuits is daunting to those seeking to understand the neural basis of consciousness and intellect. Pervading obstacles are lack of knowledge of the detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) organization of even a simple neural system and the paucity of large scale, biologically relevant computer simulations. We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the 3-D organization of gravity sensors as a prototype architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scale-up, three-dimensional versions run on the Cray Y-MP and CM5 supercomputers.

  1. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  2. How to create high-performing teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. PMID:20127598

  3. High performance stepper motors for space mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sega, Patrick; Estevenon, Christine

    1995-05-01

    Hybrid stepper motors are very well adapted to high performance space mechanisms. They are very simple to operate and are often used for accurate positioning and for smooth rotations. In order to fulfill these requirements, the motor torque, its harmonic content, and the magnetic parasitic torque have to be properly designed. Only finite element computations can provide enough accuracy to determine the toothed structures' magnetic permeance, whose derivative function leads to the torque. It is then possible to design motors with a maximum torque capability or with the most reduced torque harmonic content (less than 3 percent of fundamental). These later motors are dedicated to applications where a microstep or a synchronous mode is selected for minimal dynamic disturbances. In every case, the capability to convert electrical power into torque is much higher than on DC brushless motors.

  4. High performance stepper motors for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sega, Patrick; Estevenon, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid stepper motors are very well adapted to high performance space mechanisms. They are very simple to operate and are often used for accurate positioning and for smooth rotations. In order to fulfill these requirements, the motor torque, its harmonic content, and the magnetic parasitic torque have to be properly designed. Only finite element computations can provide enough accuracy to determine the toothed structures' magnetic permeance, whose derivative function leads to the torque. It is then possible to design motors with a maximum torque capability or with the most reduced torque harmonic content (less than 3 percent of fundamental). These later motors are dedicated to applications where a microstep or a synchronous mode is selected for minimal dynamic disturbances. In every case, the capability to convert electrical power into torque is much higher than on DC brushless motors.

  5. Quantum image with high retrieval performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Yue; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Zhihao; Tan, Jianing

    2016-02-01

    Quantum image retrieval is an exhaustive work due to exponential measurements. Casting aside the background of image processing, quantum image is a pure many-body state, and the retrieval task is a physical process named as quantum state tomography. Tomography of a special class of states, permutationally symmetric states, just needs quadratic measurement scales with the number of qubits. In order to take advantage of this result, we propose a method to map the main energy of the image to these states. First, we deduce that n+1 permutationally symmetric states can be constructed as bases of 2^n Hilbert space ( n qubits) at least. Second, we execute Schmidt decomposition by continually bipartite splitting of the quantum image (state). At last, we select n+1 maximum coefficients, do base transformation to map these coefficients to new bases (permutationally symmetric states). By these means, the quantum image with high retrieval performance can be gotten.

  6. Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Phil (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques project (called CoronaTech) is: 1) to verify the Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method and 2) to develop new techniques to manufacture soft-edge occulter masks preferably with Gaussian absorption profile. In a coronagraph, the light from a bright host star which is centered on the optical axis in the image plane is blocked by an occulter centered on the optical axis while the light from a planet passes the occulter (the planet has a certain minimal distance from the optical axis). Unfortunately, stray light originating in the telescope and subsequent optical elements is not completely blocked causing a so-called speckle pattern in the image plane of the coronagraph limiting the sensitivity of the system. The sensitivity can be increased significantly by reducing the amount of speckle light. The Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method implements one (or more) phase correction steps to suppress the unwanted speckle light. In each step, the stray light is rephased and then blocked with an additional occulter which affects the planet light (or other companion) only slightly. Since the suppression is still not complete, a series of steps is required in order to achieve significant suppression. The second part of the project is the development of soft-edge occulters. Simulations have shown that soft-edge occulters show better performance in coronagraphs than hard-edge occulters. In order to utilize the performance gain of soft-edge occulters. fabrication methods have to be developed to manufacture these occulters according to the specification set forth by the sensitivity requirements of the coronagraph.

  7. High-Performance Monopropellants and Catalysts Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is sponsoring efforts to develop advanced monopropellant technology. The focus has been on monopropellant formulations composed of an aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and a fuel component. HAN-based monopropellants do not have a toxic vapor and do not need the extraordinary procedures for storage, handling, and disposal required of hydrazine (N2H4). Generically, HAN-based monopropellants are denser and have lower freezing points than N2H4. The performance of HAN-based monopropellants depends on the selection of fuel, the HAN-to-fuel ratio, and the amount of water in the formulation. HAN-based monopropellants are not seen as a replacement for N2H4 per se, but rather as a propulsion option in their own right. For example, HAN-based monopropellants would prove beneficial to the orbit insertion of small, power-limited satellites because of this propellant's high performance (reduced system mass), high density (reduced system volume), and low freezing point (elimination of tank and line heaters). Under a Glenn-contracted effort, Aerojet Redmond Rocket Center conducted testing to provide the foundation for the development of monopropellant thrusters with an I(sub sp) goal of 250 sec. A modular, workhorse reactor (representative of a 1-lbf thruster) was used to evaluate HAN formulations with catalyst materials. Stoichiometric, oxygen-rich, and fuelrich formulations of HAN-methanol and HAN-tris(aminoethyl)amine trinitrate were tested to investigate the effects of stoichiometry on combustion behavior. Aerojet found that fuelrich formulations degrade the catalyst and reactor faster than oxygen-rich and stoichiometric formulations do. A HAN-methanol formulation with a theoretical Isp of 269 sec (designated HAN269MEO) was selected as the baseline. With a combustion efficiency of at least 93 percent demonstrated for HAN-based monopropellants, HAN269MEO will meet the I(sub sp) 250 sec goal.

  8. A high performance thin film thermoelectric cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.M.; Min, G.; Volklein, F.

    1998-07-01

    Thin film thermoelectric devices with small dimensions have been fabricated using microelectronics technology and operated successfully in the Seebeck mode as sensors or generators. However, they do not operate successfully in the Peltier mode as coolers, because of the thermal bypass provided by the relatively thick substrate upon which the thermoelectric device is fabricated. In this paper a processing sequence is described which dramatically reduces this thermal bypass and facilitates the fabrication of high performance integrated thin film thermoelectric coolers. In the processing sequence a very thin amorphous SiC (or SiO{sub 2}SiN{sub 4}) film is deposited on a silicon substrate using conventional thin film deposition and a membrane formed by removing the silicon substrate over a desired region using chemical etching or micro-machining. Thermoelements are deposited on the membrane using conventional thin film deposition and patterning techniques and configured so that the region which is to be cooled is abutted to the cold junctions of the Peltier thermoelements while the hot junctions are located at the outer peripheral area which rests on the silicon substrate rim. Heat is pumped laterally from the cooled region to the silicon substrate rim and then dissipated vertically through it to an external heat sink. Theoretical calculations of the performance of a cooler described above indicate that a maximum temperature difference of about 40--50K can be achieved with a maximum heat pumping capacity of around 10 milliwatts.

  9. USING MULTITAIL NETWORKS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    S. COLL; E. FRACHTEMBERG; F. PETRINI; A. HOISIE; L. GURVITS

    2001-03-01

    Using multiple independent networks (also known as rails) is an emerging technique to overcome bandwidth limitations and enhance fault-tolerance of current high-performance clusters. We present and analyze various venues for exploiting multiple rails. Different rail access policies are presented and compared, including static and dynamic allocation schemes. An analytical lower bound on the number of networks required for static rail allocation is shown. We also present an extensive experimental comparison of the behavior of various allocation schemes in terms of bandwidth and latency. Striping messages over multiple rails can substantially reduce network latency, depending on average message size, network load and allocation scheme. The methods compared include a static rail allocation, a round-robin rail allocation, a dynamic allocation based on local knowledge, and a rail allocation that reserves both end-points of a message before sending it. The latter is shown to perform better than other methods at higher loads: up to 49% better than local-knowledge allocation and 37% better than the round-robin allocation. This allocation scheme also shows lower latency and it saturates on higher loads (for messages large enough). Most importantly, this proposed allocation scheme scales well with the number of rails and message sizes.

  10. The design of high-performance gliders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, B.; Heuermann, V.

    1985-01-01

    A high-performance glider is defined as a glider which has been designed to carry the pilot in a minimum of time a given distance, taking into account conditions which are as conveniently as possible. The present investigation has the objective to show approaches for enhancing the cross-country flight cruising speed, giving attention to the difficulties which the design engineer will have to overcome. The characteristics of the cross-country flight and their relation to the cruising speed are discussed, and a description is provided of mathematical expressions concerning the cruising speed, the sinking speed, and the optimum gliding speed. The effect of aspect ratio and wing loading on the cruising speed is illustrated with the aid of a graph. Trends in glider development are explored, taking into consideration the design of laminar profiles, the reduction of profile-related drag by plain flaps, and the variation of wing loading during the flight. A number of suggestions are made for obtaining gliders with improved performance.

  11. High Temperature Oxidation Performance of Aluminide Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Zhang, Ying; Haynes, James A; Wright, Ian G

    2004-01-01

    Aluminide coatings are of interest for many high temperature applications because of the possibility of improving the oxidation resistance of structural alloys by forming a protective external alumina scale. Steam and exhaust gas environments are of particular interest because alumina is less susceptible to the accelerated attack due to hydroxide formation observed for chromia- and silica-forming alloys and ceramics. For water vapor testing, one ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and one austenitic alloy (304L) have been selected as substrate materials and CVD coatings have been used in order to have a well-controlled, high purity coating. It is anticipated that similar aluminide coatings could be made by a higher-volume, commercial process such as pack cementation. Previous work on this program has examined as-deposited coatings made by high and low Al activity CVD processes and the short-term performance of these coatings. The current work is focusing on the long term behavior in both diffusion tests16 and oxidation tests of the thicker, high Al activity coatings. For long-term coating durability, one area of concern has been the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between coating and substrate. This difference could cause cracking or deformation that could reduce coating life. Corrosion testing using thermal cycling is of particular interest because of this potential problem and results are presented where a short exposure cycle (1h) severely degraded aluminide coatings on both types of substrates. To further study the potential role of aluminide coatings in fossil energy applications, several high creep strength Ni-base alloys were coated by CVD for testing in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO{sub 2} environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Such alloys would be needed as structural and turbine materials in this concept. For Ni-base alloys, CVD produces a {approx}50{mu}m {beta}-NiAl outer layer with an underlying interdiffusion zone

  12. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  13. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  14. High-performance computing in image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Michele; Remondino, Fabio; Dalla Mura, Mauro

    2012-10-01

    Thanks to the recent technological advances, a large variety of image data is at our disposal with variable geometric, radiometric and temporal resolution. In many applications the processing of such images needs high performance computing techniques in order to deliver timely responses e.g. for rapid decisions or real-time actions. Thus, parallel or distributed computing methods, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) architectures, Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) programming and Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices have become essential tools for the challenging issue of processing large amount of geo-data. The article focuses on the processing and registration of large datasets of terrestrial and aerial images for 3D reconstruction, diagnostic purposes and monitoring of the environment. For the image alignment procedure, sets of corresponding feature points need to be automatically extracted in order to successively compute the geometric transformation that aligns the data. The feature extraction and matching are ones of the most computationally demanding operations in the processing chain thus, a great degree of automation and speed is mandatory. The details of the implemented operations (named LARES) exploiting parallel architectures and GPU are thus presented. The innovative aspects of the implementation are (i) the effectiveness on a large variety of unorganized and complex datasets, (ii) capability to work with high-resolution images and (iii) the speed of the computations. Examples and comparisons with standard CPU processing are also reported and commented.

  15. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  16. High performance BGMI circuit for VLWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Li-chao; Chen, Hong-lei; Huang, Ai-bo; Zhang, Jun-ling; Ding, Rui-jun

    2013-09-01

    An improved CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for N-on-P very long wavelength (VLWIR) detectors is designed, which has the ability to operate with a simple background suppression. It increases the integration time and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of image data. A buffered gate modulation input (BGMI) cell as input circuit provides a low input resistance, high injection efficiency, and precise biasing voltage to the photodiode. By theoretically analyzing the characteristic parameters of MOS device at low temperature, a high gain's feedback amplifier is devised which using a differential stage to provide the inverting gain to improve linearity and to provide tight control of the detector bias. The final chip is fabricated with HHNEC 0.35um 1P4M process technology. The measurement results of the fabricated readout chip under 50K have successfully verified both readout function and performance improvement. With the 5.0V power supply, ROIC provides the output dynamic range over 2.5V. At the same time, the total power dissipation is less than 200mW, and the maximum readout speed is more than 2.5MHz.

  17. New high performance Si for optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenma, T.; Matsuzaka, M.; Sako, R.; Takase, K.; Chiba, K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the backdrop of a growing demand in the areas of smart buildings, security, vehicle installation, and other applications, the market for far infrared cameras is expected to grow significantly in the future. However, since germanium (Ge) and chalcogenide glass, which have been used as the lens materials of far infrared cameras, are very expensive or highly toxic, there are some problems supporting the growing demand. We have therefore focused attention on silicon, which is inexpensive and less toxic. Although silicon has been used as a lens material of far infrared cameras, there are some problems remaining to be solved: Cz silicon is inexpensive but delivers low transmittance, and Fz silicon delivers sufficient transmittance but is expensive. We have developed New Cz silicon, which delivers high transmittance as Fz silicon does, and is inexpensive as conventional Cz silicon is. We have already started its sample work at both companies in Japan and overseas and have obtained excellent performance results. Mass production is scheduled to start in this fiscal year.

  18. High-performance computers for unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, David; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2005-10-01

    The present trend of increasing functionality onboard unmanned vehicles is made possible by rapid advances in high-performance computers (HPCs). An HPC is characterized by very high computational capability (100s of billions of operations per second) contained in lightweight, rugged, low-power packages. HPCs are critical to the processing of sensor data onboard these vehicles. Operations such as radar image formation, target tracking, target recognition, signal intelligence signature collection and analysis, electro-optic image compression, and onboard data exploitation are provided by these machines. The net effect of an HPC is to minimize communication bandwidth requirements and maximize mission flexibility. This paper focuses on new and emerging technologies in the HPC market. Emerging capabilities include new lightweight, low-power computing systems: multi-mission computing (using a common computer to support several sensors); onboard data exploitation; and large image data storage capacities. These new capabilities will enable an entirely new generation of deployed capabilities at reduced cost. New software tools and architectures available to unmanned vehicle developers will enable them to rapidly develop optimum solutions with maximum productivity and return on investment. These new technologies effectively open the trade space for unmanned vehicle designers.

  19. NCI's Transdisciplinary High Performance Scientific Data Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and

  20. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

  1. Practical route to the left wing of CTX1B and total syntheses of CTX1B and 54-deoxyCTX1B.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Koyama, Takuya; Inoue, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative agents of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are extremely large polycyclic ethers. We report herein a reliable route for constructing the left wing of CTX1B, which possesses the acid/base/oxidant-sensitive bisallylic ether moiety, by a 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing metathesis strategy. This new route enabled us to achieve the second-generation total synthesis of CTX1B and the first synthesis of 54-deoxyCTX1B. PMID:25529606

  2. 5-HT1B receptor modulation of the serotonin transporter in vivo: studies using KO mice.

    PubMed

    Montañez, Sylvia; Munn, Jaclyn L; Owens, W Anthony; Horton, Rebecca E; Daws, Lynette C

    2014-07-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) controls the strength and duration of serotonergic neurotransmission by the high-affinity uptake of serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular fluid. SERT is a key target for many psychotherapeutic and abused drugs, therefore understanding how SERT activity and expression are regulated is of fundamental importance. A growing literature suggests that SERT activity is under regulatory control of the 5-HT1B autoreceptor. The present studies made use of mice with a constitutive reduction (5-HT1B+/-) or knockout of 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1B-/-), as well as mice with a constitutive knockout of SERT (SERT-/-) to further explore the relationship between SERT activity and 5-HT1B receptor expression. High-speed chronoamperometry was used to measure clearance of 5-HT from CA3 region of hippocampus in vivo. Serotonin clearance rate, over a range of 5-HT concentrations, did not differ among 5-HT1B receptor genotypes, nor did [(3)H]cyanoimipramine binding to SERT in this brain region, suggesting that SERT activity is not affected by constitutive reduction or loss of 5-HT1B receptors; alternatively, it might be that other transport mechanisms for 5-HT compensate for loss of 5-HT1B receptors. Consistent with previous reports, we found that the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, cyanopindolol, inhibited 5-HT clearance in wild-type mice. However, this effect of cyanopindolol was lost in 5-HT1B-/- mice and diminished in 5-HT1B+/- mice, indicating that the 5-HT1B receptor is necessary for cyanopindolol to inhibit 5-HT clearance. Likewise, cyanopindolol was without effect on 5-HT clearance in SERT-/- mice, demonstrating a requirement for the presence of both SERT and 5-HT1B receptors in order for cyanopindolol to inhibit 5-HT clearance in CA3 region of hippocampus. Our findings are consistent with SERT being under the regulatory control of 5-HT1B autoreceptors. Future studies to identify signaling pathways involved may help elucidate novel therapeutic targets for the

  3. Immunogenicity of Recombinant Human Interferon Beta-1b in Immune-Tolerant Transgenic Mice Corresponds with the Biophysical Characteristics of Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Abdolvahab, Mohadeseh Haji; Fazeli, Ahmad; Halim, Andhyk; Sediq, Ahmad S; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-04-01

    Determining to what extent biophysical characteristics of aggregates affect immunogenicity of therapeutic interferon beta-1b. Three recombinant human interferon beta-1b (rhIFNβ-1b) samples with different levels of aggregates generated by copper oxidation, thermal stress, or left untreated, as well as Avonex(®) drug substance and Betaferon(®) drug product, were injected intraperitoneally in nontransgenic and interferon beta transgenic FVB/N mice 5 times per week for 3 weeks. Antibodies against interferon beta were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), fluid imaging microscopy, and resonant mass measurement, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, were used to characterize and quantitate aggregates in the 3 rhIFNβ preparations, to correlate biophysical characteristics with immunogenicity. In immune-tolerant interferon beta transgenic FVB/N mice, Betaferon drug product showed the highest immunogenicity, while Avonex drug substance showed the lowest level of immunogenicity. Of the 3 forms of rhIFNβ-1b, copper-oxidized rhIFNβ-1b showed lower immunogenicity than thermally stressed rhIFNβ-1b, despite containing larger aggregates. Both copper-oxidized rhIFNβ-1b and thermally stressed rhIFNβ-1b exhibited changes in protein structure as shown using fluorescence spectroscopy and RP-HPLC. Nontransgenic, nonimmune-tolerant FVB/N mice generated high antibody titers against all interferon beta samples tested. The level of immunogenicity and the breaking of tolerance in FVB/N transgenic mice are not only related to the level of aggregation but also depend on the size and structure of the aggregates. PMID:26835734

  4. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.8 Requests for...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act disclosure are set forth in 18 CFR part 3b and § 1b.20. A request for... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.10 By whom conducted....

  11. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  12. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  20. High performance vapour-cell frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharavipour, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Bandi, T.; Gruet, F.; Pellaton, M.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report our investigations on a compact high-performance rubidium (Rb) vapour-cell clock based on microwave-optical double-resonance (DR). These studies are done in both DR continuous-wave (CW) and Ramsey schemes using the same Physics Package (PP), with the same Rb vapour cell and a magnetron-type cavity with only 45 cm3 external volume. In the CW-DR scheme, we demonstrate a DR signal with a contrast of 26% and a linewidth of 334 Hz; in Ramsey-DR mode Ramsey signals with higher contrast up to 35% and a linewidth of 160 Hz have been demonstrated. Short-term stabilities of 1.4×10-13 τ-1/2 and 2.4×10-13 τ-1/2 are measured for CW-DR and Ramsey-DR schemes, respectively. In the Ramsey-DR operation, thanks to the separation of light and microwave interactions in time, the light-shift effect has been suppressed which allows improving the long-term clock stability as compared to CW-DR operation. Implementations in miniature atomic clocks are considered.

  1. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  2. High Performance Data Analysis via Coordinated Caches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Metzlaff, C.; Kühn, E.; Giffels, M.; Quast, G.; Jung, C.; Hauth, T.

    2015-12-01

    With the second run period of the LHC, high energy physics collaborations will have to face increasing computing infrastructural needs. Opportunistic resources are expected to absorb many computationally expensive tasks, such as Monte Carlo event simulation. This leaves dedicated HEP infrastructure with an increased load of analysis tasks that in turn will need to process an increased volume of data. In addition to storage capacities, a key factor for future computing infrastructure is therefore input bandwidth available per core. Modern data analysis infrastructure relies on one of two paradigms: data is kept on dedicated storage and accessed via network or distributed over all compute nodes and accessed locally. Dedicated storage allows data volume to grow independently of processing capacities, whereas local access allows processing capacities to scale linearly. However, with the growing data volume and processing requirements, HEP will require both of these features. For enabling adequate user analyses in the future, the KIT CMS group is merging both paradigms: popular data is spread over a local disk layer on compute nodes, while any data is available from an arbitrarily sized background storage. This concept is implemented as a pool of distributed caches, which are loosely coordinated by a central service. A Tier 3 prototype cluster is currently being set up for performant user analyses of both local and remote data.

  3. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  4. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C. )

    1993-08-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip.

  5. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  6. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  7. High performance techniques for space mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

  8. Role of dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) in S-phase entry of HPV E7 expressing cells from quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Yuan, Shoudao; Wang, Rongchun; Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent for cervical cancer. The HPV E7 oncogene promotes S-phase entry from quiescent state in the presence of elevated cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, a function that may contribute to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which HPV E7 induces quiescent cells to entry into S-phase is not fully understood. Interestingly, we found that Dyrk1B, a dual-specificity kinase and negative regulator of cell proliferation in quiescent cells, was upregulated in E7 expressing cells. Surprisingly and in contrast to what was previously reported, Dyrk1B played a positive role in S-phase entry of quiescent HPV E7 expressing cells. Mechanistically, Dyrk1B contributed to p27 phosphorylation (at serine 10 and threonine 198), which was important for the proliferation of HPV E7 expressing cells. Moreover, Dyrk1B up-regulated HPV E7. Taken together, our studies uncovered a novel function of Dyrk1B in high-risk HPV E7-mediated cell proliferation. Dyrk1B may serve as a target for therapy in HPV-associated cancers. PMID:26307683

  9. JARID1B is a luminal lineage-driving oncogene in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shoji; Wu, Zhenhua; Russnes, Hege G.; Takagi, Shinji; Peluffo, Guillermo; Vaske, Charles; Zhao, Xi; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Maruyama, Reo; Ekram, Muhammad B.; Sun, Hanfei; Kim, Jee Hyun; Carver, Kristopher; Zucca, Mattia; Feng, Jianxing; Almendro, Vanessa; Bessarabova, Marina; Rueda, Oscar M.; Nikolsky, Yuri; Caldas, Carlos; Liu, X. Shirley; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recurrent mutations in histone modifying enzymes imply key roles in tumorigenesis yet their functional relevance is largely unknown. Here we show that JARID1B, encoding a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in luminal breast tumors and a somatic mutation in a basal-like breast cancer results in the gain of unique chromatin binding and luminal expression and splicing patterns. Downregulation of JARID1B in luminal cells induces basal genes expression and growth arrest, which is rescued by TGFβ pathway inhibitors. Integrated JARID1B chromatin binding, H3K4 methylation, and expression profiles suggest a key function for JARID1B in luminal cell-specific expression programs. High luminal JARID1B activity is associated with poor outcome in patients with hormone receptor positive breast tumors. PMID:24937458

  10. AKR1B7 Is Induced by the Farnesoid X Receptor and Metabolizes Bile Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel R.; Schmidt, Samuel; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Makishima, Makoto; Yu, Ruth T.; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Although bile acids are crucial for the absorption of lipophilic nutrients in the intestine, they are cytotoxic at high concentrations and can cause liver damage and promote colorectal carcinogenesis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is activated by bile acids and abundantly expressed in enterohepatic tissues, plays a crucial role in maintaining bile acids at safe concentrations. Here, we show that FXR induces expression of Akr1b7 (aldo-keto reductase 1b7) in murine small intestine, colon, and liver by binding directly to a response element in the Akr1b7 promoter. We further show that AKR1B7 metabolizes 3-keto bile acids to 3β-hydroxy bile acids that are less toxic to cultured cells than their 3α-hydroxy precursors. These findings reveal a feed-forward, protective pathway operative in murine enterohepatic tissues wherein FXR induces AKR1B7 to detoxify bile acids. PMID:21081494

  11. Do mutations in SCN1B cause Dravet syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ok; Dibbens, Leanne; Marini, Carla; Suls, Arvid; Chemaly, Nicole; Mei, Davide; McMahon, Jacinta M; Iona, Xenia; Berkovic, Samuel F; De Jonghe, Peter; Guerrini, Renzo; Nabbout, Rima; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2013-01-01

    A homozygous SCN1B mutation was previously identified in a patient with early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) described as Dravet syndrome (DS) despite a more severe phenotype than DS. We investigated whether SCN1B mutations are a common cause of DS. Patients with DS who did not have a SCN1A sequencing mutation or copy number variation were studied. Genomic DNA was Sanger sequenced for mutations in the 6 exons of SCN1B. In 54 patients with DS recruited from four centres, no SCN1B mutations were identified. SCN1B mutation is not a common cause of DS. PMID:23182416

  12. Impact of Atmospheric and Oceanic De-aliasing Level-1B (AOD1B) products on precise orbits of altimetry satellites and altimetry results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Sergei; Dettmering, Denise; Esselborn, Saskia; Fagiolini, Elisa; Schöne, Tilo

    2016-03-01

    We have extended backwards from 2001 to 1979 the current release 05 (RL05) of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Atmospheric and Oceanic De-aliasing Level-1B (AOD1B) product and studied the impact of this and a previous release 04 (RL04) of the AOD1B product on precise orbits of five altimetry satellites (ERS-1, ERS-2, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat and Jason-1) for the time span 1991-2012, as compared to the case when no AOD1B product is used. We have found that using AOD1B RL05 product reduces root mean square (RMS) fits of satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations by about 1.0-6.4 per cent, 2-d arc overlaps in radial, cross-track and along-track directions by about 1.3-12.0, 0.3-10.0 and 2.0-10.0 per cent, respectively, for various satellites tested, as compared to the case without AOD1B product. Using AOD1B RL05 product instead of RL04 one reduces SLR RMS fits by 0.1-0.7 per cent, 2-d arc overlaps in radial, cross-track and along-track directions by 0.1-0.6, 0.1-1.3 and 0.2-1.2 per cent, respectively, for the satellite orbits tested. The multi-mission crossover analysis shows that the application of an AOD1B product reduces the scatter of radial errors by 0.4-2.8 per cent for the satellite missions studied. At the regions with the most pronounced changes the use of the AOD1B products improves the consistency between the sea level as measured by the TOPEX and ERS-2 missions and by the Jason-1 and Envisat missions by 5 to 10 per cent (globally by about 2 per cent). The results of our study show that extended AOD1B RL05 product performs better than the AOD1B RL04 and improves orbits of altimetry satellites and consistency of sea level products.

  13. Association of Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Interleukin-1B (IL1B) Genetic Variants and Correlation of IL1B Transcript Levels with Vitiligo Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Singh, Mala; Patel, Hetanshi H.; Agarwal, Nishtha; Shah, Anish M.; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder resulting from loss of functional melanocytes in the skin. NPY plays an important role in induction of immune response by acting on a variety of immune cells. NPY synthesis and release is governed by IL1B. Moreover, genetic variability in IL1B is reported to be associated with elevated NPY levels. Objectives Aim of the present study was to explore NPY promoter −399T/C (rs16147) and exon2 +1128T/C (rs16139) polymorphisms as well as IL1B promoter −511C/T (rs16944) polymorphism and to correlate IL1B transcript levels with vitiligo. Methods PCR-RFLP method was used to genotype NPY -399T/C SNP in 454 patients and 1226 controls; +1128T/C SNP in 575 patients and 1279 controls and IL1B −511C/T SNP in 448 patients and 785 controls from Gujarat. IL1B transcript levels in blood were also assessed in 105 controls and 95 patients using real-time PCR. Results Genotype and allele frequencies for NPY −399T/C, +1128T/C and IL1B −511C/T SNPs differed significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001; p = 0.0161, p = 0.0035 and p<0.0001, p<0.0001) between patients and controls. ‘TC’ haplotype containing minor alleles of NPY polymorphisms was significantly higher in patients and increased the risk of vitiligo by 2.3 fold (p<0.0001). Transcript levels of IL1B were significantly higher, in patients compared to controls (p = 0.0029), in patients with active than stable vitiligo (p = 0.015), also in female patients than male patients (p = 0.026). Genotype-phenotype correlation showed moderate association of IL1B -511C/T polymorphism with higher IL1B transcript levels. Trend analysis revealed significant difference between patients and controls for IL1B transcript levels with respect to different genotypes. Conclusion Our results suggest that NPY −399T/C, +1128T/C and IL1B −511C/T polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo and IL1B −511C/T SNP influences its transcript levels leading to increased risk for vitiligo in

  14. Experience with high-performance PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Goldburgh, Mitchell M.; Head, Calvin

    1997-05-01

    Lockheed Martin (Loral) has installed PACS with associated teleradiology in several tens of hospitals. The PACS that have been installed have been the basis for a shift to filmless radiology in many of the hospitals. the basic structure for the PACS and the teleradiology that is being used is outlined. The way that the PACS are being used in the hospitals is instructive. The three most used areas for radiology in the hospital are the wards including the ICU wards, the emergency room, and the orthopedics clinic. The examinations are mostly CR images with 20 percent to 30 percent of the examinations being CT, MR, and ultrasound exams. The PACS are being used to realize improved productivity for radiology and for the clinicians. For radiology the same staff is being used for 30 to 50 percent more workload. For the clinicians 10 to 20 percent of their time is being saved in dealing with radiology images. The improved productivity stems from the high performance of the PACS that has been designed and installed. Images are available on any workstation in the hospital within less than two seconds, even during the busiest hour of the day. The examination management functions to restrict the attention of any one user to the examinations that are of interest. The examination management organizes the workflow through the radiology department and the hospital, improving the service of the radiology department by reducing the time until the information from a radiology examination is available. The remaining weak link in the PACS system is transcription. The examination can be acquired, read, an the report dictated in much less than ten minutes. The transcription of the dictated reports can take from a few hours to a few days. The addition of automatic transcription services will remove this weak link.

  15. High-performance commercial building systems

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to building owners and

  16. Social dominance in male vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Heather K; Dike, Obianuju E; Stevenson, Erica L; Storck, Kathryn; Young, W Scott

    2010-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with a targeted disruption of their vasopressin 1b receptor gene, Avpr1b, have mild impairments in social recognition and reduced aggression. The reductions in aggression are limited to social forms of aggression, i.e., maternal and inter-male aggression, while predatory aggression remains unaffected. To further clarify the role of the Avpr1b in the regulation of social behavior we first examined anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in Avpr1b knockout (Avpr1b -/-) mice. We then went on to test the ability of Avpr1b -/- mice to form dominance hierarchies. No major differences were found between Avpr1b -/- and wildtype mice in anxiety-like behaviors, as measured using an elevated plus maze and an open field test, or depression-like behaviors, as measured using a forced swim test. In the social dominance study we found that Avpr1b -/- mice are able to form dominance hierarchies, though in early hierarchy formation dominant Avpr1b -/- mice display significantly more mounting behavior on Day 1 of testing compared to wildtype controls. Further, non-socially dominant Avpr1b -/- mice spend less time engaged in attack behavior than wildtype controls. These findings suggest that while Avpr1b -/- mice may be able to form dominance hierarchies they appear to employ alternate strategies. PMID:20298692

  17. A functional null mutation of SCN1B in a patient with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patino, Gustavo A; Claes, Lieve R F; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Slat, Emily A; Dondeti, Raja S R; Chen, Chunling; O'Malley, Heather A; Gray, Charles B B; Miyazaki, Haruko; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Oyama, Fumitaka; De Jonghe, Peter; Isom, Lori L

    2009-08-26

    Dravet syndrome (also called severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy) is one of the most severe forms of childhood epilepsy. Most patients have heterozygous mutations in SCN1A, encoding voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.1 alpha subunits. Sodium channels are modulated by beta1 subunits, encoded by SCN1B, a gene also linked to epilepsy. Here we report the first patient with Dravet syndrome associated with a recessive mutation in SCN1B (p.R125C). Biochemical characterization of p.R125C in a heterologous system demonstrated little to no cell surface expression despite normal total cellular expression. This occurred regardless of coexpression of Na(v)1.1 alpha subunits. Because the patient was homozygous for the mutation, these data suggest a functional SCN1B null phenotype. To understand the consequences of the lack of beta1 cell surface expression in vivo, hippocampal slice recordings were performed in Scn1b(-/-) versus Scn1b(+/+) mice. Scn1b(-/-) CA3 neurons fired evoked action potentials with a significantly higher peak voltage and significantly greater amplitude compared with wild type. However, in contrast to the Scn1a(+/-) model of Dravet syndrome, we found no measurable differences in sodium current density in acutely dissociated CA3 hippocampal neurons. Whereas Scn1b(-/-) mice seize spontaneously, the seizure susceptibility of Scn1b(+/-) mice was similar to wild type, suggesting that, like the parents of this patient, one functional SCN1B allele is sufficient for normal control of electrical excitability. We conclude that SCN1B p.R125C is an autosomal recessive cause of Dravet syndrome through functional gene inactivation. PMID:19710327

  18. High performance backplane components for modular avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Goodwin, M. J.; Hall, J. P.; Glynn, G.; Hankey, J.; Salik, M. D.; Goodfellow, R. C.; Jibb, D. J.

    1994-10-01

    The design and development of optoelectronic transceiver and optical pathway components for application in a modular avionics backplane demonstrator system are described and initial performance results are presented.

  19. High Performance Input/Output Systems for High Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Geoffrey C.; Ou, Chao-Wei

    1997-01-01

    The approach of this task was to apply leading parallel computing research to a number of existing techniques for assimilation, and extract parameters indicating where and how input/output limits computational performance. The following was used for detailed knowledge of the application problems: 1. Developing a parallel input/output system specifically for this application 2. Extracting the important input/output characteristics of data assimilation problems; and 3. Building these characteristics s parameters into our runtime library (Fortran D/High Performance Fortran) for parallel input/output support.

  20. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Substrates and Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Jesse; Haj, Fawaz G.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis requires integration of complex signaling networks which, when deregulated, contribute to metabolic syndrome and related disorders. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has emerged as a key regulator of signaling networks that are implicated in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we examine mechanisms that regulate PTP1B-substrate interaction, enzymatic activity and experimental approaches to identify PTP1B substrates. We then highlight findings that implicate PTP1B in metabolic regulation. In particular, insulin and leptin signaling are discussed as well as recently identified PTP1B substrates that are involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell-cell communication, energy balance and vesicle trafficking. In summary, PTP1B exhibits exquisite substrate specificity and is an outstanding pharmaceutical target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25263014

  1. The function of DrPax1b gene in the embryonic development of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Hua; Li, Guang; Huang, Hui-Zhe; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate Pax1 gene is a member of Pax gene family and encodes a transcription factor associated with crucial roles in the development of pharyngeal pouch, scletrotome and limb bud. In zebrafish, the genome contains two Pax1 paralogs, DrPax1a and DrPax1b, which share high sequence similarity with other Pax1 genes. To elucidate the function of zebrafish DrPax1b gene, we first examined the gene expression pattern and found that it was mainly expressed in the endodermal pharyngeal pouch, caudal somites, notochord, and fin bud. Then, we performed knockdown experiments using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, which lead to the defects in the vertebral column, tail, pharyngeal skeleton, and pectoral fin. Additionally, we also found that the mouse MmPax1 mRNA, but not the amphioxus AmphiPax1/9 mRNA, could rescue the MO-induced defects. Furthermore, sequence alignment revealed that the N-terminal region of vertebrate Pax1 and amphioxus Pax1/9 were highly conserved, whereas their C-terminal regions were relatively divergent. However, the chimeric Am(N)Dr(C)Pax1, Mm(N)Dr(C)Pax1 and Dr(N)Mm(C)Pax1 mRNA could partially rescue the defects, while the Dr(N)Am(C)Pax1 mRNA could not. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a conserved function of DrPax1b in the development of the vertebral column, pectoral fin and pharyngeal skeleton formation in zebrafish and also provide critical insight into the functional evolution of Pax1 gene by changing its C-terminal sequence. PMID:24463529

  2. Maintaining safety and high performance on shiftwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Folkard, S.; Wedderburn, A. I.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the shiftwork area focuses on aspects of safety and productivity. It discusses the situations in which shiftworker performance is critical, the types of problem that can develop and the reasons why shiftworker performance can be impaired. The review ends with a discnssion of the various advantages and disadvantages of several shift rotation systems, and of other possible solutions to the problem.

  3. High Performance Diesel Fueled Cabin Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Tom

    2001-08-05

    Recent DOE-OHVT studies show that diesel emissions and fuel consumption can be greatly reduced at truck stops by switching from engine idle to auxiliary-fired heaters. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has studied high performance diesel burner designs that address the shortcomings of current low fire-rate burners. Initial test results suggest a real opportunity for the development of a truly advanced truck heating system. The BNL approach is to use a low pressure, air-atomized burner derived form burner designs used commonly in gas turbine combustors. This paper reviews the design and test results of the BNL diesel fueled cabin heater. The burner design is covered by U.S. Patent 6,102,687 and was issued to U.S. DOE on August 15, 2000.The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low-pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a pre-filming, air blast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can b e as low as 1300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. At very low firing rates the small passage sizes in pressure swirl nozzles lead to poor reliability and this factor has practically constrained these burners to firing rates over 14 kW. Air atomization can be used very effectively at low firing rates to overcome this concern. However, many air atomizer designs require pressures that can be achieved only with a compressor, greatly complicating the burner package and increasing cost. The work described in this paper has been aimed at the practical adaptation of low-pressure air atomization to low input oil burners. The objective of this work is the development of burners that can achieve the benefits of air atomization with air pressures practically achievable with a simple burner fan.

  4. Compact LCD projector with high optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zengrong; Xu, Liu; Gu, Peifu; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Anxi; Zhang, Yanping; Tang, Jinfa

    1998-08-01

    A compact LCD projection display system and its optical performance are discussed in this paper. In order to improve optical performance, two flyingeye lens have been employed in the system. It can improve the brightness uniformity of display image. Also, a polarized light transformer, which involves two functions: polarizing light radiation and converting unpolarized light into the same polarization direction light beam for LCD panels, has been developed to increase the optical efficiency and contrast ratio. Moreover, color separation and combination system has been designed and developed. Under these construction, the system with good optical performance and outstanding picture quality has been achieved.

  5. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V

    2015-09-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  6. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B.; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V.

    2015-01-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  7. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  8. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Generators Using New Very High Performance Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Ewell, Richard; Caillat, Thierry; Vandersande, Jan

    1994-07-01

    Extensive theoretical and experimental studies have resulted in reasonable performance improvements (from an average ZT of 0.62 up to 0.75) of the state of the art high temperature SiGe thermoelectric materials in the last 5 years. However, significantly higher material conversion efficiencies are needed to make thermoelectrics competitive and economically attractive. A new approach that looks at radically different compounds and alloys was recently started at JPL and a new family of materials with great potential has been discovered. A real breakthrough was achieved when maximum ZT values of 2.0 were obtained to date on one of these materials in the 300-400C temperature range. Initial analysis of various experimental tests have confirmed its good mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Substantial increases in conversion efficiency and specific power are predicted (60-90%) by incorporating this new material into state of the art space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG).

  9. High Performance Electrolyzers for Hybrid Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John W. Weidner

    2009-05-10

    Extensive electrolyzer testing was performed at the University of South Carolina (USC). Emphasis was given to understanding water transport under various operating (i.e., temperature, membrane pressure differential and current density) and design (i.e., membrane thickness) conditions when it became apparent that water transport plays a deciding role in cell voltage. A mathematical model was developed to further understand the mechanisms of water and SO2 transport, and to predict the effect of operating and design parameters on electrolyzer performance.

  10. QSAR studies of benzofuran/benzothiophene biphenyl derivatives as inhibitors of PTPase-1B

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, D.; Kumar, R.; Saxena, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin resistance is associated with a defect in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the insulin signal transduction cascade. The PTPase enzyme dephosphorylates the active form of the insulin receptor and thus attenuates its tyrosine kinase activity, therefore, the need for a potent PTPase inhibitor exists, with the intention of which the QSAR was performed. Materials and Methods: Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been established on a series of 106 compounds considering 27 variables, for novel biphenyl analogs, using the SYSTAT (Version 7.0) software, for their protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase-1B) inhibitor activity, in order to understand the essential structural requirement for binding with the receptor. Results: Among several regression models, one per series was selected on the basis of a high correlation coefficient (r, 0.86), least standard deviation (s, 0.234), and a high value of significance for the maximum number of subjects (n, 101). Conclusions: The influence of the different physicochemical parameters of the substituents in various positions has been discussed by generating the best QSAR model using multiple regression analysis, and the information thus obtained from the present study can be used to design and predict more potent molecules as PTPase-1B inhibitors, prior to their synthesis. PMID:21814427

  11. Secrets of high-performance image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desormeaux, David A.

    1996-04-01

    Medical imaging companies have traditionally supplied the industry with image visualization solutions based on their own custom hardware designs. Today, more and more systems are being deployed using only off-the-shelf workstations. Two major factors are driving this change. First, workstations are delivering the functionality and performance required to replace custom hardware for an ever increasing subset of visualization techniques, while continuing to come down in cost. Second, cost pressures are forcing medical imaging companies to OEM the hardware platform and focus on what they do best -- delivering solutions to health care providers. This industry shift is challenging the workstation vendors to deliver the maximum inherent performance in their computer systems to medical imaging applications without locking the application into a specific vendor's hardware. Since extracting the maximum performance from a workstation is not always intuitively obvious and often requires vendor-specific tricks, the best way to deliver performance to an application is through an application programmer's interface (API). The Hewlett-Packard Image Visualization Library (HP-IVL) is such an API. It transparently delivers the maximum possible imaging performance on Hewlett-Packard workstations, while allowing significant portability between platforms. This paper describes the performance tricks and trade-offs made in the software implementation of HP's Image Visualization Library and how the HP Image Visualization Accelerator (HP-IVX) fits into the overall architecture.

  12. Spatial-Temporal Study of Rab1b Dynamics and Function at the ER-Golgi Interface

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Hernán; García, Iris A.; Sampieri, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The GTPase Rab1b is involved in ER to Golgi transport, with multiple Rab1b effectors (located at ERES, VTCs and the Golgi complex) being required for its function. In this study, we performed live-cell dual-expression studies to analyze the dynamics of Rab1b and some effectors located at the ERES-Golgi interface. Rab1b occupied widely distributed mobile punctate and tubular structures, displaying a transient overlaps with its effectors and showing that these overlaps occurred at the same time in spatially distinct steps of ER to Golgi transport. In addition, we assessed Rab1b dynamics during cargo sorting by analyzing the concentration at ERES of a Golgi protein (SialT2-CFP) during Brefeldin A washout (BFA WO). Rab1b was associated to most of the ERES structures, but at different times during BFA WO, and recurrently SialT2-CFP was sorted in the ERES-Rab1b positive structures. Furthermore, we reveal for first time that Rab1b localization time at ERES depended on GBF1, a Rab1b effector that acts as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Arf1, and that Rab1b membrane association/dissociation dynamics at ERES was dependent on the GBF1 membrane association and activity, which strongly suggests that GBF1 activity modulates Rab1b membrane cycling dynamic. PMID:27500526

  13. KIF1B promotes glioma migration and invasion via cell surface localization of MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songyu; Han, Mingzhi; Chen, Weiliang; He, Ying; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Peng; Huang, Qibing; Gao, Liang; Qu, Xun; Li, Xingang

    2016-02-01

    Malignant glioma is notorious for its aggressiveness and poor prognosis, and the invasiveness of glioma cells is the major obstacle. Accumulating evidence indicates that kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) may play key roles in tumor invasiveness, but the mechanisms remained unresolved. Our previous study demonstrated that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was involved in Kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B)-modulated invasion of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, the role of KIF1B in glioma cell invasion and its relationship with MT1-MMP were explored in the present study. We found that aberrantly increased expression of KIF1B was associated with worse WHO pathological classification and Karnofsky performance status (KPS), which also showed a trend towards worse prognosis. In the transwell assay, knockdown of KIF1B using siRNA repressed U87MG and A172 glioma cell migration and invasion. Silencing KIF1B inhibited expression of membranal MT1-MMP; however, the amount of MT1-MMP in the whole cell lysate was not affected. In conclusion, targeting KIF1B may be an option for anti-invasive therapies targeting glioma. PMID:26576027

  14. Benchmarking: More Aspects of High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Rahul Ravindrudu

    2004-12-19

    The original HPL algorithm makes the assumption that all data can be fit entirely in the main memory. This assumption will obviously give a good performance due to the absence of disk I/O. However, not all applications can fit their entire data in memory. These applications which require a fair amount of I/O to move data to and from main memory and secondary storage, are more indicative of usage of an Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) System. Given this scenario a well designed I/O architecture will play a significant part in the performance of the MPP System on regular jobs. And, this is not represented in the current Benchmark. The modified HPL algorithm is hoped to be a step in filling this void. The most important factor in the performance of out-of-core algorithms is the actual I/O operations performed and their efficiency in transferring data to/from main memory and disk, Various methods were introduced in the report for performing I/O operations. The I/O method to use depends on the design of the out-of-core algorithm. Conversely, the performance of the out-of-core algorithm is affected by the choice of I/O operations. This implies, good performance is achieved when I/O efficiency is closely tied with the out-of-core algorithms. The out-of-core algorithms must be designed from the start. It is easily observed in the timings for various plots, that I/O plays a significant part in the overall execution time. This leads to an important conclusion, retro-fitting an existing code may not be the best choice. The right-looking algorithm selected for the LU factorization is a recursive algorithm and performs well when the entire dataset is in memory. At each stage of the loop the entire trailing submatrix is read into memory panel by panel. This gives a polynomial number of I/O reads and writes. If the left-looking algorithm was selected for the main loop, the number of I/O operations involved will be linear on the number of columns. This is due to the data access

  15. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  16. New materials drive high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhmann, Douglas C.; Bates, William F., Jr.; Dexter, H. B.; June, Reid B.

    1992-01-01

    This report shows how advanced composite materials and new processing methods are enabling lighter, lower cost aircraft structures. High-temperature polymers research will focus on systems capable of 50,000 to 100,000 hours of operation in the 212-400 F temperature range. Prospective materials being evaluated include high-temperature epoxies, toughened bismaleimides, cyanates, thermoplastics, polyimides and other polymers.

  17. End-to-end validation process for the INTA-Nanosat-1B Attitude Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Óscar R.; Esteban, Segundo; Cercos, Lorenzo; Parra, Pablo; Angulo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the end-to-end validation process for the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) of the satellite INTA-NanoSat-1B (NS-1B). This satellite was launched on July 2009 and it has been fully operative since then. The development of its ACS modules required an exhaustive integration and a system-level validation program. Some of the tests were centred on the validation of the drivers of sensors and actuators and were carried out over the flying model of the satellite. Others, more complex, constituted end-to-end tests where the concurrency of modules, the real-time control requirements and even the well-formedness of the telemetry data were verified. This work presents an incremental and highly automatised way for performing the ACS validation program based on two development suites and an end-to-end validation environment. The validation environment combines a Flat Satellite (FlatSat) configuration and a real-time emulator working in closed-loop. The FlatSat is built using the NS-1B Qualification Model (QM) hardware and it can run a complete version of the on-board software with the ACS modules fully integrated. The real-time emulator, running on an industrial PC, samples the actuation signals and emulates the sensors signals to close the control loop with the FlatSat. This validation environment constitutes a low-cost alternative to the classical three axes tilt table, with the advantage of being easily configured for working under specific orbit conditions, in accordance with any of the selected tests. The approach has been successfully applied to the NS-1B in order to verify different ACS modes under multiple orbit scenarios, providing an exhaustive coverage and reducing the risk of eventual errors during the satellite's lifetime. The strategy was applied also during the validation of the maintenance and reconfiguration procedures required once the satellite was launched. This paper describes in detail the complete ACS validation process that was

  18. Green Schools as High Performance Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    In practice, a green school is the physical result of a consensus process of planning, design, and construction that takes into account a building's performance over its entire 50- to 60-year life cycle. The main focus of the process is to reinforce optimal learning, a goal very much in keeping with the parallel goals of resource efficiency and…

  19. Assessing Performance When the Stakes are High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, William R.

    This paper is concerned with measuring achievement levels of medical students. Precise tools are needed to assess the readiness of an individual to practice. The basic question then becomes, what can this candidate do, at a given time, under given circumstances. Given the definition of the circumstances, and the candidate's performance, the…

  20. Workplace Learning of High Performance Sports Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynne, Steven B.; Mallett, Clifford J.; Tinning, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Australian coaching workplace (to be referred to as the State Institute of Sport; SIS) under consideration in this study employs significant numbers of full-time performance sport coaches and can be accurately characterized as a genuine workplace. Through a consideration of the interaction between what the workplace (SIS) affords the…

  1. 7 CFR 275.24 - High performance bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High performance bonuses. 275.24 Section 275.24... High performance bonuses. (a) General rule. (1) FNS will award bonuses totaling $48 million for each fiscal year to State agencies that show high or improved performance in accordance with the...

  2. Study of high performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    More panels electroformed with intentional variations of pulse plating parameters are being made. Pulse plating frequency was noted to have a significant effect regarding mechanical properties. The use of a high pulse frequency (assuming fixed duty cycles) results in an increase in ductility and a decrease in ultimate and yield strengths. Electroforming to intermediate frequencies is being done to obtain the best possible combination of ductility and strength. Results of some tests from high frequency specimens are tabulated.

  3. Ultrastructural abnormalities of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix in Cyp1b1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, L B C; Zhao, Y; Dubielzig, R R; Sorenson, C M; Sheibani, N

    2015-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is highly expressed in human and murine ocular tissues during development. Mutations in this gene are implicated in the development of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in humans. Mice deficient in Cyp1b1 (Cyp1b1(-/-) ) present developmental abnormalities similar to human primary congenital glaucoma. The present work describes the ultrastructural morphology of the iridocorneal angle of 21 eyes from 1-week-old to 8-month-old Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Morphometric and semiquantitative analysis of the data revealed that 3-week-old Cyp1b1(-/-) mice present a significantly (P < .005) decreased amount of trabecular meshwork (TM) collagen and higher TM endothelial cell and collagen lesion scores (P < .005) than age-matched controls. Collagen loss and lesion scores were progressively increased in older animals, with 8-month-old animals presenting severe atrophy of the TM. Our findings advance the understanding of the effects of CYP1B1 mutations in TM development and primary congenital glaucoma, as well as suggest a link between TM morphologic alterations and increased intraocular pressure. PMID:24879660

  4. Mutation of POC1B in a severe syndromic retinal ciliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Bodo B.; Phillips, Jennifer B.; Bartram, Malte P.; Wegner, Jeremy; Thoenes, Michaela; Pannes, Andrea; Sampson, Josephina; Heller, Raoul; Göbel, Heike; Koerber, Friederike; Neugebauer, Antje; Hedergott, Andrea; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Toliat, Mohammad R.; Staubach, Simon; Boycott, Kym M.; Valente, Enza Maria; Janecke, Andreas R.; Eisenberger, Tobias; Bergmann, Carsten; Tebbe, Lars; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yundong; Fry, Andrew M.; Westerfield, Monte; Wolfrum, Uwe; Bolz, Hanno J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), and polycystic kidney disease. Targeted NGS for excluding mutations in known LCA and JBTS genes, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant, c.317G>C (p.Arg106Pro), in POC1B, a gene essential for ciliogenesis, basal body and centrosome integrity. In silico modeling suggested a requirement of p.Arg106 for formation of the third WD40 repeat and a protein interaction interface. In human and mouse retina, POC1B localized to the basal body and centriole adjacent to the connecting cilium of photoreceptors and in synapses of the outer plexiform layer. Knockdown of Poc1b in zebrafish caused cystic kidneys and retinal degeneration with shortened and reduced photoreceptor connecting cilia, compatible with the human syndromic ciliopathy. A recent study describes homozygosity for p.Arg106ProPOC1B in a family with non-syndromic cone-rod dystrophy. The phenotype associated with homozygous p.Arg106ProPOC1B may thus be highly variable, analogous to homozygous p.Leu710Ser in WDR19 causing either isolated retinitis pigmentosa or Jeune syndrome. Our study indicates that POC1B is required for retinal integrity, and we propose POC1B mutations as a probable cause for JBTS with severe polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25044745

  5. Flavones Inhibit the Activity of AKR1B10, a Promising Therapeutic Target for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zemanova, Lucie; Hofman, Jakub; Novotna, Eva; Musilek, Kamil; Lundova, Tereza; Havrankova, Jana; Hostalkova, Anna; Chlebek, Jakub; Cahlikova, Lucie; Wsol, Vladimír

    2015-11-25

    AKR1B10 is an NADPH-dependent reductase that plays an important function in several physiological reactions such as the conversion of retinal to retinol, reduction of isoprenyl aldehydes, and biotransformation of procarcinogens and drugs. A growing body of evidence points to the important role of the enzyme in the development of several types of cancer (e.g., breast, hepatocellular), in which it is highly overexpressed. AKR1B10 is regarded as a therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases, and potent and specific inhibitors may be promising therapeutic agents. Several inhibitors of AKR1B10 have been described, but the area of natural plant products has been investigated sparingly. In the present study almost 40 diverse phenolic compounds and alkaloids were examined for their ability to inhibit the recombinant AKR1B10 enzyme. The most potent inhibitors-apigenin, luteolin, and 7-hydroxyflavone-were further characterized in terms of IC50, selectivity, and mode of action. Molecular docking studies were also conducted, which identified putative binding residues important for the interaction. In addition, cellular studies demonstrated a significant inhibition of the AKR1B10-mediated reduction of daunorubicin in intact cells by these inhibitors without a considerable cytotoxic effect. Although these compounds are moderately potent and selective inhibitors of AKR1B10, they constitute a new structural type of AKR1B10 inhibitor and may serve as a template for the development of better inhibitors. PMID:26529431

  6. Zinc Resistance Mechanisms of P1B-type ATPases in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Liang, Jianqiang; Wei, Yibing; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) strain CCNWSX0020 displayed tolerance to high levels exposures of multiple metals and growth promotion of legume plants grown in metal-contaminated soil. However, the mechanism of metal-resistant strain remains unknown. We used five P1B-ATPases deletions by designating as ∆copA1b, ∆fixI1, ∆copA3, ∆zntA and ∆nia, respectively to investigate the role of P1B-ATPases in heavy metal resistance of S. meliloti. The ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants were sensitive to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different degree, whereas the other mutants had no significant influence on the metal resistance. Moreover, the expression of zntA was induced by Zn, Cd and Pb whereas copA1b was induced by copper (Cu) and silver (Ag). This two deletions could led to the increased intracellular concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, but not of Cu. Complementation of ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants showed a restoration of tolerance to Zn, Cd and Pb to a certain extent. Taken together, the results suggest an important role of copA1b and zntA in Zn homeostasis and Cd and Pb detoxification in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020. PMID:27378600

  7. Zinc Resistance Mechanisms of P1B-type ATPases in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Liang, Jianqiang; Wei, Yibing; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) strain CCNWSX0020 displayed tolerance to high levels exposures of multiple metals and growth promotion of legume plants grown in metal-contaminated soil. However, the mechanism of metal-resistant strain remains unknown. We used five P1B-ATPases deletions by designating as ∆copA1b, ∆fixI1, ∆copA3, ∆zntA and ∆nia, respectively to investigate the role of P1B-ATPases in heavy metal resistance of S. meliloti. The ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants were sensitive to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different degree, whereas the other mutants had no significant influence on the metal resistance. Moreover, the expression of zntA was induced by Zn, Cd and Pb whereas copA1b was induced by copper (Cu) and silver (Ag). This two deletions could led to the increased intracellular concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, but not of Cu. Complementation of ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants showed a restoration of tolerance to Zn, Cd and Pb to a certain extent. Taken together, the results suggest an important role of copA1b and zntA in Zn homeostasis and Cd and Pb detoxification in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020. PMID:27378600

  8. AMYLOID-β PEPTIDE BINDS TO MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1B (MAP1B)

    PubMed Central

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18079022

  9. Amyloid-beta peptide binds to microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B).

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18079022

  10. MAN1B1 Deficiency: An Unexpected CDG-II

    PubMed Central

    Millón, María B.; Race, Valérie; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Mills, Philippa; Clayton, Peter; Asteggiano, Carla G.; Quelhas, Dulce; Cansu, Ali; Martins, Esmeralda; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Topaloglu, Haluk; Jaeken, Jaak; Foulquier, François; Matthijs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency. PMID:24348268

  11. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  12. High-performance iodine fiber frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Anna; Baynes, Fred N; Anstie, James D; Light, Philip S; Benabid, Fetah; Stace, Thomas M; Luiten, Andre N

    2011-12-15

    We have constructed a compact and robust optical frequency standard based around iodine vapor loaded into the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). A 532 nm laser was frequency locked to one hyperfine component of the R(56) 32-0 (127)I(2) transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy. The stabilized laser demonstrated a frequency stability of 2.3×10(-12) at 1 s, almost an order of magnitude better than previously reported for a laser stabilized to a gas-filled HC-PCF. This limit is set by the shot noise in the detection system. We present a discussion of the current limitations to the performance and a route to improve the performance by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:22179880

  13. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B overexpression is associated with the development and progression of glioma

    PubMed Central

    FANG, LIPING; ZHAO, JIUHAN; WANG, DAN; ZHU, LIYU; WANG, JIAN; JIANG, KUI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) plays an important role in the genesis of some types of cancer, and it is therefore considered to be an important drug target protein. Although the expression of JARID1B has been researched in some types of cancer, little is known about JARID1B expression in glioma and its function in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of JARID1B in glioma. In addition, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed using glioma tissue samples and the results revealed that JARID1B expression increased according to the histological grade of glioma. However, in the normal brain tissue samples JARID1B expression was barely detected. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that higher JARID1B expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. The overexpression of JARID1B stimulated the proliferation and migration of glioma cells as well as sphere formation, whereas suppressing the expression of JARID1B produced opposite effects. The overexpression of JARID1B increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model of glioma. Moreover, the activation of phosphorylated (p-)Smad2 contributes to JARID1B-induced oncogenic activities. These findings suggest that JARID1B is involved in the pathogenesis of glioma, and that the downregulation of JARID1B in glioma cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with glioma. PMID:27246838

  14. A systems approach to high performance oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, S. R.; Manney, C. M., Jr.; Walls, F. L.; Gray, J. E.; Besson, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how systems composed of multiple oscillators and resonators can achieve superior performance compared to a single oscillator. Experimental results are presented for two systems based on quartz crystals which provide state-of-the-art stability over a much wider range of averaging times than has been previously achieved. One system has achieved a factor of five improvement in noise floor compared to all previously reported results.

  15. High performance compound semiconductor SPAD arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Bowling, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Aggregated compound semiconductor single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays are emerging as a viable alternative to the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Compound semiconductors have the potential to surpass SiPM performance, potentially achieving orders of magnitude lower dark count rates and improved radiation hardness. New planar processing techniques have been developed to enable compound semiconductor SPAD devices to be produced with pixel pitches of 11 - 25 microns, with thousands of SPADs per array.

  16. High Performance Radiation Transport Simulations on TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Davidson, Gregory G; Evans, Thomas M; Hamilton, Steven P; Jarrell, Joshua J; Joubert, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Denovo code system. Denovo solves the six-dimensional, steady-state, linear Boltzmann transport equation, of central importance to nuclear technology applications such as reactor core analysis (neutronics), radiation shielding, nuclear forensics and radiation detection. The code features multiple spatial differencing schemes, state-of-the-art linear solvers, the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe (KBA) parallel-wavefront sweep algorithm for inverting the transport operator, a new multilevel energy decomposition method scaling to hundreds of thousands of processing cores, and a modern, novel code architecture that supports straightforward integration of new features. In this paper we discuss the performance of Denovo on the 10--20 petaflop ORNL GPU-based system, Titan. We describe algorithms and techniques used to exploit the capabilities of Titan's heterogeneous compute node architecture and the challenges of obtaining good parallel performance for this sparse hyperbolic PDE solver containing inherently sequential computations. Numerical results demonstrating Denovo performance on early Titan hardware are presented.

  17. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  18. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  19. High performance MPEG-audio decoder IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, M.; Benbassat, G.; Cyr, K.; Li, S.; Gill, M.; Kam, D.; Walker, K.; Look, P.; Eldridge, C.; Ng, P.

    1993-01-01

    The emerging digital audio and video compression technology brings both an opportunity and a new challenge to IC design. The pervasive application of compression technology to consumer electronics will require high volume, low cost IC's and fast time to market of the prototypes and production units. At the same time, the algorithms used in the compression technology result in complex VLSI IC's. The conflicting challenges of algorithm complexity, low cost, and fast time to market have an impact on device architecture and design methodology. The work presented in this paper is about the design of a dedicated, high precision, Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) audio decoder.

  20. Radiation effects on high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Polymer matrix materials are candidates for use in large space antennas and space platforms that may be deployed in geosynchronous orbit 22,500 miles above the Earth. A principal concern is the long term effects of an environment that is hostile to organic polymers, including high energy electromagnetic radiation, bombardment by charged particles, and large abrupt changes in temperature. Two polyarylene ethers which might be utilized as models for polymers in space applications were subjected to dosages of 70 keV electrons up to 3.4 x 10 to the 10th power rad. The irradiated films were then examined to determine the effects of the high-energy electrons.

  1. Study of high performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The nickel-manganese experimental electrolyte was hydrogen peroxide treated and carbon purified for removal of residual sodium saccharin and related organic decomposition products from the plating of previous test panels. The saccharin additive was used to reduce stress where high concentrations of manganese and high pulse peak current densities were used. A large quantity of nickel-manganese alloy plates containing 0.35 to 0.40 percent by weight manganese was electroformed for testing to supply data for a mechanical property data table. The aluminum billet required for the machining of the subscale SSME main combustion chamber was acquired.

  2. Alternative statistical methods for estimating efficacy of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the randomized study of interferon beta-1b (IFN beta-1b) for multiple sclerosis (MS), it has usually been evaluated the simple annual relapse rate as the study endpoint. This study aimed to investigate the performance of various regression models using information regarding the time to each recurrent event and considering the MS specific data generation process, and to estimate the treatment effect of a MS clinical trial data. Methods We conducted a simulation study with consideration of the pathological characteristics of MS, and applied alternative efficacy estimation methods to real clinical trial data, including 5 extended Cox regression models for time-to-event analysis, a Poisson regression model and a Poisson regression model with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). We adjusted for other important covariates that may have affected the outcome. Results We compared the simulation results for each model. The hazard ratios of real data were estimated for each model including the effects of other covariates. The results (hazard ratios of high-dose to low-dose) of all models were approximately 0.7 (range, 0.613 - 0.769), whereas the annual relapse rate ratio was 0.714. Conclusions The precision of the treatment estimation was increased by application of the alternative models. This suggests that the use of alternative models that include recurrence event data may provide better analyses. PMID:21612661

  3. Aromatic Polyimides with High Performances and Deuteration

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, E.; Raby, J.; Balland-Longeau, A.

    2004-03-15

    Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments are conducted in polymer capsule in which nuclear products are located. In order to vary optical properties, we need to develop polyimides with high mechanical properties in which we have to substitute all the hydrogen atoms by deuterium atoms. The best way to obtain deuterated polymer is to deuterate monomers instead of direct deuteration of polymers. In a first part, mechanical properties of aromatic polyimide films based on two dianhydrides (pyromellitic dianhydride PMDA and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride BPDA) and two diamines (4,4'-oxydianiline ODA and pphenylenediamine PDA) have been described. The optimization of synthesis and fabrication parameters of polyimide films PMDA/ODA and BPDA/PDA having high inherent viscosity, so high molecular weight, have allowed us to obtain high mechanical properties. And in a second part, deuterated monomers have been synthesized via multi-steps organic reactions and/or under pressure conditions. We have investigated the preparation of deuterated poly(amic-acid) solutions in NMP and the preparation of the corresponding polyimides deuterated membranes. Results show that deuterium does not affect the reactivity of monomers to form the poly(amic-acid) solution.

  4. Preparing for a High Performance Work Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Council on Vocational-Technical Education, Hartford.

    As part of the effort to create a labor force that is competitive across the world, Connecticut is planning a School-to-Career System that would give high school students the opportunity to extend learning into the community and workplace. The state would provide schools with information about the fastest-growing jobs and skills needed for…

  5. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine. PMID:25570912

  6. Alexandrite-laser performance at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guch, S. Jr.; Jones, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a flash-pumped alexandrite laser operating in a long-pulse mode has been characterized at temperatures from 34 to 310 /sup 0/C. Laser gain and efficiency increased monotonically up to 225 /sup 0/C, with a peak pulse energy there more than four times the value at 34 /sup 0/C. The output wavelength also increased monotonically from the 34 /sup 0/C value of 752 nm to a maximum of 790 nm at 310 /sup 0/C.

  7. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Wilson Jose; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid bin; Jang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is generated and extracted under dark conditions. This indicates that careful interface engineering of the charge-carrier transport layer is a useful approach to further improve the performance of polymer tandem solar cells. PMID:26669577

  8. High performance image processing of SPRINT

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, T.

    1994-11-15

    This talk will describe computed tomography (CT) reconstruction using filtered back-projection on SPRINT parallel computers. CT is a computationally intensive task, typically requiring several minutes to reconstruct a 512x512 image. SPRINT and other parallel computers can be applied to CT reconstruction to reduce computation time from minutes to seconds. SPRINT is a family of massively parallel computers developed at LLNL. SPRINT-2.5 is a 128-node multiprocessor whose performance can exceed twice that of a Cray-Y/MP. SPRINT-3 will be 10 times faster. Described will be the parallel algorithms for filtered back-projection and their execution on SPRINT parallel computers.

  9. High-performance commercial building facades

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to understand which performance goals are being met by current

  10. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Wilson Jose; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is generated and extracted under dark conditions. This indicates that careful interface engineering of the charge-carrier transport layer is a useful approach to further improve the performance of polymer tandem solar cells.

  11. High performance computations using dynamical nucleation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windus, T. L.; Kathmann, S. M.; Crosby, L. D.

    2008-07-01

    Chemists continue to explore the use of very large computations to perform simulations that describe the molecular level physics of critical challenges in science. In this paper, we describe the Dynamical Nucleation Theory Monte Carlo (DNTMC) model - a model for determining molecular scale nucleation rate constants - and its parallel capabilities. The potential for bottlenecks and the challenges to running on future petascale or larger resources are delineated. A 'master-slave' solution is proposed to scale to the petascale and will be developed in the NWChem software. In addition, mathematical and data analysis challenges are described.

  12. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b Deficiency Protects Mice from Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Teayoun; He, Lan; Johnson, Maria S.; Li, Yan; Zeng, Ling; Ding, Yishu; Long, Qinqiang; Moore, John F.; Sharer, Jon D.; Nagy, Tim R.; Young, Martin E.; Wood, Philip A.; Yang, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    Background Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 1 (CPT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme governing long-chain fatty acid entry into mitochondria. CPT1 inhibitors have been developed and exhibited beneficial effects against type II diabetes in short-term preclinical animal studies. However, the long-term effects of treatment remain unclear and potential non-specific effects of these CPT1 inhibitors hamper in-depth understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods We investigated the effects of restricting the activity of the muscle isoform CPT1b in mice using heterozygous CPT1b deficient (Cpt1b+/−) and Wild Type (WT) mice fed with a High Fat Diet (HFD) for 22 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. We also examined body weight/composition, tissue and systemic metabolism/energetic status, lipid profile, transcript analysis, and changes in insulin signaling pathways. Results We found that Cpt1b+/− mice were protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance compared to WT littermates. Cpt1b+/− mice exhibited elevated whole body glucose disposal rate and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Furthermore, Cpt1b+/− skeletal muscle showed diminished ex vivo palmitate oxidative capacity by ~40% and augmented glucose oxidation capacity by ~50% without overt change in whole body energy metabolism. HFD feeding Cpt1b+/− but not WT mice exhibited well-maintained insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. Conclusion The present study on a genetic model of CPT1b restriction supports the concept that partial CPT1b inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:25309812

  13. Oxidation of PAH trans-Dihydrodiols by Human Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amy M.; Harvey, Ronald G.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2009-01-01

    AKR1B10 has been identified as a potential biomarker for human non-small cell lung carcinoma and as a tobacco exposure and response gene. AKR1B10 functions as an efficient retinal reductase in vitro, and may regulate retinoic acid homeostasis. However, the possibility that this enzyme is able to activate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) trans-dihydrodiols to form reactive and redox-active o-quinones has not been investigated to date. AKR1B10 was found to oxidize a wide range of PAH trans-dihydrodiol substrates in vitro to yield PAH o-quinones. Reactions of AKR1B10 proceeded with improper stereochemistry, since it was specific for the minor (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7S,8S-dihydrodiol diastereomer formed in vivo. However, AKR1B10 displayed reasonable activity in the oxidation of both the (−)-R,R and (+)-S,S stereoisomers of benzo[g]chrysene-11,12-dihydrodiol and oxidized the potentially relevant, albeit minor, (+)-benz[a]anthracene-3S,4S-dihydrodiol metabolite. We find that AKR1B10 is therefore likely to play a contributing role in the activation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols in human lung. AKR1B10 retinal reductase activity was confirmed in vitro and found to be 5- to 150-fold greater than the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols examined. AKR1B10 was highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and robust retinal reductase activity was measured in lysates of these cells. The much greater catalytic efficiency of retinal reduction compared to PAH trans-dihydrodiol metabolism suggests AKR1B10 may play a greater role in lung carcinogenesis through dysregulation of retinoic acid homeostasis than through oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols. PMID:18788756

  14. Two extreme young objects in Barnard 1-b

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Naomi; Liu, Fang-chun

    2014-07-01

    Two submillimeter/millimeter sources in the Barnard 1b (B1-b) core, B1-bN and B1-bS, have been studied in dust continuum, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} J = 1-0, CO J = 2-1, {sup 13}CO J = 2-1, and C{sup 18}O J = 2-1. The spectral energy distributions of these sources from the mid-IR to 7 mm are characterized by very cold temperatures of T {sub dust} < 20 K and low bolometric luminosities of 0.15-0.31 L {sub ☉}. The internal luminosities of B1-bN and B1-bS are estimated to be <0.01-0.03 L {sub ☉} and ∼0.1-0.2 L {sub ☉}, respectively. Millimeter interferometric observations have shown that these sources have already formed central compact objects of ∼100 AU sizes. Both B1-bN and B1-bS are driving the CO outflows with low characteristic velocities of ∼2-4 km s{sup –1}. The fractional abundance of H{sup 13}CO{sup +} at the positions of B1-bN and B1-bS is lower than the canonical value by a factor of four to eight. This implies that a significant fraction of CO is depleted onto dust grains in the dense gas surrounding these sources. The observed physical and chemical properties suggest that B1-bN and B1-bS are in an earlier evolutionary stage than most of the known class 0 protostars. In particular, the properties of B1-bN agree with those of the first hydrostatic core predicted by the MHD simulations. The CO outflow was also detected in the mid-IR source located at ∼15'' from B1-bS. Since the dust continuum emission was not detected in this source, the circumstellar material surrounding this source is less than 0.01 M {sub ☉}. It is likely that the envelope of this source was dissipated by the outflow from the protostar that is located to the southwest of B1-b.

  15. [The interactions between natural products and OATP1B1].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mei-zhi; Liu, Yu; Bian, Jia-lin; Jin, Meng; Gui, Chun-shan

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important liver-specific uptake transporter, which mediates transport of numerous endogenous substances and drugs from blood into hepatocytes. To identify and investigate potential modulators of OATP1B1 from natural products, the effect of 21 frequently used natural compounds and extracts on OATP1B1-mediated fluorescein methotrexate transport was studied by using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing OATP1B1 (CHO-OATP1B1) in 96-well plates. This method could be used for the screening of large compound libraries. Our studies showed that some flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysanthemum flavonoids and mulberrin) and triterpenoids (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizic acid) were inhibitors of OATP1B1 with IC50 values less than 16 µmol · L(-1). The IC50 value of glycyrrhetinic acid on OATP1B1 was comparable to its blood concentration in clinics, indicating an OATPlB1-mediated drug-drug interaction could occur. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that flavonoids had much higher inhibitory activity than their glycosides. Furthermore, the type and length of saccharides had a significant effect on their activity. In addition, we used OATP1B1 substrates fluvastatin and rosuvastatin as probe drugs to investigate the substrate-dependent effect of several natural compounds on the function of OATP1B1 in vitro. Our results demonstrated that the effect of these natural products on the function of OATPlB1 was substrate-dependent. In summary, this study would be conducive to predicting and avoiding potential OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug and drug-food interactions and thus provide the experimental basis and guidance for rational drug use. PMID:26552146

  16. High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.

    PubMed

    Hilderbrand, Richard L

    2011-11-01

    The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so. PMID:22080902

  17. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  18. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  19. Natural products possessing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity found in the last decades

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-shi; Liang, Lin-fu; Guo, Yue-wei

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of approximately 300 secondary metabolites with inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which were isolated from various natural sources or derived from synthetic process in the last decades. The structure-activity relationship and the selectivity of some compounds against other protein phosphatases were also discussed. Potential pharmaceutical applications of several PTP1B inhibitors were presented. PMID:22941286

  20. Functional Extensions To High Performance Document Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. B.; Chansky, L. M.; Land, R. A.; Van den Heuvel, R. C.; Kraemer, E. J.; Steele, L. W.; Sherrill, C. J.

    1989-07-01

    Document processing systems based on electronic imaging technology are evolving rapidly, motivated by technology advances in optical storage, image scanners, image compression, high speed digital communications, and high resolution displays. These evolving systems require high speed reliable image scanning systems to create the digital image data base that is at the heart of the applications addressed by these evolving systems. High speed production document scanners must provide the capability of converting a wide variety of input material into high quality digital imagery. The required capabilities include: (i) the ability to scan varying sizes and weights of paper, (ii) image enhancement techniques adequate to produce quality imagery from a document material that may depart significantly from standard high contrast black and white office correspondence, (iii) standard compression options, and (iv) a standard interface to a host or control processor providing full control of all scanner operations and all image processing options. As electronic document processing systems proliferate, additional capabilities will be required to support automated or semi-automated document indexing and selective capture of document content. Capabilities now present on microfilming systems will be required as options or features on document capture systems. These capabilities will include: endorsers, bar code readers, and optical character recognition (OCR) capability. Bar code and OCR capabilities will be required to support automated indexing of scanned material, and OCR capability within specific areas of scanned document material will be required to support indexing and specific application needs. These features will also be supported and controlled through a standard host interface. This paper describes the architecture of the TDC DocuScan Digital Image Scanner. The scanner is a double-sided scanner that produces compressed imagery of both sides of a scanned page in under two

  1. High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capasso, Federico

    2010-11-01

    The design and operating principles of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are reviewed along with recent developments in high-power cw and broadband devices. Cw power levels of several watts at room temperature have been achieved at 4.6-μm wavelength; broadband single-mode tuning (~400 cm-1) has been achieved using an external-cavity QCL with a grating as a tuning element. An alternative approach, consisting of a monolithically integrated array of single-mode QCLs individually current-driven by a microcontroller, has led to broadband single-mode tuning over a range of 200 cm-1 without requiring the use of moving parts. This spectrometer on a chip holds promise for high-brightness compact trace-gas sensors capable of operating in harsh environments.

  2. High-Performance Flexible Waveguiding Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chuang, Jui-Kang; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The use of flat-plane solar concentrators is an effective approach toward collecting sunlight economically and without sun trackers. The optical concentrators are, however, usually made of rigid glass or plastics having limited flexibility, potentially restricting their applicability. In this communication, we describe flexible waveguiding photovoltaics (FWPVs) that exhibit high optical efficiencies and great mechanical flexibility. We constructed these FWPVs by integrating poly-Si solar cells, a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) waveguide, and a TiO2-doped backside reflector. Optical microstructures that increase the light harvesting ability of the FWPVs can be fabricated readily, through soft lithography, on the top surface of the PDMS waveguide. Our optimized structure displayed an optical efficiency of greater than 42% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.57%, with a projected PCE as high as approximately 18%. This approach might open new avenues for the harvesting of solar energy at low cost with efficient, mechanically flexible photovoltaics. PMID:23873225

  3. High Performance Airbrushed Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.; Richter, L; Dinardo, B; Jaye, C; Conrad, B; Ro, H; Germack, D; Fischer, D; DeLongchamp, D; Gunlach, D

    2010-01-01

    Spray-deposited poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors were characterized using electrical and structural methods. Thin-film transistors with octyltrichlorosilane treated gate dielectrics and spray-deposited P3HT active layers exhibited a saturation regime mobility as high as 0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the best mobilities observed in high molecular mass P3HT transistors prepared using other methods. Optical and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of individual droplets with an average diameter of 20 {micro}m and appreciable large-scale film inhomogeneities. Despite these inhomogeneities, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the device-relevant channel interface indicated excellent orientation of the P3HT.

  4. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    SciTech Connect

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phases as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.

  5. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phasesmore » as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.« less

  6. High-performance microlasers enable display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Hargis, David E.; Bergstedt, Robert; Dion, Al; Hurtado, Randy; Solone, Paul J.

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in compact, air-cooled, diode-pumped solid- state visible microlasers have enabled the development of portable laser display systems. In addition to the added benefits of large color gamut, invariant color accuracy, image uniformity, high contrast, and large depth of focus inherent in the microlaser design, the reliability of these all-solid state red-green-blue (RGB) sources make them attractive for display applications. Compact, multi-watt laser modules have been demonstrated for use as a high brightness 'laser light engine' for replacing arc lamps in LCD/DMD type display configurations. Using this 'backlit' approach, a microlaser- based projector has been demonstrated, providing greater than 500 lumens at 1280 X 1024 resolution using reflective AMLCD light valves. Also being developed is an airborne tactical HMD system wherein the laser module is remotely coupled to a subtractive color LCD assembly through an optical fiber to provide a more than 24,000,000 (twenty-four million) cd/m2 luminance for illuminating the LCD assembly. This technology could be applied to a variety of cockpit displays providing sunlight readable illumination for both head-down and head-up backlit display configurations. The advantages of the microlaser technology will enable further applications in other military platforms such as command and control centers, simulators and HMDs. Longer term potential includes high end CAD workstations, entertainment systems, and electronic cinema.

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION PERFORMANCE OF ALUMINIDE COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B.A.; Zhang, Y.; Haynes, J.A.; Wright, I.G.

    2003-04-22

    In order to determine the potential benefits and limitations of aluminide coatings, coatings made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Fe- and Ni-base alloy substrates are being evaluated in various high-temperature environments. Testing of coatings on representative ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (type 304L stainless steel) alloys has found that high frequency thermal cycling (1h cycle time) can significantly degrade the coating. Based on comparison with similar specimens with no thermal cycling or a longer cycle time (100h), this degradation was not due to Al loss from the coating but most likely because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and the substrate. Several coated Ni-base alloys were tested in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO2 environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Coated specimens showed less mass loss than the uncoated specimens after 1000h at 900 C and preliminary characterization examined the post-test coating structure and extent of attack.

  8. New monomers for high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Roy F.

    1993-01-01

    This laboratory has been concerned with the development of new polymeric materials with high thermo-oxidative stability for use in the aerospace and electronics industries. Currently, there is special emphasis on developing matrix resins and composites for the high speed civil transport (HSCT) program. This application requires polymers that have service lifetimes of 60,000 hr at 350 F (177 C) and that are readily processible into void-free composites, preferably by melt-flow or powder techniques that avoid the use of high boiling solvents. Recent work has focused on copolymers which have thermally stable imide groups separated by flexible arylene ether linkages, some with trifluoromethyl groups attached to the aromatic rings. The presence of trifluoromethyl groups in monomers and polymers often improves their solubility and processibility. The goal of this research was to synthesize several new monomers containing pendant trifluoromethyl groups and to incorporate these monomers into new imide/arylene ether copolymers. Initially, work was begun on the synthesis of three target compounds. The first two, 3,5-dihydroxybenzo trifluoride and 3-amino 5-hydroxybenzo trifluoride, are intermediates in the synthesis of more complex monomers. The third, 3,5-bis (3-amino-phenoxy) benzotrifluoride, is an interesting diamine that could be incorporated into a polyimide directly.

  9. Traction contact performance evaluation at high speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of traction tests performed on two fluids are presented. These tests covered a pressure range of 1.0 to 2.5 GPa, an inlet temperature range of 30 'C to 70 'C, a speed range of 10 to 80 m/sec, aspect ratios of .5 to 5 and spin from 0 to 2.1 percent. The test results are presented in the form of two dimensionless parameters, the initial traction slope and the maximum traction peak. With the use of a suitable rheological fluid model the actual traction curves measured can now be reconstituted from the two fluid parameters. More importantly, the knowledge of these parameters together with the fluid rheological model, allow the prediction of traction under conditions of spin, slip and any combination thereof. Comparison between theoretically predicted traction under these conditions and those measured in actual traction tests shows that this method gives good results.

  10. A high performance current source inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, G.; Moschopoulos, G.; Ziogas, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    A recent innovation in current source inverter (CSI) drives has been the introduction of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for the purpose of improving the quality of the load currents and voltages. However, the typical six switch CSI circuit is not compatible with all standard PWM techniques thus limiting the number of schemes that can be used. The modified CSI circuit discussed in this paper removes most of the restrictions at the ``cost`` of an extra switch. Additional advantages include faster response times through modulation index control and higher efficiency. This paper includes a detailed steady-state analysis and design procedure. The feasibility and performance of the modified CSI are verified by simulation and experimental implementation on a 5 kVA converter.

  11. High performance computations using dynamical nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Windus, Theresa L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Crosby, Lonnie D.

    2008-07-14

    Chemists continue to explore the use of very large computations to perform simulations that describe the molecular level physics of critical challenges in science. In this paper, the Dynamical Nucleation Theory Monte Carlo (DNTMC) model - a model for determining molecular scale nucleation rate constants - and its parallel capabilities are described. The potential for bottlenecks and the challenges to running on future petascale or larger resources are delineated. A "master-slave" solution is proposed to scale to the petascale and will be developed in the NWChem software. In addition, mathematical and data analysis challenges are also described. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  12. GAMMA: a high performance dataflow database machine

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.J.; Gerber, R.H.; Graefe, G.; Heytens, M.L.; Kumar, K.B.; Muralikrishna, M.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper, the design, implementation techniques, and initial performance evaluation of Gamma are presented. Gamma is a new relational database machine that exploits dataflow query processing techniques. Ganma is a fully operational prototype consisting of 20 VAX 11/750 computers. The design of Gamma is based on an earlier multiprocessor database machine prototype (DIRECT) and several years of subsequent research on the problems raised by the DIRECT prototype. In addition to demonstrating that parallelism can really be made to work in a database machine context, the Gamma prototype shows how parallelism can be controlled with minimal control overhead through a combination of the use of algorithms based on hashing and the pipelining of data between processes. Except for 2 messages to initiate each operator of a query tree and 1 message when the operator terminates, the execution of a query is entirely self-scheduling. 52 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Development of Mitsubishi High Thermal Performance Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Hoshi, Masaya

    Mitsubishi has developed a new zircalloy grid spacer for PWR fuel with higher thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation method has been applied for designing of the new lower pressure loss and higher Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) benefit grid spacer. Reduction of pressure loss of grid structures has been examined by CFD. Also, CFD has been developed as a design tool to predict the coolant mixing ability of vane structures, which is to compare the relative peak spot temperatures around fuel rods at the same heat flux condition. Prototype grids were manufactured and several tests, which were pressure loss measurements, cross-flow measurements and freon DNB tests, were conducted to verify CFD predictions. It is concluded that the applicability of the CFD evaluation method for the thermal hydraulic design of the grid is confirmed.

  14. High pressure compressor component performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, S. J.; Fesler, W.; Liu, H. S.; Lovell, R. C.; Shaffer, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    A compressor optimization study defined a 10 stage configuration with a 22.6:1 pressure ratio, an adiabatic efficiency goal of 86.1%, and a polytropic efficiency of 90.6%; the corrected airflow is 53.5 kg/s. Subsequent component testing included three full scale tests: a six stage rig test, a 10 stage rig test, and another 10 stage rig test completed in the second quarter of 1982. Information from these tests is used to select the configuration for a core engine test and an integrated core/low spool test. The test results will also provide data base for the flight propulsion system. The results of the test series with both aerodynamic and mechanical performance of each compressor build are presented. The second 10 stage compressor adiabatic efficiency was 0.848 at a cruise operating point versus a test goal of 0.846.

  15. High-power hydrogen arcjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.; Curran, Francis M.

    1991-01-01

    A hydrogen arcjet was operated at power levels ranging from 5 to 30 kW with three different nozzle geometries. Test results using all three nozzle geometries are reported and include variations of specific impulse with flow rate, and thrust with power. Geometric variables investigated included constrictor diameter, length, and diverging exit angle. The nozzle with a constrictor diameter of 1.78 mm and divergence angle of 20 degrees was found to give the highest performance. A specific impulse of 1460 s was attained with this nozzle at a thrust efficiency of 29.8 percent. The best efficiency measured was 34.4 percent at a specific impulse of 1045 s. Post test examination of the cathode showed erosion after 28 hours of operation to be small, and limited to the conical tip where steady state arc attachment occurred. Each nozzle was tested to destruction.

  16. High-power hydrogen arcjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.; Curran, Francis M.

    1991-01-01

    A hydrogen arcjet was operated at power levels ranging from 5 to 30 kW with three different nozzle geometries. Test results using all three nozzle geometries are reported and include variations of specific impulse with flow rate, and thrust with power. Geometric variables investigated included constrictor diameter, length, and diverging exit angle. The nozzle with a constrictor diameter of 1.78 mm and divergence angle of 20 deg was found to give the highest performance. A specific impulse of 1460 s was attained with this nozzle at a thrust efficiency of 29.8 percent. The best efficiency measured was 34.4 percent at a specific impulse of 1045 s. Post test examination of the cathode showed erosion after 28 hours of operation to be small, and limited to the conical tip where steady state arc attachment occurred. Each nozzle was tested to destruction.

  17. High performance VLSI telemetry data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesney, J.; Speciale, N.; Horner, W.; Sabia, S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's deployment of major space complexes such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) will demand increased functionality and performance from ground based telemetry acquisition systems well above current system capabilities. Adaptation of space telemetry data transport and processing standards such as those specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards and those required for commercial ground distribution of telemetry data, will drive these functional and performance requirements. In addition, budget limitations will force the requirement for higher modularity, flexibility, and interchangeability at lower cost in new ground telemetry data system elements. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the design and development of generic ground telemetry data system elements, over the last five years, has resulted in significant solutions to these problems. This solution, referred to as the functional components approach includes both hardware and software components ready for end user application. The hardware functional components consist of modern data flow architectures utilizing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) developed specifically to support NASA's telemetry data systems needs and designed to meet a range of data rate requirements up to 300 Mbps. Real-time operating system software components support both embedded local software intelligence, and overall system control, status, processing, and interface requirements. These components, hardware and software, form the superstructure upon which project specific elements are added to complete a telemetry ground data system installation. This paper describes the functional components approach, some specific component examples, and a project example of the evolution from VLSI component, to basic board level functional component, to integrated telemetry data system.

  18. High performance radiation curable hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik Salleh, Nik Ghazali; Sofian Alias, Mohd; Gläsel, H.-J.; Mehnert, R.

    2013-03-01

    Radiation curing is one of the most effective processes to produce rapidly composite materials at ambient temperature. Silica nanoparticles can be introduced into radiation curable resins to produce scratch and abrasion resistant materials, which can be used as sealants or clear coatings. In preparation of radiation cured polymeric composites for wood based products such as medium density fiberboard etc., we synthesized radiation curable silico-organic nanoparticles from silica/acrylates system. These nano-sized silica particles were used as fillers. Epoxy acrylates was used as prepolymer while pentaerythritol triacrylate and tetraacrylate (PETIA) was used as monomer. The acrylated epoxy resin synthesized from palm oil based product (EPOLA) i.e. bio-renewable raw materials was also used in the system. The surface of the silica was chemically modified to improve the embedding of the filler within the acrylate matrix. Modification of the silica surface using silane was done to overcome the problem of incompatibility with acrylates at high silica contents. The nature of the nanoparticles is now changed from hydrophilic to organophilic. In these investigations, we use low energy electron beam accelerator to initiate polymerization and interaction at the interface between the nanoparticles and the monomeric materials. These polymerization active nanoparticles were obtained by heterogeneous hydrolytic condensation of the silane to the silanol groups of the silica particles. Formulations useful for technical coating processes could be prepared and these composite materials showed highly improved mechanical properties. They also provided a high network density whilst the coatings remain transparent. These polymeric nanocomposites show excellent resistances toward abrasion properties including scratch property as compared to pure acrylates.

  19. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... person, such person shall have the right to appear on the record; and in addition to the rights...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... person, such person shall have the right to appear on the record; and in addition to the rights...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... person, such person shall have the right to appear on the record; and in addition to the rights...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... person, such person shall have the right to appear on the record; and in addition to the rights...

  3. ALDH1B1 links alcohol consumption and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Chen, Ying; Matsumoto, Akiko; Orlicky, David J; Dong, Hongbin; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-08-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (ALDH1B1) is a mitochondrial enzyme sharing 65% and 72% sequence identity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 proteins, respectively. Compared to the latter two ALDH isozymes, little is known about the physiological functions of ALDH1B1. Studies in humans indicate that ALDH1B1 may be associated with alcohol sensitivity and stem cells. Our recent in vitro studies using human ALDH1B1 showed that it metabolizes acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde. To investigate the in vivo role of ALDH1B1, we generated and characterized a global Aldh1b1 knockout mouse line. These knockout (KO) mice are fertile and show overtly good health. However, ethanol pharmacokinetic analysis revealed ∼40% increase in blood acetaldehyde levels in KO mice. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited higher fasting blood glucose levels. Collectively, we show for the first time the functional in vivo role of ALDH1B1 in acetaldehyde metabolism and in maintaining glucose homeostasis. This mouse model is a valuable tool to investigate the mechanism by which alcohol may promote the development of diabetes. PMID:26086111

  4. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... confidential treatment. Any person compelled to produce documents in an investigation may claim that some...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... confidential treatment. Any person compelled to produce documents in an investigation may claim that some...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... confidential treatment. Any person compelled to produce documents in an investigation may claim that some...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... confidential treatment. Any person compelled to produce documents in an investigation may claim that some...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... confidential treatment. Any person compelled to produce documents in an investigation may claim that some...

  9. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  10. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  11. A high performance field-reversed configurationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Schmitz, L.; Guo, H. Y.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Galeotti, L.; Giammanco, F.; Granstedt, E.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Hollins, M.; Magee, R.; Mendoza, R.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Primavera, S.; Onofri, M.; Osin, D.; Rath, N.; Roche, T.; Romero, J.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sevier, L.; Sibley, A.; Song, Y.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Waggoner, W.; Yushmanov, P.; Zhai, K.

    2015-05-01

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ˜1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  12. Video performance for high security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

  13. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    . In order to examine paraffin/additive combustion in a motor environment, I conducted experiments on well characterized aluminum based additives. In particular, I investigate the influence of aluminum, unpassivated aluminum, milled aluminum/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and aluminum hydride on the performance of paraffin fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion. I use an optically accessible combustor to examine the performance of the fuel mixtures in terms of characteristic velocity efficiency and regression rate. Each combustor test consumes a 12.7 cm long, 1.9 cm diameter fuel strand under 160 kg/m 2s of oxygen at up to 1.4 MPa. The experimental results indicate that the addition of 5 wt.% 30 mum or 80 nm aluminum to paraffin increases the regression rate by approximately 15% compared to neat paraffin grains. At higher aluminum concentrations and nano-scale particles sizes, the increased melt layer viscosity causes slower regression. Alane and Al/PTFE at 12.5 wt.% increase the regression of paraffin by 21% and 32% respectively. Finally, an aging study indicates that paraffin can protect air and moisture sensitive particles from oxidation. The opposed burner and aluminum/paraffin hybrid rocket experiments show that additives can alter bulk fuel properties, such as viscosity, that regulate entrainment. The general effect of melt layer properties on the entrainment and regression rate of paraffin is not well understood. Improved understanding of how solid additives affect the properties and regression of paraffin is essential to maximize performance. In this document I investigate the effect of melt layer properties on paraffin regression using inert additives. Tests are performed in the optical cylindrical combustor at ˜1 MPa under a gaseous oxygen mass flux of ˜160 kg/m2s. The experiments indicate that the regression rate is proportional to mu0.08rho 0.38kappa0.82. In addition, I explore how to predict fuel viscosity, thermal conductivity, and density prior to testing

  14. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    The power supply system for the joint LBL--SLAC proposed accelerator PEP provides the opportunity to take a fresh look at the current techniques employed for controlling large amounts of dc power and the possibility of using a new one. A basic requirement of +- 100 ppM regulation is placed on the guide field of the bending magnets and quadrupoles placed around the 2200 meter circumference of the accelerator. The optimization questions to be answered by this paper are threefold: Can a firing circuit be designed to reduce the combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage unbalance to less than 100 ppM in the magnet field. Given the ambiguity of the previous statement, is the addition of a transistor bank to a nominal SCR controlled system the way to go or should one opt for an SCR chopper system running at 1 KHz where multiple supplies are fed from one large dc bus and the cost--performance evaluation of the three possible systems.

  15. DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers

    SciTech Connect

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-12-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure.

  16. Saturn 1B launch vehicle flight evaluation report SA-208 (Skylab-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the Saturn 1B, SA-208 launch vehicle flight evaluation are presented. The performance of the launch vehicle is analyzed with special emphasis given to identifying the causes of flight problems. Recommendations for corrective action and summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included.

  17. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Barton

    2014-05-19

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  18. High power performance limits of fiber components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holehouse, Nigel; Magné, Julien; Auger, Mathieu

    2015-03-01

    High power combiners are essential for practical fiber lasers, recent developments in pump technology has increased the available brightness and power of pumps significantly, enabling multi kW lasers and pushing combiner designs to new limits. I will present the challenges, measurements and some solutions to these issues. Traditional calculations for combiners underestimate the issues associated with the `tails' of the pump NA distribution, losses in fully filled combiners increase rapidly as pump NA blooms, and subsequent heating effects dominate the combiner's power handling. Acrylate coated pump fibers are reaching their limits and devices and measurements on double clad pump combiners with losses <0.05dB, will be presented enabling multi kW operation, The use of triple clad fibers in the gain section will discussed as a solution for multi kW applications. Results on ultra-low background loss FBG's will be presented, along with developed measurement techniques.

  19. Training High Performance Skills: Fallacies and Guidelines. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Walter

    High performance skills are defined as ones: (1) which require over 100 hours of training, (2) in which a substantial number of individuals fail to develop proficiency, and (3) in which the performance of the expert is qualitatively different from that of the novice. Training programs for developing high performance skills are often based on…

  20. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kwon, Mihwa; Lee, Yongnam; Yoo, Ji Seok; Shin, Dae Hee; Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (K m) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (V max) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CL int) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CL int values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 μM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb-drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. PMID:25653502

  1. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kwon, Mihwa; Lee, Yongnam; Yoo, Ji Seok; Shin, Dae Hee; Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 μM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb–drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. PMID:25653502

  2. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B overexpression is associated with the development and progression of glioma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Liyu; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Kui

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) plays an important role in the genesis of some types of cancer, and it is therefore considered to be an important drug target protein. Although the expression of JARID1B has been researched in some types of cancer, little is known about JARID1B expression in glioma and its function in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of JARID1B in glioma. In addition, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed using glioma tissue samples and the results revealed that JARID1B expression increased according to the histological grade of glioma. However, in the normal brain tissue samples JARID1B expression was barely detected. Kaplan‑Meier analysis revealed that higher JARID1B expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. The overexpression of JARID1B stimulated the proliferation and migration of glioma cells as well as sphere formation, whereas suppressing the expression of JARID1B produced opposite effects. The overexpression of JARID1B increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model of glioma. Moreover, the activation of phosphorylated (p-)Smad2 contributes to JARID1B-induced oncogenic activities. These findings suggest that JARID1B is involved in the pathogenesis of glioma, and that the downregulation of JARID1B in glioma cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with glioma. PMID:27246838

  3. Molecular characterization of a gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) muscle tissue cDNA for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B).

    PubMed

    Boukouvala, Evridiki; Leaver, Michael J; Favre-Krey, Laurence; Theodoridou, Maria; Krey, Grigorios

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the control of piscine fatty acid metabolism is important for determining the nutritional requirements of fish, and hence for the production of optimal aquaculture diets. The regulation and expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1; EC No 2.3.1.21) are critical processes in the control of fatty acid metabolism, and here we report a cDNA from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) which encodes a protein with high identity to vertebrate CPT1. This sea bream CPT1 mRNA is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with little expression in other tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of other vertebrate CPT1 sequences show that fish genomes contain a single gene related to mammalian CPT1B, and a further two multi-gene families related to mammalian CPT1A. Genes related to mammalian CPT1C are absent in fish. Therefore, based on both functional and evolutionary orthology to mammalian CPT1B, the sea bream CPT1 reported here is a CPT1B isoform. Sea bream CPT1B mRNA expression progressively decreases in heart and muscle up to 12h after last feeding, but returns to initial, non-fasted levels after 72h. In contrast, in liver non-fasted expression is low, but strongly increases at 24 and 72h after last feeding. In white muscle and liver, CPT1B mRNA expression is highly correlated with the expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta). Thus fatty acid metabolism by CPT1B and its control by PPARs are similar in fish and mammals, but multiple genes for CPT1A-like proteins in fish also suggest different and more complex pathways of lipid utilisation than in mammals. PMID:20601065

  4. Preparation and characterization of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Shi, Jianhua; Mitsuzaki, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2014-02-01

    The preparation of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coating on the surface of copper was achieved by co-deposition of Ni3.1B nanoparticles with Ni-P coating during electroless plating. Ni-P-B alloy coating was obtained by heat-treating the as-plated Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating. The effect of the concentration of sodium alginate, borax, thiourea, Ni3.1B, temperature, and pH value on the deposition rate and B content were investigated and determined to be: 30 g L-1, 10 g L-1, 2 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 70 °C and 9.0 , respectively. Sodium alginate and thiourea were played as surfactant for coating Ni3.1B nanoparticles and stabilizer for the plating bath, respectively. Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating had good performance such as corrosion resistance and solderability.

  5. Terra and Aqua moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer collection 6 level 1B algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, Gary; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian N.; Geng, Xu; Kuyper, James; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng

    2013-01-01

    The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was launched on the Terra spacecraft on Dec.18, 1999 and on Aquaon May 4, 2002. The data acquired by these instruments have contributed to the long-term climate data record for more than a decade and represent a key component of NASA's Earth observing system. Each MODIS instrument observes nearly the whole Earth each day, enabling the scientific characterization of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) algorithms input uncalibrated geo-located observations and convert instrument response into calibrated reflectance and radiance, which are used to generate science data products. The instrument characterization needed to run the L1B code is currently implemented using time-dependent lookup tables. The MODIS characterization support team, working closely with the MODIS Science Team, has improved the product quality with each data reprocessing. We provide an overview of the new L1B algorithm release, designated collection 6. Recent improvements made as a consequence of on-orbit calibration, on-orbit analyses, and operational considerations are described. Instrument performance and the expected impact of L1B changes on the collection 6 L1B products are discussed.

  6. A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yonggang; Yan, Guangjian; Duan, Sibo; Kong, Xiangsheng

    2009-01-01

    The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and tested using simulated HJ-1B data. It was evaluated by the probability of fire detection and false alarm as functions of fire temperature and fire area. Results indicate that when the simulated fire area is larger than 45 m2 and the simulated fire temperature is larger than 800 K, the algorithm has a higher probability of detection. But if the simulated fire area is smaller than 10 m2, only when the simulated fire temperature is larger than 900 K, may the fire be detected. For fire areas about 100 m2, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection probability than that of the MODIS product. Finally, the omission and commission error were evaluated which are important factors to affect the performance of this algorithm. It has been demonstrated that HJ-1B satellite data are much sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than MODIS or AVHRR data and the improved capabilities of HJ-1B data will offer a fine opportunity for the fire detection. PMID:22399950

  7. High performance alloy electroforming. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, G.A.; Winkelman, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electroformed copper and nickel are used in structural applications for advanced propellant combustion chambers. An improved process has been developed by Bell Aerospace Textron, Inc. wherein electroformed nickel-manganese alloy has demonstrated superior mechanical and thermal stability when compared to previously reported deposits from known nickel plating processes. Solution chemistry and parametric operating procedures are now established and material property data is established for deposition of thick, large complex shapes such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The critical operating variables are those governing the ratio of codeposited nickel and manganese. The deposition uniformity which in turn affects the manganese concentration distribution is affected by solution resistance and geometric effects as well as solution agitation. The manganese concentration in the deposit must be between 2000 and 3000 ppm for optimum physical properties to be realized. The study also includes data regarding deposition procedures for achieving excellent bond strength at an interface with copper, nickel-manganese or INCONEL 718. Applications for this electroformed material include fabrication of complex or re-entry shapes which would be difficult or impossible to form from high strength alloys such as INCONEL 718.

  8. Repair of high performance multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, D.P. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Ceglio, N.M. ); Vernon, S.P. ); Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P. . VUV Radiometric Lab.)

    1991-07-01

    Fabrication and environmental damage issues may require that the multilayer x-ray reflection coatings used in soft x-ray projection lithography be replaced or repaired. Two repair strategies were investigated. The first was to overcoat defective multilayers with a new multilayer. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by depositing high reflectivity (61% at 130 {Angstrom}) molybdenum silicon (Mo/Si) multilayers onto fused silica figured optics that had already been coated with a Mo/Si multilayer. Because some types of damage mechanisms and fabrication errors are not repairable by this method, a second method of repair was investigated. The multilayer was stripped from the optical substrate by etching a release layer which was deposited onto the substrate beneath the multilayer. The release layer consisted of a 1000 {Angstrom} aluminum film deposited by ion beam sputtering or by electron beam evaporation, with a 300 {Angstrom} SiO{sub 2} protective overcoat. The substrates were superpolished zerodur optical flats. The normal incidence x-ray reflectivity of multilayers deposited on these aluminized substrates was degraded, presumably due to the roughness of the aluminum films. Multilayers, and the underlying release layers, have been removed without damaging the substrates.

  9. Repair of high-performance multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, David P.; Ceglio, Natale M.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Krumrey, Michael K.; Mueller, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication and environmental damage issues may require that the multilayer x-ray reflection coatings used in soft x-ray projection lithography be replaced or repaired. Two repair strategies were investigated. The first was to overcoat defective multilayers with a new multilayer. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by depositing high reflectivity (61% at 130 A) molybdenum silicon (Mo/Si) multilayers onto fused silica figured optics that had already been coated with a Mo/Si multilayer. Because some types of damage mechanisms and fabrication errors are not repairable by this method, a second method of repair was investigated. The multilayer was stripped from the optical substrate by etching a release layer which was deposited onto the substrate beneath the multilayer. The release layer consisted of a 1000 A aluminum film deposited by ion beam sputtering or by electron beam evaporation, with a 300 A SiO protective overcoat. The substrates were superpolished zerodur optical flats. The normal incidence x-ray reflectivity of multilayers deposited on these aluminized substrates was degraded, presumably due to roughness of the aluminum films. Multilayers, and the underlying release layers, have been removed without damaging the substrates.

  10. Complex Suspension Rheology Using High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, David

    In processing advanced ceramic materials, the properties of the final product depend on the process conditions and the interactions between the materials at the scale of the individual particles. Along with general bulk properties, more subtle properties including particle orientation, segregation, and pore structure must be established during processing to achieve the desired functionality. Accomplishing this requires a thorough understanding of the mesoscale interactions and how they influence the macroscale behavior. We conduct a series of large scale simulations of highly filled polymer-nanoparticle composites as analogs of ceramic pastes and reveal how the ceramic particle and binder properties determine the structure and rheology of the bulk material. As with real ceramic pastes, particle shape and size distribution along with composition determine the shear modulus, extent of segregation, and degree of particle alignment. These factors are influenced by the binder through the rheology of the binder phase and the interaction between binder and particles. This talk presents the results of this study of polymer-nanoparticle composites along with a brief overview of research and development at Corning showing the similarities and differences between research in industry and academia.

  11. A History of High-Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Faster than most speedy computers. More powerful than its NASA data-processing predecessors. Able to leap large, mission-related computational problems in a single bound. Clearly, it s neither a bird nor a plane, nor does it need to don a red cape, because it s super in its own way. It's Columbia, NASA s newest supercomputer and one of the world s most powerful production/processing units. Named Columbia to honor the STS-107 Space Shuttle Columbia crewmembers, the new supercomputer is making it possible for NASA to achieve breakthroughs in science and engineering, fulfilling the Agency s missions, and, ultimately, the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly after being built in 2004, Columbia achieved a benchmark rating of 51.9 teraflop/s on 10,240 processors, making it the world s fastest operational computer at the time of completion. Putting this speed into perspective, 20 years ago, the most powerful computer at NASA s Ames Research Center, home of the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (NAS), ran at a speed of about 1 gigaflop (one billion calculations per second). The Columbia supercomputer is 50,000 times faster than this computer and offers a tenfold increase in capacity over the prior system housed at Ames. What s more, Columbia is considered the world s largest Linux-based, shared-memory system. The system is offering immeasurable benefits to society and is the zenith of years of NASA/private industry collaboration that has spawned new generations of commercial, high-speed computing systems.

  12. Technologies of high-performance thermography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, K. H.; Kock, R.; Rode, W.

    1997-08-01

    A family of 2 dimensional detection modules based on 256 by 256 and 486 by 640 platinum silicide (PtSi) focal planes, or 128 by 128 and 256 by 256 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal planes for applications in either the 3 - 5 micrometer (MWIR) or 8 - 10 micrometer (LWIR) range was recently developed by AIM. A wide variety of applications is covered by the specific features unique for these two material systems. The PtSi units provide state of the art correctability with long term stable gain and offset coefficients. The MCT units provide extremely fast frame rates like 400 Hz with snapshot integration times as short as 250 microseconds and with a thermal resolution NETD less than 20 mK for e.g. the 128 by 128 LWIR module. The unique design idea general for all of these modules is the exclusively digital interface, using 14 bit analog to digital conversion to provide state of the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. Device specific features like bias voltages etc. are identified during the final test and stored in a memory on the driving electronics. This concept allows an easy exchange of IDCAs of the same type without any need for tuning or e.g. the possibility to upgrade a PtSi based unit to an MCT module by just loading the suitable software. Miniaturized digital signal processor (DSP) based image correction units were developed for testing and operating the units with output data rates of up to 16 Mpixels/s. These boards provide the ability for freely programmable realtime functions like two point correction and various data manipulations in thermography applications.

  13. JARID1B promotes metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PTEN/AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Qi, Guangying; Tang, Fang; Yuan, Shengguang; Wang, Zhenran; Liang, Xingsi; Li, Bo; Yu, Shuiping; Liu, Jie; Huang, Qi; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Lei, Biao; Yu, Hongping; Jiao, Xingyuan; He, Songqing

    2015-05-20

    JARID1B is a member of the family of JmjC domain-containing proteins that removes methyl residues from methylated lysine 4 on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). JARID1B has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Here we show that JARID1B is elevated in HCC and its expression level is positively correlated with metastasis. In addition Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression of JARID1B was associated with decreased overall survival of HCC patients. Overexpression of JARID1B in HCC cells increased proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic capacities in vivo. In contrast, silencing JARID1B in aggressive and invasive HCC cells inhibited these processes. Mechanistically, we found JARID1B exerts its function through modulation of H3K4me3 at the PTEN gene promoter, which was associated with inactive PTEN transcription. PTEN overexpression blocked JARID1B-driven proliferation, EMT, and metastasis. Our results, for the first time, portray a pivotal role of JARID1B in stimulating metastatic behaviors of HCC cells. Targeting JARID1B may thus be a useful strategy to impede HCC cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:25909289

  14. The role of stat1b in zebrafish hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hao; Yan, Yi-lin; Titus, Tom; He, Xinjun; Postlethwait, John H.

    2011-01-01

    STAT1 mediates response to interferons and regulates immunity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sensitivity of Fanconi Anemia cells to apoptosis after interferon signaling; the roles of STAT1 in embryos, however, are not understood. To explore embryonic functions of STAT1, we investigated stat1b, an unstudied zebrafish co-ortholog of human STAT1. Zebrafish stat1a encodes all five domains of the human STAT1-alpha splice form but, like the human STAT1-beta splice variant, stat1b lacks a complete transactivation domain; thus, two unlinked zebrafish paralogs encode protein forms translated from two splice variants of a single human gene, as expected by subfunctionalization after genome duplication. Phylogenetic and conserved synteny studies showed that stat1b and stat1a arose as duplicates in the teleost genome duplication (TGD) and clarified the evolutionary origin of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 by tandem and genome duplication. RT-PCR revealed maternal expression of stat1a and stat1b. In situ hybridization detected stat1b but not stat1a expression in embryonic hematopoietic tissues. Morpholino knockdown of stat1b, but not stat1a, decreased expression of the myeloid and granulocyte markers spi and mpo and increased expression of the hematopoietic progenitor marker scl, the erythrocyte marker gata1, and hemoglobin. These results suggest that zebrafish Stat1b promotes myeloid development at the expense of erythroid development. PMID:21914475

  15. Human autoreactive T cells recognize CD1b and phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; van Berlo, Twan; Hilmenyuk, Tamara; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Wolf, Benjamin J.; Tatituri, Raju V. V.; Uldrich, Adam P.; Napolitani, Giorgio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Altman, John D.; Willemsen, Peter; Huang, Shouxiong; Rossjohn, Jamie; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Brenner, Michael B.; Godfrey, Dale I.; Moody, D. Branch

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with the common detection of T cells that recognize MHC, CD1a, CD1c, or CD1d proteins, CD1b autoreactive T cells have been difficult to isolate in humans. Here we report the development of polyvalent complexes of CD1b proteins and carbohydrate backbones (dextramers) and their use in identifying CD1b autoreactive T cells from human donors. Activation is mediated by αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) binding to CD1b-phospholipid complexes, which is sufficient to activate autoreactive responses to CD1b-expressing cells. Using mass spectrometry and T-cell responses to scan through the major classes of phospholipids, we identified phosphatidylglycerol (PG) as the immunodominant lipid antigen. T cells did not discriminate the chemical differences that distinguish mammalian PG from bacterial PG. Whereas most models of T-cell recognition emphasize TCR discrimination of differing self and foreign structures, CD1b autoreactive T cells recognize lipids with dual self and foreign origin. PG is rare in the cellular membranes that carry CD1b proteins. However, bacteria and mitochondria are rich in PG, so these data point to a more general mechanism of immune detection of infection- or stress-associated lipids. PMID:26621732

  16. Identification of Bidentate Salicylic Acid Inhibitors of PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Haftchenary, Sina; Jouk, Andriana O; Aubry, Isabelle; Lewis, Andrew M; Landry, Melissa; Ball, Daniel P; Shouksmith, Andrew E; Collins, Catherine V; Tremblay, Michel L; Gunning, Patrick T

    2015-09-10

    PTP1B is a master regulator in the insulin and leptin metabolic pathways. Hyper-activated PTP1B results in insulin resistance and is viewed as a key factor in the onset of type II diabetes and obesity. Moreover, inhibition of PTP1B expression in cancer cells dramatically inhibits cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the computationally guided optimization of a salicylic acid-based PTP1B inhibitor 6, identifying new and more potent bidentate PTP1B inhibitors, such as 20h, which exhibited a > 4-fold improvement in activity. In CHO-IR cells, 20f, 20h, and 20j suppressed PTP1B activity and restored insulin receptor phosphorylation levels. Notably, 20f, which displayed a 5-fold selectivity for PTP1B over the closely related PTPσ protein, showed no inhibition of PTP-LAR, PRL2 A/S, MKPX, or papain. Finally, 20i and 20j displayed nanomolar inhibition of PTPσ, representing interesting lead compounds for further investigation. PMID:26396684

  17. The Vasopressin 1b Receptor Antagonist A-988315 Blocks Stress Effects on the Retrieval of Object-Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Barsegyan, Areg; Atsak, Piray; Hornberger, Wilfried B; Jacobson, Peer B; van Gaalen, Marcel M; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-07-01

    Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and high circulating glucocorticoid levels are well known to impair the retrieval of memory. Vasopressin can activate the HPA axis by stimulating vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptors located on the pituitary. In the present study, we investigated the effect of A-988315, a selective and highly potent non-peptidergic V1b-receptor antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties, in blocking stress effects on HPA-axis activity and memory retrieval. To study cognitive performance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an object-discrimination task during which they could freely explore two identical objects. Memory for the objects and their location was tested 24 h later. A-988315 (20 or 60 mg/kg) or water was administered orally 90 min before retention testing, followed 60 min later by stress of footshock exposure. A-988315 dose-dependently dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone plasma levels, but did not significantly alter HPA-axis activity of non-stressed control rats. Most importantly, A-988315 administration prevented stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval on both the object-recognition and the object-location tasks. A-988315 did not alter the retention of non-stressed rats and did not influence the total time spent exploring the objects or experimental context in either stressed or non-stressed rats. Thus, these findings indicate that direct antagonism of V1b receptors is an effective treatment to block stress-induced activation of the HPA axis and the consequent impairment of retrieval of different aspects of recognition memory. PMID:25669604

  18. MISR Level 1B2 Terrain Data (MI1B2T_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Terrain data are re-projected to the terrain altitude. In this product, surface data from all cameras will appear in the same geographic location. Thus, this product is the primary input to Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, which requires co-registration of the L1B2 imagery at the surface. Clouds will still be displaced due to their elevation above the surface, but this time with respect to the terrain rather than the ellipsoid. (The mountain location T is now assigned the geographic location at T, and the Cloud at F appears at the geographic location T.) In Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, algorithms are applied to screen out the clouds. Terrain data only exist for MISR blocks containing some land. [Location=GLOBAL LAND] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track).; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  19. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management. PMID:25658124

  20. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  1. Functional properties of Claramine: a novel PTP1B inhibitor and insulin-mimetic compound.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhaohong; Pandey, Nihar R; Zhou, Xun; Stewart, Chloe A; Hari, Aswin; Huang, Hua; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Brunel, Jean Michel; Chen, Hsiao-Huei

    2015-02-27

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibits insulin signaling, interfering with its control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism. PTP1B activity is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a major cause of insulin resistance. Trodusquemine (MSI-1436) is a "first-in-class" highly selective inhibitor of PTP1B that can cross the blood-brain barrier to suppress feeding and promote insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Trodusquemine is a naturally occurring cholestane that can be purified from the liver of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, but it can also be manufactured synthetically by a fairly laborious process that requires several weeks. Here, we tested a novel easily and rapidly (2 days) synthesized polyaminosteroid derivative (Claramine) containing a spermino group similar to Trodusquemine for its ability to inhibit PTP1B. Like Trodusquemine, Claramine displayed selective inhibition of PTP1B but not its closest related phosphatase TC-PTP. In cultured neuronal cells, Claramine and Trodusquemine both activated key components of insulin signaling, with increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β (IRβ), Akt and GSK3β. Intraperitoneal administration of Claramine or Trodusquemine effectively restored glycemic control in diabetic mice as determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. A single intraperitoneal dose of Claramine, like an equivalent dose of Trodusquemine, suppressed feeding and caused weight loss without increasing energy expenditure. In summary, Claramine is an alternative more easily manufactured compound for the treatment of type II diabetes. PMID:25623533

  2. Uroplakin 1b is critical in urinary tract development and urothelial differentiation and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Ashley R; Becknell, M Brian; Ching, Christina B; Cuaresma, Edward J; Chen, Xi; Hains, David S; McHugh, Kirk M

    2016-03-01

    Proper development and maintenance of urothelium is critical to its function. Uroplakins are expressed in developing and mature urothelium where they establish plaques associated with the permeability barrier. Their precise functional role in development and disease is unknown. Here, we disrupted Upk1b in vivo where its loss resulted in urothelial plaque disruption in the bladder and kidney. Upk1b(RFP/RFP) bladder urothelium appeared dysplastic with expansion of the progenitor cell markers, Krt14 and Krt5, increased Shh expression, and loss of terminal differentiation markers Krt20 and uroplakins. Upk1b(RFP/RFP) renal urothelium became stratified with altered cellular composition. Upk1b(RFP/RFP) mice developed age-dependent progressive hydronephrosis. Interestingly, 16% of Upk1b(RFP/RFP) mice possessed unilateral duplex kidneys. Our study expands the role of uroplakins, mechanistically links plaque formation to urinary tract development and function, and provides a tantalizing connection between congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract along with functional deficits observed in a variety of urinary tract diseases. Thus, kidney and bladder urothelium are regionally distinct and remain highly plastic, capable of expansion through tissue-specific progenitor populations. Furthermore, Upk1b plays a previously unknown role in early kidney development representing a novel genetic target for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. PMID:26880456

  3. Mitigating project risk by use of high performance collector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Timo; Riffelmann, Klaus-Jürgen; Nava, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Collectors with a high optical quality are generally valued for their additional performance, i.e. the expected additional output due to the performance gain compared to a lower quality reference collector. However, high-performance collectors additionally have a lower sensitivity to additional optical errors and, thus not only perform better nominally, but are also more likely to reach their nominal performance even when project uncertainties (e.g. increased sun-shape) or quality issues (e.g. increased component optical error) degrade their performance. This has physical reasons, whose cause and effect will be described and quantified within this paper.

  4. The COBRA-1B irradiation experiment in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Hins, A.G.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the forthcoming COBRA-1B experiment in EBR-II is to evaluate the effects of fast neutron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of candidate fusion structural materials. Of special interest in this experiment will be ITER-relevant temperature and exposure for the test specimens. Approximately 50% of the irradiation test volume will be devoted to vanadium-alloy specimens. Design of the COBRA-1B irradiation experiment began in this reporting period and is in progress. The target reactor insertion date for COBRA-1B is September 1994. Technical and programmatic feasibility approval for the experiment has been granted by EBR-II Operations.

  5. Smyd1b_tv1, a Key Regulator of Sarcomere Assembly, Is Localized on the M-Line of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiqing; Xu, Jin; Bian, Yue-Hong; Rotllant, Pep; Shen, Tiansheng; Chu, Wuying; Zhang, Jianshe; Schneider, Martin; Du, Shao Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Smyd1b is a member of the Smyd family that plays a key role in sarcomere assembly during myofibrillogenesis. Smyd1b encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms, smyd1b_tv1 and smyd1b_tv2, that are expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and play a vital role in myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand Smyd1b function in myofibrillogenesis, we analyzed the subcellular localization of Smyd1b_tv1 and Smyd1b_tv2 in transgenic zebrafish expressing a myc-tagged Smyd1b_tv1 or Smyd1b_tv2. The results showed a dynamic change of their subcellular localization during muscle cell differentiation. Smyd1b_tv1 and Smyd1b_tv2 were primarily localized in the cytosol of myoblasts and myotubes at early stage zebrafish embryos. However, in mature myofibers, Smyd1b_tv1, and to a small degree of Smyd1b_tv2, exhibited a sarcomeric localization. Double staining with sarcomeric markers revealed that Smyd1b_tv1was localized on the M-lines. The sarcomeric localization was confirmed in zebrafish embryos expressing the Smyd1b_tv1-GFP or Smyd1b_tv2-GFP fusion proteins. Compared with Smyd1b_tv1, Smyd1b_tv2, however, showed a weak sarcomeric localization. Smyd1b_tv1 differs from Smyd1b_tv2 by a 13 amino acid insertion encoded by exon 5, suggesting that some residues within the 13 aa insertion may be critical for the strong sarcomeric localization of Smyd1b_tv1. Sequence comparison with Smyd1b_tv1 orthologs from other vertebrates revealed several highly conserved residues (Phe223, His224 and Gln226) and two potential phosphorylation sites (Thr221 and Ser225) within the 13 aa insertion. To determine whether these residues are involved in the increased sarcomeric localization of Smyd1b_tv1, we mutated these residues into alanine. Substitution of Phe223 or Ser225 with alanine significantly reduced the sarcomeric localization of Smyd1b_tv1. In contrast, other substitutions had no effect. Moreover, replacing Ser225 with

  6. PROBING THE EARLIEST STAGE OF PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION-BARNARD 1-bN AND BARNARD 1-bS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Hirano, Naomi

    2013-04-01

    Two submm/mm sources in the Barnard 1b (B1-b) core, B1-bN and B1-bS, have been observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT). The 1.1 mm continuum map obtained with the SMA reveals that the two sources contain spatially compact components, suggesting that they harbor protostars. The N{sub 2}D{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} J = 3-2 maps were obtained by combining the SMA and SMT data. The N{sub 2}D{sup +} map clearly shows two peaks at the continuum positions. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} map also peaks at the continuum positions, but is more dominated by the spatially extended component. The N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio was estimated to be {approx}0.2 at the positions of both B1-bN and B1-bS. The derived N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio is comparable to those of the prestellar cores in the late evolutionary stage and the class 0 protostars in the early evolutionary stage. Although B1-bN is bright in N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +}, this source was barely seen in H{sup 13}CO{sup +}. This implies that the depletion of carbon-bearing molecules is significant in B1-bN. The chemical property suggests that B1-bN is in the earlier evolutionary stage as compared to B1-bS with the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} counterpart. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +} lines show that the radial velocities of the two sources are different by {approx}0.9 km s{sup -1}. However, the velocity pattern along the line through B1-bN and B1-bS suggests that these two sources were not formed out of a single rotating cloud. It is likely that the B1-b core consists of two velocity components, each of which harbors a very young source.

  7. Status of the MODIS Level 1B Algorithms and Calibration Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X; Salomonson, V V; Kuyper, J; Tan, L; Chiang, K; Sun, J; Barnes, W L

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) makes observations using 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 m and nadir spatial resolutions of 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. It is currently operating onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) program converts the sensor's on-orbit responses in digital numbers to radiometrically calibrated and geo-located data products for the duration of each mission. Its primary data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factors for the sensor's reflective solar bands (RSB) and TOA spectral radiances for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The L1B algorithms perform the TEB calibration on a scan-by-scan basis using the sensor's response to the on-board blackbody (BB) and other parameters which are stored in Lookup Tables (LUTs). The RSB calibration coefficients are processed offline and regularly updated through LUTs. In this paper we provide a brief description of the MODIS L1B calibration algorithms and associated LUTs with emphasis on their recent improvements and updates developed for the MODIS collection 5 processing. We will also discuss sensor on-orbit calibration and performance issues that are critical to maintaining L1B data product quality, such as changes in the sensor's response versus scan-angle.

  8. MISR Level 1B1 Radiance Data (MI1B1_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    summary, the Level 1B1 Product contains the Data Numbers (DNs) radiometrically-scaled to radiances with no geometric resampling. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  9. High-performance positive paste for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.H.

    1996-09-01

    Positive lead-acid plates with high porosity and surface area, aiming to deliver a very high current density, about 1 A/cm{sup 2}, were developed. The high porosity and surface area were achieved by using a combination of fine particles of lead oxide and/or basic lead sulfates with an adequate amount of persulfate and water. The relationship between the positive paste phase composition and the high rate performance of the plate was studied. The highly porous plate is able to deliver a very high current owing to more acid being available in the plate structure. In the low rate applications when acid diffusion from the bulk becomes the limiting factor, the high-performance plate is not more advantageous than the conventional starting lighting, and ignition (SLI) plates. The cycle life of the high-performance plate is sensitive to depth of discharge. The deep discharge high rate capacity of the high-performance plates falls faster than that of the SLI plate. Nevertheless, the high-performance paste delivers at least 30% more energy, either to the same depth of discharge per cycle or for the entire service life with constant capacity removal in each cycle. One failure mode of the high-performance plates is the change of material morphology during deep discharge cycling, which results in material shedding.

  10. Wave-of-Advance Models of the Diffusion of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup R1b1b2 in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Per; François, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not the spread of agriculture in Europe was accompanied by movements of people is a long-standing question in archeology and anthropology, which has been frequently addressed with the help of population genetic data. Estimates on dates of expansion and geographic origins obtained from genetic data are however sensitive to the calibration of mutation rates and to the mathematical models used to perform inference. For instance, recent data on the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2 (M269) have either suggested a Neolithic origin for European paternal lineages or a more ancient Paleolithic origin depending on the calibration of Y-STR mutation rates. Here we examine the date of expansion and the geographic origin of hgR1b1b2 considering two current estimates of mutation rates in a total of fourteen realistic wave-of-advance models. We report that a range expansion dating to the Paleolithic is unlikely to explain the observed geographical distribution of microsatellite diversity, and that whether the data is informative with respect to the spread of agriculture in Europe depends on the mutation rate assumption in a critical way. PMID:21720564

  11. Microtubule Associated Protein 1b (MAP1B) Is a Marker of the Microtubular Cytoskeleton in Podocytes but Is Not Essential for the Function of the Kidney Filtration Barrier in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gödel, Markus; Temerinac, Dunja; Grahammer, Florian; Hartleben, Björn; Kretz, Oliver; Riederer, Beat M.; Propst, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes are essential for the function of the kidney glomerular filter. A highly differentiated cytoskeleton is requisite for their integrity. Although much knowledge has been gained on the organization of cortical actin networks in podocyte’s foot processes, less is known about the molecular organization of the microtubular cytoskeleton in primary processes and the cell body. To gain an insight into the organization of the microtubular cytoskeleton of the podocyte, we systematically analyzed the expression of microtubule associated proteins (Maps), a family of microtubules interacting proteins with known functions as regulator, scaffold and guidance proteins. We identified microtubule associated protein 1b (MAP1B) to be specifically enriched in podocytes in human and rodent kidney. Using immunogold labeling in electron microscopy, we were able to demonstrate an enrichment of MAP1B in primary processes. A similar association of MAP1B with the microtubule cytoskeleton was detected in cultured podocytes. Subcellular distribution of MAP1B HC and LC1 was analyzed using a double fluorescent reporter MAP1B fusion protein. Subsequently we analyzed mice constitutively depleted of MAP1B. Interestingly, MAP1B KO was not associated with any functional or structural alterations pointing towards a redundancy of MAP proteins in podocytes. In summary, we established MAP1B as a specific marker protein of the podocyte microtubular cytoskeleton. PMID:26448484

  12. High performance interconnection between high data rate networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Zhang, L.; Sun, W.

    1992-01-01

    The bridge/gateway system needed to interconnect a wide range of computer networks to support a wide range of user quality-of-service requirements is discussed. The bridge/gateway must handle a wide range of message types including synchronous and asynchronous traffic, large, bursty messages, short, self-contained messages, time critical messages, etc. It is shown that messages can be classified into three basic classes, synchronous and large and small asynchronous messages. The first two require call setup so that packet identification, buffer handling, etc. can be supported in the bridge/gateway. Identification enables resequences in packet size. The third class is for messages which do not require call setup. Resequencing hardware based to handle two types of resequencing problems is presented. The first is for a virtual parallel circuit which can scramble channel bytes. The second system is effective in handling both synchronous and asynchronous traffic between networks with highly differing packet sizes and data rates. The two other major needs for the bridge/gateway are congestion and error control. A dynamic, lossless congestion control scheme which can easily support effective error correction is presented. Results indicate that the congestion control scheme provides close to optimal capacity under congested conditions. Under conditions where error may develop due to intervening networks which are not lossless, intermediate error recovery and correction takes 1/3 less time than equivalent end-to-end error correction under similar conditions.

  13. Recombinant saphenous vein 5-HT1B receptors of the rabbit: comparative pharmacology with human 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C; Pauwels, P J

    1997-01-01

    1. The rabbit recombinant saphenous vein 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (r 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by measuring adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cycle AMP) formation upon exposure to various 5-HT receptor ligands. The effects of agonists and antagonists were compared with their effects determined previously at the human cloned 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Intact C6-glial cells expressing rb HT1B receptors exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) binding sites with a Kd of 0.80 +/- 0.13 nM and a Bmax between 225 to 570 fmol mg-1 protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined in a membrane preparation with [3H]-5-CT or [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(-4 -pyridyl) benzamide (GR 125,743) were similar. With the exception of ketanserin, ligand affinities were comparable to those determined at the clones h 5-HT1B receptor site. 3. rb 5-HT1B receptors were negatively coupled to cyclic AMP formation upon stimulation with 5-HT agonists. Of the several 5-HT agonists tested, 5-CT was the most potent, the potency rank order being: 5-CT > 5-HT > zolmitriptan > naratriptan > rizatriptan > sumatriptan > R (+)-8-(hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). The maximal responses of these agonists were similar to those induced by 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2 = 0.87; P < 0.002) with their potency at the cloned h 5-HT1B receptor subtype. 4. 2'-Methyl-4-(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-e-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amide (GR 127,935), methiothepin and ketanserin each behaved as silent, competitive antagonists at rb 5HT1B receptors; pKB values were 8.41, 8.32 and 7.05, respectively when naratriptan was used as an agonist. These estimates accorded with their binding affinities and the potencies found on 5-HT and/or sumatriptan

  14. Building Synergy: The Power of High Performance Work Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, Martha A.; Van Buren, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that high-performance work systems create the synergy that lets companies gain and keep a competitive advantage. Identifies the components of high-performance work systems and critical action steps for implementation. Describes the results companies such as Xerox, Lever Brothers, and Corning Incorporated have achieved by using them. (JOW)

  15. From the Editor: The High Performance Computing Act of 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the High Performance Computing and Communication program and National Research and Education Network (NREN) established by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, including program management, specific program development, affecting policy decisions, access to the NREN, the Department of Education role, and…

  16. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  17. Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Rotordynamics and predictions on the stability of characteristics of high performance turbomachinery were discussed. Resolutions of problems on experimental validation of the forces that influence rotordynamics were emphasized. The programs to predict or measure forces and force coefficients in high-performance turbomachinery are illustrated. Data to design new machines with enhanced stability characteristics or upgrading existing machines are presented.

  18. An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

  19. Micromagnetics on high-performance workstation and mobile computational platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S.; Chang, R.; Couture, S.; Menarini, M.; Escobar, M. A.; Kuteifan, M.; Lubarda, M.; Gabay, D.; Lomakin, V.

    2015-05-01

    The feasibility of using high-performance desktop and embedded mobile computational platforms is presented, including multi-core Intel central processing unit, Nvidia desktop graphics processing units, and Nvidia Jetson TK1 Platform. FastMag finite element method-based micromagnetic simulator is used as a testbed, showing high efficiency on all the platforms. Optimization aspects of improving the performance of the mobile systems are discussed. The high performance, low cost, low power consumption, and rapid performance increase of the embedded mobile systems make them a promising candidate for micromagnetic simulations. Such architectures can be used as standalone systems or can be built as low-power computing clusters.

  20. Interaction of digitalis-like compounds with liver uptake transporters NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Greupink, Rick; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Bilos, Albert; Schreurs, Marieke; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-06-01

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) such as digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain, also known as cardiac glycosides, are among the oldest pharmacological treatments for heart failure. The compounds have a narrow therapeutic window, while at the same time, DLC pharmacokinetics is prone to drug-drug interactions at the transport level. Hepatic transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, and Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) influence the disposition of a variety of drugs by mediating their uptake from blood into hepatocytes. The interaction of digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain with hepatic uptake transporters has been studied before. However, here, we systematically investigated a much wider range of structurally related DLCs for their capability to inhibit or to be transported by these transporters in order to better understand the relation between the activity and chemical structure of this compound type. We studied the uptake and inhibitory potency of a series of 14 structurally related DLCs in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing NTCP (CHO-NTCP) and human embryonic kidney cells expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 (HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3). The inhibitory effect of the DLCs was measured against taurocholic acid (TCA) uptake in CHO-NTCP cells and against uptake of β-estradiol 17-β-d-glucuronide (E217βG) in HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3 cells. Proscillaridin A was the most effective inhibitor of NTCP-mediated TCA transport (IC50 = 22 μM), whereas digitoxin and digitoxigenin were the most potent inhibitors of OATP1B1 and OAPTP1B3, with IC50 values of 14.2 and 36 μM, respectively. Additionally, we found that the sugar moiety and hydroxyl groups of the DLCs play different roles in their interaction with NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. The sugar moiety decreases the inhibition of NTCP and OATP1B3 transport activity, whereas it enhances the inhibitory potency against OATP1B1. Moreover, the hydroxyl group at position 12