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Sample records for 1d optical lattice

  1. Quantum fluctuations of a 1D bosonic gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruostekoski, Janne

    2005-05-01

    We numerically study the quantum dynamics of a 1D bosonic gas in a shallow optical lattice for both static and time-dependent lattices. In particular, we model the strongly damped dipole oscillations which have recently been observed experimentally at NIST by Fertig et al. cond-mat/0410491. We find a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed damping rates which can be explained as being due to zero temperature quantum fluctuations.

  2. Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang; Lin-Wang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2013-03-15

    We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.

  3. Emergent kinetics and fractionalized charge in 1D spin-orbit coupled flatband optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Scarola, V W

    2014-03-21

    Recent ultracold atomic gas experiments implementing synthetic spin-orbit coupling allow access to flatbands that emphasize interactions. We model spin-orbit coupled fermions in a one-dimensional flatband optical lattice. We introduce an effective Luttinger-liquid theory to show that interactions generate collective excitations with emergent kinetics and fractionalized charge, analogous to properties found in the two-dimensional fractional quantum Hall regime. Observation of these excitations would provide an important platform for exploring exotic quantum states derived solely from interactions. PMID:24702335

  4. Role of quantum fluctuations in the dissipative dynamics of a 1D Bose gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana Maria; Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Pupillo, Guido; Williams, Carl J.; Clark, Charles W.

    2005-03-01

    We will present a theoretical treatment[1] of the surprisingly large damping observed recently in a experiment done at NIST [2] where the transport properties of a harmonically trapped 1D Bose gas in a periodic (optical lattice) potential were studied by observing small amplitude dipole oscillations. In the absence of the lattice these oscillations are expected to be undamped (generalized Kohn's theorem), however, large damping of the dipole mode was observed in the experiment for very weak optical lattices and very small cloud displacements. We will show that the observed damping can be derived from a model whose main ingredients are (a) a large noncondensate fraction that arises as a direct consequence of the enhanced effective on-site interaction due to the tight transverse confinement, (b) the fact that a non-negligible part of it occupies high-momentum states and is therefore affected by dynamical instabilities, and (c) the interaction of the condensate atoms with the random field created by these noncondensate atoms when their equilibrium state is perturbed. We find good agreement between the model and the experimental results. [1] Julio Gea-Banacloche et al. cond-mat/0410677. [2] C. D. Fertig, K. et al.cond-mat/0410491.

  5. Scratched-XY Universality and Phase Diagram of Disordered 1D Bosons in Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    The superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a 1D system with weak links belongs to the so-called scratched-XY universality class, provided the irrenormalizable exponent ζ characterizing the distribution of weak links is smaller than 2 / 3 . With a combination of worm-algorithm Monte Carlo simulations and asymptotically exact analytics, we accurately trace the position of the scratched-XY critical line on the ground-state phase diagram of bosonic Hubbard model at unity filling. In particular, we reveal the location of the tricritical point separating the scratched-XY criticality from the Giamarchi-Schulz one.

  6. GENERAL: Dissipation-Managed Bright Soliton in a 1D Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical-Lattice Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Yu, Hui-You; Ao, Sheng-Mei; Yan, Jia-Ren

    2010-07-01

    We study the formation of a dynamically-stabilized dissipation-managed bright soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate by including an imaginary three-body recombination loss term and an imaginary linear feeding one in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, trapped in a shallow optical-lattice potential. Based on the direct approach of perturbation theory for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we demonstrate that the height (as well as width) of bright soliton may have little change through selecting experimental parameters.

  7. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  8. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  9. Fibonacci Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kevin; Geiger, Zachary; Senaratne, Ruwan; Rajagopal, Shankari; Fujiwara, Kurt; Weld, David; Weld Group Team

    2015-05-01

    Quasiperiodicity is intimately involved in quantum phenomena from localization to the quantum Hall effect. Recent experimental investigation of quasiperiodic quantum effects in photonic and electronic systems have revealed intriguing connections to topological phenomena. However, such experiments have been limited by the absence of techniques for creating tunable quasiperiodic structures. We propose a new type of quasiperiodic optical lattice, constructed by intersecting a Gaussian beam with a 2D square lattice at an angle with an irrational tangent. The resulting potential, a generalization of the Fibonacci lattice, is a physical realization of the mathematical ``cut-and-project'' construction which underlies all quasiperiodic structures. Calculation of the energies and wavefunctions of atoms loaded into the proposed quasiperiodic lattice demonstrate a fractal energy spectrum and the existence of edge states. We acknowledge support from the ONR (award N00014-14-1-0805), the ARO and the PECASE program (award W911NF-14-1-0154), the AFOSR (award FA9550-12-1-0305), and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (grant BR2013-110).

  10. On-chip optical lattice for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Straatsma, Cameron J E; Ivory, Megan K; Duggan, Janet; Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Anderson, Dana Z; Salim, Evan A

    2015-07-15

    An atom-chip-based integrated optical lattice system for cold and ultracold atom applications is presented. The retroreflection optics necessary for forming the lattice are bonded directly to the atom chip, enabling a compact and robust on-chip optical lattice system. After achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a magnetic chip trap, we load atoms directly into a vertically oriented 1D optical lattice and demonstrate Landau-Zener tunneling. The atom chip technology presented here can be readily extended to higher dimensional optical lattices. PMID:26176471

  11. Narrow line photoassociation in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Zelevinsky, T; Boyd, M M; Ludlow, A D; Ido, T; Ye, J; Ciuryło, R; Naidon, P; Julienne, P S

    2006-05-26

    With ultracold 88Sr in a 1D magic wavelength optical lattice, we performed narrow-line photoassociation spectroscopy near the 1S0 - 3P1 intercombination transition. Nine least-bound vibrational molecular levels associated with the long-range 0u and 1u potential energy surfaces were measured and identified. A simple theoretical model accurately describes the level positions and treats the effects of the lattice confinement on the line shapes. The measured resonance strengths show that optical tuning of the ground state scattering length should be possible without significant atom loss. PMID:16803171

  12. Quantum Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmettler, Peter; Kollath, Corinna

    2015-09-01

    The experimental realization of correlated quantum phases with ultracold gases in optical lattices and their theoretical understanding has witnessed remarkable progress during the last decade. In this review we introduce basic concepts and tools to describe the many-body physics of quantum gases in optical lattices. This includes the derivation of effective lattice Hamiltonians from first principles and an overview of the emerging quantum phases. Additionally, state-of-the-art numerical tools to quantitatively treat bosons or fermions on different lattices are introduced.

  13. Topological order in 1D super-lattice Bose-Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Michael; Grusdt, Fabian; Hoening, Michael

    2013-05-01

    After the discovery of topological insulators as a new state of matter and their consequent classification for free fermions, the question arises what kind of topological order can be supported by incompressible systems of interacting bosons. We consider a 1D super-lattice Hamiltonian with a non-trivial band structure (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model) and show that its Mott-insulating (MI) states can be classified by a quantized many-body winding number. This quantization is protected by sub-lattice and time-reversal symmetries, and it allows the implementation of a quantized cyclic pumping process (Thouless pump) in a simple super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). For extended BHMs we discuss a connection of such a pump with the fractional quantum Hall effect. Furthermore we show that the quantization of the winding number leads to localized, protected edge states at sharp interfaces between topologically distinct MI phases which can be experimentally realized using Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical superlattices. DMRG simulations show that these edge states manifest themself either in localized density maxima or localized density minima, which can easily be detected. Supported by research center OPTIMAS and graduate school MAINZ.

  14. Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakyan, Tigran A.; Galitski, Victor M.; Kamenev, Alex

    2015-11-01

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.

  15. Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex

    2015-11-01

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state. PMID:26588392

  16. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  17. Integrated Atom Chip System for Optical Lattice Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Evan A.; Ivory, Megan K.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2015-05-01

    We present an ultracold atom system incorporating a hybrid magnetic/optical atom chip for optical lattice experiments. The atom chip uses integrated, millimeter-scale optical elements to enable the production of optical lattice potentials near the atom chip traces and within a few hundred microns of a high-quality vacuum window. Due to their proximity to a window, the atoms are addressable by optics outside of vacuum operating at numerical apertures as high as 0.8. Demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation in the chip trap and Landau-Zener tunneling in a 1D lattice are presented.

  18. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  19. Quantum vortices in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Vignolo, P.; Fazio, R.; Tosi, M. P.

    2007-08-15

    A vortex in a superfluid gas inside an optical lattice can behave as a massive particle moving in a periodic potential and exhibiting quantum properties. In this paper we discuss these properties and show that the excitation of vortex dynamics in a two-dimensional lattice can lead to striking measurable changes in its dynamic response. It would be possible by means of Bragg spectroscopy to carry out the first direct measurement of the effective vortex mass. In addition, the experiments proposed here provide an alternative way to study the pinning to the underlying lattice and the dissipative damping.

  20. Lattice study of (D¯ 1D*)± near-threshold scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Lei, Yu-Hong; Li, Ning; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Clqcd Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    In this exploratory lattice study, low-energy near threshold scattering of the (D¯1D*)± meson system is analyzed using lattice QCD with Nf=2 twisted mass fermion configurations. Both s-wave (JP=0-) and p-wave (JP=1+) channels are investigated. It is found that the interaction between the two charmed mesons is attractive near the threshold in both channels. This calculation provides some hints in the searching of resonances or bound states around the threshold of (D¯1D*)± system.

  1. Microparticle manipulation in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Weiqiang

    With the interference of several coherent beams, a periodical potential is produced for the particles trapped inside. The theoretical calculations show that the optical force applied on the particle in such optical lattice is in sinusoidal form. The force amplitudes vary greatly depending on the ratio of the particle size to the spacing of the optical lattice. A setup is constructed to demonstrate this dependence with two different methods: equipartition theorem and hydrodynamic-drag method. Based on this size dependence we develop an approach that allows tunable, size-dependent force selection of a subset of particles from an ensemble containing mixed particles. Combining a universal constant force with the sinusoidal optical force, a tilted washboard potential can be formed for the trapped particle. The diffusion of a particle over the barrier in this tilted washboard potential is briefly discussed. When the washboard potential oscillates, some interesting phenomena will happen: at high oscillation frequency, the particle's movement depends only on the oscillating amplitude; at low frequency, there are some combinations of the oscillation frequency and amplitude that induce the enhanced movement of the particle. This enhancement is first experimentally demonstrated with our setup. By implanting a single laser tweezers into the interferometric optical tweezers, we succeed in dynamically assembling designer colloidal lattices on the background of the interferometric optical tweezers. This new technique provides a flexible tool to design 2-d colloidal lattices.

  2. Statistical Transmutation in Periodically Driven Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakyan, Tigran; Galitski, Victor; Kamenev, Alex

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state. This work was supported by the PFC-JQI (T.S.), USARO and Simons Foundation (V.G.), and DOE Contract DE-FG02-08ER46482 (A.K.).

  3. A transportable optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Al-Masoudi, Ali; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and first results of PTB's transportable 87Sr clock. It consists of a physics package, several compact laser breadboards, and a transportable high finesse cavity for the clock laser. A comparison of the transportable system with our stationary optical lattice clock yields an instability of 2.2 x 10-15 √s/τ for the transportable clock. The current fractional uncertainty of 1 × 10-15 is still limited by the not yet fully evaluated light shift from the free running optical lattice laser operated near the magic wavelength. We are currently improving our transportable system to reach an uncertainty at or below the 10-17 level, which will finaly be limited by the uncertainty in blackbody radiation shift correction.

  4. Orbital optical lattices with bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, T.; Hippler, C.; Ewerbeck, A.; Hemmerich, A.

    2016-02-01

    This article provides a synopsis of our recent experimental work exploring Bose-Einstein condensation in metastable higher Bloch bands of optical lattices. Bipartite lattice geometries have allowed us to implement appropriate band structures, which meet three basic requirements: the existence of metastable excited states sufficiently protected from collisional band relaxation, a mechanism to excite the atoms initially prepared in the lowest band with moderate entropy increase, and the possibility of cross-dimensional tunneling dynamics, necessary to establish coherence along all lattice axes. A variety of bands can be selectively populated and a subsequent thermalization process leads to the formation of a condensate in the lowest energy state of the chosen band. As examples the 2nd, 4th and 7th bands in a bipartite square lattice are discussed. The geometry of the 2nd and 7th bands can be tuned such that two inequivalent energetically degenerate energy minima arise at the X ±-points at the edge of the 1st Brillouin zone. In this case even a small interaction energy is sufficient to lock the phase between the two condensation points such that a complex-valued chiral superfluid order parameter can emerge, which breaks time reversal symmetry. In the 4th band a condensate can be formed at the Γ-point in the center of the 1st Brillouin zone, which can be used to explore topologically protected band touching points. The new techniques to access orbital degrees of freedom in higher bands greatly extend the class of many-body scenarios that can be explored with bosons in optical lattices.

  5. Formation and Dynamics of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Tunable Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Desbuquois, Rémi; Esslinger, Tilman

    2015-12-31

    We report on the observation of antiferromagnetic correlations of ultracold fermions in a variety of optical lattice geometries that are well described by the Hubbard model, including dimers, 1D chains, ladders, isolated and coupled honeycomb planes, as well as square and cubic lattices. The dependence of the strength of spin correlations on the specific geometry is experimentally studied by measuring the correlations along different lattice tunneling links, where a redistribution of correlations between the different lattice links is observed. By measuring the correlations in a crossover between distinct geometries, we demonstrate an effective reduction of the dimensionality for our atom numbers and temperatures. We also investigate the formation and redistribution time of spin correlations by dynamically changing the lattice geometry and studying the time evolution of the system. Time scales ranging from a sudden quench of the lattice geometry to an adiabatic evolution are probed. PMID:26764974

  6. Dipolar molecules in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Sowiński, Tomasz; Dutta, Omjyoti; Hauke, Philipp; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-03-16

    We study the extended Bose-Hubbard model describing an ultracold gas of dipolar molecules in an optical lattice, taking into account all on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions, including occupation-dependent tunneling and pair tunneling terms. Using exact diagonalization and the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz, we show that these terms can destroy insulating phases and lead to novel quantum phases. These considerable changes of the phase diagram have to be taken into account in upcoming experiments with dipolar molecules. PMID:22540482

  7. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  8. Fractionalized topological defects in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing-Hai; Fan, Wen-Jun; Shi, Jin-Wei; Kou, Su-Peng

    2015-10-01

    Topological objects are interesting topics in various fields of physics ranging from condensed matter physics to the grand unified and superstring theories. Among those, ultracold atoms provide a playground to study the complex topological objects. In this paper we present a proposal to realize an optical lattice with stable fractionalized topological objects. In particular, we generate the fractionalized topological fluxes and fractionalized skyrmions on two-dimensional optical lattices and fractionalized monopoles on three-dimensional optical lattices. These results offer a new approach to study the quantum many-body systems on optical lattices of ultracold quantum gases with controllable topological defects, including dislocations, topological fluxes and monopoles.

  9. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.

    2010-09-15

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  10. Frequency Metrology with Optical Lattice Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng-Lei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2010-08-01

    The precision measurement of time and frequency is of great interest for a wide range of applications, including fundamental science and technologies that support broadband communication networks and the navigation with global positioning systems (GPSs). The development of optical frequency measurement based on frequency combs has revolutionized the field of frequency metrology, especially research on optical frequency standards. The proposal and realization of the optical lattice clock have further stimulated studies in the field of optical frequency metrology. Optical carrier transfer using optical fibers has been used to disseminate optical frequencies or compare two optical clocks without degrading their stability and accuracy. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art development of optical frequency combs, standards, and transfer techniques with emphasis on optical lattice clocks. We address recent results achieved at the University of Tokyo and the National Metrology Institute of Japan in respect of frequency metrology with Sr and Yb optical lattice clocks.

  11. Optical lattices with micromechanical mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Stannigel, K.; Genes, C.; Zoller, P.; Treutlein, P.; Camerer, S.; Hunger, D.; Haensch, T. W.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate a setup where a cloud of atoms is trapped in an optical lattice potential of a standing-wave laser field which is created by retroreflection on a micromembrane. The membrane vibrations itself realize a quantum mechanical degree of freedom. We show that the center-of-mass mode of atoms can be coupled to the vibrational mode of the membrane in free space. Via laser cooling of atoms a significant sympathetic cooling effect on the membrane vibrations can be achieved. Switching off laser cooling brings the system close to a regime of strong coherent coupling. This setup provides a controllable segregation between the cooling and coherent dynamics regimes, and allows one to keep the membrane in a cryogenic environment and atoms at a distance in a vacuum chamber.

  12. A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giedt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less

  13. Critical and multicritical semi-random (1 + d)-dimensional lattices and hard objects in d dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2002-02-01

    We investigate models of (1 + d)D Lorentzian semi-random lattices with one random (space-like) direction and d regular (time-like) ones. We prove a general inversion formula expressing the partition function of these models as the inverse of that of hard objects in d dimensions. This allows for an exact solution of a variety of new models including critical and multicritical generalized (1+1)D Lorentzian surfaces, with fractal dimensions dF = k + 1, k = 1,2,3,... , as well as a new model of (1+2)D critical tetrahedral complexes, with fractal dimension dF = 12/5. Critical exponents and universal scaling functions follow from this solution. We finally establish a general connection between (1 + d)D Lorentzian lattices and directed-site lattice animals in (1 + d) dimensions.

  14. Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-06-01

    Optical lattice traps for Rydberg atoms are of interest in advanced science and in practical applications. After a brief discussion of these areas of interest, I will review some basics of optical Rydberg-atom trapping. The trapping potential experienced by a Rydberg atom in an optical lattice is given by the spatial average of the free-electron ponderomotive energy weighted by the Rydberg electron's probability distribution. I will then present experimental results on the trapping of ^85Rb Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). The principal methods employed to study the lattice performance are microwave spectroscopy, which is used to measure the lattice's trapping efficiency, and photo-ionization, which is used to measure the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice. I have achieved a 90% trapping efficiency for ^85Rb 50S atoms by inverting the lattice immediately after laser excitation of ground-state atoms into Rydberg states. I have characterized the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice using photo-ionization of 50D5/2 atoms. In continued work, I have explored the dependence of the Rydberg-atom trapping potential on the angular portion of the atomic wavefunction. Distinct angular states exhibit different trapping behavior in the optical lattice, depending on how their wavefunctions are oriented relative to the lattice planes. Specifically, I have measured the lattice potential depth of sublevels of ^85Rb nD atoms (50<=n<=65) in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a transverse DC electric field. The trapping behavior varies substantially for the various angular sublevels, in agreement with theory. The talk will conclude with an outlook into planned experiments.

  15. An anti-symmetric exclusion process for two particles on an infinite 1D lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, J. R.; Harris, S.; Giuggioli, L.

    2011-12-01

    A system of two biased, mutually exclusive random walkers on an infinite 1D lattice is studied whereby the intrinsic bias of one particle is equal and opposite to that of the other. The propagator for this system is solved exactly and expressions for the mean displacement and mean square displacement (MSD) are found. Depending on the nature of the intrinsic bias, the system’s behaviour displays two regimes, characterised by (i) the particles moving towards each other and (ii) away from each other, both qualitatively different from the case of no bias. The continuous-space limit of the propagator is found and is shown to solve a Fokker-Planck equation for two biased, mutually exclusive Brownian particles with equal and opposite drift velocity. Connections to territorial dynamics in animal populations are discussed.

  16. Tunneling Dynamics and Gauge Potentials in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S. K.; Teo, B. K.; Raithel, G.

    1999-09-01

    We study periodic well-to-well tunneling of 87Rb atoms on adiabatic potential surfaces of a 1D optical lattice. The observed dependence of the lowest-band tunneling period on the depth of the adiabatic potential can only be explained by an additional intensity-independent gauge potential predicted by Dum et al. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with our quantum Monte Carlo wave-function simulations and band structure calculations.

  17. Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  18. Subwavelength lattice optics by evolutionary design.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Mark D; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Odom, Teri W

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials--lattice opto-materials--that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  19. Anyonic braiding in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Scarola, V. W.; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.

    2007-01-01

    Topological quantum states of matter, both Abelian and non-Abelian, are characterized by excitations whose wavefunctions undergo nontrivial statistical transformations as one excitation is moved (braided) around another. Topological quantum computation proposes to use the topological protection and the braiding statistics of a non-Abelian topological state to perform quantum computation. The enormous technological prospect of topological quantum computation provides new motivation for experimentally observing a topological state. Here, we explicitly work out a realistic experimental scheme to create and braid the Abelian topological excitations in the Kitaev model built on a tunable robust system, a cold atom optical lattice. We also demonstrate how to detect the key feature of these excitations: their braiding statistics. Observation of this statistics would directly establish the existence of anyons, quantum particles that are neither fermions nor bosons. In addition to establishing topological matter, the experimental scheme we develop here can also be adapted to a non-Abelian topological state, supported by the same Kitaev model but in a different parameter regime, to eventually build topologically protected quantum gates. PMID:18000038

  20. Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice.

    PubMed

    Fortun, A; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C; Condon, G; Michon, E; Billy, J; Guéry-Odelin, D

    2016-07-01

    We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics. PMID:27419545

  1. Spin-orbit coupling in a strontium optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, Tobias; Bromley, Sarah; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Zhang, Xibo; Wall, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic gauge fields are a promising tool for creating complex Hamiltonians with ultracold neutral atoms that may mimic the fractional Quantum Hall effect and other topological states. A promising approach is to use spin-orbit coupling to treat an internal degree of freedom as an effective `synthetic' spatial dimension. Here, this synthetic dimension is comprised by the internal ground and excited states used for high-precision clock spectroscopy in a fermionic strontium optical lattice clock. We report on our progress towards this goal in a system where atoms tunnel through a 1D optical lattice during clock interrogation. We present measurements of the lattice band structure under varying Lamb-Dicke parameters and in a regime where s-wave collisions are expected to contribute density dependent frequency shifts.

  2. Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortun, A.; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Condon, G.; Michon, E.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics.

  3. Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, Christopher J.

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1

  4. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  5. Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Immanuel

    2005-10-01

    Artificial crystals of light, consisting of hundreds of thousands of optical microtraps, are routinely created by interfering optical laser beams. These so-called optical lattices act as versatile potential landscapes to trap ultracold quantum gases of bosons and fermions. They form powerful model systems of quantum many-body systems in periodic potentials for probing nonlinear wave dynamics and strongly correlated quantum phases, building fundamental quantum gates or observing Fermi surfaces in periodic potentials. Optical lattices represent a fast-paced modern and interdisciplinary field of research.

  6. Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, C.; Soltan-Panahi, P.; Kronjäger, J.; Dörscher, S.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2010-06-01

    Over recent years, exciting developments in the field of ultracold atoms confined in optical lattices have led to numerous theoretical proposals devoted to the quantum simulation of problems e.g. known from condensed matter physics. Many of those ideas demand experimental environments with non-cubic lattice geometries. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a versatile three-beam lattice allowing for the generation of triangular as well as hexagonal optical lattices. As an important step, the superfluid-Mott insulator (SF-MI) quantum phase transition has been observed and investigated in detail in this lattice geometry for the first time. In addition to this, we study the physics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the presence of the triangular optical lattice potential, especially spin changing dynamics across the SF-MI transition. Our results suggest that, below the SF-MI phase transition, a well-established mean-field model describes the observed data when renormalizing the spin-dependent interaction. Interestingly, this opens up new perspectives for a lattice-driven tuning of a spin dynamics resonance occurring through the interplay of the quadratic Zeeman effect and spin-dependent interaction. Finally, we discuss further lattice configurations that can be realized with our setup.

  7. Thermometry via Light Shifts in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M.; McGuyer, B. H.; Iwata, G. Z.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2015-01-01

    For atoms or molecules in optical lattices, conventional thermometry methods are often unsuitable due to low particle numbers or a lack of cycling transitions. However, a differential spectroscopic light shift can map temperature onto the line shape with a low sensitivity to trap anharmonicity. We study narrow molecular transitions to demonstrate precise frequency-based lattice thermometry, as well as carrier cooling. This approach should be applicable down to nanokelvin temperatures. We also discuss how the thermal light shift can affect the accuracy of optical lattice clocks.

  8. Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S. E.; Younge, K. C.; Raithel, G.

    2011-12-23

    Rubidium Rydberg atoms are laser excited and subsequently trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). Efficient trapping is achieved by a lattice inversion immediately after laser excitation using an electro-optic technique. The trapping efficiency is probed via analysis of the trap-induced shift of the two-photon microwave transition 50S{yields}51S. The inversion technique allows us to reach a trapping efficiency of 90%. The dependence of the efficiency on the timing of the lattice inversion and on the trap laser power is studied. The dwell time of 50D{sub 5/2} Rydberg atoms in the lattice is analyzed using lattice-induced photoionization.

  9. Coherent manipulations of atomic wavefunctions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladyslav

    2010-03-01

    We report on the realization of dynamical control of transport for ultra-cold ^88Sr atoms loaded in an accelerated and amplitude-modulated 1D optical lattice. Cold atoms trapped in vertical optical lattices give rise to localized states, the Wannier-Stark states. Delocalization can be recovered by introducing a resonant coupling among neighboring lattice sites. We demonstrated this by applying a modulation either to the phase or the amplitude of the lattice potential. Atomic sample loaded into a modulated vertical optical-lattice potential exhibit a resonant delocalization dynamics arising from intraband transitions among Wannier-Stark levels [1]. We demonstrate the coherent control of the spatial extent of atomic wavefunctions by reversibly stretching and shrinking the wavefunction over a distance of more than one millimeter [2]. [4pt] [1] V. V. Ivanov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043602 (2008) [0pt] [2] A. Alberti, V. V. Ivanov, G. M. Tino and G. Ferrari Nature Physics 5, 547 (2009)

  10. Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10{sup -18} fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.

  11. DESIGN OF THE RCMS LATTICE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.; KEWISCH,J.; PEGGS,S.

    2002-06-02

    THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON (RCMS) IS DESIGNED TO BE A VERY LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE ACCELERATOR. THIS IS POSSIBLE DUE TO THE SMALL BEAM SIZE THAT HAS BEEN CHOSEN EARLY DURING THE DESIGN STAGE. THIS CHOICE HAS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF THE LATTICE OPTICS. IN THIS PAPER, WE PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF THE RCMS OPTICS LATTICE, THE KIND OF MAGNETS TO BE USED AND ALSO A DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIAL OPTIC MODULE THAT MATCHES THE ROTATING GANTRY WITH THE REST OF THE FIXED ACCELERATOR. TECHNIQUESDEVELOPED TO WIN ADDITIONAL SPACE BETWEEN QUADRUPOLES WITHOUT DISTRUBING BETA FUNCTIONS ARE ALSO PRESENTED.

  12. Visualization of 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We describe the visualization of 3D optical lattices based on Sisyphus cooling implemented with open source software. We plot the adiabatic light shift potentials found by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian for the light shift operator. Our program incorporates a variety of atomic ground state configurations with total angular momentum ranging from j = 1 / 2 to j = 4 and a variety of laser beam configurations including the two-beam lin ⊥ lin configuration, the four-beam umbrella configuration, and four beams propagating in two orthogonal planes. In addition to visualizing the lattice the program also evaluates lattice parameters such as the oscillation frequency for atoms trapped deep in the wells. The program is intended to help guide experimental implementations of optical lattices.

  13. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  14. The optical potential on the lattice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Doring, Michael; Mai, Maxim; MeiBner, Ulf -G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2016-06-08

    The extraction of hadron-hadron scattering parameters from lattice data by using the Luscher approach becomes increasingly complicated in the presence of inelastic channels. We propose a method for the direct extraction of the complex hadron-hadron optical potential on the lattice, which does not require the use of the multi-channel Luscher formalism. Furthermore, this method is applicable without modifications if some inelastic channels contain three or more particles.

  15. Excitations of quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilada, Emek

    This thesis describes experiments that studied the excitations of an ultra-cold atomic Rb gas in an optical lattice using Bragg spectroscopy. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 87Rb was formed in a cloverleaf trap. An optical lattice of cubic symmetry, formed by the interference of six laser beams, was superimposed on the Rb BEC and turned on adiabatically. Such a system is well described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which predicts a quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator state at a critical lattice depth. In the first experiment, we studied the superfluid regime. The superfluid admits sound waves as phonon excitations. In two photon Bragg spectroscopy two laser beams intersecting at angle on the condensate create such excitations. The excitation spectrum of BEC was measured in a three dimensional optical lattice as a function of lattice strength. In the second experiment we studied the excitation spectrum of the Mott insulator. The lowest energy excitations in such a system are particle-hole excitations. These correspond to the hopping of atoms from one lattice site to another. The insulating phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum and we measured this particle-hole gap by Bragg spectroscopy. The precise nature of our measurement allowed us to study the opening of the excitation gap that has previously eluded experimental verification.

  16. Fiber-optic lattice signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, B.; Goodman, J. W.; Shaw, H. J.; Tur, M.

    1984-07-01

    It is pointed out that fiber-optic signal processing devices can be constructed to perform various functions, such as convolution, correlation, matrix operations, and frequency filtering. Previous studies have concentrated on classical tapped-delay-line forms (transversal filters). The present investigation is concerned with different fiber-optic structures, taking into account lattice (or ladder) forms, which can be used as alternatives for performing optical signal processing. The elements to perform the various signal processing operations are considered along with fiber-optic lattice configurations. Aspects of mathematical analysis are discussed, taking into account Z-transform techniques, transfer-matrix and chain-matrix formulations, modern control theory formulations, and positive optical systems. Attention is given to time-domain signal processing applications, and frequency-domain signal processing applications.

  17. Enhancement of long-range correlations in a 2D vortex lattice by an incommensurate 1D disorder potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.

    In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.

  18. Optical Lattices With Quantum Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Amy Wan-Chih

    In this thesis, we demonstrate how the recent achievement of single site resolution using the "Quantum Gas Microscope" can be integrated with a system of ultra-cold atoms in a two dimensional optical lattice, to facilitate the study of condensed matter Hamiltonians in the strongly interacting regime. With the combination of magnetic and optical manipulation of atoms, we show how to reproducibly generate cold two dimensional Bose Einstein Condensates of 87Rb situated at the focus of our "Quantum Gas Microscope", allowing us to utilise the high numerical aperture for both lattice generation and single atom detection. As a first demonstration of the type of study we can perform with this apparatus, we implement the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian and give some evidence of the superfluid to Mott insulator transition in this system, seen on the single lattice site level.

  19. Optical trapping of nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice in microfluidic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Huang, Jer-Shing; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in optical manipulation have made it an ideal tool to create one, two, and three dimensional periodic optical potential. Such periodic potentials have found interesting technological and fundamental applications such as micro particle sorting and optical fractionation. Plasmon enhanced optical trapping techniques using metallic nanostructures can overcome the diffraction limits of far-field optical trap techniques and therefore permit trapping of nanoparticle with deep sub wavelength dimensions. Here we report the trapping of nanoparticles for a plasmon-enhanced two dimensional optical lattice integrated with microfluidic chip. We observe the trapping of nanoparticles over such an optical lattice. Such an integrated device allows the directional control of nano particles and provides a suitable platform for stochastic transport experiment such as nanoscale optical sorting.

  20. Ultra-Cold Atoms on Optical Lattices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Parag

    2009-01-01

    The field of ultra-cold atoms, since the achievement of Bose-Einstein Condensation (Anderson et al., 1995; Davis et al., 1995; Bradley et al., 1995), have seen an immensely growing interest over the past decade. With the creation of optical lattices, new possibilities of studying some of the widely used models in condensed matter have opened up.…

  1. Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording

  2. Fibonacci optical lattices for tunable quantum quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Saha, K.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Weld, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a quasiperiodic optical lattice, created by a physical realization of the abstract cut-and-project construction underlying all quasicrystals. The resulting potential is a generalization of the Fibonacci tiling. Calculation of the energies and wave functions of ultracold atoms loaded into such a lattice demonstrate a multifractal energy spectrum, a singular continuous momentum-space structure, and the existence of controllable edge states. These results open the door to cold atom quantum simulation experiments in tunable or dynamic quasicrystalline potentials, including topological pumping of edge states and phasonic spectroscopy.

  3. Dipolar bosons on an optical lattice ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maik, Michał; Buonsante, Pierfrancesco; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2011-11-01

    We consider an ultrasmall system of polarized bosons on an optical lattice with a ring topology, interacting via long-range dipole-dipole interactions. Dipoles polarized perpendicular to the plane of the ring reveal sharp transitions between different density-wave phases. As the strength of the dipolar interactions is varied, the behavior of the transitions is first-order-like. For dipoles polarized in the plane of the ring, the transitions between possible phases show pronounced sensitivity to the lattice depth. The abundance of possible configurations may be useful for quantum-information applications.

  4. The Strontium Optical Lattice Clock: Optical Spectroscopy with Sub-Hertz Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Atomic clocks find significant roles in a number of scientific and technological settings. One interesting approach to a next-generation clock based on an optical transition uses atomic strontium confined in an optical lattice. The tight atomic confinement eliminates motional effects which otherwise trouble the atomic interrogation. At the same time, the optical lattice is equally perturbs the two electronic clock states so that the confinement introduces a net zero shift of the natural transition frequency. Here I describe the design and realization of an optical frequency standard using ^87Sr confined in a 1-D optical lattice. With an ultra-stable laser light source, atomic spectral linewidths of the optical clock transition are observed below 2 Hz. High accuracy spectroscopy of the clock transition is carried out utilizing a frequency comb referenced to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain. To explore the performance of an improved, spin-polarized Sr standard, a coherent optical phase transfer link is established between JILA and NIST. This enables remote comparison of the Sr standard against optical standards at NIST. The high frequency stability of a Sr-Ca comparison (3x10-16 at 200 s) is used to make measurements of Sr transition frequency shifts at the fractional frequency level below 10-16. These systematic shifts are discussed in detail, resulting in a total uncertainty of the Sr clock frequency at 1.5x10-16, the smallest for a neutral atom system.

  5. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-09-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.

  6. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  7. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  8. The Abelian Higgs model on Optical Lattice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Bazavov, Alexei; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    We study the Lattice Gauge Theory of the U(1)-Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. We discuss the plaquette corrections to the effective theory where link variables are integrated out. We discuss matching with the second-order perturbation theory effective Hamiltonian for various Bose-Hubbard models. This correspondence can be exploited for building a lattice gauge theory simulator on optical lattices. We propose to implement the quantum rotors which appear in the Hamiltonian formulation using Bose mixtures or p-orbitals. Recent progress on magnetic effects in 2+1 dimensions will be discussed. Supported by the Army Research Office of the Department of Defense under Award Number W911NF-13-1-0119.

  9. The NIM Sr Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Meng, F.; Lin, B.; Zang, E.; Sun, Z.; Fang, F.; Li, T.; Fang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    A 87Sr optical lattice clock is built at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) of China. The atoms undergo two stages of laser cooling before being loaded into a horizontal optical lattice at the magic wavelength of 813 nm. After being interrogated by a narrow linewidth 698 nm clock laser pulse, the normalized excitation rate is measured to get the frequency error, which is then used to lock the clock laser to the ultra-narrow 1S0-3P0 clock transition. The total systematic uncertainty of the clock is evaluated to be 2.3 × 10-16, and the absolute frequency of the clock is measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.7(1.4) Hz with reference to the NIM5 cesium fountain.

  10. Fast Dynamics for Atoms in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łącki, Mateusz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2013-02-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices allow for accurate studies of many body dynamics. Rapid time-dependent modifications of optical lattice potentials may result in significant excitations in atomic systems. The dynamics in such a case is frequently quite incompletely described by standard applications of tight-binding models (such as, e.g., Bose-Hubbard model or its extensions) that typically neglect the effect of the dynamics on the transformation between the real space and the tight-binding basis. We illustrate the importance of a proper quantum mechanical description using a multiband extended Bose-Hubbard model with time-dependent Wannier functions. We apply it to situations directly related to experiments.

  11. One-dimensional topological chains with Majorana fermions in two-dimensional nontopological optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2016-06-01

    The recent experimental realization of one-dimensional (1D) equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (ERD-SOC) for cold atoms provides a disorder-free and highly controllable platform for the implementation and observation of Majorana fermions (MFs), analogous to the broadly studied solid-state nanowire-superconductor heterostructures. However, the corresponding 1D chains of cold atoms possess strong quantum fluctuation, which may destroy the superfluids and MFs. In this paper, we show that such 1D topological chains with MFs may be on demand generated in a two- or three-dimensional nontopological optical lattice with 1D ERD-SOC by modifying local potentials on target locations using experimentally already implemented atomic gas microscopes or patterned (e.g., double- or triple-well) optical lattices. All ingredients in our scheme have been experimentally realized, and the combination of them may pave the way for the experimental observation of MFs in a clean system.

  12. Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli

    2015-10-23

    We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P(x,p) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P(x,p) depends only on the Hamiltonian H(x,p) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P(x,p)∝H(x,p)(-1/D), where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P(x,p) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution. PMID:26551114

  13. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-07

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on {sup 171}Yb (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4x10{sup -16}, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  14. LETTER On the nonlinear response of a particle interacting with fermions in a 1D lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, X.

    2010-12-01

    By the Bethe ansatz method we study the energy dispersion of a particle interacting by a local interaction with fermions (or hard core bosons) of equal mass in a one-dimensional lattice. We focus on the period of the Bloch oscillations, which turns out to be related to the Fermi wavevector of the Fermi sea and in particular on how this dispersion emerges as a collective effect in the thermodynamic limit. We also discuss the adiabatic coherent collective response of the system to an applied field.

  15. Quantization of Energy in 1D Model of Crystal Lattice with Local Perturbations Induced by Ion-Beam Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.

  16. On the spectrum of the lattice spin-boson Hamiltonian for any coupling: 1D case

    SciTech Connect

    Muminov, M.; Neidhardt, H.; Rasulov, T.

    2015-05-15

    A lattice model of radiative decay (so-called spin-boson model) of a two level atom and at most two photons is considered. The location of the essential spectrum is described. For any coupling constant, the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues below the bottom of its essential spectrum is proved. The results are obtained by considering a more general model H for which the lower bound of its essential spectrum is estimated. Conditions which guarantee the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues of H below the bottom of its essential spectrum are found. It is shown that the discrete spectrum might be infinite if the parameter functions are chosen in a special form.

  17. Excitations in disordered bosonic optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, Michael; Arrigoni, Enrico; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2010-11-15

    Spectral excitations of ultracold gases of bosonic atoms trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices with disorder are investigated by means of the variational cluster approach applied to the Bose-Hubbard model. Qualitatively different disorder distributions typically employed in experiments are considered. The computed spectra exhibit a strong dependence on the shape of the disorder distribution and the disorder strength. We compare alternative results for the Mott gap obtained from its formal definition and from the minimum peak distance, which is the quantity available from experiments.

  18. Quantum criticality in disordered bosonic optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Xiaoming; Chen Shu; Wang Yupeng

    2011-04-15

    Using the exact Bose-Fermi mapping, we study universal properties of ground-state density distributions and finite-temperature quantum critical behavior of one-dimensional hard-core bosons in trapped incommensurate optical lattices. Through the analysis of universal scaling relations in the quantum critical regime, we demonstrate that the superfluid-to-Bose-glass transition and the general phase diagram of disordered hard-core bosons can be uniquely determined from finite-temperature density distributions of the trapped disordered system.

  19. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    SciTech Connect

    D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2014-08-20

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  20. A low maintenance Sr optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Hobson, R.; Bowden, W.; Bridge, E. M.; Donnellan, S.; Curtis, E. A.; Gill, P.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the Sr optical lattice clock apparatus at NPL with particular emphasis on techniques used to increase reliability and minimise the human requirement in its operation. Central to this is a clock-referenced transfer cavity scheme for the stabilisation of cooling and trapping lasers. We highlight several measures to increase the reliability of the clock with a view towards the realisation of an optical time-scale. The clock contributed 502 hours of data over a 25 day period (84% uptime) in a recent measurement campaign with several uninterrupted periods of more than 48 hours. An instability of 2 x 10-17 was reached after 105 s of averaging in an interleaved self-comparison of the clock.

  1. Observation of Stueckelberg oscillations in accelerated optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zenesini, A.; Ciampini, D.; Arimondo, E.; Morsch, O.

    2010-12-15

    We report the experimental observation of Stueckelberg oscillations of matter waves in optical lattices. Extending previous work on Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, we study the effects of the accumulated phase between two successive crossings of the Brillouin zone edge. Our results agree well with a simple model for multiple Landau-Zener tunneling events taking into account the band structure of the optical lattice.

  2. Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun

    2007-08-15

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.

  3. Hybrid plasmonic lattices with tunable magneto-optical activity.

    PubMed

    Kataja, Mikko; Pourjamal, Sara; Maccaferri, Nicolò; Vavassori, Paolo; Hakala, Tommi K; Huttunen, Mikko J; Törmä, Päivi; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-22

    We report on the optical and magneto-optical response of hybrid plasmonic lattices that consist of pure nickel and gold nanoparticles in a checkerboard arrangement. Diffractive far-field coupling between the individual emitters of the lattices results in the excitation of two orthogonal surface lattice resonance modes. Local analyses of the radiation fields indicate that both the nickel and gold nanoparticles contribute to these collective resonances and, thereby, to the magneto-optical activity of the hybrid arrays. The strong effect of noble metal nanoparticles on the magneto-optical response of hybrid lattices opens up new avenues for the realization of sensitive and tunable magneto-plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26907022

  4. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    -locking and pulse compression. A strong signature of discrete X-wave formation was also demonstrated in such structures. In the last few years, Anderson localization was unequivocally observed in array systems where the transition from ballistic transport to diffusive, and the cross-over to Anderson localization was studied as a function of disorder and nonlinearity. In recent studies synthetic lattices exhibiting parity-time (PT) symmetry were also considered. The interplay of gain and loss in this latter family of structures leads to counterintuitive characteristics and behavior such as non-reciprocal propagation and power oscillations. The realization of discrete array systems at su-bwavelenth scales is another important direction that is nowadays intensively pursued. References 1. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 424, 817- 823 (2003). 2. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Reports 463, 1-126 (2008). 3. M Wimmer, A Regensburger, MA Miri, C. Bersch, D.N Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, ''Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices'' Nature Communications 6, 7782 (2015). Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays.

  5. Chaotic dynamics in a two-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Eric; Koppell, Stewart; Reichl, L E

    2014-01-01

    The classical nonlinear dynamics of a dilute gas of rubidium atoms in an optical lattice is studied for a range of polarizations of the laser beams forming the lattice. The dynamics ranges from integrable to chaotic, and mechanisms leading to the onset of chaos in the lattice are described. PMID:24580307

  6. Chaos in the honeycomb optical-lattice unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Max D.; Reichl, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Natural and artificial honeycomb lattices are of great interest because the band structure of these lattices, if properly constructed, contains a Dirac point. Such lattices occur naturally in the form of graphene and carbon nanotubes. They have been created in the laboratory in the form of semiconductor 2DEGs, optical lattices, and photonic crystals. We show that, over a wide energy range, gases (of electrons, atoms, or photons) that propagate through these lattices are Lorentz gases and the corresponding classical dynamics is chaotic. Thus honeycomb lattices are also of interest for understanding eigenstate thermalization and the conductor-insulator transition due to dynamic Anderson localization.

  7. Antiferromagnetic Spinor Condensates in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Jiang, J; Tang, T; Webb, M; Liu, Y

    2015-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that spin dynamics and the phase diagram of spinor condensates can be conveniently tuned by a two-dimensional optical lattice. Spin population oscillations and a lattice-tuned separatrix in phase space are observed in every lattice where a substantial superfluid fraction exists. In a sufficiently deep lattice, we observe a phase transition from a longitudinal polar phase to a broken-axisymmetry phase in steady states of lattice-confined spinor condensates. The steady states are found to depend sigmoidally on the lattice depth and exponentially on the magnetic field. We also introduce a phenomenological model that semiquantitatively describes our data without adjustable parameters. PMID:26196625

  8. Landau Levels in Strained Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binbin; Endres, Manuel; Pekker, David

    2015-12-01

    We propose a hexagonal optical lattice system with spatial variations in the hopping matrix elements. Just like in the valley Hall effect in strained graphene, for atoms near the Dirac points the variations in the hopping matrix elements can be described by a pseudomagnetic field and result in the formation of Landau levels. We show that the pseudomagnetic field leads to measurable experimental signatures in momentum resolved Bragg spectroscopy, Bloch oscillations, cyclotron motion, and quantization of in situ densities. Our proposal can be realized by a slight modification of existing experiments. In contrast to previous methods, pseudomagnetic fields are realized in a completely static system avoiding common heating effects and therefore opening the door to studying interaction effects in Landau levels with cold atoms.

  9. Arnold diffusion in a driven optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, Yingyue; Reichl, L. E.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of time-periodic forces on matter has been a topic of growing interest since the advent of lasers. It is known that dynamical systems with 2.5 or more degrees of freedom are intrinsically unstable. As a consequence, time-periodic driven systems can experience large excursions in energy. We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of rubidium atoms confined to a time-periodic optical lattice with 2.5 degrees of freedom. When the laser polarizations are orthogonal, the system consists of two 1.5 uncoupled dynamical systems. When laser polarizations are turned away from orthogonal, an Arnold web forms and the dynamics undergoes a fundamental change. For parallel polarizations, we find huge random excursions in the rubidium atom energies and significant entanglement of energies in the quantum dynamics.

  10. Detecting multiatomic composite states in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklov, Anatoly; Moritz, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We propose and discuss methods for detecting quasimolecular complexes which are expected to form in strongly interacting optical lattice systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of composite fermions forming in Bose-Fermi mixtures. We argue that, as an indirect indication of the composite fermions and a generic consequence of strong interactions, periodic correlations must appear in the atom shot noise of bosonic absorption images, similar to the bosonic Mott insulator [S. Fölling , Nature (London) 434, 481 (2005)]. The composites can also be detected directly and their quasimomentum distribution measured. This method—an extension of the technique of noise correlation interferometry [E. Altman , Phys. Rev. A 79, 013603 (2004)]—relies on measuring higher order correlations between the bosonic and fermionic shot noise in the absorption images. However, it fails above a certain number of the constituents due to a dramatic increase of uncorrelated noise.

  11. Arnold diffusion in a driven optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Boretz, Yingyue; Reichl, L E

    2016-03-01

    The effect of time-periodic forces on matter has been a topic of growing interest since the advent of lasers. It is known that dynamical systems with 2.5 or more degrees of freedom are intrinsically unstable. As a consequence, time-periodic driven systems can experience large excursions in energy. We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of rubidium atoms confined to a time-periodic optical lattice with 2.5 degrees of freedom. When the laser polarizations are orthogonal, the system consists of two 1.5 uncoupled dynamical systems. When laser polarizations are turned away from orthogonal, an Arnold web forms and the dynamics undergoes a fundamental change. For parallel polarizations, we find huge random excursions in the rubidium atom energies and significant entanglement of energies in the quantum dynamics. PMID:27078351

  12. Breakdown of adiabaticity when loading ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Realistic simulations of current ultracold atom experiments in optical lattices show that the ramping up of the optical lattice is significantly nonadiabatic, implying that experimentally prepared Mott insulators are not really in the ground state of the atomic system. The nonadiabaticity is even larger in the presence of a secondary quasiperiodic lattice simulating “disorder.” Alternative ramping schemes are suggested that improve the adiabaticity when the disorder is not too large.

  13. The strontium optical lattice clock: Optical spectroscopy with sub-hertz accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Andrew D.

    One of the most well-developed applications of coherent interaction with atoms is atomic frequency standards and clocks. Atomic clocks find significant roles in a number of scientific and technological settings. State-of-the-art, laser-cooled, Cs-fountain microwave clocks have demonstrated impressive frequency measurement accuracy, with fractional uncertainties below the 10-15 level. On the other hand, frequency standards based on optical transitions have made substantial steps forward over the last decade, benefiting from their high operational frequencies. An interesting approach to such an optical standard uses atomic strontium confined in an optical lattice. The tight atomic confinement allows for nearly complete elimination of Doppler and recoil-related effects which can otherwise trouble the precise atomic interrogation. At the same time, the optical lattice is designed to equally perturb the two electronic clock states so that the confinement introduces a net zero shift of the natural transition frequency. This thesis describes the design and realization of an optical frequency standard using 87Sr confined in a 1-D optical lattice. Techniques for atomic manipulation and control are described, including two-stage laser cooling, proper design of atomic confinement in a lattice potential, and optical pumping techniques. With the development of an ultra-stable coherent laser light source, atomic spectral linewidths of the optical clock transition are observed below 2 Hz. High accuracy spectroscopy of the clock transition is carried out utilizing a femtosecond frequency comb referenced to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain. To explore the performance of an improved, spin-polarized Sr standard, a coherent optical phase transfer link is established between JILA and NIST. This enables remote comparison of the Sr standard against optical standards at NIST, such as the cold Ca standard. The high frequency stability of a Sr-Ca comparison (3 x 10-16 at 200 s) is used to make

  14. Chern Kondo Insulator in an Optical Lattice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X C

    2016-01-29

    We propose to realize and observe Chern Kondo insulators in an optical superlattice with laser-assisted s and p orbital hybridization and a synthetic gauge field, which can be engineered based on the recent cold atom experiments. Considering a double-well square optical lattice, the localized s orbitals are decoupled from itinerant p bands and are driven into a Mott insulator due to the strong Hubbard interaction. Raman laser beams are then applied to induce tunnelings between s and p orbitals, and generate a staggered flux simultaneously. Because of the strong Hubbard interaction of s orbital states, we predict the existence of a critical Raman laser-assisted coupling, beyond which the Kondo screening is achieved, and then a fully gapped Chern Kondo phase emerges, with the topology characterized by integer Chern numbers. Being a strongly correlated topological state, the Chern Kondo phase is different from the single-particle quantum anomalous Hall state, and can be identified by measuring the band topology and double occupancy of s orbitals. The experimental realization and detection of the predicted Chern Kondo insulator are also proposed. PMID:26871345

  15. Chern Kondo Insulator in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize and observe Chern Kondo insulators in an optical superlattice with laser-assisted s and p orbital hybridization and a synthetic gauge field, which can be engineered based on the recent cold atom experiments. Considering a double-well square optical lattice, the localized s orbitals are decoupled from itinerant p bands and are driven into a Mott insulator due to the strong Hubbard interaction. Raman laser beams are then applied to induce tunnelings between s and p orbitals, and generate a staggered flux simultaneously. Because of the strong Hubbard interaction of s orbital states, we predict the existence of a critical Raman laser-assisted coupling, beyond which the Kondo screening is achieved, and then a fully gapped Chern Kondo phase emerges, with the topology characterized by integer Chern numbers. Being a strongly correlated topological state, the Chern Kondo phase is different from the single-particle quantum anomalous Hall state, and can be identified by measuring the band topology and double occupancy of s orbitals. The experimental realization and detection of the predicted Chern Kondo insulator are also proposed.

  16. Dissipative dynamics of matter-wave solitons in a nonlinear optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Tomio, Lauro; Gammal, A.; Luz, H. L. F. da

    2007-10-15

    Dynamics and stability of solitons in two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), with one-dimensional (1D) conservative plus dissipative nonlinear optical lattices, are investigated. In the case of focusing media (with attractive atomic systems), the collapse of the wave packet is arrested by the dissipative periodic nonlinearity. The adiabatic variation of the background scattering length leads to metastable matter-wave solitons. When the atom feeding mechanism is used, a dissipative soliton can exist in focusing 2D media with 1D periodic nonlinearity. In the defocusing media (repulsive BEC case) with harmonic trap in one direction and nonlinear optical lattice in the other direction, the stable soliton can exist. Variational approach simulations are confirmed by full numerical results for the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  17. Lattice gaugefixing and other optics in lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Ken.

    1992-06-01

    We present results from four projects. In the first, quark and gluon propagators and effective masses and {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule operator matching coefficients are computed numerically in gaugefixed lattice QCD. In the second, the same quantities are evaluated analytically in the strong coupling, N {yields} {infinity} limit. In the third project, the Schwinger model is studied in covariant gauges, where we show that the effective electron mass varies with the gauge parameter and that longitudinal gaugefixing ambiguities affect operator product expansion coefficients (analogous to {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule matching coefficients) determined by matching gauge variant matrix elements. However, we find that matching coefficients even if shifted by the unphysical modes are {xi} invariant. In the fourth project, we show that the strong coupling parallelogram lattice Schwinger model as a different thermodynamic limit than the weak coupling continuum limit. As a function of lattice skewness angle these models span the {Delta} = {minus}1 critical line of 6-vertex models which, in turn, have been identified as c = 1 conformal field theories.

  18. Thermodynamics of quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakie, P. B.; Rey, A.-M.; Bezett, A.

    2007-02-01

    The entropy-temperature curves are calculated for non-interacting Bose and Fermi gases in a 3D optical lattice. These curves facilitate understanding of how adiabatic changes in the lattice depth affect the temperature, and we demonstrate regimes where the atomic sample can be significantly heated or cooled by the loading process. We assess the effects of interactions on a Bose gas in a deep optical lattice, and show that interactions ultimately limit the extent of cooling that can occur during lattice loading.

  19. Effective Dirac Hamiltonian for anisotropic honeycomb lattices: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Leyva, M.; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-01-01

    We derive the low-energy Hamiltonian for a honeycomb lattice with anisotropy in the hopping parameters. Taking the reported Dirac Hamiltonian for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, we obtain its optical conductivity tensor and its transmittance for normal incidence of linearly polarized light. Also, we characterize its dichroic character due to the anisotropic optical absorption. As an application of our general findings, which reproduce the previous case of uniformly strained graphene, we study the optical properties of graphene under a nonmechanical distortion.

  20. Critical point of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Badry, Azza M.; Soliman, Shemi S. M.; Hassan, Ahmed S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have considered the critical point (critical atoms' number and the corresponding critical temperature) of rotating condensate bosons trapped in optical lattices. Our system is formed by loading three dimensional harmonically trapped boson atoms into a 1D (axial direction) or 2D (radial direction) optical lattice. The system subjected to rotating with angular velocity Ω around to the axial direction z-axis. We employ the semiclassical approximation to calculate the critical point. Effects of the optical lattice depth, direction (axial or radial) and the rotation rate on the critical point are investigated using the semiclassical approximation. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the critical point is changed in an optical lattice and depends crucially on the rotation rate. The effect of the finite size for one-dimensional optical lattice case, as required by experiment, is discussed. The outcome results furnish useful qualitatively theoretical results for the future Bose-Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.

  1. Collisional Losses, Decoherence, and Frequency Shifts in Optical Lattice Clocks with Bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Lisdat, Ch.; Winfred, J. S. R. Vellore; Middelmann, T.; Riehle, F.; Sterr, U.

    2009-08-28

    We have quantified collisional losses, decoherence and the collision shift in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock on the highly forbidden transition {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} at 698 nm with bosonic {sup 88}Sr. We were able to distinguish two loss channels: inelastic collisions between atoms in the upper and lower clock state and atoms in the upper clock state only. Based on the measured coefficients, we determine the operation parameters at which a 1D-lattice clock with {sup 88}Sr shows no degradation due to collisions on the fractional uncertainty level of 10{sup -16}.

  2. Dynamic Optical Lattices of Subwavelength Spacing for Ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbene, Sylvain; Goldman, Nathan; Cooper, Nigel R.; Dalibard, Jean

    2015-10-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing lattice potentials of subwavelength spacing for ultracold atoms. It is based on spin-dependent optical lattices with a time-periodic modulation. We show that the atomic motion is well described by the combined action of an effective, time-independent lattice of small spacing, together with a micromotion associated with the time modulation. A numerical simulation shows that an atomic gas can be adiabatically loaded into the effective lattice ground state, for time scales comparable to the ones required for adiabatic loading of standard optical lattices. We generalize our scheme to a two-dimensional geometry, leading to Bloch bands with nonzero Chern numbers. The realization of lattices of subwavelength spacing allows for the enhancement of energy scales, which could facilitate the achievement of strongly correlated (topological) states.

  3. Ultracold atoms in an optical lattice with dynamically variable periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Assam, S.; Williams, R. A.; Foot, C. J.

    2010-08-15

    The use of a dynamic 'accordion' lattice with ultracold atoms is demonstrated. Ultracold atoms of {sup 87}Rb are trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, and the spacing of the lattice is then increased in both directions from 2.2 to 5.5 {mu}m. Atoms remain bound for expansion times as short as a few milliseconds, and the experimentally measured minimum ramp time is found to agree well with numerical calculations. This technique allows an experiment such as quantum simulations to be performed with a lattice spacing smaller than the resolution limit of the imaging system, while allowing imaging of the atoms at individual lattice sites by subsequent expansion of the optical lattice.

  4. Approach to a permanent electron electric dipole moment search using cold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Teng; Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    We present our progress towards measuring the electron EDM using laser-cooled cesium and rubidium atoms trapped in a one dimensional optical lattice. To date, we have collected Cs atoms in two parallel 1D optical lattices that thread three glass electric field plates in a region of well-shielded magnetic fields. As a precursor to the EDM measurement, we have performed a variant of a Hanle effect measurement and used it to study the vector light shifts due to the cavity-built up lattice beams. This gives us a very high sensitivity to the absolute linear polarization of the light, which we have demonstrated to be as good as ~10-8 in fractional power. NSF PHY-13-07096.

  5. Novel Quantum Phases of Dipolar Bose Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Li, T.; Sun, C. P.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the quantum phases of polarized dipolar bosons loaded into a two-dimensional square and three-dimensional cubic optical lattices. We show that the long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole-dipole interaction induces a rich variety of quantum phases, including the supersolid and striped supersolid phases in two-dimensional lattices, and the layered supersolid phase in three-dimensional lattices.

  6. Optical properties of graphene nanostructures from first-principles: from 1D to 0D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsano, Daniele; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa

    2010-03-01

    The possibility of patterning graphene sheets in a controllable manner to design semiconducting low-dimensional nanostructures opens exciting opportunities also in view of novel phenomena occurring under light excitation as well as nanoscale optoelectronics applications. We discuss the main characteristics of optical excitations in quasi-1D armchair graphene nanoribbons (A-GNRs) by means of ab-initio many-body calculations [1]. Our theoretical approach includes both self-energy corrections and excitonic effects through the GW-BSE formalism, providing full understanding of excited-state properties. Electron-hole interaction is found to suppress the van Hove singularities -as known for other 1D systems- and introduces strongly bound excitonic peaks. Starting from these ideal structures, we discuss the effect of width modulation on confinement and optical response [2]. Our results show that edge-modulated A-GNRs are efficient systems for the creation of carbon-based QD structures with prominent exciton localization features. [1] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, A. Marini, and E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. B 77, 041404 (2008). [2] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, and E. Molinari, to be published (2009)

  7. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  8. A transportable optical lattice clock using 171Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Gregor; SOC2 Team

    2013-07-01

    We present first results on the spectroscopy of the 1S0 - 3P0 transition at 578nm in a transportable 171Yb optical lattice clock. With the Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice, we have observed linewidths below 200 Hz, limited by saturation broadening. Currently the system is being upgraded towards full clock operation and use of more compact and robust subsystems.

  9. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  10. Dynamically generated flat-band phases in optical kagome lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Chien, Chih-Chun; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2014-07-01

    Motivated by recent advances in the realization of complex two-dimensional optical lattices, we investigate theoretically the quantum transport of ultracold fermions in an optical kagome lattice. In particular, we focus on its extensively degenerate localized states (flat band). By loading fermions in a partial region of the lattice and depleting the mobile atoms at the far boundary of the initially unoccupied region, we find a dynamically generated flat-band insulator, which is also a population-inverted state. We further show that inclusion of weak repulsion leads to a dynamical stripe phase for two-component fermions in a similar setup. Finally, by preparing a topological insulating state in a partially occupied kagome lattice, we find that the topological chiral current decays but exhibits an interesting oscillating dynamics during the nonequilibrium transport. Given the broad variety of lattice geometries supporting localized or topological states, our work suggests new possibilities for using geometrical effects and their dynamics in atomtronic devices.

  11. E-beam to complement optical lithography for 1D layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, David K.; Liu, Enden D.; Smayling, Michael C.; Prescop, Ted

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving to highly regular designs, or 1D gridded layouts, to enable scaling to advanced nodes, as well as improve process latitude, chip size and chip energy consumption. The fabrication of highly regular ICs is straightforward. Poly and metal layers are arranged into 1D layouts. These 1D layouts facilitate a two-step patterning approach: a line-creation step, followed by a line-cutting step, to form the desired IC pattern (See Figure 1). The first step, line creation, can be accomplished with a variety of lithography techniques including 193nm immersion (193i) and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP). It appears feasible to create unidirectional parallel lines to at least 11 nm half-pitch, with two applications of SADP for pitch division by four. Potentially, this step can also be accomplished with interference lithography or directed self assembly in the future. The second step, line cutting, requires an extremely high-resolution lithography technique. At advanced nodes, the only options appear to be the costly quadruple patterning with 193i, or EUV or E-Beam Lithography (EBL). This paper focuses on the requirements for a lithography system for "line cutting", using EBL to complement Optical. EBL is the most cost-effective option for line cutting at advanced nodes for HVM.

  12. Synthetic gauge fields and many-body physics in an optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Andrew P.; Wall, Michael L.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    We propose the implementation of a synthetic gauge field in a 1D optical lattice clock and explore the resulting single-particle and many-body physics. The system can realize an effective two-leg ladder by using the two clock states as a synthetic dimension, together with the tunneling-coupled 1D lattice sites. A large flux per plaquette is naturally generated because the clock laser imprints a phase that varies significantly across lattice sites. We propose to use standard spectroscopic tools - Ramsey and Rabi spectroscopy - to probe the band structure and reveal signatures of the spin-orbit coupling, including chiral edge states and the modification of single-particle physics due to s-wave and p-wave interactions. These effects can be probed in spite of the relatively high temperatures (~ micro Kelvin) and weak interactions, thanks to the exquisite precision and sensitivity of the JILA Sr optical lattice clock. We also discuss the exciting possibility of using the nuclear spin degrees of freedom to realize more exotic synthetic dimension topologies and flux patterns. Supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF- 1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, and NDSEG.

  13. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, F.; Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically nontrivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures generally known as Hofstadter butterflies depend sensitively on the geometry of the underlying lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell, D. Greif, T. Uehlinger, G. Jotzu, and T. Esslinger, Nature (London) 483, 302 (2012), 10.1038/nature10871] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. In this paper, we calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard lattice to the honeycomb lattice, two square-lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly. This merging is topologically nontrivial, as it is accomplished by sequential closings of gaps. Ensuing Chern number transfer between the bands can be probed with the adjustable lattice experiments. We also calculate the Chern numbers of the gaps for qualitatively different spectra and discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry.

  14. Experimental demonstration of anomalous nonreciprocal optical response of 1D periodic magnetoplasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halagačka, L.; Vanwolleghem, M.; Vaurette, F.; Ben-Youssef, J.; Gogol, P.; Yam, N.; Postava, K.; Dagens, B.; Pištora, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the optical and transversal magnetooptical (MO) response of magnetoplasmonic (MP) nanostructures. The MP structure is a 1D periodic gold grating fabricated by lift-off technique on the MO dielectric substrate (Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet BixY3-xFe5O12). Following our recent theoretical work (Opt. Express 21, pp. 2174121755, Sep 2013.), we confirm here experimentally the predicted dependence of the MO response on the geometry of the grating, that is directly attributed to the anticrossing behavior of the Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the grating's slits and the surface plasmon resonances (SPPs) at its interfaces. The experimental results were achieved by Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Observed fine tuning of the transverse magneto-optic Kerr opens up new possibilities for the design of compact nonreciprocal devices.

  15. Three-dimensional optical lattice clock with bosonic {sup 88}Sr atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Akatsuka, Tomoya; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-15

    We present detailed analyses of our recent experiment on the three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice clock with bosonic {sup 88}Sr atoms in which the collisional frequency shift was suppressed by applying a single-occupancy lattice. Frequency shifts in magnetically induced spectroscopy on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition ({lambda}=698 nm) of {sup 88}Sr were experimentally investigated by referencing a one-dimensional (1D) lattice clock based on spin-polarized {sup 87}Sr atoms. We discuss that the clock stability is limited by the current laser stability as well as the experimental sequence of the clock operation, which may be improved to {sigma}{sub y}({tau})=2x10{sup -16}/{radical}({tau}) by optimizing the cycle time of the clock operation.

  16. Dissipation-Induced Symmetry Breaking in a Driven Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gommers, R.; Bergamini, S.; Renzoni, F.

    2005-08-12

    We analyze the atomic dynamics in an ac driven periodic optical potential which is symmetric in both time and space. We experimentally demonstrate that in the presence of dissipation the symmetry is broken, and a current of atoms through the optical lattice is generated as a result.

  17. Progress towards quantum-gas experiments in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertot, Daniel; Greif, Daniel; Schiller, Rebekah; Schneble, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    We present our progress towards quantum simulation experiments with ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of rubidium-87 in a transporter apparatus featuring a moving-coil TOP trap (McTOP). Quasi-pure condensates containing up to one million atoms are routinely produced with high stability. As atomic micro-motion in TOP traps precludes the direct loading of condensates into a single quasimomentum state of an optical lattice, we are in the process of implementing a loading scheme involving evaporation of nearly-condensed thermal clouds in a crossed optical dipole trap. We will discuss our recent experimental results.

  18. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktel, Mehmet O.; Unal, Nur; Yilmaz, Firat

    Advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically non-trivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures, known as Hofstadter butterflies, depend sensitively on the geometry of the lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell et al., Nature 483, 302 (2012)] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. We calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard to the honeycomb lattice, two square lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly in a topologically non-trivial way, as it is accomplished by sequential closing of infinitely many gaps. We discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry by calculating the Chern numbers and comment on the validity of simulating graphene in such an adjustable lattice

  19. An approach to control tuning range and speed in 1D ternary photonic band gap material nano-layered optical filter structures electro-optically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Shahneel; Banerjee, Anirudh

    2016-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a way to control spectrum tuning capability in one-dimensional (1D) ternary photonic band gap (PBG) material nano-layered structures electro-optically. It is shown that not only tuning range, but also tuning speed of tunable optical filters based on 1D ternary PBG structures can be controlled Electro-optically. This approach finds application in tuning range enhancement of 1D Ternary PBG structures and compensating temperature sensitive transmission spectrum shift in 1D Ternary PBG structures.

  20. Incommensurability Effects on Dipolar Bosons in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    We present a study that investigated a quantum dipolar gas in continuous space where a potential lattice was imposed. Employing exact quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we analysed the ground-state properties of the scrutinised system, varying the lattice depth and the dipolar interaction. For system densities corresponding to a commensurate filling with respect to the optical lattice, we observed a simple crystal-to-superfluid quantum phase transition, being consistent with the physics of dipolar bosons in continuous space. In contrast, an incommensurate density showed the presence of a supersolid phase. Indeed, such a result opens up the tempting opportunity to observe a defect-induced supersolidity with dipolar gases in combination with a tunable optical lattice. Finally, the stability of the condensate was analysed at finite temperature.

  1. A Closer Look at Fermions in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertot, Daniel; Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Bohn, Johanna; Drewes, Jan; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Koschorreck, Marco; Köhl, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Quantum gases of interacting fermionic atoms in optical lattices promise to shed new light on the low-temperature phases of Hubbard-type models, such as spin-ordered phases or, in particular, on possible d-wave superconductivity. However, reaching the very low temperatures required necessitates the implementation of novel cooling schemes. As a first step towards this goal, we employ high-resolution imaging together with radio-frequency spectroscopy in order to spatially resolve the in-trap distributions of singly and doubly-occupied lattice sites after having loaded a quantum degenerate two-component Fermi gas of 40K atoms into a three-dimensional optical lattice geometry. Here, I will report on our recent progress towards the observation and characterization of a fermionic Mott insulator, together with an outlook on future steps towards lowering the temperature in the lattice.

  2. Twofold PT symmetry in doubly exponential optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. T.; Makris, K. G.; Musslimani, Z. H.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Rotter, S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a family of non-Hermitian optical potentials that are given in terms of double-exponential periodic functions. The center of PT symmetry is not around zero and the potential satisfies a shifted PT -symmetry relation at two distinct locations. Motivated by wave transmission through thin phase screens and gratings, we examine these refractive index modulations from the perspective of optical lattices that are homogeneous along the propagation direction. The diffraction dynamics, abrupt phase transitions in the eigenvalue spectrum, and exceptional points in the band structure are examined in detail. In addition, the nonlinear properties of wave propagation in Kerr nonlinearity media are studied. In particular, coherent structures such as lattice solitons are numerically identified by applying the spectral renormalization method. The spatial symmetries of such lattice solitons follow the shifted PT -symmetric relations. Furthermore, such lattice solitons have a power threshold and their linear and nonlinear stabilities are critically dependent on their spatial symmetry point.

  3. A mercury optical lattice clock at LNE-SYRTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sarlo, L.; Favier, M.; Tyumenev, R.; Bize, S.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the development of an optical lattice clock based on mercury and the results obtained since the 7 th SFSM. We briefly present a new solution for the cooling laser system and an improved lattice trap that allows us to interrogate a few thousand atoms in parallel. This translates into a fractional short term stability of 1.2 x 10-15 at the clock frequency of 1.129 PHz.

  4. Assessment of a fast electro-optical shutter for 1D spontaneous Raman scattering in flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajrouche, Hassan; Lo, Amath; Vervisch, Pierre; Cessou, Armelle

    2015-07-01

    A critical aspect of 1D single-shot spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) experiments in turbulent flames is the need to ensure highly efficient detection associated with fast temporal gating to remove flame emission. Back-illuminated CCD cameras are remarkable for their high quantum efficiency, large dynamic range, good spatial resolution and low readout noise. However, their full-frame architecture makes these detectors difficult to use for SRS measurements in flame and requires the development of a high-speed shutter. The present work proposes a fast electro-optical shutter composed of a large aperture Pockels cell placed between two crossed polarizers, providing high-speed gating up to 500 ns. The throughput of the shutter and its spatial homogeneity are measured. The angular tolerance of the Pockels cell is determined and its suitability for 1D probing is assessed. Spectra acquired in a premixed methane-air flame show the capacity of the shutter to remove flame emission and increase the signal-to-noise ratio for major Raman species.

  5. Programmable lattices of optical vortices in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, R.; Assanto, G.; Bortolozzo, U.; Clerc, M. G.; Residori, S.; Vidal-Henriquez, E.

    2015-09-01

    Using self-induced vortex-like defects in the nematic liquid crystal layer of a light valve with photo-sensible wall, we demonstrate the realization of programable optical vortices lattices with arbitrary configuration in space. On each lattice site, every matter vortex acts as a photonic spin-to-orbital momentum coupler and an array of circularly polarized input beams is converted into an output array of vortex beams with topological charges consistent with the vortex matter lattice. The vortex arrangements are explained the basis of light-induced matter defects and topological rules.

  6. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Cătălin M.; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2′-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2·H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610

  7. Optimized geometries for future generation optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, S.; Ostermann, L.; Ritsch, H.

    2016-04-01

    Atoms deeply trapped in magic wavelength optical lattices provide a Doppler- and collision-free dense ensemble of quantum emitters ideal for high-precision spectroscopy and they are the basis of some of the best optical atomic clocks to date. However, despite their minute optical dipole moments the inherent long-range dipole-dipole interactions in such lattices still generate line shifts, dephasing and modified decay. We show that in a perfectly filled lattice line shifts and decay are resonantly enhanced depending on the lattice constant and geometry. Potentially, this yields clock shifts of many atomic linewidths and reduces the measurement by optimizing the lattice geometry. Such collective effects can be tailored to yield zero effective shifts and prolong dipole lifetimes beyond the single-atom decay. In particular, we identify dense 2D hexagonal or square lattices as the most promising configurations for an accuracy and precision well below the independent ensemble limit. This geometry should also be an ideal basis for related applications such as superradiant lasers, precision magnetometry or long-lived quantum memories.

  8. Bloch-Zener oscillations in a tunable optical honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman; Tarruell, Leticia

    2013-12-04

    Ultracold gases in optical lattices have proved to be a flexible tool to simulate many different phenomena of solid state physics [1, 2]. Recently, optical lattices with complex geometries have been realized [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], paving the way to simulating more realistic systems. The honeycomb structure has recently become accessible in an optical lattice composed of mutually perpendicular laser beams. This lattice structure exhibits topological features in its band structure – the Dirac points. At these points, two energy bands intersect linearly and the particles behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In optical lattices, Bloch oscillations [8] resolved both in time and in quasi-momentum space can be directly observed. We make use of such Bloch-Zener oscillations to probe the vanishing energy gap at the Dirac points as well as their position in the band structure. In small band gap regions, we observe Landau-Zener tunneling [7, 9] to the second band and the regions of maximum transfer can be identified with the position of the Dirac points.

  9. Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.

    2009-06-01

    We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (Veff(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well Veff(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of Veff(LOL) increases as k increases and that of Veff(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter τ drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation indicates that during evolution

  10. Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.

    2009-06-15

    We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (V{sub eff}(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well V{sub eff}(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of V{sub eff}(LOL) increases as k increases and that of V{sub eff}(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter {tau} drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation

  11. Ballistic expansion of interacting fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Langer, Stephan; Schuetz, Martin J. A.; McCulloch, Ian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In most quantum quenches, no net particle currents arise. Access to studying transport properties can be gained by letting a two-component Fermi gas that is originally confined by the presence of a trapping potential expand into an empty optical lattice. In recent experiments, this situation was addressed in 2D and 3D optical lattices [1]. We focus on the 1D case in which an exact numerical simulation of the time-evolution is possible by means of the DMRG method. Concretely, we study the expansion in the 1D Hubbard model with repulsive interactions, driven by quenching the trapping potential to zero, and we concentrate on the most direct experimental observable, namely density profiles [2]. In the strict 1D case, we identify conditions for which the expansion is ballistic, characterized by an increase of the cloud's radius that is linear in time. This behavior is found whenever initial densities are smaller or equal to one, both for the expansion from box and harmonic traps. We make quantitative predictions for the expansion velocity as a function of onsite repulsion and initial density that can be probed in experiments. [4pt] [1] Schneider et al., arXiv:1005.3545[0pt] [2] Langer et al., arXiv:1109.4364

  12. Light storage in a magnetically dressed optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, Y. O.; Zhao, R.; Kennedy, T. A. B.; Kuzmich, A.

    2010-04-01

    Differential Stark shift compensation for ground-state Rb87 atoms trapped in an elliptically polarized optical lattice and “magic” magnetic field was recently proposed and demonstrated experimentally by N. Lundblad [e-print arXiv:0912.1528] and analyzed theoretically by A. Derevianko [e-print arXiv:0912.3233]. Here we demonstrate enhanced hyperfine coherence times using the magic field technique. We observe coherent light storage with a 0.32-s lifetime in an atomic Rb gas confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and magnetic field.

  13. Light storage in a magnetically dressed optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Dudin, Y. O.; Zhao, R.; Kennedy, T. A. B.; Kuzmich, A.

    2010-04-15

    Differential Stark shift compensation for ground-state {sup 87}Rb atoms trapped in an elliptically polarized optical lattice and 'magic' magnetic field was recently proposed and demonstrated experimentally by N. Lundblad et al. [e-print arXiv:0912.1528] and analyzed theoretically by A. Derevianko [e-print arXiv:0912.3233]. Here we demonstrate enhanced hyperfine coherence times using the magic field technique. We observe coherent light storage with a 0.32-s lifetime in an atomic Rb gas confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and magnetic field.

  14. Bose-Fermi mixtures in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, K.; Majumdar, P.

    2007-06-15

    We study an atomic Bose-Fermi mixture with unpolarized fermions in an optical lattice. We obtain the Mott ground states of such a system in the limit of the deep optical lattice and discuss the effect of quantum fluctuations on these states. We also study the superfluid-insulator transitions of bosons and metal-insulator transition of fermions in such a mixture within a slave-rotor mean-field approximation, and obtain the corresponding phase diagram. We discuss experimental implications of our results.

  15. Surface multipole solitons on photorefractive media with Bessel optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo

    2015-03-01

    We find the existence conditions for new surface crescent, dipole, tripole, and quadrupole solitons formed at the interface of a focusing photorefractive medium and a medium imprinted with a Bessel optical lattice. We demonstrate by using numerical simulations that the crescent and the dipole solitons show oscillatory behaviors in their amplitude and shape while the tripole and the quadrupole solitons maintain a remarkable rigidity during propagation. Based on a linear stability analysis, we classify the stability region of the tripole and the quadrupole surface solitons in terms of the Bessel optical lattice strength and the Bessel index.

  16. Manipulation of single neutral atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chuanwei; Das Sarma, S.; Rolston, S. L.

    2006-10-15

    We analyze a scheme to manipulate quantum states of neutral atoms at individual sites of optical lattices using focused laser beams. Spatial distributions of focused laser intensities induce position-dependent energy shifts of hyperfine states, which, combined with microwave radiation, allow selective manipulation of quantum states of individual target atoms. We show that various errors in the manipulation process are suppressed below 10{sup -4} with properly chosen microwave pulse sequences and laser parameters. A similar idea is also applied to measure quantum states of single atoms in optical lattices.

  17. Free Expansion of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ulrich; Hackermueller, Lucia; Ronzheimer, Jens Philipp; Will, Sebastian; Braun, Simon; Best, Thorsten; Schreiber, Michael; Chung Fong, Kin; Bloch, Immanuel

    2010-03-01

    Recent experiments with ultracold fermions in optical lattices face two main challenges in the quest of realizing complex strongly-correlated states: While the need to realize low entropy samples resulted in several recent proposals of advanced cooling schemes there remains the problem of the unknown adiabaticity timescales in these inhomogeneous systems. In order to measure the characteristic timescales of density redistribution, we experimentally investigate the free expansion of fermionic ^40K atoms in an homogeneous optical lattice. In an initially non-interacting band-insulater, created in the combination of a blue-detuned optical lattice and a red-detuned optical dipole trap, interactions are introduced by use of a Feshbach resonance. Subsequently the expansion is initiated by quickly ramping down the dipole trap while retaining the optical lattice. In the case of negligible interactions, the atoms expand ballistically performing a continuous quantum walk. For interacting fermions, the expansion becomes diffusive with a density dependent diffusion constant that is independent of the sign of interactions. These measurements demonstrate previously unobserved transport dynamics and give insight into the characteristic timescales of density redistribution.

  18. Stability of matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk. Golam; Roy, S. K.; Talukdar, B.

    2010-08-01

    We consider localized states of both single- and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a potential resulting from the superposition of linear and nonlinear optical lattices and make use of Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion to investigate the effect of nonlinear lattice on the stability of the soliton solutions in the linear optical lattice (LOL). For the single-component case we show that a weak nonlinear lattice has very little effect on the stability of such solitons while sufficiently strong nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) squeezes them to produce narrow bound states. For two-component condensates we find that when the strength of the NOL (γ1) is less than that of the LOL (V0) a relatively weak intra-atomic interaction (IAI) has little effect on the stability of the component solitons. This is true for both attractive and repulsive IAI. A strong attractive IAI, however, squeezes the BEC solitons while a similar repulsive IAI makes the component solitons wider. For γ1 > V0, only a strong attractive IAI squeezes the BEC solitons but the squeezing effect is less prominent than that found for γ1 < V0. We make useful checks on the results of our semianalytical stability analysis by solving the appropriate Gross-Pitaevskii equations numerically.

  19. Atomic and molecular quantum gases in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2007-06-01

    We report on recent progress in preparing and manipulating ultracold atomic and molecular ensembles in a 3D optical lattice. Starting from an atomic ^87Rb condensate which is adiabatically loaded into a 3D optical lattice we can control the state and dynamics of the gas on the quantum level with the help of static magnetic fields, radio-frequency and laser radiation and a Feshbach resonance. For example, we can produce a pure molecular ensemble of Rb2 Feshbach molecules in the lattice [1] and can coherently transfer it to a more deeply molecular bound state via STIRAP [2] or radio-frequency transitions. Besides possible applications for investigating molecular collisions and producing ultracold molecules in the vibrational ground state, this can also be used for spectroscopic precision measurements of molecular levels. Besides studying chemically bound molecules, optical lattices also allow for forming a novel kind of stable bound state of two atoms which is based on repulsion rather than attraction between the particles [3]. We will explain how these lattice-induced repulsively bound atom pairs come about and discuss their interesting properties. [1] G. Thalhammer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050402 (2006). [2] K. Winkler, cond-mat/0611222 [3] K. Winkler et al., Nature 441, 853, (2006).

  20. Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens

    2003-08-01

    We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.

  1. Atomic Bose and Anderson Glasses in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, B.; Zakrzewski, J.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2003-08-01

    An ultracold atomic Bose gas in an optical lattice is shown to provide an ideal system for the controlled analysis of disordered Bose lattice gases. This goal may be easily achieved under the current experimental conditions by introducing a pseudorandom potential created by a second additional lattice or, alternatively, by placing a speckle pattern on the main lattice. We show that, for a noncommensurable filling factor, in the strong-interaction limit, a controlled growing of the disorder drives a dynamical transition from superfluid to Bose-glass phase. Similarly, in the weak interaction limit, a dynamical transition from superfluid to Anderson-glass phase may be observed. In both regimes, we show that even very low-intensity disorder-inducing lasers cause large modifications of the superfluid fraction of the system.

  2. Optical lattice polarization effects on magnetically induced optical atomic clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Oates, C. W.

    2007-08-15

    We derive the frequency shift for a forbidden optical transition J=0{yields}J{sup '}=0 caused by the simultaneous actions of an elliptically polarized lattice field and a static magnetic field. We find that a simple configuration of lattice and magnetic fields leads to a cancellation of this shift to first order in lattice intensity and magnetic field. In this geometry, the second-order lattice intensity shift can be minimized as well by use of optimal lattice polarization. Suppression of these shifts could considerably enhance the performance of the next generation of atomic clocks.

  3. Superfluid fermi gas in optical lattices: self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ju-Kui; Zhang, Ai-Xia

    2008-10-31

    We predict the existence of self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers of Fermi wave packets along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover in one dimension (1D), 2D, and 3D optical lattices. The dynamical phase diagrams for self-trapping, solitons, and breathers of the Fermi matter waves along the BEC-BCS crossover are presented analytically and verified numerically by directly solving a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that the phase diagrams vary greatly along the BEC-BCS crossover; the dynamics of Fermi wave packet are different from that of Bose wave packet. PMID:18999797

  4. Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena are reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, i.e. photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. A Raman pi-pulse technique serves to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, and the relativistic lensing occurs by a backwards propagation of atomic wavepackets on an energetically mirrored branch of the dispersion relation. We observe negative refraction and Veselago lensing both in a one-dimensional geometry and perform a ray-tracing simulation of a two-dimensional Veselago lens.

  5. Fermionic quantum gases with tunable interactions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ulrich; Hackermüller, Lucia; Best, Thorsten; Will, Sebastian; Braun, Simon; Moreno Cardoner, Maria; Paredes, Belen; Bloch, Immanuel

    2009-03-01

    Fermionic atoms in optical lattices can serve as a model system for condensed matter physics, as they present an implementation of the Hubbard hamiltonian with high experimental control of the relevant parameters. In our system we sympathetically cool ^87Rb and ^40K in an optically plugged quadrupole trap and an optical dipole trap. After evaporation, a balanced spin mixture of 40K atoms is loaded into a blue detuned optical lattice where the interactions can be changed via a Feshbach resonance. We present experimental and theoretical studies of the behaviour of fermionic atoms for both attractive and repulsive interactions. For repulsive interactions we show a transition from compressible, metallic states to Mott-insulating and finally band insulating states. On the attractive side we investigate an anomalous expansion when the interaction is strongly attractive and study the dynamics of atoms and repulsively and attractively bound pairs.

  6. Interaction-induced adiabatic cooling for antiferromagnetism in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, A.-M.; Raymond, L.; Albinet, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2007-08-01

    In the experimental context of cold-fermion optical lattices, we discuss the possibilities to approach the pseudogap or ordered phases by manipulating the scattering length or the strength of the laser-induced lattice potential. Using the two-particle self-consistent approach, as well as quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide isentropic curves for the two- and three-dimensional Hubbard models at half-filling. These quantitative results are important for practical attempts to reach the ordered antiferromagnetic phase in experiments on optical lattices of two-component fermions. We find that adiabatically turning on the interaction in two dimensions to cool the system is not very effective. In three dimensions, adiabatic cooling to the antiferromagnetic phase can be achieved in such a manner, although the cooling efficiency is not as high as initially suggested by dynamical mean-field theory. Adiabatic cooling by turning off the repulsion beginning at strong coupling is possible in certain cases.

  7. Excitations of one-dimensional supersolids with optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, C.-H.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Wu, W. C.

    2016-06-01

    Based on mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches, we investigate excitations of a one-dimensional soft-core interacting ultracold Bose gas under the effect of an optical lattice. It is found that no matter how deep the lattice is, at q →0 the lowest mode corresponds to a gapless phonon, ω12=v12q2 , whereas the second lowest mode corresponds to a gapped optical phonon, ω22=Δ2±v22q2 . Determination of the velocities v1,v2 , the gap Δ , and the possible sign change in ω2 upon the change of lattice depth can give decisive measures to the transitions across various supersolid and solid states. The power law v1˜(fs) 1 /2 with fs the superfluid fraction is identified in the present system at the tight-binding regime.

  8. Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.

    2006-09-15

    We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of {pi} between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts.

  9. Topological phases via engineered orbital hybridization in noncentrosymmetric optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-03-01

    We propose a symmetry-based method of using noncentrosymmetric optical lattices to systematically control topological nontrivial orbital hybridization. A crucial difference from the previous studies is the role of inversion symmetry breaking, which is applied to induce an exotic orbital-changing hopping perpendicular to the direction without inversion symmetry and opens a band gap, instead of reducing the codimension and producing gapless points. The orbital mixing here is reminiscent of the spin-orbit physics based on hyperfine states but differs in symmetry and origin. This nontrivial orbital hybridization produces a topological band structure. Attractively interacting fermionic atoms loaded in such a lattice are found to show an orbital topological Fulde-Ferrell superfluid state in the presence of onsite rotation. This state supports Majorana fermions on its edges. Our mechanism should pave an alternative way to achieve orbital topological phases in optical lattices of nonstandard geometry.

  10. Expansion of a Quantum Gas Released from an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbier, F.; Trotzky, S.; Schnorrberger, U.; Thompson, J. D.; Bloch, I.; Foelling, S.; Widera, A.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.

    2008-10-10

    We analyze the interference pattern produced by ultracold atoms released from an optical lattice, commonly interpreted as the momentum distributions of the trapped quantum gas. We show that for finite times of flight the resulting density distribution can, however, be significantly altered, similar to a near-field diffraction regime in optics. We illustrate our findings with a simple model and realistic quantum Monte Carlo simulations for bosonic atoms and compare the latter to experiments.

  11. Expansion of a Quantum Gas Released from an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbier, F.; Trotzky, S.; Fölling, S.; Schnorrberger, U.; Thompson, J. D.; Widera, A.; Bloch, I.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Prokof'Ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.

    2008-10-01

    We analyze the interference pattern produced by ultracold atoms released from an optical lattice, commonly interpreted as the momentum distributions of the trapped quantum gas. We show that for finite times of flight the resulting density distribution can, however, be significantly altered, similar to a near-field diffraction regime in optics. We illustrate our findings with a simple model and realistic quantum Monte Carlo simulations for bosonic atoms and compare the latter to experiments.

  12. Quantum degenerate atomic gases in controlled optical lattice potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelke, Nathan D.

    2007-12-01

    Since the achievement of Bose Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases, mean-field treatments of the condensed phase have provided an excellent description for the static and dynamic properties observed in experiments. Recent experimental efforts have focused on studying deviations from mean-field behavior. I will describe work on two experiments which introduce controlled single particle degeneracies with time-dependent optical potentials, aiming to induce correlated motion and nontrivial statistics in the gas. In the first experiment, an optical lattice with locally rotating site potentials is produced to investigate fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) in rotating Bose gases. Here, the necessary gauge potential is provided by the rotating reference frame of the gas, which, in direct analogy to the electronic system, organizes single particle states into degenerate Landau levels. At low temperatures the repulsive interaction provided by elastic scattering is expected to produce ground states with structure nearly identical to those in the FQHE. I will discuss how these effects are made experimentally feasible by working at small particle numbers in the tight trapping potentials of an optical lattice, and present first results on the use of photoassociation to probe correlation in this system. In the second experiment, a vibrated optical lattice potential alters the single-particle dispersion underlying a condensed Bose gas and offers tailored phase-matching for nonlinear atom optical processes. I will demonstrate how this leads to parametric instability in the condensed gas, and draw analogy to an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold.

  13. Label-free optical detection of bacteria on a 1-D photonic crystal of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Alvarez, Sara D.; Rang, Camilla U.; Chao, Lin; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of a specific, label-free, bacteria biosensor using porous silicon 1-D photonic crystals will be described. Bacteria resident on the surface of porous silicon act as scattering centers for light resonant with the photonic crystal; the diffusely scattered light possesses the optical spectrum of the underlying photonic crystal. Using a spectrometer fitted to a light microscope, the bacteria are imaged without using exogenous dyes or labels and are quantified by measuring the intensity of scattered light. In order to selectively bind and identify bacteria using porous Si, we use surface modifications to reduce nonspecific binding to the surface and to engineer bacteria specificity onto the surface. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed to the porous Si surface to reduce nonspecific binding of bacteria. The coatings were then chemically activated to immobilize polyclonal antibodies specific to Escherichia coli. Two E. coli strains were used in our study, E. coli DH5α and non-pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strain. The nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain was used to test for antibody specificity. Successful attachment of antibodies was measured using fluorescence microscopy and the scattering method was used to test for bacteria binding specificity.

  14. Thermal Solitons in 1d and 2d Anharmonic Lattices - Solectrons and the Organization of Non-Linear Fluctuations in Long-Living Dynamical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M. G.; Ebeling, W.; Chetverikov, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermal excitation of intrinsic localized modes in the form of solitons in 1d and 2d anharmonic lattices at moderately high temperatures. Such finite-amplitude fluctuations form long-living dynamical structures with life-time in the pico-second range thus surviving a relatively long time in comparison to other thermal fluctuations. Further we discuss the influence of such long-living fluctuations on the dynamics of added excess free electrons. The atomic lattice units are treated as quasi-classical objects interacting by Morse forces and stochastically moving according to Langevin equations. In 2d the atoms are initially organized in a triangular lattice. The electron distributions are in a first estimate represented by equilibrium adiabatic distributions in the actual polarization fields. Computer simulations show that in 2d systems such excitations are moving with supersonic velocities along lattice rows oriented with the cristallographic axes. By following the electron distributions we have also been able to study the excitations of solectron type (electron-soliton dynamic bound states) and estimate their life times.

  15. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Covey, Jacob P; Moses, Steven A; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831

  16. Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit. PMID:24599096

  17. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices.

  18. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831

  19. Exploring spin-orbit coupling in a non-degenerate optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks have progressed in recent years to become not only precise timekeepers, but also sensitive probes of many-body physics. We consider a 1D optical lattice clock in which the wavelength of the laser that interrogates the clock transition is comparable to the optical lattice spacing. This light-matter coupling imprints a spatially dependent phase on the atomic internal state superposition, and this phase can be interpreted as a spin-orbit coupling. We show that this spin-orbit coupling manifests itself in Ramsey spectroscopy as an s-wave density shift in otherwise identically prepared fermions, even at temperatures significantly larger than the tunneling. Further, we show that Rabi spectroscopy can be mapped to a Hofstadter model on a two-leg ladder with chiral eigenstates. Using a modified Rabi procedure, we show how to extract momentum-resolved signatures of chirality solely by spectroscopic means. The effects of finite temperature, gaussian transverse confinement, and non-separability between transverse and axial degrees of freedom are discussed. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NDSEG, and NRC.

  20. Super-resolution microscopy of single atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Andrea; Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Karski, Michał; Reimann, René; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    We report on image processing techniques and experimental procedures to determine the lattice-site positions of single atoms in an optical lattice with high reliability, even for limited acquisition time or optical resolution. Determining the positions of atoms beyond the diffraction limit relies on parametric deconvolution in close analogy to methods employed in super-resolution microscopy. We develop a deconvolution method that makes effective use of the prior knowledge of the optical transfer function, noise properties, and discreteness of the optical lattice. We show that accurate knowledge of the image formation process enables a dramatic improvement on the localization reliability. This allows us to demonstrate super-resolution of the atoms’ position in closely packed ensembles where the separation between particles cannot be directly optically resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimental methods to precisely reconstruct the point spread function with sub-pixel resolution from fluorescence images of single atoms, and we give a mathematical foundation thereof. We also discuss discretized image sampling in pixel detectors and provide a quantitative model of noise sources in electron multiplying CCD cameras. The techniques developed here are not only beneficial to neutral atom experiments, but could also be employed to improve the localization precision of trapped ions for ultra precise force sensing.

  1. Fast, externally triggered, digital phase controller for an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi

    2011-11-01

    We present a method to control the phase of an optical lattice according to an external trigger signal. The method has a latency of less than 30 μs. Two phase locked digital synthesizers provide the driving signal for two acousto-optic modulators which control the frequency and phase of the counter-propagating beams which form a standing wave (optical lattice). A micro-controller with an external interrupt function is connected to the desired external signal, and updates the phase register of one of the synthesizers when the external signal changes. The standing wave (period λ/2 = 390 nm) can be moved by units of 49 nm with a mean jitter of 28 nm. The phase change is well known due to the digital nature of the synthesizer, and does not need calibration. The uses of the scheme include coherent control of atomic matter-wave dynamics.

  2. Prospects for Optical Clocks with a Blue-Detuned Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Marmo, S. I.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.

    2009-02-13

    We investigated the properties of optical lattice clocks operated with a repulsive light-shift potential. The magic wavelength, where light-shift perturbation for the clock transition cancels, was experimentally determined to be 389.889(9) nm for {sup 87}Sr. The hyperpolarizability effects on the clock transition were investigated theoretically. With minimal trapping field perturbation provided by the blue-detuned lattice, the fractional uncertainty due to the hyperpolarizability effects was found to be 2x10{sup -19} in the relevant clock transition.

  3. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-06-20

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of {sup 41}K induces a significant loss of coherence in {sup 87}Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.

  4. Continuous loading of an atom beam into an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladyslav V.

    I propose a method of deceleration and continuous loading of an atom beam into a far-off-resonance optical lattice. The loading of moving atoms into a conservative far-off-resonance potential requires the removal of the atom's excess kinetic energy. Here this is achieved by the Sisyphus cooling method, where a differential lattice-induced ac Stark shift is utilized. The proposed method is described for the case of ytterbium atoms. Numerical simulations demonstrate the possibility of reaching cold and dense samples in a continuous manner on the example of ytterbium atoms.

  5. Mixtures of strongly interacting bosons in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Buonsante, P; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Penna, V; Vezzani, A

    2008-06-20

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices. PMID:18643555

  6. Optical-lattice Hamiltonians for relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich

    2011-03-15

    We show how interpenetrating optical lattices containing Bose-Fermi mixtures can be constructed to emulate the thermodynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED). We present models of neutral atoms on lattices in 1+1, 2+1, and 3+1 dimensions whose low-energy effective action reduces to that of photons coupled to Dirac fermions of the corresponding dimensionality. We give special attention to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) and discuss how two of its most interesting features, chiral symmetry breaking and Chern-Simons physics, could be observed experimentally.

  7. Experimentally observed field–gas interaction in intense optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Graul, Jacob S.; Cornella, Barry M.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Lilly, Taylor C.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2013-12-09

    When a gas perturbed by a laser interference pattern, an optical lattice, exhibits a periodic modulation of its refractive index, strong Bragg diffraction of the perturbing light can occur. This scattering reduces the field's ability to further manipulate the gas. Experimental observations of Bragg scattering, evidence of a two-way coupling, are compared to the evolution of the light fields calculated by solutions to the wave equation. Comparison indicates momentum deposition as a prime contributor to the shape of the scattering function vs. lattice velocity, a rationale further supported through additional direct simulation Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, K. G. L.; Andersen, B. M.; Soerensen, A. S.; Bruun, G. M.; Syljuaasen, O. F.

    2011-10-15

    We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites. For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate for the doped repulsive Hubbard model.

  9. Dynamical phase interferometry of cold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    London, Uri; Gat, Omri

    2011-12-15

    We study the propagation of cold-atom wave packets in an interferometer with a Mach-Zehnder topology based on the dynamical phase of Bloch oscillation in a weakly forced optical lattice with a narrow potential barrier that functions as a cold-atom wave-packet splitter. We calculate analytically the atomic wave function, and show that the expected number of atoms in the two outputs of the interferometer oscillates rapidly as a function of the angle between the potential barrier and the forcing direction with period proportional to the external potential difference across a lattice spacing divided by the lattice band energy scale. The interferometer can be used as a high-precision force probe whose principle of operation is different from current interferometers based on the overall position of Bloch oscillating wave packets.

  10. Damping of confined excitation modes of one-dimensional condensates in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trallero-Giner, C.; Santiago-Pérez, Darío G.; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Marques, G. E.; Cipolatti, R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the damping of the collective excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap potential loaded in an optical lattice. In the presence of a confining potential the system is inhomogeneous and the collective excitations are characterized by a set of discrete confined phononlike excitations. We derive a general convenient analytical description for the damping rate, which takes into account the trapping potential and the optical lattice for the Landau and Beliaev processes at any temperature T . At high temperature or weak spatial confinement, we show that both mechanisms display a linear dependence on T . In the quantum limit, we find that the Landau damping is exponentially suppressed at low temperatures and the total damping is independent of T . Our theoretical predictions for the damping rate under the thermal regime is in complete correspondence with the experimental values reported for the one-dimensional (1D) condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the laser intensity can tune the collision process, allowing a resonant effect for the condensate lifetime. Also, we study the influence of the attractive or repulsive nonlinear terms on the decay rate of the collective excitations. A general expression for the renormalized Goldstone frequency is obtained as a function of the 1D nonlinear self-interaction parameter, laser intensity, and temperature.

  11. Towards Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Quantum Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Immanuel

    2008-05-01

    Quantum mechanical superexchange interactions form the basis of quantum magnetism in strongly correlated electronic media and are believed to play a major role in high-Tc superconducting materials. We report on the first direct measurement of such superexchange interactions with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. After preparing a spin-mixture of ultracold atoms with the help of optical superlattices in an antiferromagnetically ordered state, we are able to observe a coherent superexchange mediated spin dynamics down to coupling energies as low as 5 Hz. Furthermore, it is shown how these superexchange interactions can be fully controlled in magnitude and sign. The prospects of using such superexchange interactions for the investigation of dynamical behaviour in quantum spin systems and for quantum information processing will be outlined in the talk. In addition we present results on the dynamical resolved co-tunneling of repulsively bound atom pairs in optical superlattices and show how by using ``Coulomb-blockade'' type tunneling resonance one can count atoms one by one to determine their number statistics in the lattice potential. Finally, latest results on ultracold Fermions and Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices will be presented.

  12. Towards Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Quantum Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Immanuel

    2008-03-01

    Quantum mechanical superexchange interactions form the basis of quantum magnetism in strongly correlated electronic media and are believed to play a major role in high-Tc superconducting materials. We report on the first direct measurement of such superexchange interactions with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. After preparing a spin-mixture of ultracold atoms with the help of optical superlattices in an antiferromagnetically ordered state, we are able to observe a coherent superexchange mediated spin dynamics down to coupling energies as low as 5 Hz. Furthermore, it is shown how these superexchange interactions can be fully controlled in magnitude and sign. The prospects of using such superexchange interactions for the investigation of dynamical behaviour in quantum spin systems and for quantum information processing will be outlined in the talk. In addition we present results on the dynamical resolved co-tunnelling of repulsively bound atom pairs in optical superlattices and show how by using ``Coulomb-blockade'' type tunnelling resonance one can count atoms one by one to determine their number statistics in the lattice potential. Finally, latest results on ultracold Fermions and Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices will be presented.

  13. Quasi-1D States Confined in a Self-Assembled Organic Super-Lattice of TTF-TCNQ on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seokmin; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby; Cerdá, Jorge Iribas; Maksymovych, Petro; CNMS Team; ICMM-CSIC Team

    2015-03-01

    Organic charge transfer complexes (CTC) have drawn much attention due to their potential applications to conducting or semiconducting organic thin films and contacts in devices. TTF-TCNQ is a historic organic CTC with one of the highest conductivity values among numerous organic conductors. As a two-component molecular material, TTF-TCNQ in a low-dimension form on a surface naturally creates monolayer super-lattices with corrugated electrostatic potential and adsorbate-induced strain. Generally this will lead to strong confinement of the surface states, although the detailed response of the surface electronic structure remains to be understood. We investigated TTF-TCNQ monolayer films grown on Ag(111), Au(111) and Ag(100) surfaces using STM/STS at 4.3 K. Confinement of sp-derived surface states was indeed ubiquitous, including spontaneous formation of quantum dots and quasi-1D bands. The small periodicity of the lattice caused a complete depopulation of the surface states, with up to 1 eV upshift of the band minimum - much stronger effect than normally observed in assemblies. This also allows us to infer the height of the confining potential using 1D Kronig-Penney model and critically assess the long-standing problem of molecule-surface charge transfer. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  14. Quantum fluctuations and Collective Oscillations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a 2D Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Orso, G.; Stringari, S.; Menotti, C.

    2006-11-10

    We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.

  15. A quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven A.

    Ultracold polar molecules, because of their long-range, spatially anisotropic interactions, are a new quantum system in which to study novel many-body phenomena. In our lab, we have produced the first quantum gas of 40K 87Rb polar molecules. These molecules were found to undergo exothermic chemical reactions, and this led to interesting studies of chemistry near absolute zero. By creating the molecules at individual sites of a 3D optical lattice, we completely suppress these chemical reactions, and the polar molecule gas becomes stable and lives for tens of seconds. This thesis documents our efforts to explore coherent, many-body phenomena resulting from long-range dipolar interactions in the lattice. By encoding a spin-1/2 system in the rotational states of the molecules, we were able to realize spin-exchange interactions based on a spin Hamiltonian, which is one of the first steps in studying quantum magnetism with polar molecules. While this study was the first realization of such coherent dipolar interactions with polar molecules in a lattice, its full potential was limited by the low lattice filling fractions. Using our ability to exquisitely control the initial atomic gas mixture, we loaded a Mott insulator of Rb and a band insulator of K into the lattice. This quantum synthesis approach led to significantly higher molecular filling fractions and represents the first fully connected system of polar molecules in an optical lattice. This low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules opens the door to interesting quantum simulations, which should be attainable in the next generation of the experiment.

  16. Transverse Localization of Light in 1D Self-Focusing Parity-Time-Symmetric Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wei; Bin, Chen; Chun-Fang, Wang

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11104185, 11174084, 10934011 and 11504236, the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2012CB921904, the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission under Grant No 11YZ118, and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai under Grant No 14ZR1414300.

  17. Chiral topological orders in an optical Raman lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiong-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Law, K. T.; Liu, W. Vincent; Ng, T. K.

    2016-03-01

    We find an optical Raman lattice without spin-orbit coupling showing chiral topological orders for cold atoms. Two incident plane-wave lasers are applied to simultaneously generate a double-well square lattice and periodic Raman couplings, the latter of which drive the nearest-neighbor hopping and create a staggered flux pattern across the lattice. Such a minimal setup can yield the quantum anomalous Hall effect with a large gap-bandwidth ratio in the single particle regime, while in the interacting regime it achieves the J 1-J 2-K spin model, with the nearest-neighboring (J 1) and next-nearest-neightboring (J 2) exchange coupling coefficients, and the three three-spin interacting parameter (K) is controllable. We show that the J 1-J 2-K spin model may support a chiral spin liquid phase. It is interesting that the quantum anomalous Hall state can be detected by only measuring the Bloch states in the two symmetric momentum points of the first Brillouin zone. Further, we also show that heating in the present optical Raman lattice can be essentially reduced compared with the conventional laser-assisted tunneling schemes. This suggests that the predicted topological states be reachable with the current experimental capability.

  18. Self-similar solitary waves in Bessel optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Siliu; Liang Jianchu; Yi Lin

    2010-01-15

    An analytical solitary wave solution to the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) with varying coefficients in Bessel optical lattices is obtained based on the self-similar method. Our results indicate that a new family of Bessel (BSL) self-similar spatial solitons can be formed in the Kerr nonlinear media in the confined cylindrical symmetric geometry in sizes. These soliton profiles are rather stable, independent of propagation distance.

  19. Quantum phase transition of condensed bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Junjun; Liang, J.-Q.; Liu, W.-M.

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we study the superfluid-Mott-insulator phase transition of ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice by means of Green function method and Bogliubov transformation as well. The superfluid-Mott-insulator phase transition condition is determined by the energy-band structure with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism. Moreover the superfluid phase is explained explicitly from the energy spectrum derived in terms of Bogliubov approach.

  20. Dynamic response of trapped ultracold bosons on optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Batrouni, G.G.; Assaad, F.F.; Scalettar, R.T.; Denteneer, P.J.H.

    2005-09-15

    We study the dynamic response of ultracold bosons trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices using Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the boson Hubbard model with a confining potential. The dynamic structure factor reveals the inhomogeneous nature of the low temperature state, which contains coexisting Mott insulator and superfluid regions. We present new evidence for local quantum criticality and discuss implications for the experimental excitation spectrum of {sup 87}Rb atoms confined in one dimension.

  1. Quantum gases in optical lattices : the atomic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, D.

    2004-09-01

    An optical lattice is a periodic potential for atoms, created using a standing wave pattern of light. Due to the interaction between the light and the atoms, the atoms are attracted to either the nodes or the anti-nodes of the standing wave, depending on the exact wave lenght of the light. This means that if such a lattice is loaded with a sufficiently high number of ultracold atoms, a periodic array of atoms is obtained, we an interatomic distance of a few tenths of a micrometer. In order to obtain such a high number of cold atoms, one first has to create a so-called Bose-Einstein condensate. When an optical lattice is loaded from a Bose-Einstein condensate, it is possible to create a system in which every atom is in the lowest band of the lattice and there is on average one atom in each lattice site. Because the lattice potential is created with laser light, the depth of the lattice can easily be tuned by changing the intensity of the laser. When the intensity of the laser light is low, the atoms can tunnel from one site to the next. Due to this tunneling, the gas of atoms in the lattice will remain superfluid. However, if the intensity of the laser light is increased to above a certain critical value, a quantum phase transition occurs to a so-called Mott insulator. In this state, the atoms can no longer tunnel due to the fact that the on-site interaction between atoms becomes more important then the tunneling probability. In this PhD thesis, a description is given of the experimental setup that is being constructed in our group to create these systems in our lab. Also, a theoretical description is given of these systems and several important quantities our derived, such as the gap of the Mott-insulating state. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed that can be used to accurately measure this gap.

  2. Dynamics of Hubbard-Band Quasiparticles in Disordered Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarola, Vito; Demarco, Brian

    Recent experiments use transport of degenerate Fermi gases in optical lattices (Kondov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083002 (2015) to probe the interplay of disorder and strong interactions. These experiments find evidence for an intriguing insulating phase where quantum diffusion is completely suppressed by strong disorder. Quantitative interpretation of these experiments remains an open problem that requires inclusion of non-zero entropy, strong interaction, and trapping in an Anderson-Hubbard model. We construct a theory of dynamics of Hubbard-band quasiparticles tailored to trapped optical lattice experiments. We compare the theory directly with center-of-mass transport experiments of Kondov et al. with no fitting parameters. The close agreement between theory and experiments shows that the suppression of transport is only partly due to finite entropy effects. We argue that the complete suppression of transport is consistent with short-time, finite size precursors of Anderson localization of Hubbard-band quasiparticles. The combination of our theoretical framework and optical lattice experiments offers an important platform for studying localization in isolated many-body quantum systems. V.W.S. acknowledges support from AFOSR under Grant FA9550-11-1-0313.

  3. Cold Atomic Gases in Optical Lattices with Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Kantian, A.; Santos, L. Sanchez-Palencia L.; Sanpera, A.; Sacha, K.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cold atomic gases placed in optical lattices enable studies of simple condensed matter theory models with parameters that may be tuned relatively easily. When the optical potential is randomized (e.g. using laser speckle to create a random intensity distribution) one may be able to observe Anderson localization of matter waves for non-interacting bosons, the so-called Bose glass in the presence of interactions, as well as the Fermi glass or quantum spin glass for mixtures of fermions and bosons.

  4. Magnetic and optical properties in the 1D TM-O chain compounds Sr2TMO3 (TM = Ni, Co): A first-principle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zhenjie; Xie, Wenhui

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have calculated the structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Sr2NiO3 and Sr2CoO3 using density functional theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The crystal structure of both materials is well described with Immm (No. 71) symmetry which are isostructural with Sr2CuO3 and both are quasi-one-dimensional (1D) rectangular lattice G-type antiferromagnets, in consistent with the experimental data. Due to a distortion, Sr2CoO3 lifts the near-degeneracy dxz and dyz states of the local Co electronic configuration, which demonstrates a strong coupling between the structural lattice and the electronic configuration. The calculated band structure shows a band gap of 1.376 eV for Sr2NiO3 and a band gap of 1.735 eV for Sr2CoO3. Ni and Co ions are in the high-spin S = 1 and S = 3/2 configurations with the magnetic moments of 1.585 μB and 2.587 μB, respectively. Based on the Heisenberg Hamiltonian model, we conclude that the superexchange intrachain TM-O-TM superexchange interaction is predominant and interaction between the 1D chains is weak. According to the calculated dielectric function, absorption spectrum and electron energy loss spectrum, the optical responses suggest that Sr2NiO3 shows the unique anisotropic structure and interaction of the application in optoelectronics.

  5. Non-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, David

    This thesis describes experiments focused on investigating out-of-equilibrium phenomena in the Bose-Hubbard Model and exploring novel cooling techniques for ultracold gases in optical lattices. In the first experiment, we study quenches across the Mott-insulator-to-superfluid quantum phase transition in the 3D Bose-Hubbard Model. The quench is accomplished by continuously tuning the ratio of the Hubbard energies. We observe that the degree of excitation is proportional to the fraction of atoms that cross the phase boundary, and that the amount of excitations and energy produced during the quench have a power-law dependence on the quench rate. These phenomena suggest an excitation process analogous to the mechanism for defect generation in non-equilibrium classical phase transitions. This experiment constitutes the first observation of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a quantum quench. We have reported our findings in Ref. [1]. In a second experiment, published in Ref. [2], we investigate dissipation as a method for cooling a strongly interacting gas. We introduce dissipation via a bosonic reservoir to a strongly interacting bosonic gas in the Mott-insulator regime of a 3D spin-dependent optical lattice. The lattice atoms are excited to a higher energy band using laser-induced Bragg transitions. A weakly interacting superfluid comprised of atoms in a state that does not experience the lattice potential acts as a dissipative bath that interacts with the lattice atoms through collisions. We measure the resulting bath-induced decay using the atomic quasimomentum distribution, and we compare the decay rate with predictions from a weakly interacting model with no free parameters. A competing intrinsic decay mechanism arising from collisions between lattice atoms is also investigated. The presence of intrinsic decay can not be accommodated within a non-interacting framework and signals that strong interactions may play a central role in the lattice-atom dynamics. The

  6. Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bilicki, Sławomir; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Nicolodi, Daniele; Le Coq, Yann; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.

  7. Artificial Staggered Magnetic Field for Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2011-03-01

    Uniform magnetic fields are ubiquitous in nature, but this is not the case for staggered magnetic fields. In this talk, I will discuss an experimental set-up for cold atoms recently proposed by us, which allows for the realization of a ``staggered gauge field'' in a 2D square optical lattice. If the lattice is loaded with bosons, it may be described by an effective Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, with complex and anisotropic hopping coefficients. A very rich phase diagram emerges: besides the usual Mott-insulator and zero-momentum condensate, a new phase with a finite momentum condensate becomes the ground-state at strong gauge fields. By using the technique of Feshbach resonance, the dynamics of a coherent superposition of a vortex-carrying atomic condensate and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate can also be studied within the same scheme. On the other hand, if the lattice is loaded with fermions, a highly tunable, graphene-like band structure can be realized, without requiring the honeycomb lattice symmetry. When the system is loaded with a mixture of bosons and two-species fermions, several features of the high-Tc phase diagram can be reproduced. A dome-shaped unconventional superconducting region arises, surrounded by a non-Fermi liquid and a Fermi liquid at low and high doping, respectively. We acknowledge financial support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  8. Ultra-fast optical switches using 1D polymeric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katouf, R.; Komikado, T.; Itoh, M.; Yatagai, T.; Umegaki, S.

    2005-12-01

    We report fabrication of ultra-fast optical switches operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm using spin-coated one-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals doped with nonlinear-optical dyes. The optical switches are controlled either by an applied electric-field voltage or by a pump light by use of two different optical-configurations. The response time of the electro-optic switch and the all-optical switch are limited by the applied voltage and the laser used, respectively. The polymeric photonic crystals can be easily fabricated with low cost.

  9. A Mott insulator of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Henning

    2009-03-01

    In a solid material strong interactions between the electrons can lead to surprising properties. A prime example is the Mott insulator, where the suppression of conductivity is a result of interactions and not the consequence of a filled Bloch band. The proximity to the Mott insulating phase in fermionic systems is the origin for many intriguing phenomena in condensed matter physics, most notably high-temperature superconductivity. Compared to real materials, a fermionic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice offers a very pure realisation of the Hubbard model, giving a new approach to understand the physics of strongly correlated systems. We report on the formation of a Mott insulator of a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas in an optical lattice. It is signalled by three features: a drastic suppression of doubly occupied lattice sites, a strong reduction of the compressibility inferred from the response of double occupancy to atom number increase, and the appearance of a gapped mode in the excitation spectrum. In collaboration with Robert J"ordens, Niels Strohmaier, and Daniel Greif, ETH Zurich; Kenneth G"unter, ETH Zurich, ENS Paris; Leticia Tarruell and Tilman Esslinger, ETH Zurich.

  10. Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.M.; Gorshkov, A.V.; Kraus, C.V.; Martin, M.J.; Bishof, M.; Swallows, M.D.; Zhang, X.; Benko, C.; Ye, J.; Lemke, N.D.; Ludlow, A.D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. It is shown that a general solution can be obtained by using the so called Truncated Wigner Approximation which is applied in our case in the context of an open quantum system. We use the developed framework to model the density shift and decay of the fringes observed during Ramsey spectroscopy in the JILA {sup 87}Sr and NIST {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clocks. The developed framework opens a suitable path for dealing with a variety of strongly-correlated and driven open-quantum spin systems. -- Highlights: •Derived a theoretical framework that describes many-body effects in a lattice clock. •Validated the analysis with recent experimental measurements. •Demonstrated the importance of beyond mean field corrections in the dynamics.

  11. Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsch, O.

    In the early days of laser cooling, which together with magnetic trapping techniques led to the first observation of BEC in 1995, it was realized that the optical interference between the cooling beams could lead to a spatially periodic density modulation of the trapped atoms. This notion of a "three-dimensional egg-carton" for cold atoms quickly led to a number of experiments confirming the existence of such a light-bound crystal and exploring its properties [1-3]. It was found that, indeed, cold atoms could be trapped in such periodic structures, and it was possible to measure, for example, the quantized motion of the atoms inside the potential wells. While early experiments were carried out in the dissipative regime using near-resonant lattices in which the atoms were continuously cooled through the Sisyphus mechanism involving light scattering [4], more sophisticated experimental techniques later enabled studies on far-detuned lattices in which atoms evolved coherently.

  12. Pair tunneling of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiangfa; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2009-07-15

    We show that atom-molecule coupling with large detuning can cause effective hopping of pairs of bosonic atoms in a state-dependent optical lattice. Taking advantage of the high controllability of all relevant parameters in such systems, we discuss the pair-superfluid (PSF) to Mott insulator (MI) transition using the effective model within mean-field theory. In the presence of on-site disorder, simultaneous tunneling of bosonic atoms can result in a compressible weak Mott insulating phase. We have also investigated the coexistence of superfluid (SF) and PSF in the lattice, and found that the competition between the two hopping mechanisms can cause a first-order PSF(SF)-MI transition.

  13. Spin Gradient Thermometry for Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Weld, David M.; Medley, Patrick; Miyake, Hirokazu; Hucul, David; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate spin gradient thermometry, a new general method of measuring the temperature of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We realize a mixture of spins separated by a magnetic field gradient. Measurement of the width of the transition layer between the two spin domains serves as a new method of thermometry which is observed to work over a broad range of lattice depths and temperatures, including in the Mott insulator regime. We demonstrate the thermometry using ultracold rubidium atoms, and suggest that interesting spin physics can be realized in this system. The lowest measured temperature is 1 nK, indicating that the system has reached the quantum regime, where insulating shells are separated by superfluid layers.

  14. Spin gradient thermometry for ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Weld, David M; Medley, Patrick; Miyake, Hirokazu; Hucul, David; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate spin gradient thermometry, a new general method of measuring the temperature of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We realize a mixture of spins separated by a magnetic field gradient. Measurement of the width of the transition layer between the two spin domains serves as a new method of thermometry which is observed to work over a broad range of lattice depths and temperatures, including in the Mott insulator regime. We demonstrate the thermometry using ultracold rubidium atoms, and suggest that interesting spin physics can be realized in this system. The lowest measured temperature is 1 nK, indicating that the system has reached the quantum regime, where insulating shells are separated by superfluid layers. PMID:20366208

  15. Birefringent breakup of Dirac fermions on a square optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Kennett, Malcolm P.; Komeilizadeh, Nazanin; Kaveh, Kamran; Smith, Peter M.

    2011-05-15

    We introduce a lattice model for fermions in a spatially periodic magnetic field that also has spatially periodic hopping amplitudes. We discuss how this model might be realized with cold atoms in an artificial magnetic field on a square optical lattice. When there is an average flux of half a flux quantum per plaquette, the spectrum of low-energy excitations can be described by massless Dirac fermions in which the usually doubly degenerate Dirac cones split into cones with different ''speeds of light.'' These gapless birefringent Dirac fermions arise because of broken chiral symmetry in the kinetic energy term of the effective low-energy Hamiltonian. We characterize the effects of various perturbations to the low-energy spectrum, including staggered potentials, interactions, and domain-wall topological defects.

  16. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael L; Koller, Andrew P; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-22

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s-wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p- and s-wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures. PMID:26849600

  17. Tunneling, diffusion, and dissociation of Feshbach molecules in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Taylor; Bertulani, Carlos A.; Timmermans, Eddy

    2012-03-01

    The quantum dynamics of an ultracold diatomic molecule tunneling and diffusing in a one-dimensional optical lattice exhibits unusual features. While it is known that the process of quantum tunneling through potential barriers can break up a bound-state molecule into a pair of dissociated atoms, interference and reassociation produce intricate patterns in the time-evolving site-dependent probability distribution for finding atoms and bound-state molecules. We find that the bound-state molecule is unusually resilient against break up at ultralow binding energy Eb (Eb much smaller than the barrier height of the lattice potential). After an initial transient, the bound-state molecule spreads with a width that grows as the square root of time. Surprisingly, the width of the probability of finding dissociated atoms does not increase with time as a power law.

  18. Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

    2005-09-15

    We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose the use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.

  19. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  20. Dynamical properties of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, S. D.; Blatter, G.; Altman, E.; Buechler, H. P.

    2007-02-15

    We study the excitation spectrum of strongly correlated lattice bosons for the Mott-insulating phase and for the superfluid phase close to localization. Within a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach we find two gapped modes in the Mott insulator and the combination of a sound mode (Goldstone) and a gapped (Higgs) mode in the superfluid. To make our findings comparable with experimental results, we calculate the dynamic structure factor as well as the linear response to the optical lattice modulation introduced by Stoeferle et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004)]. We find that the puzzling finite frequency absorption observed in the superfluid phase could be explained via the excitation of the gapped (Higgs) mode. We check the consistency of our results with an adapted f-sum rule and propose an extension of the experimental technique by Stoeferle et al. to further verify our findings.

  1. Zeptonewton force sensing with nanospheres in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Cunningham, Mark; Casey, Kirsten; Geraci, Andrew A.

    2016-05-01

    Optically trapped nanospheres in high vacuum experience little friction and hence are promising for ultrasensitive force detection. Here we demonstrate measurement times exceeding 105 s and zeptonewton force sensitivity with laser-cooled silica nanospheres trapped in an optical lattice. The sensitivity achieved exceeds that of conventional room-temperature solid-state force sensors by over an order of magnitude, and enables a variety of applications including electric-field sensing, inertial sensing, and gravimetry. The particle is confined at the antinodes of the optical standing wave, and by studying the motion of a particle which has been moved to an adjacent trapping site, the known spacing of the antinodes can be used to calibrate the displacement spectrum of the particle. Finally, we study the dependence of the trap stability and lifetime on the laser intensity and gas pressure, and examine the heating rate of the particle in vacuum without feedback cooling.

  2. Development of 171Yb optical lattice clock at KRISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Jongchul; Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Lee, Won-Kyu; Eon Park, Sang; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Sang-Bum

    2012-06-01

    We measured the absolute frequency of the optical clock transition 1S0 (F = 1/2) - 3P0 (F = 1/2) of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and it was determined to be 518 295 836 590 865.7 (9.2) Hz. The measured frequency was calibrated to the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by using an optical frequency comb of which frequency was phase-locked to a hydrogen maser as a flywheel oscillator traceable to the UTC. The magic wavelength was also measured as 394 798.48 (79) GHz. The results are in good agreement with two previous measurements of other institutes within the specified uncertainty of this work.

  3. Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2016-01-01

    Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1  +  1 and 2  +  1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:26684222

  4. Towards a lattice based neutral magnesium optical frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Hrishikesh; Riedmann, Matthias; Wuebbena, Temmo; Kulosa, Andre; Friebe, Jan; Pape, Andre; Amairi, Sana; Malobabic, Sina; Zipfel, Klaus; Ruehmann, Steffen; -Maria Rasel, Ernst; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Magnesium is a promising candidate for a high performance neutral atom optical frequency standard. It offers a low sensitivity to frequency shifts of the ^1S0-^3P0 clock transition by room temperature blackbody radiation and has several isotopes of suitable abundance (two bosonic, one fermionic) to realize an optical clock. We report on recent progress towards creating a lattice clock of magnesium. ^24Mg atoms are pre-cooled in two stages. The singlet Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) captures and cools atoms from an atomic beam which are then loaded into a triplet MOT. The triplet MOT has a decay channel to the dark ^3P0 state which is used to load atoms into a 1064 nm dipole trap. The cooling stages are on simultaneously and atoms are continuously loaded in the dipole trap. We capture upto 9 10^4 atoms at a temperature below 100 μK. We are exploring different avenues for further cooling which will enable reaching the Lamb-Dicke regime in a magic wavelength lattice.

  5. Intrinsic photoconductivity of ultracold fermions in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Heinze, J; Krauser, J S; Fläschner, N; Hundt, B; Götze, S; Itin, A P; Mathey, L; Sengstock, K; Becker, C

    2013-02-22

    We report on the experimental observation of an analog to a persistent alternating photocurrent in an ultracold gas of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice. The dynamics is induced and sustained by an external harmonic confinement. While particles in the excited band exhibit long-lived oscillations with a momentum-dependent frequency, a strikingly different behavior is observed for holes in the lowest band. An initial fast collapse is followed by subsequent periodic revivals. Both observations are fully explained by mapping the system onto a nonlinear pendulum. PMID:23473159

  6. Floquet engineering with quasienergy bands of periodically driven optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthaus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A primer on the Floquet theory of periodically time-dependent quantum systems is provided, and it is shown how to apply this framework for computing the quasienergy band structure governing the dynamics of ultracold atoms in driven optical cosine lattices. Such systems are viewed here as spatially and temporally periodic structures living in an extended Hilbert space, giving rise to spatio-temporal Bloch waves whose dispersion relations can be manipulated at will by exploiting ac-Stark shifts and multiphoton resonances. The elements required for numerical calculations are introduced in a tutorial manner, and some example calculations are discussed in detail, thereby illustrating future prospects of Floquet engineering.

  7. Topological quantum matter with ultracold gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, N.; Budich, J. C.; Zoller, P.

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of topological insulators, many topological phases have been predicted and realized in a range of different systems, providing both fascinating physics and exciting opportunities for devices. And although new materials are being developed and explored all the time, the prospects for probing exotic topological phases would be greatly enhanced if they could be realized in systems that were easily tuned. The flexibility offered by ultracold atoms could provide such a platform. Here, we review the tools available for creating topological states using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, give an overview of the theoretical and experimental advances and provide an outlook towards realizing strongly correlated topological phases.

  8. Strongly correlated Fermi Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Ahufinger, V.; Kantian, A.; Zakrzewski, J.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  9. Bosonic Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Optical Flux Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterdyniak, A.; Cooper, Nigel R.; Regnault, N.

    2015-09-01

    In two dimensions strongly interacting bosons in a magnetic field can realize a bosonic integer quantum Hall state, the simplest two-dimensional example of a symmetry-protected topological phase. We propose a realistic implementation of this phase using an optical flux lattice. Through exact diagonalization calculations, we show that the system exhibits a clear bulk gap and the topological signature of the bosonic integer quantum Hall state. In particular, the calculation of the many-body Chern number leads to a quantized Hall conductance in agreement with the analytical predictions. We also study the stability of the phase with respect to some of the experimentally relevant parameters.

  10. Vortex configurations of bosons in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Congjun; Zhang Shoucheng; Chen Handong; Hu Jiangpiang

    2004-04-01

    The single-vortex problem in a strongly correlated bosonic system is investigated self-consistently within the mean-field theory of the Bose-Hubbard model. Near the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition, the vortex core has a tendency toward the Mott-insulating phase, with the core particle density approaching the nearest commensurate value. If the nearest-neighbor repulsion exists, the charge-density wave order may develop locally in the core. The evolution of the vortex configuration from the strong- to weak-coupling regions is studied. This phenomenon can be observed in systems of rotating ultracold atoms in optical lattices and Josephson-junction arrays.

  11. Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhongale, Satyan; Mathey, Ludwig; Zhao, Erhai; Yellin, Susanne; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moment but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moment. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities.

  12. A new apparatus for studying quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ulrich; Duca, Lucia; Li, Tracy; Boll, Martin; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Braun, Simon; Will, Sebastian; Rom, Tim; Schreiber, Michael; Bloch, Immanuel

    2011-05-01

    We present the design of a new apparatus targeted at the study of equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium phenomena of quantum gases in 2D and 3D optical lattices. Specifically this apparatus will allow for a study of the crossover between 2D and 3D using bosonic and fermionic gases as well as Bose-Fermi mixtures. In addition we present a new analysis of previous results concerning the Fermi-Hubbard model and will analyze possible routes for creating many-body states with long range order, including antiferromagnetically ordered states and BCS-superfluids. This work is supported by DARPA/OLE MURI DFG MPQ.

  13. Quantum Phases of Quadrupolar Fermi Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhongale, S. G.; Mathey, L.; Zhao, Erhai; Yelin, S. F.; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moments but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moments. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create a topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities.

  14. Topologically induced avoided band crossing in an optical checkerboard lattice.

    PubMed

    Olschläger, Matthias; Wirth, Georg; Kock, Thorge; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2012-02-17

    We report on the condensation of bosons in the 4th band of an optical checkerboard lattice providing a topologically induced avoided band crossing involving the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Bloch bands. When the condensate is slowly tuned through the avoided crossing, accelerated band relaxation arises and the zero momentum approximately C4-invariant condensate wave function acquires finite momentum order and reduced C2 symmetry. For faster tuning Landau-Zener oscillations between different superfluid orders arise, which are used to characterize the avoided crossing. PMID:22401220

  15. Wilson Fermions and Axion Electrodynamics in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Mazza, L.; Rizzi, M.; Goldman, N.; Lewenstein, M.

    2010-11-05

    We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.

  16. Defect-mediated discrete solitons in optically induced photorefractive lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Pang Wei; Chen Yongzhu; Yu Zhiqiang; Zhou Jianying; Zhang Huarong

    2009-10-15

    Theoretical analysis to the defect mediated discrete solitons in one- and two-dimensional periodical waveguide lattices is presented. The waveguide arrays with these functional defects are assumed to respond to the light field as an optically induced photorefraction and they are patterned by a holographic technique. It is found that the spatial energy distributions of the solitary waves can be controlled by the defects in the waveguide arrays, and this gives rise to an additional freedom to externally shaping the light field distribution to a special shape.

  17. Optical Lattice Induced Light Shifts in an Yb Atomic Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Z. W.; Stalnaker, J. E.; Lemke, N. D.; Poli, N.; Oates, C. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Hollberg, L.; Hoyt, C. W.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2008-03-14

    We present an experimental study of the lattice-induced light shifts on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 0} optical clock transition ({nu}{sub clock}{approx_equal}518 THz) in neutral ytterbium. The 'magic' frequency {nu}{sub magic} for the {sup 174}Yb isotope was determined to be 394 799 475(35) MHz, which leads to a first order light shift uncertainty of 0.38 Hz. We also investigated the hyperpolarizability shifts due to the nearby 6s6p{sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}6s8p{sup 3}P{sub 0}, 6s8p{sup 3}P{sub 2}, and 6s5f{sup 3}F{sub 2} two-photon resonances at 759.708, 754.23, and 764.95 nm, respectively. By measuring the corresponding clock transition shifts near these two-photon resonances, the hyperpolarizability shift was estimated to be 170(33) mHz for a linear polarized, 50 {mu}K deep, lattice at the magic wavelength. These results indicate that the differential polarizability and hyperpolarizability frequency shift uncertainties in a Yb lattice clock could be held to well below 10{sup -17}.

  18. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165

  19. Accurate Optical Lattice Clock with {sup 87}Sr Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Le Targat, Rodolphe; Baillard, Xavier; Fouche, Mathilde; Brusch, Anders; Tcherbakoff, Olivier; Rovera, Giovanni D.; Lemonde, Pierre

    2006-09-29

    We report a frequency measurement of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition of {sup 87}Sr atoms in an optical lattice clock. The frequency is determined to be 429 228 004 229 879(5) Hz with a fractional uncertainty that is comparable to state-of-the-art optical clocks with neutral atoms in free fall. The two previous measurements of this transition were found to disagree by about 2x10{sup -13}, i.e., almost 4 times the combined error bar and 4 to 5 orders of magnitude larger than the claimed ultimate accuracy of this new type of clocks. Our measurement is in agreement with one of these two values and essentially resolves this discrepancy.

  20. Subwavelength optical lattices induced by position-dependent dark states

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qingqing; Evers, Joerg; Kiffner, Martin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-05-15

    A method for the generation of subwavelength optical lattices based on multilevel dark states is proposed. The dark state is formed by a suitable combination of standing wave light fields, leading to position-dependent populations of the ground states. An additional field coupling dispersively to one of the ground states translates this position dependence into a subwavelength optical potential. We provide two semiclassical approaches to understand the involved physics, and demonstrate that they lead to identical results in a certain meaningful limit. Then we apply a Monte Carlo simulation technique to study the full quantum dynamics of the subwavelength trapping. Finally, we discuss the relevant time scales for the trapping, optimum conditions, and possible implementations.

  1. Generation and detection of atomic spin entanglement in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Han-Ning; Yang, Bing; Reingruber, Andreas; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices hold promise for the creation of entangled states for quantum technologies. Here we report on the generation, manipulation and detection of atomic spin entanglement in an optical superlattice. Using a spin-dependent superlattice, atomic spins in the left or right sites can be individually addressed and coherently manipulated with near-unity fidelities by microwave pulses. The spin entanglement of the two atoms in the double wells of the superlattice is generated via the dynamical evolution governed by spin superexchange. By monitoring the collisional atom loss with in situ absorption imaging we measure the spin correlations of the atoms inside the double wells and obtain a lower bound on the entanglement fidelity of 0.79 +/- 0.06, and a violation of a Bell's inequality S = 2.21 +/- 0.08.

  2. Stability improvements for the NIST Yb optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, R. J.; Schioppo, M.; McGrew, W. F.; Brown, R. C.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Beloy, K.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the fundamental limit given by quantum projection noise, optical lattice clocks require advanced laser stabilization techniques. The NIST ytterbium clock has benefited from several generations of extremely high finesse optical cavities, with cavity linewidths below 1 kHz. Characterization of the cavity drift rate has allowed compensation to the mHz/s level, improving the medium-term stability of the cavity. Based on recent measurements using Ramsey spectroscopy with synchronous interrogation, we report a fractional instability σy(1s) <=10-16 , dominated by atom number fluctuation noise. We also provide updates on our cryogenic sapphire cavity with a reduced thermal noise floor, which will improve our Dick-limited fractional instability at 1 s to below 10-16. Also at University of Colorado.

  3. Proposal for generating synthetic magnetic fields in hexagonal optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binbin; Endres, Manuel; Pekker, David

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new approach to generating synthetic magnetic fields in ultra cold atom systems that does not rely on either Raman transitions nor periodic drive. Instead, we consider a hexagonal optical lattice produced by the intersection of three laser beams at 120 degree angles, where the intensity of one or more of the beams is spatially non-uniform. The resulting optical lattice remains hexagonal, but has spatially varying hopping matrix elements. For atoms near the Dirac points, these spatial variations appear as a gauge field, similar to the fictitious gauge field that is induced for for electrons in strained graphene. We suggest that a robust way to generate a gauge field that corresponds to a uniform flux is to aligning three gaussian beams to intersect in an equilateral triangle. Using realistic experimental parameters, we show how the proposed setup can be used to observe cyclotron motion of an atom cloud - the conventional Hall effect and distinct Landau levels - the integer quantum Hall effect.

  4. Micro-resonators coupled to atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Andrew; Kitching, John

    2010-03-01

    Recently there has been a convergence of ideas between the fields of solid-state and atomic physics -- examples range from using atoms for quantum simulation of condensed-matter Hamiltonians to physically coupling atoms with solid-state devices such as micro-resonators. In this talk, we discuss an experimental proposal involving an array of cooled microcantilevers coupled to a sample of ultracold atoms trapped near a microfabricated surface [1]. The cantilevers allow individual lattice site addressing for atomic state control and readout, and potentially may be useful in optical lattice quantum computation schemes. Assuming resonators can be cooled to their vibrational ground state, we describe the implementation of a two-qubit controlled-NOT gate with atomic internal states and the motional states of the resonators, along with a protocol for entangling two or more cantilevers on the atom chip using the trapped atoms as an intermediary. Although similar experiments could be carried out with magnetic microchip traps, the optical confinement scheme we consider may exhibit reduced near-field magnetic noise and decoherence. Prospects for using this system for tests of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales or quantum information processing will be discussed. [4pt] [1] A. Geraci and J. Kitching, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032317 (2009)

  5. Coherent control of atomic transport in spinor optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mischuck, Brian; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Jessen, Poul S.

    2010-02-15

    Coherent transport of atoms trapped in an optical lattice can be controlled by microwave-induced spin flips that correlate with site-to-site hopping. We study the controllability of homogeneous one-dimensional systems of noninteracting atoms in the absence of site addressability. Given these restrictions, we construct a deterministic protocol to map an initially localized Wannier state to a wave packet that is coherently distributed over n sites. As an example, we consider a one dimensional quantum walk in the presence of both realistic photon scattering and inhomogeneous broadening of the microwave transition due to the optical lattice. Using composite pulses to suppress errors, fidelities of over 95% can be achieved for a 25-step walk. We extend the protocol for state preparation to analytic solutions for arbitrary unitary maps given homogeneous systems and in the presence of time-dependent uniform forces. Such control is important for applications in quantum information processing, such as quantum computing and quantum simulations of condensed matter phenomena.

  6. Generalized 1D photopyroelectric technique for optical and thermal characterization of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.

    2012-06-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a three-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is used for the implementation of a photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology for thermal and optical characterization of pigments in liquid solution, even for those ones potentially harmful to the pyroelectric sensor, taking the liquid sample's thickness as the only variable. Exponential decay of the PPE amplitude followed by a constant PPE phase for solutions at low pigment concentration, and exponential decay of the PPE amplitude but a linear decrease of the PPE phase for the concentrated ones are theoretically shown, allowing measurements of the optical absorption coefficient (at the wavelength used for the analysis) and the thermal diffusivity for the liquid sample, respectively. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the thermal diffusivity of a concentrated solution of methylene blue in distilled water and the optical absorption coefficient, at two wavelengths (658 and 785 nm), of water solutions of copper sulfate at various concentrations. These optical parameters were used for measuring the molar absorption coefficient of this last pigment in water solution at these two wavelengths. This last optical property was also measured using a commercial spectrometer, finding very good agreement with the corresponding ones using this PPE technique.

  7. Damping of condensate oscillations of a trapped Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2008-03-01

    We study damping of the dipole oscillation in a Bose-condensed gas in a combined cigar-shaped harmonic trap and one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice potential at finite temperatures. In order to include the effect of thermal excitations in the radial direction, we derive a quasi-1D model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Bogoliubov equations. We use the Popov approximation to calculate the temperature dependence of the condensate fraction with varying lattice depth. We then calculate the Landau damping rate of the dipole oscillation as a function of the lattice depth and temperature. The damping rate increases with increasing lattice depth, which is consistent with experimental observations. The magnitude of the damping rate is in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We also find that the damping rate has a strong temperature dependence, showing a sharp increase with increasing temperature. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the radial thermal excitations in both equilibrium properties and the Landau damping.

  8. Optical signatures of a hypercritical 1D potential in a 2D Dirac metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Ni, Guangxin; Pan, Cheng; Fei, Zhe; Cheng, Bin; Lau, Chun Ning; Bockrath, Marc; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    Generation of quasi-bound states in graphene near strong charged perturbations is a solid-state analog of atomic collapse of superheavy elements or particle production by hypothetical cosmic strings. We show, for the case of a linelike perturbation, that as the perturbation grows in strength, quasi-bound states are generated sequentially. Each of these critical events is signaled by a sharp change in the local optical conductivity. Tunable linelike perturbations can be realized in experiment using nanowire or nanotube electrostatic gates. We report measurements of local conductivity for such systems obtained through near-field optical microscopy.

  9. Optical bullets in (2+1)D photonic structures and their interaction with localized defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Tomas

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation studies light propagation in Kerr-nonlinear two dimensional waveguides with a Bragg resonant, periodic structure in the propagation direction. The model describing evolution of the electric field envelopes is the system of 2D Nonlinear Coupled Mode Equations (2D CME). The periodic structure induces a range of frequencies (frequency gap) in which linear waves do not propagate. It is shown that, similarly to the ID case of a fiber grating, the 2D nonlinear system supports localized solitary wave solutions, referred to as 2D gap solitons, which have frequencies inside the linear gap and can travel at, any speed smaller than or equal to the speed of light in the corresponding homogeneous medium. Such solutions are constructed numerically via Newton's iteration. Convergence is obtained only near the upper edge of the gap. Gap solitons with a nonzero velocity are constructed by numerically following a bifurcation curve parameterized by the velocity v. It is shown that gap solitons are saddle points of the corresponding Hamiltonian functional and that no (constrained) local minima of the Hamiltonian exist. The linear stability problem is formulated and reasons for the failure of the standard Hamiltonian PDE approach for determining linear stability are discussed. In the second part of the dissertation interaction of 2D gap solitons with localized defects is studied and trapping of slow enough 2D gap solitons is demonstrated. This study builds on [JOSA B 19, 1635 (2002)], where such trapping of 1D gap solitons is considered. Analogously to this 1D problem trapping in the 2D model is explained as a resonant energy transfer into one or more defect modes existent for the particular defect. For special localized defects exact linear modes are found explicitly via the separation of variables. Numerical computation of linear defect modes is used for more general defects. Corresponding nonlinear modes are then constructed via Newton's iteration by following a

  10. Strongly Correlated Quantum Gases Trapped in 3D Spin-Dependent Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Optical lattices have emerged as ideal systems for exploring Hubbard model physics, since the equivalent of material parameters such as the ratio of tunneling to interaction energy are easily and widely tunable. In this talk I will discuss our recent measurements using novel lattice potentials to realize more complex Hubbard models for bosonic 87 Rb atoms. In these experiments, we adjust the polarization of the lattice laser beams to realize fully three-dimensional, spin-dependent cubic optical lattices. We demonstrate that atoms can be trapped in combinations of spin states for which superfluid and Mott-insulator phases exist simultaneously in the lattice. We also co-trap states that experience a strong lattice potential and no lattice potential whatsoever. I will discuss recent measurements revealing a mechanism similar to Kapitza resistance that leads to thermal decoupling in this latter combination. The implications for sympathetic cooling and thermometry using species-dependent lattices will be outlined.

  11. Phases of d-orbital bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Fernanda; Matrikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas

    2015-05-01

    We explore the properties of bosonic atoms loaded into the d bands of an isotropic square optical lattice. Following the recent experimental success reported in Zhai et al (2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 063638), in which populating d bands with a 99 % fidelity was demonstrated, we present a theoretical study of the possible phases that can appear in this system. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz for the three d band orbitals we map the boundaries of the Mott insulating phases. For not too large occupation, two of the orbitals are predominantly occupied, while the third, of a slightly higher energy, remains almost unpopulated. In this regime, in the superfluid phase we find the formation of a vortex lattice, where the vortices come in vortex/anti-vortex pairs with two pairs locked to every site. Due to the orientation of the vortices time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. This state also breaks a discrete {{{Z}}2}-symmetry. We further derive an effective spin-1/2 model that describe the relevant physics of the lowest Mott-phase with unit filling. We argue that the corresponding two dimensional phase diagram should be rich with several different phases. We also explain how to generate anti-symmetric spin interactions that can give rise to novel effects like spin canting.

  12. Squeezing out the entropy of fermions in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tin-Lun; Zhou, Qi

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is considerable interest in using atomic fermions in optical lattices to emulate the mathematical models that have been used to study strongly correlated electronic systems. Some of these models, such as the 2-dimensional fermion Hubbard model, are notoriously difficult to solve, and their key properties remain controversial despite decades of studies. It is hoped that the emulation experiments will shed light on some of these long-standing problems. A successful emulation, however, requires reaching temperatures as low as 10−12 K and beyond, with entropy per particle far lower than what can be achieved today. Achieving such low-entropy states is an essential step and a grand challenge of the whole emulation enterprise. In this article, we point out a method to literally squeeze the entropy out from a Fermi gas into a surrounding Bose–Einstein condensed gas, which acts as a heat reservoir. This method allows one to reduce the entropy per particle of a lattice Fermi gas to a few percent of the lowest value obtainable today. PMID:19365065

  13. Measuring Z2 topological invariants in optical lattices using interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, F.; Abanin, D.; Demler, E.

    2014-04-01

    We propose an interferometric method to measure Z2 topological invariants of time-reversal invariant topological insulators realized with optical lattices in two and three dimensions. We suggest two schemes which both rely on a combination of Bloch oscillations with Ramsey interferometry and can be implemented using standard tools of atomic physics. In contrast to topological Zak phase and Chern number, defined for individual one-dimensional and two-dimensional Bloch bands, the formulation of the Z2 invariant involves at least two Bloch bands related by time-reversal symmetry which one must keep track of in measurements. In one of our schemes this can be achieved by the measurement of Wilson loops, which are non-Abelian generalizations of Zak phases. The winding of their eigenvalues is related to the Z2 invariant. We thereby demonstrate that Wilson loops are not just theoretical concepts but can be measured experimentally. For the second scheme we introduce a generalization of time-reversal polarization which is continuous throughout the Brillouin zone. We show that its winding over half the Brillouin zone yields the Z2 invariant. To measure this winding, our protocol only requires Bloch oscillations within a single band, supplemented by coherent transitions to a second band which can be realized by lattice shaking.

  14. Pressure tuning the lattice and optical response of silver sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Wei, Hua; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-06-01

    Binary transition metal chalcogenides have attracted increasing attention for their unique structural and electronic properties. High pressure is a powerful tool for tuning the lattice and electronic structure of transition metal chalcogenides away from their pristine states. In this work, we systematically studied the in situ structural and optical behavior of silver sulfide (Ag2S) under pressure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Upon compression, Ag2S undergoes structural symmetrization accompanied by a series of structural transitions while the crystallographic inequivalence of the two Ag sites is maintained. Electronically, pressure effectively tunes the ambient semiconducting Ag2S into a metal at ˜22 GPa. Drude model analysis shows that the optical conductivity evolves significantly, reaching the highest value of 100 Ω-1 cm-1 at ˜40 GPa. Our results highlight the structural and electronic tunability of silver chalcogenides as a function of pressure and suggest the potential of Ag2S as a platform for developing optical and opto-electronic applications.

  15. Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Le Targat, R; Lorini, L; Le Coq, Y; Zawada, M; Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Gurov, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D G; Nagórny, B; Gartman, R; Westergaard, P G; Tobar, M E; Lours, M; Santarelli, G; Clairon, A; Bize, S; Laurent, P; Lemonde, P; Lodewyck, J

    2013-01-01

    Progress in realizing the SI second had multiple technological impacts and enabled further constraint of theoretical models in fundamental physics. Caesium microwave fountains, realizing best the second according to its current definition with a relative uncertainty of 2-4 × 10(-16), have already been overtaken by atomic clocks referenced to an optical transition, which are both more stable and more accurate. Here we present an important step in the direction of a possible new definition of the second. Our system of five clocks connects with an unprecedented consistency the optical and the microwave worlds. For the first time, two state-of-the-art strontium optical lattice clocks are proven to agree within their accuracy budget, with a total uncertainty of 1.5 × 10(-16). Their comparison with three independent caesium fountains shows a degree of accuracy now only limited by the best realizations of the microwave-defined second, at the level of 3.1 × 10(-16). PMID:23839206

  16. Localization of collisionally inhomogeneous condensates in a bichromatic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-02-01

    By direct numerical simulation and variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the stationary and dynamic characteristics of a cigar-shaped, localized, collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate [Roati , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07071 453, 895 (2008)]. The effective potential characterizing the spatially modulated nonlinearity is obtained. It is found that the collisional inhomogeneity has influence not only on the central region but also on the tail of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The influence depends on the sign and value of the spatially modulated nonlinearity coefficient. We also demonstrate the stability of the stationary localized state by performing a standard linear stability analysis. Where possible, the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with the variational results.

  17. Anyon Hubbard Model in One-Dimensional Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Greschner, Sebastian; Santos, Luis

    2015-07-31

    Raman-assisted hopping may be used to realize the anyon Hubbard model in one-dimensional optical lattices. We propose a feasible scenario that significantly improves the proposal of T. Keilmann et al. [Nat. Commun. 2, 361 (2011)], allowing as well for an exact realization of the two-body hard-core constraint, and for controllable effective interactions without the need of Feshbach resonances. We show that the combination of anyonic statistics and two-body hard-core constraint leads to a rich ground-state physics, including Mott insulators with attractive interactions, pair superfluids, dimer phases, and multicritical points. Moreover, the anyonic statistics results in a novel two-component superfluid of holon and doublon dimers, characterized by a large but finite compressibility and a multipeaked momentum distribution, which may be easily revealed experimentally. PMID:26274417

  18. Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Bhongale, S G; Mathey, L; Zhao, Erhai; Yelin, S F; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2013-04-12

    We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moments but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moments. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create a topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities. PMID:25167282

  19. Simulating the Wess-Zumino Supersymmetry Model in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yue; Yang Kun

    2010-10-08

    We study a cold atom-molecule mixture in two-dimensional optical lattices. We show that, by fine-tuning the atomic and molecular interactions, the Wess-Zumino supersymmetry (SUSY) model in 2+1 dimensions emerges in the low-energy limit and can be simulated in such mixtures. At zero temperature, SUSY is not spontaneously broken, which implies identical relativistic dispersions of the atom and its superpartner, a bosonic diatom molecule. This defining signature of SUSY can be probed by single-particle spectroscopies. Thermal breaking of SUSY at a finite temperature is accompanied by a thermal Goldstone fermion, i.e., phonino excitation. This and other signatures of broken SUSY can also be probed experimentally.

  20. Quantum states of p-band bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, A.; Larson, J.; Martikainen, J.-P.

    2010-02-15

    We study a gas of repulsively interacting bosons in the first excited band of an optical lattice. We explore this p-band physics both within the framework of a standard mean-field theory as well as with the more accurate generalized Gutzwiller ansatz. We find the phase diagrams for two- and three-dimensional systems and characterize the first Mott-states which typically possess an integer or half-integer vortex structure. Furthermore, we find that even though the p-band model has strongly anisotropic kinetic energies and interflavor interaction terms are missing in the lowest band theory, the mean-field theory becomes useful quite rapidly once the transition from the Mott insulator to the superfluid is crossed.

  1. Ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of neutral mercury in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mejri, S.; McFerran, J. J.; Yi, L.; Le Coq, Y.; Bize, S.

    2011-09-15

    We present details on the ultraviolet lattice spectroscopy of the (6s{sup 2}) {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} (6s6p) {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in neutral mercury, specifically {sup 199}Hg. Mercury atoms are loaded into a one-dimensional vertically aligned optical lattice from a magneto-optical trap with an rms temperature of {approx}60 {mu}K. We describe aspects of the magneto-optical trapping, the lattice cavity design, and the techniques employed to trap and detect mercury in an optical lattice. The clock-line frequency dependence on lattice depth is measured at a range of lattice wavelengths. We confirm the magic wavelength to be 362.51(0.16) nm. Further observations to those reported by Yi et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 073005 (2011)] are presented regarding the laser excitation of a Wannier-Stark ladder of states.

  2. Non-standard Hubbard models in optical lattices: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Omjyoti; Gajda, Mariusz; Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Malomed, Boris A.; Sowiński, Tomasz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Originally, the Hubbard model was derived for describing the behavior of strongly correlated electrons in solids. However, for over a decade now, variations of it have also routinely been implemented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, allowing their study in a clean, essentially defect-free environment. Here, we review some of the vast literature on this subject, with a focus on more recent non-standard forms of the Hubbard model. After giving an introduction to standard (fermionic and bosonic) Hubbard models, we discuss briefly common models for mixtures, as well as the so-called extended Bose-Hubbard models, that include interactions between neighboring sites, next-neighbor sites, and so on. The main part of the review discusses the importance of additional terms appearing when refining the tight-binding approximation for the original physical Hamiltonian. Even when restricting the models to the lowest Bloch band is justified, the standard approach neglects the density-induced tunneling (which has the same origin as the usual on-site interaction). The importance of these contributions is discussed for both contact and dipolar interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the effects related to higher Bloch bands also become important even for deep optical lattices. Different approaches that aim at incorporating these effects, mainly via dressing the basis, Wannier functions with interactions, leading to effective, density-dependent Hubbard-type models, are reviewed. We discuss also examples of Hubbard-like models that explicitly involve higher p orbitals, as well as models that dynamically couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Finally, we review mean-field nonlinear Schrödinger models of the Salerno type that share with the non-standard Hubbard models nonlinear coupling between the adjacent sites. In that part, discrete solitons are the main subject of consideration. We conclude by listing some open problems, to be addressed in the future.

  3. Non-standard Hubbard models in optical lattices: a review.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Omjyoti; Gajda, Mariusz; Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Malomed, Boris A; Sowiński, Tomasz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Originally, the Hubbard model was derived for describing the behavior of strongly correlated electrons in solids. However, for over a decade now, variations of it have also routinely been implemented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, allowing their study in a clean, essentially defect-free environment. Here, we review some of the vast literature on this subject, with a focus on more recent non-standard forms of the Hubbard model. After giving an introduction to standard (fermionic and bosonic) Hubbard models, we discuss briefly common models for mixtures, as well as the so-called extended Bose-Hubbard models, that include interactions between neighboring sites, next-neighbor sites, and so on. The main part of the review discusses the importance of additional terms appearing when refining the tight-binding approximation for the original physical Hamiltonian. Even when restricting the models to the lowest Bloch band is justified, the standard approach neglects the density-induced tunneling (which has the same origin as the usual on-site interaction). The importance of these contributions is discussed for both contact and dipolar interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the effects related to higher Bloch bands also become important even for deep optical lattices. Different approaches that aim at incorporating these effects, mainly via dressing the basis, Wannier functions with interactions, leading to effective, density-dependent Hubbard-type models, are reviewed. We discuss also examples of Hubbard-like models that explicitly involve higher p orbitals, as well as models that dynamically couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Finally, we review mean-field nonlinear Schrödinger models of the Salerno type that share with the non-standard Hubbard models nonlinear coupling between the adjacent sites. In that part, discrete solitons are the main subject of consideration. We conclude by listing some open problems, to be addressed in the future

  4. Photoassociation experiments on ultracold and quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Changhyun

    This thesis describes the results of several experiments that studied the photoassociation of an ultracold atomic Rb gas. In the first experiment, we produced ultracold diatomic molecules from an atomic gas via single-color photoassociation. The molecules were detected with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Trapping of these molecules in a quadrupole magnetic trap, with lifetimes up to 20 seconds, was also demonstrated. In addition, the rate constant for inelastic collisions between the trapped molecules and atoms was determined from measurements of the atomic density dependence of the decay rate of the trapped molecules. In another experiment, stimulated Raman photoassociation of Rb atoms in a Mott insulator state was studied. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 87Rb atoms was loaded into a three-dimensional optical lattice formed by the interference pattern of three orthogonal standing wave laser fields. This system constitutes a very good realization of the Bose-Hubbard model; which predicts a quantum phase transition between a superfluid state and a Mott insulator state at a particular lattice height. A time-of-flight imaging method was used to study the state of the atomic gas, and the quantum phase transition was observed at the predicted lattice height. The signature of the phase transition was the disappearance and reappearance of peaks in the image that arose from the interference of atoms originating from different lattice sites. Two coherent laser fields were applied to the gas in its Mott insulating state, and tuned close to a Raman photoassociation resonance, and this resulted in an observable loss of atoms due to the formation of molecules. This transition exhibited a double-peaked spectrum, with one of the peaks arising from photoassociation of atoms in sites containing only two atoms, and the other from sites containing three atoms. Also, the loss of atoms vs. the duration of the Raman photoassociation period was studied, with the lasers

  5. Optical reflectance and omnidirectional bandgaps in Fibonacci quasicrystals type 1-D multilayer structures containing exponentially graded material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Thapa, Khem B.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region.

  6. Superfluidity of ultracold atomic gases of Fermi-Fermi mixtures on an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin

    Superfluidity of ultracold atomic gases of Fermi-Fermi mixtures has been under active investigation recently. Experimentally, mixtures of 6Li-40K, 171Yb-173Yband6Li-173Yb, for example, have been prepared and cooled down to the quantum degeneracy regime, making the superfluid phase accessible in the near future. In this talk, we will address the superfluidity of ultracold Fermi-Fermi mixtures on 1D through 3D optical lattices, with varying mass and population imbalances and different densities, as they undergo BCS-BEC crossover, within a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the important pseudogap effects at finite temperatures. We will present various phase diagrams and show the dramatic combined effects of mass and population imbalances and lattice periodicity. Implications for future experiment will be discussed. References: [1]Q. J. Chen, I. Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). [2] C. -C. Chien, Y. He, Q. J. Chen, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 011601(R) (2008). [3] C. -C. Chien, Q. J. Chen, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043612 (2008). [4] Q. J. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023610 (2012). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.

  7. Orbit, optics and chromaticity correction for PS2 negative momentum compaction lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Papaphilippou,Y.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    The effect of magnet misalignments in the beam orbit and linear optics functions are reviewed and correction schemes are applied to the negative momentum compaction lattice of PS2. Chromaticity correction schemes are also proposed and tested with respect to off-momentum optics properties. The impact of the correction schemes in the dynamic aperture of the lattice is finally evaluated.

  8. CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.

  9. Collective excitations of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of weak disorder and a two-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.

  10. Towards quantum many-body physics with Sr in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Sebastian; Jansa, Nejc; Escudero, Rodrigo G.; Heinz, André; Park, Annie Jihyun; Snigirev, Stepan; Dalibard, Jean; Bloch, Immanuel

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, fermionic alkaline earth atoms in optical lattices have become a platform for precision measurements, culminating in the realization of an atomic clock with the currently highest stability and accuracy at the 2 ×10-18 level. In the meantime, quantum degenerate gases of all bosonic and fermionic isotopes of Sr have been realized. With the extension of the quantum gas microscopy technique to fermionic alkali metal atoms, experiments with quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices have taken another step towards full control over the internal and external degrees of freedom of fermions in optical lattices. Here, we report on the construction of a new experiment with quantum degenerate gases of Sr in optical lattices. Our experiment aims to combine the high spatial control over the atomic degrees of freedom from quantum gas microscopy with the precision control over the internal degrees of freedom enabled by optical lattice clock techniques.

  11. Cooling fermions in optical lattices by faster entropy redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Rafael P.; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Paiva, Thereza; Scalettar, Richard T.; Natu, Stefan S.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Lower entropy for fermions in optical lattices would unlock new quantum phases, including antiferromagnetism and potentially superconductivity. We propose a method to cool these systems at temperatures where conventional methods fail: slowly turning on a tightly focused optical potential transports entropy from the Mott insulator to a metallic entropy reservoir formed along the beam. Our scheme places the entropy reservoir close to the targeted cooling region, which allows entropy redistribution to be effective at lower temperatures than in prior proposals. Furthermore we require only a straightforwardly-applied Gaussian potential. We compute the temperatures achieved with this scheme using an analytic T >> t approximation and, for low T, determinantal quantum Monte Carlo. We optimize the waist and depth of the focused beam, and we find that repulsive potentials cool better than attractive ones. We estimate that the time required for entropy transport under nearly adiabatic conditions at these low temperatures is compatible with the system lifetime. Finally, we explore further improvements to cooling enabled by sophisticated potential engineering, e.g. using a spatial light modulator. Work supported by CNPq.

  12. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  13. Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-07-01

    With timekeeping being of paramount importance for modern life, much research and major scientific advances have been undertaken in the field of frequency metrology, particularly over the last few years. New Nobel-prize winning technologies have enabled a new era of atomic clocks; namely the optical clock. These have been shown to perform significantly better than the best microwave clocks reaching an inaccuracy of 1.6x10-18 [1]. With such results being found in large lab based apparatus, the focus now has shifted to portability - to enable the accuracy of various ground based clocks to be measured, and compact autonomous performance - to enable such technologies to be tested in space. This could lead to a master clock in space, improving not only the accuracy of technologies on which modern life has come to require such as GPS and communication networks. But also more fundamentally, this could lead to the redefinition of the second and tests of fundamental physics including applications in the fields of ground based and satellite geodesy, metrology, positioning, navigation, transport and logistics etc. Within the European collaboration, Space Optical Clocks (SOC2) [2-3] consisting of various institutes and industry partners across Europe we have tried to tackle this problem of miniaturisation whilst maintaining stability, accuracy (5x10-17) and robustness whilst keeping power consumption to a minimum - necessary for space applications. We will present the most recent results of the Sr optical clock in SOC2 and also the novel compact design features, new methods employed and outlook. References [1] B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, "An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level," Nature 506, 71-75 (2014). [2] S. Schiller et al. "Towards Neutral-atom Space Optical Clocks (SOC2): Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and

  14. Nearly-one-dimensional self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.; Cetoli, A.; Malomed, B. A.

    2007-03-15

    Within the framework of a mean-field description, we investigate atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, with attraction between atoms, under the action of a strong transverse confinement and periodic [optical-lattice (OL)] axial potential. Using a combination of the variational approximation, one-dimensional (1D) nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation, and direct numerical solutions of the underlying 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we show that the ground state of the condensate is a soliton belonging to the semi-infinite band gap of the periodic potential. The soliton may be confined to a single cell of the lattice or extended to several cells, depending on the effective self-attraction strength g (which is proportional to the number of atoms bound in the soliton) and depth of the potential, V{sub 0}, the increase of V{sub 0} leading to strong compression of the soliton. We demonstrate that the OL is an effective tool to control the soliton's shape. It is found that, due to the 3D character of the underlying setting, the ground-state soliton collapses at a critical value of the strength, g=g{sub c}, which gradually decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}; under typical experimental conditions, the corresponding maximum number of {sup 7}Li atoms in the soliton, N{sub max}, ranges between 8000 and 4000. Examples of stable multipeaked solitons are also found in the first finite band gap of the lattice spectrum. The respective critical value g{sub c} again slowly decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}, corresponding to N{sub max}{approx_equal}5000.

  15. Low noise optical lattices for a Li-6 Fermi gas microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurenko, Anton; Parsons, Maxwell; Chiu, Christie; Huber, Florian; Blatt, Sebastian; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    We report on recent progress towards single-site resolved imaging of fermions in an optical lattice. Fermionic 6-Li atoms are trapped in an optical lattice 10 μm below a high-quality reference surface in the image plane of a high resolution (NA 0.85) imaging system. We have created a highly intensity-stable optical lattice whose depth remains adjustable over three orders of magnitude. The high optical resolution enables a band mapping technique that allows detection of less than 1000 atoms in the ground band of the lattice. We use this technique to measure the decay of the radial ground band population and find lifetimes up to 70 seconds, limited by spontaneous scattering of lattice light. ARO DARPA OLE, ARO MURI, NSF, AFOSR MURI, and The Moore Foundation.

  16. A superradiant clock laser on a magic wavelength optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Maier, Thomas; Kraemer, Sebastian; Ostermann, Laurin; Ritsch, Helmut

    2014-06-01

    An ideal superradiant laser on an optical clock transition of noninteracting cold atoms is predicted to exhibit an extreme frequency stability and accuracy far below mHz-linewidth. In any concrete setup sufficiently many atoms have to be confined and pumped within a finite cavity mode volume. Using a magic wavelength lattice minimizes light shifts and allows for almost uniform coupling to the cavity mode. Nevertheless, the atoms are subject to dipole-dipole interaction and collective spontaneous decay which compromises the ultimate frequency stability. In the high density limit the Dicke superradiant linewidth enhancement will broaden the laser line and nearest neighbor couplings will induce shifts and fluctuations of the laser frequency. We estimate the magnitude and scaling of these effects by direct numerical simulations of few atom systems for different geometries and densities. For Strontium in a regularly filled magic wavelength configuration atomic interactions induce small laser frequency shifts only and collective spontaneous emission weakly broadens the laser. These interactions generally enhance the laser sensitivity to cavity length fluctuations but for optimally chosen operating conditions can lead to an improved synchronization of the atomic dipoles. PMID:24921521

  17. Subharmonic Shapiro steps of sliding colloidal monolayers in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Paronuzzi Ticco, Stella V; Fornasier, Gabriele; Manini, Nicola; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio; Vanossi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the possibility to observe dynamical mode locking, in the form of Shapiro steps, when a time-periodic potential or force modulation is applied to a two-dimensional (2D) lattice of colloidal particles that are dragged by an external force over an optically generated periodic potential. Here we present realistic molecular dynamics simulations of a 2D experimental setup, where the colloid sliding is realized through the motion of soliton lines between locally commensurate patches or domains, and where the Shapiro steps are predicted and analyzed. Interestingly, the jump between one step and the next is seen to correspond to a fixed number of colloids jumping from one patch to the next, across the soliton line boundary, during each ac cycle. In addition to ordinary 'integer' steps, coinciding here with the synchronous rigid advancement of the whole colloid monolayer, our main prediction is the existence of additional smaller 'subharmonic' steps due to localized solitonic regions of incommensurate layers executing synchronized slips, while the majority of the colloids remains pinned to a potential minimum. The current availability and wide parameter tunability of colloid monolayers makes these predictions potentially easy to access in an experimentally rich 2D geometrical configuration. PMID:26933976

  18. Feshbach-stabilized insulator of bosons in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    de Forges de Parny, L; Rousseau, V G; Roscilde, T

    2015-05-15

    Feshbach resonances-namely, resonances between an unbound two-body (atomic) state and a bound (molecular) state, differing in magnetic moment-are a unique tool to tune the interaction properties of ultracold atoms. Here we show that the spin-changing interactions, coherently coupling the atomic and molecular states, can act as a novel mechanism to stabilize an insulating phase-the Feshbach insulator-for bosons in an optical lattice close to a narrow Feshbach resonance. Making use of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory, we show that the Feshbach insulator appears around the resonance, preventing the system from collapsing when the effective atomic scattering length becomes negative. On the atomic side of the resonance, the transition from condensate to Feshbach insulator has a characteristic first-order nature, due to the simultaneous loss of coherence in the atomic and molecular components. These features appear clearly in the ground-state phase diagram of, e.g., ^{87}Rb around its 414 G resonance, and they are therefore directly amenable to experimental observation. PMID:26024178

  19. Subharmonic Shapiro steps of sliding colloidal monolayers in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronuzzi Ticco, Stella V.; Fornasier, Gabriele; Manini, Nicola; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Tosatti, Erio; Vanossi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the possibility to observe dynamical mode locking, in the form of Shapiro steps, when a time-periodic potential or force modulation is applied to a two-dimensional (2D) lattice of colloidal particles that are dragged by an external force over an optically generated periodic potential. Here we present realistic molecular dynamics simulations of a 2D experimental setup, where the colloid sliding is realized through the motion of soliton lines between locally commensurate patches or domains, and where the Shapiro steps are predicted and analyzed. Interestingly, the jump between one step and the next is seen to correspond to a fixed number of colloids jumping from one patch to the next, across the soliton line boundary, during each ac cycle. In addition to ordinary ‘integer’ steps, coinciding here with the synchronous rigid advancement of the whole colloid monolayer, our main prediction is the existence of additional smaller ‘subharmonic’ steps due to localized solitonic regions of incommensurate layers executing synchronized slips, while the majority of the colloids remains pinned to a potential minimum. The current availability and wide parameter tunability of colloid monolayers makes these predictions potentially easy to access in an experimentally rich 2D geometrical configuration.

  20. Lattice-Induced Frequency Shifts in Sr Optical Lattice Clocks at the 10{sup -17} Level

    SciTech Connect

    Westergaard, P. G.; Lodewyck, J.; Lecallier, A.; Millo, J.; Lemonde, P.; Lorini, L.; Burt, E. A.; Zawada, M.

    2011-05-27

    We present a comprehensive study of the frequency shifts associated with the lattice potential in a Sr lattice clock by comparing two such clocks with a frequency stability reaching 5x10{sup -17} after a 1 h integration time. We put the first experimental upper bound on the multipolar M1 and E2 interactions, significantly smaller than the recently predicted theoretical upper limit, and give a 30-fold improved upper limit on the effect of hyperpolarizability. Finally, we report on the first observation of the vector and tensor shifts in a Sr lattice clock. Combining these measurements, we show that all known lattice related perturbations will not affect the clock accuracy down to the 10{sup -17} level, even for lattices as deep as 150 recoil energies.

  1. Atomic Bloch-Zener Oscillations and Stueckelberg Interferometry in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stueckelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.

  2. Detecting the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan-Wei; Cao, Shuai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a realistic scheme to directly probe the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in optical lattices. The Weyl semimetal states can be realized with ultracold fermionic atoms trapped in three-dimensional optical lattices, and are topologically characterized by k z -dependent Chern number, where k z is the out-of-plane quasimomentum. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that this characteristic topological invariant can be extracted from the shift of the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice, based on the particle pumping approach. Through in situ measurement of atomic density, the topological properties of the Weyl semimetal states are then directly revealed.

  3. The Quantum Dynamics of a Dilute Gas in a 3D BCC Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Linda; Boretz, Yingyue

    2015-03-01

    The classical and quantum dynamics of a dilute gas of rubidium atoms, in a 3D body-centered cubic optical lattice, is studied for a range of polarizations of the laser beams forming the lattice. The relative polarization of the lasers determines the the structure of the potential energy seen by the rubidium atoms. If three pairs of in-phase mutually perpendicular laser beams, with the same wavelength, form the lattice, only a limited range of possible couplings can be realized in the lab. We have determined the band structure of the BCC optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and find that the band structure for lattices realizable in the lab, differs significantly from that expected for a BCC crystal. As coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has qualitative similarity to a BCC. Welch Foundation

  4. A Next-Generation Apparatus for Lithium Optical Lattice Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Aviv

    Quantum simulation is emerging as an ambitious and active subfield of atomic physics. This thesis describes progress towards the goal of simulating condensed matter systems, in particular the physics of the Fermi-Hubbard model, using ultracold Lithium atoms in an optical lattice. A major goal of the quantum simulation program is to observe phase transitions of the Hubbard model, into Neal antiferromagnetic phases and d-wave superfluid phases. Phase transitions are generally accompanied by a change in an underlying correlation in a physical system. Such correlations may be most amenable to probing by looking at fluctuations in the system. Experimental techniques for probing density and magnetization fluctuations in a variety of atomic Fermi systems are developed. The suppression of density fluctuations (or atom "shot noise") in an ideal degenerate Fermi gas is observed by absorption imaging of time-of-flight expanded clouds. In-trap measurements of density and magnetization fluctuations are not easy to probe with absorption imaging, due to their extremely high attenuation. A method to probe these fluctuations based on speckle patterns, caused by fluctuations in the index of refraction for a detuned illumination beam, is developed and applied first to weakly interacting and then to strongly interacting in-trap gases. Fluctuation probes such as these will be a crucial tool in future quantum simulation of condensed matter systems. The quantum simulation experiments that we want to perform require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. A distributed GUI-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, The Cicero Word Generator, is described. The system makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature allows this to be extended to other output

  5. Probing Nearest-Neighbor Correlations of Ultracold Fermions in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Greif, Daniel; Tarruell, Leticia; Uehlinger, Thomas; Joerdens, Robert; Esslinger, Tilman

    2011-04-08

    We demonstrate a probe for nearest-neighbor correlations of fermionic quantum gases in optical lattices. It gives access to spin and density configurations of adjacent sites and relies on creating additional doubly occupied sites by perturbative lattice modulation. The measured correlations for different lattice temperatures are in good agreement with an ab initio calculation without any fitting parameters. This probe opens new prospects for studying the approach to magnetically ordered phases.

  6. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Negative-Refraction Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies: Optical Nano-Transmission-Line and Circuit Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader; Alu, Andrea

    2006-03-01

    In recent years metamaterials have offered new possibilities for overcoming some of the intrinsic limitations in wave propagation. Their realization at microwave frequencies has followed two different paths; one consisting of embedding resonant inclusions in a host dielectric, and the other following a transmission-line approach, i.e., building 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D cascades of circuit elements, respectively, as linear, planar or bulk right- or left-handed metamaterials. The latter is known to provide larger bandwidth and better robustness to ohmic losses. Extending these concepts to optical frequencies is a challenging task, due to changes in material response to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies. However, recently we have studied theoretically how it may be possible to have circuit nano-elements at these frequencies by properly exploiting plasmonic resonances. Here we present our theoretical work on translating the circuit concepts of right- and left-handed metamaterials into optical frequencies by applying the analogy between nanoparticles and nanocircuit elements in transmission lines. We discuss how it is possible to synthesize optical negative-refraction metamaterials by properly cascading plasmonic and non-plasmonic elements in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D geometries.

  7. Stability of Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhu; Wu Biao

    2010-04-15

    Both Landau instability and dynamical instability of Bose-Einstein condensates in moving two-dimensional optical lattices are investigated numerically and analytically. Phase diagrams for both instabilities are obtained numerically for different system parameters. These phase diagrams show that the Landau instability does not depend on direction for weak lattices while the dynamic instability is direction dependent. These features are explained analytically.

  8. Magnetic Order and Dimensional Crossover in Optical Lattices with Repulsive Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie

    One of the most interesting and challenging problems in physics is understanding strongly correlated many-body systems, where strong interactions can yield many remarkable phenomena such as superfluidity in 4He, high-temperature superconductivity, etc. In order to attack these problems, we often need to reduce the complexity of the systems to simple models in hopes of getting better insights into the properties of the systems. The Hubbard model, the focus of this dissertation, is one of the most famous examples of such model, which describes a tunneling of electrons between nearest neighbor sites of a lattice with on-site interactions. This simple model is an important concept in condensed matter physics and provides rich understandings of electronic and magnetic properties of materials. Despite its simplicity, there is no general analytical solution to the Hubbard model beyond 1D. The discovery of ultracold atoms and optical lattices opens up the possibility of emulating the Hubbard model in experiments. Optical lattices provide an ideal realization of the Hubbard model where relevant parameters can be tuned systematically. It makes theoretical studies of the Hubbard model increasingly attractive since a direct comparison between theoretical calculations and experimental results becomes more and more possible. In this dissertation, the ground-state properties of the repulsive Hubbard model for weak to intermediate interaction strengths in two, three dimensions and their dimensional crossover are studied within the mean field theory. We show that the system exhibits unidirectional spin-density wave (SDW) order with antiferromagnetic correlations and a long wavelength modulation. The modulating wave is along the [0011-direction at low interaction strength U/t and along the [1111-direction at higher U/t. The evolution of the wavelength of the SDW is determined as a function of U/t, the density, and t⊥/t. With an analysis of the pairing of spins based on nesting and

  9. Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.

  10. Observation of Landau-Zener tunneling through atomic current in the optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Jieyun; Duan Suqing; Zhang Wei; Zhao Xiangeng

    2009-05-15

    The atomic current in the Fourier-synthesized optical lattices under a constant external force is investigated theoretically. Based on a two-band model, the atomic current is derived by solving the Boltzmann equations. We find that the stationary atomic current changes with the probability of Landau-Zener tunneling, depending on the adjustable energy structure of the optical lattices. In contrast to the classical results of an electron in superlattices given by the Esaki-Tsu equations, the relation between the stationary atomic current and the strength of the external force in optical lattices is modified significantly. Both these characteristics can be taken as an effective way to observe the Landau-Zener tunneling in the optical lattices.

  11. Observation of long-lived van der Waals molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinya; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamada, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2012-10-01

    We observe long-lived tightly bound van der Waals molecules of ytterbium in a three-dimensional optical lattice with a lifetime of 8.0 s. The molecules, state-selectively produced by a photoassociation technique from a Bose-Einstein condensate or an atomic Mott insulator, are successfully detected with a photodissociation method where the molecules are photodissociated into two atoms and the atoms are captured by a magneto-optical trap or optical molasses, for the fluorescence detection. This work will open up various possibilities of research with van der Waals molecules in an optical lattice.

  12. Systematic Study of the {sup 87}Sr Clock Transition in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, Andrew D.; Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Foreman, Seth M.; Blatt, Sebastian; Notcutt, Mark; Ido, Tetsuya; Ye Jun

    2006-01-27

    With ultracold {sup 87}Sr confined in a magic wavelength optical lattice, we present the most precise study (2.8 Hz statistical uncertainty) to date of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} optical clock transition with a detailed analysis of systematic shifts (19 Hz uncertainty) in the absolute frequency measurement of 429 228 004 229 869 Hz. The high resolution permits an investigation of the optical lattice motional sideband structure. The local oscillator for this optical atomic clock is a stable diode laser with its hertz-level linewidth characterized by an octave-spanning femtosecond frequency comb.

  13. Quantum simulation of correlated-hopping models with fermions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Liberto, M.; Creffield, C. E.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.

    2014-03-01

    By using a modulated magnetic field in a Feshbach resonance for ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices, we show that it is possible to engineer a class of models usually referred to as correlated-hopping models. These models differ from the Hubbard model in exhibiting additional density-dependent interaction terms that affect the hopping processes. In addition to the spin-SU(2) symmetry, they also possess a charge-SU(2) symmetry, which opens the possibility of investigating the η-pairing mechanism for superconductivity introduced by Yang for the Hubbard model. We discuss the known solution of the model in 1D (where η states have been found in the degenerate manifold of the ground state) and show that, away from the integrable point, quantum Monte Carlo simulations at half filling predict the emergence of a phase with coexisting incommensurate spin and charge order. This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and by the Spanish MICINN through Grant No. FIS-2010-21372 (CEC).

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui

    2010-05-15

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  15. Higher-order effects on the precision of clocks of neutral atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Marmo, S. I.; Palchikov, V. G.; Katori, H.

    2016-04-01

    The recent progress in designing optical lattice clocks with fractional uncertainties below 10-17 requires unprecedented precision in estimating the role of higher-order effects of atom-lattice interactions. In this paper, we present results of systematic theoretical evaluations of the multipole, nonlinear, and anharmonic effects on the optical-lattice-based clocks of alkaline-earth-like atoms. Modifications of the model-potential approach are introduced to minimize discrepancies of theoretical evaluations from the most reliable experimental data. Dipole polarizabilities, hyperpolarizabilities, and multipolar polarizabilities for neutral Ca, Sr, Yb, Zn, Cd, and Hg atoms are calculated in the modified approach.

  16. Vortex formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating deep optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Nakano, Yuki; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2011-11-15

    We study the dynamics of vortex nucleation and lattice formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating square optical lattice by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Different dynamical regimes of vortex nucleation are found, depending on the depth and period of the optical lattice. We make an extensive comparison with the experiments by R. A. Williams et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 050404 (2010)], especially focusing on the issues of the critical rotation frequency for the first vortex nucleation and the vortex number as a function of rotation frequency.

  17. Critical frequency for vortex nucleation in Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilleumas, M.; Centelles, M.; Barranco, M.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate within mean-field theory the influence of a one-dimensional optical lattice and of trapped degenerate fermions on the critical rotational frequency for vortex line creation in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider laser intensities of the lattice such that quantum coherence across the condensate is ensured. We find a sizable decrease of the thermodynamic critical frequency for vortex nucleation with increasing applied laser strength and suggest suitable parameters for experimental observation. Since Rb87-K40 mixtures may undergo collapse, we analyze the related question of how the optical lattice affects the mechanical stability of the system.

  18. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, Gene

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  19. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Gene

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with significant flexibility in mind, but without compromising cost efficiency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of different variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of-flight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  20. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangwei, Li; Haotong, Zhang; Zhongrui, Bai

    2015-06-01

    Bolton & Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract one-dimensional (1D) spectra from a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber spectral CCD (charge-coupled device) image. The method could eliminate the PSF (point-spread function) difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus can not be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4 k × 4 k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic ill-posed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. We do a series of simulations to test how our method performs under more real situations with Poisson noise and extreme cross talk. Compared with the results of traditional extraction methods, i.e., the Aperture Extraction Method and the Profile Fitting Method, our method has the least residual and influence by cross talk. For the noise-added image, the computation speed does not depend very much on fiber distance, the signal-to-noise ratio converges in 2-4 iterations, and the computation times are about 3.5 hr for the extreme fiber distance and about 2 hr for nonextreme cases. A better balance between the computation time and result precision could be achieved by setting the precision threshold similar to the noise level. Finally, we apply our method to real LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope; a.k.a. Guo Shou Jing Telescope) data. We find that the 1D spectrum extracted by our

  1. Suppression of ion transport due to long-lived subwavelength localization by an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Leon; Bylinskii, Alexei; Gangloff, Dorian; Cetina, Marko; Vuletić, Vladan

    2013-10-18

    We report the localization of an ion by a one-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of an applied external force. The ion is confined radially by a radio frequency trap and axially by a combined electrostatic and optical-lattice potential. Using a resolved Raman sideband technique, one or several ions are cooled to a mean vibrational number =(0.1±0.1) along the optical lattice. We measure the average position of a periodically driven ion with a resolution down to λ/40, and demonstrate localization to a single lattice site for up to 10 ms. This opens new possibilities for studying many-body systems with long-range interactions in periodic potentials, as well as fundamental models of friction. PMID:24182262

  2. Suppression of Ion Transport due to Long-Lived Subwavelength Localization by an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpa, Leon; Bylinskii, Alexei; Gangloff, Dorian; Cetina, Marko; Vuletić, Vladan

    2013-10-01

    We report the localization of an ion by a one-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of an applied external force. The ion is confined radially by a radio frequency trap and axially by a combined electrostatic and optical-lattice potential. Using a resolved Raman sideband technique, one or several ions are cooled to a mean vibrational number ⟨n⟩=(0.1±0.1) along the optical lattice. We measure the average position of a periodically driven ion with a resolution down to λ/40, and demonstrate localization to a single lattice site for up to 10 ms. This opens new possibilities for studying many-body systems with long-range interactions in periodic potentials, as well as fundamental models of friction.

  3. Ab initio calculation of Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish

    2016-07-01

    We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.

  4. Transfer of Bose-Einstein condensates through discrete breathers in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.; Dorignac, J.; Campbell, D. K.

    2010-11-15

    We study the effect of discrete breathers (DBs) on the transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical lattice using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In previous theoretical (primarily numerical) investigations of the dynamics of BECs in leaking optical lattices, collisions between a DB and a lattice excitation, e.g., a moving breather (MB) or phonon, were studied. These collisions led to the transmission of a fraction of the incident (atomic) norm of the MB through the DB, while the DB can be shifted in the direction of the incident lattice excitation. Here we develop an analytic understanding of this phenomenon, based on the study of a highly localized system--namely, a nonlinear trimer--which predicts that there exists a total energy threshold of the trimer, above which the lattice excitation can trigger the destabilization of the DB and that this is the mechanism leading to the movement of the DB. Furthermore, we give an analytic estimate of upper bound to the norm that is transmitted through the DB. We then show numerically that a qualitatively similar threshold exists in extended lattices. Our analysis explains the results of the earlier numerical studies and may help to clarify functional operations with BECs in optical lattices such as blocking and filtering coherent (atomic) beams.

  5. Optical Study of Interactions in a d-Electron Kondo Lattice with Ferromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, K. S.; Schafgans, A.; Butch, N. P.; Sayles, T. A.; Maple, M. B.; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Basov, D. N.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive optical, transport, and thermodynamic study of the Zintl compound Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11}, demonstrating that it is the first ferromagnetic Kondo lattice compound in the underscreened limit. We propose a scenario whereby the combination of Kondo and Jahn-Teller effects provides a consistent explanation of both transport and optical data.

  6. Controlling dipole-dipole frequency shifts in a lattice-based optical atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D.E.; Lukin, M.D.; Ye Jun

    2004-02-01

    Motivated by the ideas of using cold alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice for realization of optical atomic clocks, we investigate theoretically the perturbative effects of atom-atom interactions on a clock transition frequency. These interactions are mediated by the dipole fields associated with the optically excited atoms. We predict resonancelike features in the frequency shifts when constructive interference among atomic dipoles occur. We theoretically demonstrate that by fine tuning the coherent dipole-dipole couplings in appropriately designed lattice geometries, the undesirable frequency shifts can be greatly suppressed.

  7. Trapping of Neutral Mercury Atoms and Prospects for Optical Lattice Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, H.; Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Miyagishi, K.; Porsev, S. G.; Derevianko, A.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.

    2008-02-08

    We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for ''new physics'' beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10{sup -18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.

  8. Light-scattering detection of quantum phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jinwu; Zhang, J. M.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang Keye; Li Yan; Zhang Weiping

    2011-05-15

    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases effectively remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we show that the optical Bragg scattering of cold atoms loaded on optical lattices can be used to detect many quantum phases, which include not only the conventional superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases, such as various kinds of charge density wave (CDW), valence bond solid (VBS), CDW supersolid (CDW-SS) and Valence bond supersolid (VB-SS).

  9. Trapping of neutral mercury atoms and prospects for optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Hachisu, H; Miyagishi, K; Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Takamoto, M; Katori, H

    2008-02-01

    We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the (1)S(0)-(3)P(1) intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for "new physics" beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10;{-18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant. PMID:18352368

  10. p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.

    2011-09-02

    We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.

  11. Cooling and long-lived single-site localization of an ion in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylinskii, Alexei; Karpa, Leon; Gangloff, Dorian; Cetina, Marko; Vuletic, Vladan

    2013-05-01

    We report on localization of a continuously cooled single ion by a one-dimensional optical lattice. The ion is confined in a hybrid trap formed by an optical dipole potential produced by the standing-wave field of an optical cavity and a two-dimensional radio-frequency Paul trap transverse to the cavity axis. A lattice-assisted resolved Raman sideband process cools the ion to energies 20 times lower than the depth of the lattice potential, close to the vibrational ground state. We observe ion localization by measuring its displacement in the presence of a periodically driven electric field parallel to the lattice. We demonstrate full suppression of the driven ion motion due to optical localization to a single lattice site on a time-scale of 100 μs, which is 100 times longer than the vibrational period of the ion in the lattice site. At a longer time scale of 1 ms, driven motion is suppressed to 50%. The presented system paves the way to the realization of novel experiments studying classical and quantum friction models, and many-body physics with long-range interactions in periodic potentials. Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  12. Realizing non-Abelian gauge potentials in optical square lattices: an application to atomic Chern insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, N.; Gerbier, F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-07-01

    We describe a scheme to engineer non-Abelian gauge potentials on a square optical lattice using laser-induced transitions. We emphasize the case of two-electron atoms, where the electronic ground state g is laser-coupled to a metastable state e within a state-dependent optical lattice. In this scheme, the alternating pattern of lattice sites hosting g and e states depicts a chequerboard structure, allowing for laser-assisted tunnelling along both spatial directions. In this configuration, the nuclear spin of the atoms can be viewed as a ‘flavour’ quantum number undergoing non-Abelian tunnelling along nearest-neighbour links. We show that this technique can be useful to simulate the equivalent of the Haldane quantum Hall model using cold atoms trapped in square optical lattices, offering an interesting route to realize Chern insulators. The emblematic Haldane model is particularly suited to investigate the physics of topological insulators, but requires, in its original form, complex hopping terms beyond nearest-neighbouring sites. In general, this drawback inhibits a direct realization with cold atoms, using standard laser-induced tunnelling techniques. We demonstrate that a simple mapping allows us to express this model in terms of matrix hopping operators that are defined on a standard square lattice. This mapping is investigated for two models that lead to anomalous quantum Hall phases. We discuss the practical implementation of such models, exploiting laser-induced tunnelling methods applied to the chequerboard optical lattice.

  13. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  14. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-15

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  15. Negative refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices with nonuniform artificial gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study the reflection and refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices exposed to a nonuniform artificial magnetic field. The introduction of the nonuniform artificial magnetic field to the optical lattice for suitable designer magnetic potential barrier can lead to a series of intriguing reflection and refraction phenomena of atoms, including reflection, positive refraction, negative refraction and atomic matter wave splitting. Both the occurrence and the distribution of these reflection and refraction scenarios can be coherently controlled by the nonuniform artificial magnetic field. In particular, the regions close to the boundary of reflection demonstrate two more interesting propagation modes, i.e., a reflected branch of atoms comprising a positive or negative refracted branch of atoms with almost same atom population will be excited simultaneously at the magnetic potential barrier. The results can be a guide for the coherent control of the matter waves in optical lattices and the design of new atom optics devices.

  16. Towards quantum simulation with two-electron 173Yb fermions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Zou, Yueyang; He, Chengdong; Haciyev, Elnur; Cai, Geyue; Chan, Wing Kin; Huang, Wei; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2016-05-01

    Recent development of cooling and manipulating Ytterbium atoms opens a new avenue to investigate unprecedented atomic systems with SU(N) spin symmetry and orbital degrees of freedom. The available metastable states and narrow-line optical transitions of Ytterbium atoms allow for the versatile control of the system. Here, we first describe our apparatus for producing ultracold Ytterbium-173 quantum gases in an optical lattice. A gas of 3 ×104 Ytterbium-173 atoms is routinely produced at T /TF ~ 0 . 3 , and loaded into an optical lattice potential. Then we report our recent progress on the spin orbital (SO) coupling interaction realized in optical lattice. As a novel quantum simulator, cold Ytterbium atoms with SO coupling provide a platform to explore the intriguing topological physics. Funded by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong Project# 16300215.

  17. Ultracold Nonreactive Molecules in an Optical Lattice: Connecting Chemistry to Many-Body Physics.

    PubMed

    Doçaj, Andris; Wall, Michael L; Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R A

    2016-04-01

    We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice, analogous to the Hubbard model that describes ultracold atoms in a lattice. In stark contrast to the Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multichannel interaction, whose properties we elucidate. Because this arises from complex short-range collisional physics, it requires no dipolar interactions and thus occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We show that the effective model parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which, consequently, measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in a free-space ultracold gas. PMID:27081984

  18. Ultracold Nonreactive Molecules in an Optical Lattice: Connecting Chemistry to Many-Body Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doçaj, Andris; Wall, Michael L.; Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2016-04-01

    We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice, analogous to the Hubbard model that describes ultracold atoms in a lattice. In stark contrast to the Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multichannel interaction, whose properties we elucidate. Because this arises from complex short-range collisional physics, it requires no dipolar interactions and thus occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We show that the effective model parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which, consequently, measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in a free-space ultracold gas.

  19. Ultracold nonreactive molecules in an optical lattice: connecting chemistry to many-body physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Ewart, Kevin; Alam, Shah; Wall, Michael; Doçaj, Andris; Hazzard, Kaden

    2016-05-01

    We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice. In stark contrast to the standard Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multi-channel interaction. The complex, multi-channel collisional physics is unrelated to dipolar interactions, and so occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We devise ways to control the effective model parameters using external fields and lattice anisotropy. We show that these parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in an ultracold gas. We will report our progress calculating this novel model's ground state phase diagram.

  20. Resolved Sideband Spectroscopy and Cooling of Strontium in a 532-nm Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, James; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.

    2016-05-01

    Resolved sideband cooling is a powerful and well established technique for driving ultracold atoms in optical lattices to the motional ground state of individual lattice sites. Here we present spectroscopy of the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3P1 transition for neutral strontium-84 in a 532nm optical lattice. Resolved red- and blue-detuned sidebands are observed corresponding to changes in the motional state in the lattice sites. Driving the red sideband, we demonstrate cooling into the ground state, which increases the initial phase-space density before forced evaporative cooling. This is a promising technique for improving the production of strontium quantum degenerate gases. Research supported by the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grant No. C-1844.

  1. Dynamics of cold bosons in optical lattices: effects of higher Bloch bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łącki, Mateusz; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The extended effective multiorbital Bose-Hubbard-type Hamiltonian which takes into account higher Bloch bands is discussed for boson systems in optical lattices, with emphasis on dynamical properties, in relation to current experiments. It is shown that the renormalization of Hamiltonian parameters depends on the dimension of the problem studied. Therefore, mean-field phase diagrams do not scale with the coordination number of the lattice. The effect of Hamiltonian parameters renormalization on the dynamics in reduced one-dimensional optical lattice potential is analyzed. We study both the quasi-adiabatic quench through the superfluid-Mott insulator transition and the absorption spectroscopy, that is, the energy absorption rate when the lattice depth is periodically modulated.

  2. Weyl points in three-dimensional optical lattices: synthetic magnetic monopoles in momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, Hrvoje; Dubcek, Tena; Kennedy, Colin; Lu, Ling; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-05-01

    We show that Hamiltonians with Weyl points can be realized for ultracold atoms using laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional (3D) optical lattices. Weyl points are synthetic magnetic monopoles that exhibit a robust, 3D linear dispersion (e.g., see). They are associated with many interesting topological states of matter, such as Weyl semimetals and chiral Weyl fermions. However, Weyl points have yet to be experimentally observed in any system. We show that this elusive goal is well-within experimental reach with an extension of the techniques recently used to obtain the Harper Hamiltonian. We propose using laser assisted tunneling to create a 3D optical lattice, with specifically designed hopping between lattice sites that breaks inversion symmetry. The design leads to creation of four Weyl points in the Brillouin zone of the lattice, which are verified to be monopoles of the synthetic magnetic field. Supported by the Unity through Knowledge Fund (Grant 5/13).

  3. Mechanical and electronic energy eigenstates of neutral Rb atoms in deep optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzner, Andreas; Koerber, Matthias; Morin, Olivier; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Optical lattices allow for tight three-dimensional confinement of neutral atoms in quasi-harmonic potentials and have become a standard tool in experimental quantum optics. Applications range from fundamental topics like metrology to applications in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Here we present an experimental characterization of the motional and internal energy eigenstates of optically trapped 87Rb atoms. We implement different spectroscopy techniques based on non-destructive hyperfine state detection using an optical cavity. Applying these techniques, we observe and explain a series of effects like the decoupling of the hyperfine spin due to a tensor lightshift and mechanical effects associated with a small non-orthogonality of the lattice axes. Furthermore, we succeed to exploit the latter for optical cooling of a single atom into the two-dimensional mechanical groundstate in an environment with restricted optical access.

  4. Light scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices as an optical probe of quantum statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut

    2007-11-15

    We study off-resonant collective light scattering from ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the spatial intensity distribution, quadrature variances, photon statistics, or spectral measurements. In particular, angle-resolved intensity measurements reflect global statistics of atoms (total number of radiating atoms) as well as local statistical quantities (single-site statistics even without optical access to a single site) and pair correlations between different sites. As a striking example we consider scattering from transversally illuminated atoms into an optical cavity mode. For the Mott-insulator state, similar to classical diffraction, the number of photons scattered into a cavity is zero due to destructive interference, while for the superfluid state it is nonzero and proportional to the number of atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that light scattering into a standing-wave cavity has a nontrivial angle dependence, including the appearance of narrow features at angles, where classical diffraction predicts zero. The measurement procedure corresponds to the quantum nondemolition measurement of various atomic variables by observing light.

  5. Dynamics of surface dipole and tripole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media with optical lattice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2013-10-01

    We find the existence conditions for stationary dipole and tripole surface solitons formed at the interface of a nonlocal nonlinear medium and a lattice with linearly modulated frequency. We investigate how the degree of nonlocality, the depth, and the modulation frequency of the optical lattice field affect on the existence of the surface solitons and their dynamics. The relationship between the power and the model parameters is identified. The stability of the surface dipole and tripole solitons is numerically investigated.

  6. Rice-Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przysiężna, Anna; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Attractive ultracold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken optical lattice are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking, a dimerized structure emerges for which the system realizes paradigmatic physics described by the Rice-Mele model. The emergent nature of the system together with density fluctuations or controlled modifications of lattice filling allow for the creation of defects. Those defects lead to topologically protected localized modes carrying the fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

  7. Interacting bosons in an optical lattice: Bose-Einstein condensates and Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Fialko, O.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.

    2007-05-15

    A dense Bose gas with hard-core interaction is considered in an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram in terms of a special mean-field theory that describes a Bose-Einstein condensate and a Mott insulator with a single particle per lattice site for zero as well as for nonzero temperatures. We calculate the densities, the excitation spectrum, and the static structure factor for each of these phases.

  8. Pulsating Instability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam; Kostrun, Marijan; Javanainen, Juha

    2008-08-15

    We find numerically that in the limit of weak atom-atom interactions a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice may develop a pulsating dynamical instability in which the atoms nearly periodically form a peak in the occupation numbers of the lattice sites, and then return to the unstable initial state. Multiple peaks behaving similarly are also found. Simple arguments show that the pulsating instability is a remnant of integrability, and give a handle on the relevant physical scales.

  9. Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Hamner, C; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M A; Davis, Matthew J; Engels, P

    2015-02-20

    We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system. PMID:25763940

  10. Modified Jeener solid-echo pulse sequences for the measurement of the proton dipolar spin-lattice relaxation time (T1D) of tissue solid-like macromolecular components.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Schleich, T

    1994-11-01

    Modified Jeener solid-echo pulse sequences are proposed for the measurement of the proton dipolar spin-lattice relaxation time, T1D, of motionally restricted (solid-like) components in the presence of mobile molecular species, such as encountered in biological tissue. A phase-cycled composite-pulse sequence was used for detection of the dipolar signal and cancellation of the Zeeman signal. A homospoil gradient pulse was added to the Jeener echo pulse sequence to enhance dephasing of the transverse magnetization components of mobile species, thereby aiding in elimination of the Zeeman signal during dipolar signal acquisition. A modified Jeener echo sequence incorporating water suppression is also proposed as a means to further depress the Zeeman signal arising from mobile components. The modified Jeener echo sequences were successfully used for the measurement of proton T1D values of solid 2,6-dimethylphenol and Sephadex gels of differing degrees of cross linking and hydration. PMID:7531583

  11. One-dimensional Bose gas in optical lattices of arbitrary strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrakharchik, Grigory E.; Krutitsky, Konstantin V.; Lewenstein, Maciej; Mazzanti, Ferran

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional Bose gas with contact interaction in optical lattices at zero temperature is investigated by means of the exact diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. The results obtained from the fundamental continuous model are compared with those obtained from the lattice (discrete) Bose-Hubbard model, using exact diagonalization, and from the quantum sine-Gordon model. We map out the complete phase diagram of the continuous model and determine the regions of applicability of the Bose-Hubbard model. Various physical quantities characterizing the systems are calculated, and it is demonstrated that the sine-Gordon model used for shallow lattices is inaccurate.

  12. Solids and Supersolids of Three-Body Interacting Polar Molecules on an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Kai P.; Dorier, Julien; Laeuchli, Andreas M.

    2008-10-10

    We study the physics of cold polar molecules loaded into an optical lattice in the regime of strong three-body interactions, as put forward recently by Buechler et al.[Nature Phys. 3, 726 (2007)]. To this end, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, exact diagonalization, and a semiclassical approach are used to explore hard-core bosons on the 2D square lattice which interact solely by long-ranged three-body terms. The resulting phase diagram shows a sequence of solid and supersolid phases. Our findings are directly relevant for future experimental implementations and open a new route towards the discovery of a lattice supersolid phase in experiment.

  13. Alkali-metal gases in optical lattices: Possible new type of quantum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerovich, A. E.

    2003-11-01

    Similarities between alkali-metal gases in optical lattices with noninteger occupation of the lattice sites and quantum crystals are explored. The analogy with the vacancy liquid (VL) provides an alternative explanation to the Mott transition for the recent experiment on the phase transition in the lattice. The VL can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) with Tc within experimental reach. Direct and vacancy-assisted mechanisms of the band motion for hyperfine impurities are discussed. A large concentration of vacancies can result in the spatial decomposition of the system into pure hyperfine components. Below the vacancy condensation the impurity component resembles 3He in 3He He II mixtures.

  14. Increasing the filling of ultracold KRb molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven; Covey, Jacob; Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo; Miecnikowski, Matthew; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. Recently, our group observed spin exchange interactions between KRb molecules in a 3D optical lattice, which is one of the first steps towards studying lattice spin models with polar molecules. The lattice fillings were about 10% or less in these experiments. Future experiments will benefit greatly from lower entropies and higher lattice fillings. Here, we have investigated the molecular creation process in a 3D optical lattice with the goal of maximizing the filling fraction. We start by loading a BEC of Rb and a degenerate Fermi gas of K into a 3D optical lattice. In the absence of K, Rb is a Mott insulator. We study how the Mott insulator and the filling of Rb are affected by the presence of K and develop a strategy to maintain high Rb filling throughout the molecule production process. We also find that we can convert a large fraction of these Rb to molecules when we operate with low Rb numbers. We acknowledge funding from DARPA, DOE, NIST, NSF, AFOSR, and the NDSEG Graduate Fellowship.

  15. Signatures of spatial inversion asymmetry of an optical lattice observed in matter-wave diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claire K.; Barter, Thomas H.; Leung, Tsz Him; Okano, Masayuki; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of a two-dimensional honeycomb optical lattice potential with small inversion asymmetry is characterized using coherent diffraction of 87 Rb atoms. We demonstrate that even a small potential asymmetry, with peak-to-peak amplitude of <= 2 . 3 % of the overall lattice potential, can lead to pronounced inversion asymmetry in the momentum-space diffraction pattern. The observed asymmetry is explained quantitatively by considering both Kaptiza-Dirac scattering in the Raman-Nath regime, and also either perturbative or full-numerical treatment of the band structure of a periodic potential with a weak inversion symmetry breaking term. Our results have relevance both for the experimental development of coherent atom optics and also for the proper interpretation of time-of-flight assays of atomic materials in optical lattices. This work was supported by the NSF and the AFOSR through the MURI program.

  16. Time-normalized correlation function of ultracold atomic gas released from an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yan; Chen Lisheng; Xiong Hongwei

    2007-12-15

    The time-correlation function of ultracold atomic gas is theoretically investigated. Atoms are initially confined in an optical lattice and in a Mott insulator regime. We consider the effect of gravity on the time correlation among atomic wave functions when the atomic cloud is released from the optical lattice. The time-correlation function in this process displays sharp peaks, a feature that is analogous to the spatial-normalized correlation observed in recent experiments. The origin and properties of the interference pattern are theoretically investigated in detail. Similar to the spatial correlation, the time correlation in expanding atomic clouds reveals the ordering of indistinguishable particles in an optical lattice. Experimental detection scheme and its potential use in the measurement of gravitational acceleration are briefly discussed.

  17. Signatures of spatial inversion asymmetry of an optical lattice observed in matter-wave diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. K.; Barter, T. H.; Leung, T.-H.; Daiss, S.; Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    The structure of a two-dimensional honeycomb optical lattice potential with small inversion asymmetry is characterized using coherent diffraction of 87Rb atoms. We demonstrate that even a small potential asymmetry, with peak-to-peak amplitude of ≤2.3 % of the overall lattice potential, can lead to pronounced inversion asymmetry in the momentum-space diffraction pattern. The observed asymmetry is explained quantitatively by considering both Kapitza-Dirac scattering in the Raman-Nath regime and also either perturbative or full-numerical treatment of the band structure of a periodic potential with a weak inversion-symmetry-breaking term. Our results have relevance for both the experimental development of coherent atom optics and the proper interpretation of time-of-flight assays of atomic materials in optical lattices.

  18. Vortex Formation of Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates in Synthetic Magnetic Field with Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.

  19. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions.

  20. Atomic Bloch-Zener oscillations and Stückelberg interferometry in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stückelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone. PMID:21231316

  1. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566

  2. A quantum gas of polar KRb molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob; Miecnikowski, Matthew; Moses, Steven; Fu, Zhengkun; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules provide new opportunities for investigation of strongly correlated many-body spin systems such as many-body localization and quantum magnetism. In an effort to access such phenomena, we load polar KRb molecules into a three-dimensional optical lattice. In this system, we observed many-body spin dynamics between molecules pinned in a deep lattice, even though the filling fraction of the molecules was only 5%. We have recently performed a thorough investigation of the molecule creation process in an optical lattice, and consequently improved our filling fraction to 30% by preparing and overlapping Mott and band insulators of the initial atomic gases. More recently, we switched to a second generation KRb apparatus that will allow application of large, stable electric fields as well as high-resolution addressing and detection of polar molecules in optical lattices. We plan to use these capabilities to study non-equilibrium spin dynamics in an optical lattice with nearly single site resolution. I will present the status and direction of the second generation apparatus.

  3. Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  4. Dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices do not follow an inverse cube power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M. L.; Carr, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    We study the effective dipole-dipole interactions in ultracold quantum gases on optical lattices as a function of asymmetry in confinement along the principal axes of the lattice. In particular, we study the matrix elements of the dipole-dipole interaction in the basis of lowest band Wannier functions which serve as a set of low-energy states for many-body physics on the lattice. We demonstrate that, for shallow lattices in quasi-reduced dimensional scenarios, the effective interaction between dipoles in an optical lattice is non-algebraic in the inter-particle separation at short to medium distance on the lattice scale and has a long-range power-law tail, in contrast to the pure power-law behavior of the dipole-dipole interaction in free space. The modifications to the free-space interaction can be sizable; we identify differences of up to 36% from the free-space interaction at the nearest-neighbor distance in quasi-one-dimensional arrangements. The interaction difference depends essentially on asymmetry in confinement, due to the d-wave anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction. Our results do not depend on statistics, applying to both dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Using matrix product state simulations, we demonstrate that use of the correct lattice dipolar interaction leads to significant deviations from many-body predictions using the free-space interaction. Our results are relevant to up and coming experiments with ultracold heteronuclear molecules, Rydberg atoms and strongly magnetic atoms in optical lattices.

  5. Self-consistent Hartree-Fock approach for interacting bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qin-Qin; Patton, Kelly R.; Sheehy, Daniel E.

    2014-12-01

    A theoretical study of interacting bosons in a periodic optical lattice is presented. Instead of the commonly used tight-binding approach (applicable near the Mott-insulating regime of the phase diagram), the present work starts from the exact single-particle states of bosons in a cubic optical lattice, satisfying the Mathieu equation, an approach that can be particularly useful at large boson fillings. The effects of short-range interactions are incorporated using a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation, and predictions for experimental observables such as the superfluid transition temperature, condensate fraction, and boson momentum distribution are presented.

  6. Response to dynamical modulation of the optical lattice for fermions in the Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhaoxin; Yang Shuxiang; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Chiesa, Simone; Su Shiquan; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2011-08-15

    Fermionic atoms in a periodic optical lattice provide a realization of the single-band Hubbard model. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations along with the maximum-entropy method, we evaluate the effect of a time-dependent perturbative modulation of the optical lattice amplitude on atomic correlations, revealed in the fraction of doubly occupied sites. We find that the effect of modulation depends strongly on the filling--the response of the double occupation is significantly different in the half-filled Mott insulator from that in the doped Fermi liquid region.

  7. Possibility of Stark-insensitive cotrapping of two atomic species in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Muir J.; Derevianko, A.; Dzuba, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    Much effort has been devoted to removing differential Stark shifts for atoms trapped in specially tailored ''magic'' optical lattices, but thus far work has focused on a single trapped atomic species. In this work, we extend these ideas to include two atomic species sharing the same optical lattice. We show qualitatively that, in particular, scalar J=0 divalent atoms paired with nonscalar state atoms have the necessary characteristics to achieve such Stark shift cancellation. We then present numerical results on ''magic'' trapping conditions for {sup 27}Al paired with {sup 87}Sr, as well as several other divalent atoms.

  8. Possibility of Stark-insensitive cotrapping of two atomic species in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Muir J.; Dzuba, V. A.; Derevianko, A.

    2011-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to removing differential Stark shifts for atoms trapped in specially tailored “magic” optical lattices, but thus far work has focused on a single trapped atomic species. In this work, we extend these ideas to include two atomic species sharing the same optical lattice. We show qualitatively that, in particular, scalar J=0 divalent atoms paired with nonscalar state atoms have the necessary characteristics to achieve such Stark shift cancellation. We then present numerical results on “magic” trapping conditions for Al27 paired with Sr87, as well as several other divalent atoms.

  9. Possibility of Stark-insensitive cotrapping of two atomic species in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Muir; Dzuba, V. A.; Derevianko, A.

    2011-05-01

    Much effort has been devoted to removing differential Stark shifts for atoms trapped in specially tailored ``magic'' optical lattices, but thus far work has focused on a single trapped atomic species. In this work, we extend these ideas to include two atomic species sharing the same optical lattice. We show qualitatively that, in particular, scalar J = 0 divalent atoms paired with non-scalar state atoms have the necessary characteristics to achieve such Stark shift cancellation. We then present numerical results on ``magic'' trapping conditions for 27Al paired with 87Sr, as well as several other divalent atoms.

  10. Quantum Entangled Dark Solitons Formed by Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mishmash, R. V.; Carr, L. D.

    2009-10-02

    Inspired by experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, we study the quantum evolution of dark soliton initial conditions in the context of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. An extensive set of quantum measures is utilized in our analysis, including von Neumann and generalized quantum entropies, quantum depletion, and the pair correlation function. We find that quantum effects cause the soliton to fill in. Moreover, soliton-soliton collisions become inelastic, in strong contrast to the predictions of mean-field theory. These features show that the lifetime and collision properties of dark solitons in optical lattices provide clear signals of quantum effects.

  11. Hidden-symmetry-protected quantum pseudo-spin Hall effect in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a Z2 topological insulator in a square optical lattice. Different from the conventional topological insulator protected by the time-reversal symmetry, here the optical lattice possesses a hidden symmetry, which is responsible for the present Z2 topological order. With a properly defined pseudospin, such a topological insulator is characterized by the helical edge states that exhibits pseudo-spin-momentum locking, so it can be considered as a quantum pseudo-spin Hall insulator. The Z2 topological invariant is derived and its experimental detection is discussed as well.

  12. Stability of Superfluid and Supersolid Phases of Dipolar Bosons in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Danshita, Ippei; Sa de Melo, Carlos A. R.

    2009-11-27

    We perform a stability analysis of superfluid (SF) and supersolid (SS) phases of polarized dipolar bosons in two-dimensional optical lattices at high filling factors and zero temperature, and obtain the phase boundaries between SF, checkerboard SS (CSS), striped SS (SSS), and collapse. We show that the phase diagram can be explored through the application of an external field and the tuning of its direction with respect to the optical lattice plane. In particular, we find a transition between the CSS and SSS phases.

  13. Linear optics design of negative momentum compaction lattices for PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Papaphilippou,Y.; de Maria,R.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; Goddard, B.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    In view of the CERN Proton Synchrotron proposed replacement with a new ring (PS2), a detailed optics design has been undertaken following the evaluation of several lattice options. The basic arc module consists of cells providing negative momentum compaction. The straight section is formed with a combination of FODO and quadrupole triplet cells, to accommodate the injection and extraction systems, in particular the H{sup -} injection elements. The arc is matched to the straight section with a dispersion suppressor and matching module. Different lattices are compared with respect to their linear optics functions, tuning flexibility and geometrical acceptance properties.

  14. High-precision spectroscopy of ultracold molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, B. H.; McDonald, M.; Iwata, G. Z.; Tarallo, M. G.; Grier, A. T.; Apfelbeck, F.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2015-05-01

    The study of ultracold molecules tightly trapped in an optical lattice can expand the frontier of precision measurement and spectroscopy, and provide a deeper insight into molecular and fundamental physics. Here we create, probe, and image microkelvin 88Sr2 molecules in a lattice, and demonstrate precise measurements of molecular parameters as well as coherent control of molecular quantum states using optical fields. We discuss the sensitivity of the system to dimensional effects, a new bound-to-continuum spectroscopy technique for highly accurate binding energy measurements, and prospects for new physics with this rich experimental system.

  15. Dynamics of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingzhi; Chen, Zhifeng

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the formation of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices and show the various dynamics of these solitons. Particularly, the stable high-order polarized vortex solitons, which are not found in local media with Bessel optical lattices, are found in nonlocal media. It is found that the nonlocal nonlinearity plays an important role in the stability of these solitons which is similar to that of phase vortex solitons. However, we show that the dynamics of these polarized vortex solitons are quite different from the phase vortex solitons. PMID:26406632

  16. Multiphoton interband excitations of quantum gases in driven optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, M.; Ölschläger, C.; Sträter, C.; Prelle, S.; Eckardt, A.; Sengstock, K.; Simonet, J.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observation of multiphoton interband absorption processes for quantum gases in shaken light crystals. Periodic inertial forcing, induced by a spatial motion of the lattice potential, drives multiphoton interband excitations of up to the ninth order. The occurrence of such excitation features is systematically investigated with respect to the potential depth and the driving amplitude. Ab initio calculations of resonance positions as well as numerical evaluation of their strengths exhibit good agreement with experimental data. In addition our findings could make it possible to reach novel phases of quantum matter by tailoring appropriate driving schemes.

  17. Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of optical lattices can be engineered, allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of matter-wave propagation as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we investigated, theoretically, the quantum transport of noninteracting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena are discussed.

  18. Imaging and addressing of individual fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, G. J. A.; Anderson, R.; Jervis, D.; McKay, D. C.; Day, R.; Trotzky, S.; Thywissen, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate fluorescence microscopy of individual fermionic potassium atoms in a 527-nm-period optical lattice. Using electromagnetically induced transparency cooling on the 770.1-nm D1 transition of 40K , we find that atoms remain at individual sites of a 0.2-mK-deep lattice, with a 1 /e pinning lifetime of 67 (9 )s , while scattering ˜103 photons per second. The plane to be imaged is isolated using microwave spectroscopy in a magnetic-field gradient, and can be chosen at any depth within the three-dimensional lattice. With a similar protocol, we also demonstrate patterned selection within a single lattice plane. High-resolution images are acquired using a microscope objective with 0.8 numerical aperture, from which we determine the occupation of lattice sites in the imaging plane with 94(2)% fidelity per atom. Imaging with single-atom sensitivity and addressing with single-site accuracy are key steps towards the search for unconventional superfluidity of fermions in optical lattices, the initialization and characterization of transport and nonequilibrium dynamics, and the observation of magnetic domains.

  19. Relaxation Dynamics Of Bose-Fermi Doublons In Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Gärttner, Martin; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Wall, Michael L.; Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment at JILA we investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a dilute Fermi-Bose mixture, starting from a well-defined initial state, where each lattice site is either empty or occupied by a Bose-Fermi doublon. Utilizing analytical techniques and numerical simulations using the t-DRMG method, we identify the leading relaxation mechanisms of the doublons. At short times strong interactions tend to hold the doublons together, as previously reported in similar type of experiments made with identical bosons or two component fermions. Since the fermions feel a much shallower lattice than the bosons, the bosons can be visualized as random localization centers for the fermions. However, at longer times the boson tunneling cannot be ignored and additional decay channels unique to Bose-Fermi mixtures become relevant. While cluster expansion allows us to characterize the short time dynamics for dilute arrays, the long time relaxation dynamics at higher densities is strongly correlated. In this regime exact numerical techniques are employed. JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  20. The Sr optical lattice clock at JILA: A new record in atomic clock performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Travis; Bloom, Benjamin; Williams, Jason; Campbell, Sara; Bishof, Michael; Zhang, Xibo; Zhang, Wei; Bromley, Sarah; Hutson, Ross; McNally, Rees; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    The exquisite control exhibited over quantum states of individual particles has revolutionized the field of precision measurement, as exemplified by highly accurate atomic clocks. Optical clocks have been the most accurate frequency standards for the better part of a decade, surpassing even the cesium microwave fountains upon which the SI second is based. Two classes of optical clocks have outperformed cesium: single-ion clocks and optical lattice clocks. Historically ion clocks have always been more accurate, and the precision of ion clocks and lattice clocks has been comparable. For years it has been unclear if lattice clocks can overcome key systematics and become more accurate than ion clocks. In this presentation I report the first lattice clock that has surpassed ion clocks in both precision and accuracy. These measurements represent a tenfold improvement in precision and a factor of 20 improvement in accuracy over the previous best lattice clock results. This work paves the way for a better realization of SI units, the development of more sophisticated quantum sensors, and precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature.

  1. Short-range quantum magnetism of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Greif, Daniel; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Tarruell, Leticia; Esslinger, Tilman

    2013-06-14

    Quantum magnetism originates from the exchange coupling between quantum mechanical spins. Here, we report on the observation of nearest-neighbor magnetic correlations emerging in the many-body state of a thermalized Fermi gas in an optical lattice. The key to obtaining short-range magnetic order is a local redistribution of entropy, which allows temperatures below the exchange energy for a subset of lattice bonds. When loading a repulsively interacting gas into either dimerized or anisotropic simple cubic configurations of a tunable-geometry lattice, we observe an excess of singlets as compared with triplets consisting of two opposite spins. For the anisotropic lattice, the transverse spin correlator reveals antiferromagnetic correlations along one spatial axis. Our work facilitates addressing open problems in quantum magnetism through the use of quantum simulation. PMID:23704375

  2. Dicke superradiance as nondestructive probe for the state of atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brinke, Nicolai; Schützhold, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a proposal for a probing scheme utilizing Dicke superradiance to obtain information about ultracold atoms in optical lattices. A probe photon is absorbed collectively by an ensemble of lattice atoms generating a Dicke state. The lattice dynamics (e.g., tunneling) affects the coherence properties of that Dicke state and thus alters the superradiant emission characteristics - which in turn provides insight into the lattice (dynamics). Comparing the Bose-Hubbard and the Fermi-Hubbard model, we find similar superradiance in the strongly interacting Mott insulator regime, but crucial differences in the weakly interacting (superfluid or metallic) phase. Furthermore, we study the possibility to detect whether a quantum phase transition between the two regimes can be considered adiabatic or a quantum quench.

  3. Dicke superradiance as nondestructive probe for the state of atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinke, Nicolai ten; Schützhold, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    We present a proposal for a probing scheme utilizing Dicke superradiance to obtain information about ultracold atoms in optical lattices. A probe photon is absorbed collectively by an ensemble of lattice atoms generating a Dicke state. The lattice dynamics (e.g., tunneling) affects the coherence properties of that Dicke state and thus alters the superradiant emission characteristics - which in turn provides insight into the lattice (dynamics). Comparing the Bose-Hubbard and the Fermi-Hubbard model, we find similar superradiance in the strongly interacting Mott insulator regime, but crucial differences in the weakly interacting (superfluid or metallic) phase. Furthermore, we study the possibility to detect whether a quantum phase transition between the two regimes can be considered adiabatic or a quantum quench.

  4. Optical increase of photo-integrated micro- and nano-periodic susceptibility lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Vitaly A.; Vostrikova, Liubov I.

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the nonlinear photo-integrated micro- and nano-periodic second-order susceptibility lattices with very small amplitudes which were preliminarily recorded using bi-chromatic powerful laser light in amorphous glass materials can be increased up to some orders of magnitude under the action of a simple coherent monochromatic radiation. The optical increase of the small lattices takes place independent of the polarization and direction of propagation of the optical amplifying radiation and is achieved at various wavelengths. The observed phenomenon is not be explained only by nonlinear wave interaction in medium and also may be related to the microscopic asymmetry processes of the optical transitions between local centers in an isotropic medium that leads to the appearance and growth of the all-optically induced small micro- and nano-periodic electrical charges separations inside the sample. Possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed effects in the studied phosphate glasses are discussed.

  5. Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Z.W.; Hoyt, C.W.; Oates, C.W.; Hollberg, L.; Taichenachev, A.V.; Yudin, V.I.

    2006-03-03

    We report direct single-laser excitation of the strictly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 174}Yb atoms confined to a 1D optical lattice. A small ({approx}1.2 mT) static magnetic field was used to induce a nonzero electric dipole transition probability between the clock states at 578.42 nm. Narrow resonance linewidths of 20 Hz (FWHM) with high contrast were observed, demonstrating a resonance quality factor of 2.6x10{sup 13}. The previously unknown ac Stark shift-canceling (magic) wavelength was determined to be 759.35{+-}0.02 nm. This method for using the metrologically superior even isotope can be easily implemented in current Yb and Sr lattice clocks and can create new clock possibilities in other alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Mg and Ca.

  6. Heterodimer of two distinguishable atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Odong, Otim; Sanders, Jerome C.; Javanainen, Juha

    2011-09-15

    Within the Bose-Hubbard model, we theoretically determine the stationary states of two distinguishable atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice and compare with the case of two identical bosons. A heterodimer has odd-parity dissociated states that do not depend on the interactions between the atoms, and the lattice momenta of the two atomic species may have different averages even for a bound state of the dimer. We discuss methods to detect the dimer. The different distributions of the quasimomenta of the two species may be observed in suitable time-of-flight experiments. Also, an asymmetry in the lineshape as a function of the modulation frequency may reveal the presence of the odd-parity dissociated states when a heterodimer is dissociated by modulating the depth of the optical lattice.

  7. Hidden nonsymmorphic symmetry in optical lattices with one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.

    2016-05-01

    We uncover the nonsymmorphic symmetry and investigate its effects on the noncollinear band structures of a quasi-two-dimensional optical lattice with synthetic one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling and a tunable Zeeman field. The perpendicular Zeeman field breaks time-reversal symmetry and lifts the Kramers degeneracy which is protected by time-reversal and generalized inversion symmetries. Interestingly, we find that the degeneracy of Bloch bands on the border of the Brillouin zone is immune to the Zeeman field. This degeneracy, reminiscent of that in nonsymmorphic crystals, is protected by the hidden glide-plane symmetry that comprises a physical reflection involving both spatial and spin degrees of freedom followed by a nonprimitive lattice translation. Furthermore, we show that the band degeneracy can be lifted by the glide-plane-symmetry-breaking lattice potential. Finally, we propose to detect these effects by measuring a dynamical structure factor with optical Bragg spectroscopy.

  8. Bose-Einstein quantum phase transition in an optical lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Aizenman, Michael; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert; Solovej, Jan Philip; Yngvason, Jakob

    2004-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold gases can be turned on and off by an external potential, such as that presented by an optical lattice. We present a model of this phenomenon which we are able to analyze rigorously. The system is a hard core lattice gas at half of the maximum density and the optical lattice is modeled by a periodic potential of strength {lambda}. For small {lambda} and temperature, BEC is proved to occur, while at large {lambda} or temperature there is no BEC. At large {lambda} the low-temperature states are in a Mott insulator phase with a characteristic gap that is absent in the BEC phase. The interparticle interaction is essential for this transition, which occurs even in the ground state. Surprisingly, the condensation is always into the p=0 mode in this model, although the density itself has the periodicity of the imposed potential.

  9. Realization of the Hofstadter Hamiltonian with ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Aidelsburger, M; Atala, M; Lohse, M; Barreiro, J T; Paredes, B; Bloch, I

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the experimental implementation of an optical lattice that allows for the generation of large homogeneous and tunable artificial magnetic fields with ultracold atoms. Using laser-assisted tunneling in a tilted optical potential, we engineer spatially dependent complex tunneling amplitudes. Thereby, atoms hopping in the lattice accumulate a phase shift equivalent to the Aharonov-Bohm phase of charged particles in a magnetic field. We determine the local distribution of fluxes through the observation of cyclotron orbits of the atoms on lattice plaquettes, showing that the system is described by the Hofstadter model. Furthermore, we show that for two atomic spin states with opposite magnetic moments, our system naturally realizes the time-reversal-symmetric Hamiltonian underlying the quantum spin Hall effect; i.e., two different spin components experience opposite directions of the magnetic field. PMID:24237530

  10. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional deterministic aperiodic photonic lattices by optical induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, F.; Boguslawski, M.; Lučić, Nemanja M.; Jović Savić, Dragana M.; Denz, C.

    2015-03-01

    Light propagation in structured photonic media covers many fascinating wave phenomena resulting from the band structure of the underlying lattice. Recently, the focus turned towards deterministic aperiodic structures exhibiting distinctive band gap properties. To experimentally study these effects, optical induction of photonic refractive index landscapes turned out to be the method of choice to fabricate these structures. In this contribution, we present a paradigm change of photonic lattice design by introducing a holographic optical induction method based on pixel-like spatially multiplexed single-site nondiffracting Bessel beams. This technique allows realizing a huge class of two-dimensional photonic structures, including deterministic aperiodic golden-angle Vogel spirals, as well as Fibonacci lattices.

  11. Fulde-Ferrell Superfluids without Spin Imbalance in Driven Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen; Qu, Chunlei; Zou, Xubo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2016-03-25

    Spin-imbalanced ultracold Fermi gases have been widely studied recently as a platform for exploring the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluid phases, but so far conclusive evidence has not been found. Here we propose to realize an Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid without spin imbalance in a three-dimensional fermionic cold atom optical lattice, where s- and p-orbital bands of the lattice are coupled by another weak moving optical lattice. Such coupling leads to a spin-independent asymmetric Fermi surface, which, together with the s-wave scattering interaction between two spins, yields an FF type of superfluid pairing. Unlike traditional schemes, our proposal does not rely on the spin imbalance (or an equivalent Zeeman field) to induce the Fermi surface mismatch and provides a completely new route for realizing FF superfluids. PMID:27058062

  12. Semiclassical solitons in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Demler, Eugene; Maltsev, Andrei

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. > Regime of very strong interactions between atoms, the so-called hard core bosons regime. > Character of soliton excitations is dramatically different from the usual Gross-Pitaevskii regime. - Abstract: We investigate theoretically soliton excitations and dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in two and three dimensional optical lattices. We derive equations of nonlinear hydrodynamics in the regime of strong interactions and incommensurate fillings, when atoms can be treated as hard core bosons. When parameters change in one direction only we obtain Korteweg-de Vries type equation away from half-filling and modified KdV equation at half-filling. We apply this general analysis to a problem of the decay of the density step. We consider stability of one dimensional solutions to transverse fluctuations. Our results are also relevant for understanding nonequilibrium dynamics of lattice spin models.

  13. Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands. PMID:26511890

  14. Quantum critical behavior and trap-size scaling of trapped bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-06-15

    We study the quantum (zero-temperature) critical behaviors of confined particle systems described by the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model in the presence of a confining potential, at the Mott insulator to superfluid transitions, and within the gapless superfluid phase. Specifically, we consider the hard-core limit of the model, which allows us to study the effects of the confining potential by exact and very accurate numerical results. We analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the large trap-size limit within the framework of the trap-size scaling (TSS) theory, which introduces a new trap exponent {theta} to describe the dependence on the trap size. This study is relevant for experiments of confined quasi-1D cold atom systems in optical lattices. At the low-density Mott transition, TSS can be shown analytically within the spinless fermion representation of the hard-core limit. The trap-size dependence turns out to be more subtle in the other critical regions, when the corresponding homogeneous system has a nonzero filling f, showing an infinite number of level crossings of the lowest states when increasing the trap size. At the n=1 Mott transition, this gives rise to a modulated TSS: The TSS is still controlled by the trap-size exponent {theta}, but it gets modulated by periodic functions of the trap size. Modulations of the asymptotic power-law behavior is also found in the gapless superfluid region, with additional multiscaling behaviors.

  15. Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Tagliacozzo, L; Celi, A; Orland, P; Mitchell, M W; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors). PMID:24162080

  16. Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Orland, P.; Mitchell, M. W.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-10-01

    Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors).

  17. Atom-optics simulator of lattice transport phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Eric J.; An, Fangzhao Alex; Gadway, Bryce

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a scheme for studying lattice transport phenomena, based on the controlled momentum-space dynamics of ultracold atomic matter waves. In the effective tight-binding models that can be simulated, we demonstrate that this technique allows for a local and time-dependent control over all system parameters, and additionally allows for single-site resolved detection of atomic populations. We demonstrate full control over site-to-site off-diagonal tunneling elements (amplitude and phase) and diagonal site energies, through the observation of continuous-time quantum walks, Bloch oscillations, and negative tunneling. These capabilities open up new prospects in the experimental study of disordered and topological systems.

  18. Engineering Stark Potentials for Precision Measurements: Optical Lattice Clock and Electrodynamic Surface Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Takamoto, Masao; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Fujiki, Jun; Higashi, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Masami; Kishimoto, Tetsuo

    2005-05-05

    Employing the engineered electric fields, we demonstrate novel platforms for precision measurements with neutral atoms. (1) Applying the light shift cancellation technique, atoms trapped in an optical lattice reveal 50-Hz-narrow optical spectrum, yielding nearly an order of magnitude improvement over existing neutral-atom-based clocks. (2) Surface Stark trap has been developed to manipulate scalar atoms that are intrinsically robust to decoherence.

  19. Amplified short-wavelength light scattered by relativistic electrons in the laser-induced optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, I. A.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Malka, V.; D'Humières, E.; Balcou, Ph.

    2015-05-01

    The scheme of the x-ray free electron laser based on the optical undulator created by two overlapped transverse laser beams is analyzed. A kinetic theoretical description and an ad hoc numerical model are developed to account for the finite energy spread, angular divergence, and the spectral properties of the electron beam in the optical lattice. The theoretical findings are compared to the results of the one- and three-dimensional numerical modeling with the spectral free electron laser code plares.

  20. Microscopy of a Quantum Gas in a 2D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakr, Waseem; Peng, Amy; Tai, Ming; Ma, Ruichao; Jotzu, Gregor; Gillen, Jonathon; Foelling, Simon; Greiner, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices provide a rich experimental toolbox for simulating the physics of condensed matter systems. With atoms in the lattice playing the role of electrons or Cooper pairs in real materials, it is possible to experimentally realize condensed matter Hamiltonians in a controlled way. To realize the full potential of such quantum simulations, we have created a quantum gas microscope (NA = 0.8) which can spatially resolve the atoms in the optical lattice at the single site level, and project arbitrary potential landscapes onto the atoms by combining the high resolution optics with static holographic masks or a spatial light modulator. The high resolution microscope operates with the atoms trapped in a two dimensional optical lattice at a distance of 10 microns from a glass surface that is part of the microscope. We have experimentally verified a resolution of ˜ 600 nm, providing the capability to study the phase diagram of the Bose Hubbard model by measuring occupation number at individual sites.

  1. Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Konotop, V.V.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Salerno, M.

    2005-08-15

    A theory of the nonsymmetric Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices is presented. It is shown that periodic exchange of matter between the bands is described by a set of linearly coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The key role of the modulational instability in rendering the interband transitions irreversible is highlighted.

  2. Critical temperature of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices at arbitrary integer fillings.

    PubMed

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases. PMID:25314412

  3. Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested. PMID:27415231

  4. Optical Signatures of Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Fermionic Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordobes Aguilar, Francisco; Ho, Andrew F.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2014-07-01

    We show how off-resonant light scattering can provide quantitative information on antiferromagnetic ordering of a two-species fermionic atomic gas in a tightly-confined two-dimensional optical lattice. We analyze the emerging magnetic ordering of atoms in the mean-field and in random phase approximations and show how the many-body static and dynamic correlations, evaluated in the standard Feynman-Dyson perturbation series, can be detected in the scattered light signal. The staggered magnetization reveals itself in the magnetic Bragg peaks of the individual spin components. These magnetic peaks, however, can be considerably suppressed in the absence of a true long-range antiferromagnetic order. The light scattered outside the diffraction orders can be collected by a lens with highly improved signal-to-shot-noise ratio when the diffraction maxima are blocked. The collective and single-particle excitations are identified in the spectrum of the scattered light. We find that the spin-conserving and spin-exchanging atomic transitions convey information on density, longitudinal spin, and transverse spin correlations. The different correlations and scattering processes exhibit characteristic angular distribution profiles for the scattered light, and e.g., the diagnostic signal of transverse spin correlations could be separated from the optical response by the scattering direction, frequency, or polarization. We also analyze the detection accuracy by estimating the number of required measurements, constrained by the heating rate that is determined by inelastic light-scattering events. The imaging technique could be extended to the two-species fermionic states in other regions of the phase diagram where the ground-state properties are still not fully understood.

  5. Imaging and addressing of individual fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotzky, Stefan; Edge, Graham; Anderson, Rhys; Xu, Peihang; Venu, Vijin; Jervis, Dylan; McKay, Dave; Day, Ryan; Thywissen, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of site-resolved imaging of atoms in short-period optical lattices constitutes a milestone achievement in the study of strongly correlated matter with these systems. Its realization with bosons six years ago has boosted progress in the field. In the last year, site-resolved imaging was demonstrated for fermions in five independent experiments. We present our newest results on site-resolved microscopy of ultracold 40 K in a 527nm-period optical lattice. Atoms remain pinned during imaging due to EIT cooling on the 770nm D1 transition. We observe pinning fidelities of up to 96% for an illumination time of 2.6s during which the atoms scatter > 2000 photons. A 0.8NA objective collects the fluorescence light to be imaged onto a EMCCD camera, giving a 600nm -wide PSF. In conjunction with the known lattice geometry, this allows us to reconstruct the lattice-site occupations from the images. The imaging technique is implemented in an apparatus capable of simulating the Fermi-Hubbard model. The use of tomographic tools enables us to select single lattice planes for background free imaging. We also address in-plane patterns with straight and circular boundaries in order to eliminate inhomogeneity effects on the imaging fidelity, or for controlled entropy removal.

  6. Extended Bose Hubbard model of interacting bosonic atoms in optical lattices: From superfluidity to density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2006-01-15

    For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.

  7. Three-level Haldane-like model on a dice optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijauskas, T.; Anisimovas, E.; RačiÅ«nas, M.; Mekys, A.; Kudriašov, V.; Spielman, I. B.; JuzeliÅ«nas, G.

    2015-09-01

    We consider ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice of the dice geometry in a tight-binding regime. The atoms experience a laser-assisted tunneling between the nearest neighbor sites of the dice lattice accompanied by the momentum recoil. This allows one to engineer staggered synthetic magnetic fluxes over plaquettes, and thus pave a way towards the realization of topologically nontrivial band structures. In such a lattice the real-valued next-nearest neighbor transitions are not needed to reach a topological regime. Yet, such transitions can increase a variety of the obtained topological phases. The dice lattice represents a triangular Bravais lattice with a three-site basis consisting of a hub site connected to two rim sites. As a consequence, the dice lattice supports three energy bands. From this point of view, our model can be interpreted as a generalization of the paradigmatic Haldane model which is reproduced if one of the two rim sublattices is eliminated. We demonstrate that the proposed upgrade of the Haldane model creates a significant added value, including an easy access to topological semimetal phases relying only on the nearest neighbor coupling, as well as enhanced topological band structures featuring Chern numbers higher than one leading to physics beyond the usual quantum Hall effect. The numerical investigation is supported and complemented by an analytical scheme based on the study of singularities in the Berry connection.

  8. Two-dimensional bright and dark-in-bright dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate solitons on a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross–Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  9. Surface lattice resonances and magneto-optical response in magnetic nanoparticle arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kataja, M.; Hakala, T. K.; Julku, A.; Huttunen, M. J.; van Dijken, S.; Törmä, P.

    2015-01-01

    Structuring metallic and magnetic materials on subwavelength scales allows for extreme confinement and a versatile design of electromagnetic field modes. This may be used, for example, to enhance magneto-optical responses, to control plasmonic systems using a magnetic field, or to tailor magneto-optical properties of individual nanostructures. Here we show that periodic rectangular arrays of magnetic nanoparticles display surface plasmon modes in which the two directions of the lattice are coupled by the magnetic field-controllable spin–orbit coupling in the nanoparticles. When breaking the symmetry of the lattice, we find that the optical response shows Fano-type surface lattice resonances whose frequency is determined by the periodicity orthogonal to the polarization of the incident field. In striking contrast, the magneto-optical Kerr response is controlled by the period in the parallel direction. The spectral separation of the response for longitudinal and orthogonal excitations provides versatile tuning of narrow and intense magneto-optical resonances. PMID:25947368

  10. Possibility of triple magic trapping of clock and Rydberg states of divalent atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, T.; Derevianko, A.

    2016-07-01

    We predict the possibility of ‘triply magic’ optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the {}1{{{S}}}0 and {}3{{{P}}}0 clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.

  11. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources. PMID:27176954

  12. Wave propagation through photonic waveguide lattices in the presence of optical gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, Abbas Ghasempour

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effects of gain and loss on the light propagation through a lattice of coupled optical waveguides. We demonstrate that superdiffusive transport becomes diffusive in the presence of optical loss after a critical propagation distance as in [Phys. Rev. Lett.113, 123903 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.123903]. However, when optical gain is introduced in the lattice of coupled waveguides, the beam broadening slows down from a superdiffusive to a highly subdiffusive regime after another critical distance. The critical distance decreases with increase of loss or gain in the waveguide lattice. For equal gain and loss, the value of critical distance in the array of active waveguides is much smaller than that in the case of lattice of lossy waveguides. Furthermore, we find that the effective width in the case of lossy waveguides decreases with increase of loss at the same propagation distance. Our results confirm that the regime of beam broadening does not depend on whether the gain is introduced in the waveguides or in their surroundings. PMID:27140375

  13. Systematic Study of the ^87Sr Clock Transition in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Martin; Ludlow, Andrew; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Foreman, Seth; Blatt, Sebastian; Notcutt, Mark; Ido, Tetsuya; Ye, Jun

    2006-05-01

    The ^1S0-^3P0 transition in ^87Sr is studied for the realization of an optical atomic clock, using μK atoms in a magic wavelength optical lattice [1]. The probe laser frequency is measured with an octave-spanning fs comb, which is referenced to a hydrogen maser (directly calibrated by the NIST primary Cs fountain clock) allowing high precision evaluation of potential systematic frequency shifts . By varying the lattice wavelength and trapping depth we find that the magic wavelength for the clock transition is 813.418(10) with a clock sensitivity to lattice deviations of ˜2 mHz/MHz for lattice intensities of 10 kW/cm^2. To explore the effect of atomic collisions on the clock frequency we varied the atomic density by a factor of 50 and did not find any shifts at the 3 x10-14 level. Dependence of the clock transition on magnetic fields has been examined as the hyperfine interaction (I = 9/2), which provides the small transition moment for the doubly forbidden clock transition, also results in a differential g factor of the ^3P0 and ^1S0 levels. We will report the latest results of this optical clock system. [1] A.D. Ludlow et al., Phys Rev Lett 96, 033003 (2006).

  14. Micromagic Clock: Microwave Clock Based on Atoms in an Engineered Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2009-03-27

    We propose a new class of atomic microwave clocks based on the hyperfine transitions in the ground state of aluminum or gallium atoms trapped in optical lattices. For such elements magic wavelengths exist at which both levels of the hyperfine doublet are shifted at the same rate by the lattice laser field, canceling its effect on the clock transition. A similar mechanism for the magic wavelengths may work in microwave hyperfine transitions in other atoms which have the fine-structure multiplets in the ground state.

  15. Magic Wavelength to Make Optical Lattice Clocks Insensitive to Atomic Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Il'inova, E. Yu.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-10-09

    In a standing wave of light, a difference in spatial distributions of multipolar atom-field interactions may introduce atomic-motion dependent clock uncertainties in optical lattice clocks. We show that the magic wavelength can be defined so as to eliminate the spatial mismatch in electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole interactions for specific combinations of standing waves by allowing a spatially constant light shift arising from the latter two interactions. Experimental prospects of such lattices used with a blue magic wavelength are discussed.

  16. Quantum Two-breathers Formed by Ultracold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bing

    2016-06-01

    Two-discrete breathers are the bound states of two localized modes that can appear in classical nonlinear lattices. I investigate the quantum signature of two-discrete breathers in the system of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, which is modeled as Bose-Hubbard model containing n bosons. When the number of bosons is small, I find numerically quantum two-breathers by making use of numerical diagonalization and perturbation theory. For the cases of a large number of bosons, I can successfully construct quantum two-breather states in the Hartree approximation.

  17. Realizing the Harper Hamiltonian with laser-assisted tunneling in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Kennedy, Colin J; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally implement the Harper Hamiltonian for neutral particles in optical lattices using laser-assisted tunneling and a potential energy gradient provided by gravity or magnetic field gradients. This Hamiltonian describes the motion of charged particles in strong magnetic fields. Laser-assisted tunneling processes are characterized by studying the expansion of the atoms in the lattice. The band structure of this Hamiltonian should display Hofstadter's butterfly. For fermions, this scheme should realize the quantum Hall effect and chiral edge states. PMID:24237531

  18. Bragg resonances and Zener tunneling in quasiperiodic two-dimensional optical lattices and photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, Valery S.

    2007-09-15

    Nonresonant Zener tunneling in decagonal quasiperiodic structures in two spatial dimensions is defined by its relation to Bragg resonance and is studied by direct numerical simulations and an analytical approach. It is shown that, in the shallow lattice limit, the tunneling dynamics about the Bragg resonances is described by the multilevel Landau-Zener-Majorana models, which capture the essential peaks of the complicated Fourier spectrum. The results have applications to dynamics of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates in quasiperiodic optical lattices, light propagation in quasiperiodic photonic crystals, and ultrasonic experiments with quasiperiodic structures.

  19. Atomic Landau-Zener Tunneling in Fourier-Synthesized Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Salger, Tobias; Geckeler, Carsten; Kling, Sebastian; Weitz, Martin

    2007-11-09

    We report on an experimental study of quantum transport of atoms in variable periodic optical potentials. The band structure of both ratchet-type asymmetric and symmetric lattice potentials is explored. The variable atom potential is realized by superimposing a conventional standing wave potential of {lambda}/2 spatial periodicity with a fourth-order multiphoton potential of {lambda}/4 periodicity. We find that the Landau-Zener tunneling rate between the first and the second excited Bloch band depends critically on the relative phase between the two spatial lattice harmonics.

  20. High-fidelity rapid ground-state loading of an ultracold gas into an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro; del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-08-01

    A protocol is proposed for the rapid coherent loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the ground state of an optical lattice, without residual excitation associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity. The driving potential required to assist the rapid loading is derived using the fast-forward technique, and generates the ground state in any desired short time. We propose an experimentally feasible loading scheme using a bichromatic lattice potential, which approximates the fast-forward driving potential with high fidelity. PMID:25148323

  1. Optical lattices of excitons in InGaN/GaN quantum well systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaldyshev, V. V. Bolshakov, A. S. Zavarin, E. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundin, V. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2015-01-15

    Optical lattices of excitons in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells with GaN barriers are designed, implemented, and investigated. Due to the collective interaction of quasi-two-dimensional excitons with light and a fairly high binding energy of excitons in GaN, optical Bragg reflection at room temperature is significantly enhanced. To increase the resonance optical response of the system, new structures with two quantum wells in a periodic supercell are designed and implemented. Resonance reflection of 40% at room temperatures for structures with 60 periods is demonstrated.

  2. Frequency ratios of optical lattice clocks at the 17th decimal place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks benefit from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms, which are trapped in an optical lattice tuned to the ``magic wavelength'' to largely cancel out light shift perturbation in the clock transition. About a thousand atoms enable the clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation, allowing intensive investigation and control of systematic uncertainties. As optical lattice clocks have reached inaccuracies approaching 10-18, it is now the uncertainty of the SI second (~ 10-16) itself that restricts the measurement of the absolute frequencies of such optical clocks. Direct comparisons of optical clocks are, therefore, the only way to investigate and utilize their superb performance beyond the SI second. In this presentation, we report on frequency comparisons of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87 Sr), ytterbium (171 Yb) and mercury (199 Hg) atoms. By referencing cryogenic Sr clocks, we determine frequency ratios, νYb/νSr and νHg/νSr, of a cryogenic Yb clock and a Hg clock with uncertainty at the mid 10-17 level. Such ratios provide an access to search for temporal variation of the fundamental constants. We also present remote comparisons between cryogenic Sr clocks located at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo over a 30-km-long phase-stabilized fiber link. The gravitational red shift Δν /ν0 ~ 1.1× 10-18 Δh cm-1 reads out the height difference of Δh ~ 15 m between the two clocks with uncertainty of 5 cm, which demonstrates a step towards relativistic geodesy. ERATO, JST.

  3. Coexistence of Mott and superfluid domains of bosons confined in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanore, Mukesh; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ground state properties of the attractive Bose-gas confined on square optical lattice and superimposed wine-bottle-bottom or Mexican hat trap potential. The system is modeled by two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions and inhomogeneous lattice potential. We calculate the energy spectrum, the on-site number fluctuation, local density and local compressibility using numerical exact diagonalization method for incommensurate lattice filling. The trap potential has several degenerate minimum sites distributed along a ring at the wine-bottle-bottom. It is shown that beyond a certain value of the attractive interaction strength there is phase coherent condensate on these degenerate sites with finite value of the on-site number fluctuation and local compressibility giving rise to localized superfluidity or superfluidity on a ring. For the same value of the interaction strength the non-degenerate sites produces Mott region.

  4. Characterization of dilute optical lattices using pump-probe spectroscopy and photon correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Ethan; Ross, Preston; Rapp, Anthony; Cai, Hong; Reigle, Alex; Schlonsky, Eli; Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James; Bali, Samir

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate optical lattices using three different methods: pump-probe spectroscopy of vibrational energy levels, photon correlation of light scattered by cold atoms, and fluorescence imaging. Photon correlations of the scattered light can be used to measure lattice dwell times and crossover times between lattice sites. From this information we can derive the diffusion constant which can then be compared to direct measurement via fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, by Fourier transforming the time delayed photon correlations we can obtain the intensity spectrum which can be compared directly to pump-probe spectroscopy of the vibrational energy levels. We plan to carefully study situations in which the atomic transport properties deviate from Boltzman Gibbs statistics.

  5. Effects of Cu Dopant on Lattice and Optical Properties of ZnS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Lu; Aiji, Wang; Tingfang, Chen; Yinshu, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Doped and undoped ZnS colloidal nanocrystals have drawn much attention due to their versatile applications in the fields of optoelectronics and biotechnology. In this paper, Cu doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized via the simple thermolysis of ethylxanthate salts. The lattice and optical properties of the nanocrystals were then studied in detail. The quantum dot lattice contracted linearly between Cu concentrations of 0.2-2%, while it continued to contract more gradually as Cu concentrations were further increased from 4 to 6%, due in part to the Cu ions located on the surface of the ZnS lattice. Cu incorporation induces a long tail in absorption at long wavelengths. The PL spectrum shows a red shift at first, and then a blue shift with increases in Cu concentration. Cu doped at low concentrations (0.2-1%) enhanced the emission, while high Cu concentrations (2-6%) quenched emissions. PMID:27451716

  6. Instability of insulating states in optical lattices due to collective phonon excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Ziegler, K.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of collective phonon excitations on the properties of cold atoms in optical lattices is investigated. These phonon excitations are collective excitations, whose appearance is caused by intersite atomic interactions correlating the atoms, and they do not arise without such interactions. These collective excitations should not be confused with lattice vibrations produced by an external force. No such force is assumed. But the considered phonons are purely self-organized collective excitations, characterizing atomic oscillations around lattice sites, due to intersite atomic interactions. It is shown that these excitations can essentially influence the possibility of atoms' being localized. The states that would be insulating in the absence of phonon excitations can become delocalized when these excitations are taken into account. This concerns long-range as well as local atomic interactions. To characterize the region of stability, the Lindemann criterion is used.

  7. Spectroscopy for cold atom gases in periodically modulated optical lattice potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuno, Akiyuki; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices are vigorously studied experimentally and theoretically as one of the candidates for a quantum simulator. At the same time, further development of probes to microscopic structure of systems is needed. We propose a novel spectroscopy in cold atom experiments by use of periodic phase-modulation of optical lattice potentials. Corresponding to the statistics of atoms, we formulate the different observables: The energy absorption rate for bosonic atom gases, and the doublon production rate for fermionic atom gases. These observables are formulated within the linear response theory. Interestingly they are given by the imaginary part of the retarded current-current correlation function which is familiar as a quantity corresponding to an optical conductivity. As an example, we discuss one-dimensional Mott insulating state, and also compare our spectroscopy with another known spectroscopy by amplitude-modulation of an optical lattice. This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  8. Characterization of the near-field and convectional transport behavior of micro and nanoparticles in nanoscale plasmonic optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsang-Po; Yossifon, Gilad; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report the characterization of the transport of micro- and nanospheres in a simple two-dimensional square nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice. The optical potential was created by exciting plasmon resonance by way of illuminating an array of gold nanodiscs with a loosely focused Gaussian beam. This optical potential produced both in-lattice particle transport behavior, which was due to near-field optical gradient forces, and high-velocity (∼μm/s) out-of-lattice particle transport. As a comparison, the natural convection velocity field from a delocalized temperature profile produced by the photothermal heating of the nanoplasmonic array was computed in numerical simulations. This work elucidates the role of photothermal effects on micro- and nanoparticle transport in plasmonic optical lattices. PMID:27226813

  9. Approximate Wannier functions using discrete variable representation for asymmetric optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Saurabh; Tiesinga, Eite

    2016-05-01

    We propose a numerical method using discrete variable representation (DVR) for constructing real-valued approximate Wannier functions localized in a unit cell for both symmetric and asymmetric periodic potentials in the context of optical lattices. For a symmetric lattice with inversion symmetry, we construct Wannier functions for the lowest two bands as eigen states of the position operators. To ensure that the Wannier functions are real valued, we numerically obtain the band structure and real-valued eigen states using a uniform Fourier grid DVR. We then show by a comparison of tunneling energies, that the Wannier functions are accurate to better than ten significant digits when using double-precision arithmetic. The calculations are performed for a periodic double-well optical lattice having double-wells per unit cell with tunable asymmetry along the x axis and a single sinusoidal potential along the perpendicular directions. Localized functions at the two potential minima within each unit cell are similarly constructed, but using a superposition of solutions from the two lowest bands. We finally use these localized basis functions to determine the two-body interaction energies in the Bose-Hubbbard (BH) model, and show the dependence of the BH model on lattice asymmetry.

  10. Fractional Quantum Hall Effects with Bose-gases in Rotating Optical Lattice Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelke, Nathan; Sarajlic, Edina; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-01

    It has previously been noted that an analog to the fractional quantum-Hall (FQH) effect for two-dimensional electron gases can be produced with harmonically trapped and rotating neutral atoms. We report progress investigating FQH-like effects in the centrifugal limit of small, rotating, two-dimensional Bose gases. An ensemble of such systems is prepared in an optical lattice with locally rotating on-site potentials, produced by manipulation only of lattice beam optical phases. The non- rotating few-atom ground states are adiabatically transformed to higher angular momentum by applying a time-dependent sweep of rotation rate and deformation of the local lattice potential. Near the centrifugal limit, where the trap rotates at its vibration frequency, correlation is expected as a result of collisions. The onset of this behavior is probed by a combination of photoassociative transitions to bound molecules, and careful analysis of time-of-flight momentum distributions of atoms suddenly released from the lattice.

  11. Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice.

    PubMed

    Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2015-11-01

    Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a "Lieb lattice" configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system. PMID:26665167

  12. Systematic studies on the effect of linear lattice optics for space-charge limited beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitterer, M.; Carli, C.; Molodozhentsev, A.; Müller, A.-S.

    2015-12-01

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project aims to an increase of the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10. In order to realize this ambitious goal, the LHC itself has to undergo a major upgrade accompanied by an extensive upgrade of the complete injector complex referred to as LHC injector upgrade (LIU). In the framework of the LIU project, a new rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) as an alternative to the energy upgrade of the existing PS Booster has been proposed. Motivated by the optics studies conducted for this RCS, the more general question of the influence of the linear optics on the machine performance has been raised. In this paper, we want to investigate this question by comparing different lattices with the final aim of identifying lattice characteristics advantageous under strong space-charge effects.

  13. Multistable particle-field dynamics in cavity-generated optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterauer, Dominik J.; Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Ritsch, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Polarizable particles trapped in a resonator-sustained optical-lattice potential generate strong position-dependent backaction on the intracavity field. In the quantum regime, particles in different energy bands are connected to different intracavity light intensities and optical-lattice depths. This generates a highly nonlinear coupled particle-field dynamics. For a given pump strength and detuning, a factorizing mean-field approach predicts several self-consistent stationary solutions of strongly distinct photon numbers and motional states. Quantum Monte Carlo wave-function simulations of the master equation confirm these predictions and reveal complex multimodal photon-number and particle-momentum distributions. Using larger nanoparticles in such a setup thus constitutes a well-controllable playground to study nonlinear quantum dynamics and the buildup of macroscopic quantum superpositions at the quantum-classical boundary.

  14. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Sparkes, B M

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability. PMID:27627236

  15. Controlled production of subradiant states of a diatomic molecule in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Yosuke; Saito, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Borkowski, Mateusz; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S

    2012-04-27

    We report the successful production of subradiant states of a two-atom system in a three-dimensional optical lattice starting from doubly occupied sites in a Mott insulator phase of a quantum gas of atomic ytterbium. We can selectively produce either a subradiant 1(g) state or a superradiant 0(u) state by choosing the excitation laser frequency. The inherent weak excitation rate for the subradiant 1(g) state is overcome by the increased atomic density due to the tight confinement in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Our experimental measurements of binding energies, linewidth, and Zeeman shift confirm the observation of subradiant levels of the 1(g) state of the Yb(2) molecule. PMID:22680859

  16. Ultracold two-body dynamics in optical lattices with topological singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamalyan, Davit; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We study bound levels of two particles trapped in a 2D optical lattice. We use a short-range potential tuned to reproduce typical experimental conditions. Near-threshold bound states are computed using a spectral element discretization approach that guarantees exponential precision in the numerical results. High computational efficiency is attained due to the very sparse nature of the Hamiltonian in this representation. The calculated wavefunction is analyzed both in real and in momentum space. We perform calculations both for standard separable optical potentials and for lattice with topological singularities (Dirac cones) in the band structure. Extension to the calculation of scattering states will be addressed. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  17. Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Di Liberto, M.; Comparin, T.; Kock, T.; Ölschläger, M.; Hemmerich, A.; Smith, C. Morais

    2014-01-01

    The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping-induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites. PMID:25501387

  18. Atoms in the Lowest Motional Band of a Three-Dimensional Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Seydlitz, T.; Hartl, M.; Brezger, B.; Haensel, H.; Keller, C.; Schnetz, A.; Spreeuw, R.; Pfau, T.; Mlynek, J.

    1997-02-01

    We investigate the storage of atoms in an optical lattice, using light detuned up to 2nm to the blue of an atomic transition. Argon atoms were laser cooled in the metastable state 1s{sub 5}(J=2) and optically pumped to the state 1s{sub 3}(J=0). Subsequently these atoms were confined to the nodes of a three-dimensional interference pattern and stored for up to 1s. We resolved the bands of motion in the lattice using a time-of-flight technique, and observed band-dependent losses leading to the preparation of atoms in the motional ground band. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Precise realization of the thermal radiation environment for an optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloy, Kyle; Sherman, Jeff; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hinkley, Nathan; Oates, Chris; Ludlow, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The Stark shift due to thermal radiation contributes one of the largest known perturbations to the clock transition frequency of optical lattice clocks. Consequently, the uncertainty stemming from this shift has played a dominant role in the total uncertainty of these standards. Following recent works focused on atomic response factors (e.g., the differential polarizability), uncertainty in this perturbation is now limited by imprecise knowledge of the environment itself. Here we present progress towards precise realization of the thermal radiation environment in a Yb optical lattice clock by trapping the atoms in a highly uniform radiation shield at a well-known temperature. We characterize the non-ideal aspects of this approach, including less than unit emissivity, contamination of the blackbody environment from the ambient environment, and thermal non-uniformities.

  20. Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M

    2014-01-10

    Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906

  1. Preparation of stable excited states in an optical lattice via sudden quantum quench

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Chen, Shu; Hao, Yajiang

    2010-06-15

    We study how stable excited many-body states of the Bose-Hubbard model, including both the gaslike state for strongly attractive bosons and bound cluster state for repulsive bosons, can be produced with cold bosonic atoms in an one-dimensional optical lattice. Starting from the initial ground states of strongly interacting bosonic systems, we can achieve stable excited states of the systems with opposite interaction strength by suddenly switching the interaction to the opposite limit. By exactly solving dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model, we demonstrate that the produced excited state can be a very stable dynamic state. This allows the experimental study of excited state properties of ultracold atoms system in optical lattices.

  2. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.; Sparkes, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability.

  3. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction and Spiral Order in Spin-orbit Coupled Optical Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ming; Qian, Yinyin; Yan, Mi; Scarola, V. W.; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-01-01

    We show that the recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling in ultracold atomic gases can be used to study different types of spin spiral order and resulting multiferroic effects. Spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can give rise to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin interaction which is essential for spin spiral order. By taking into account spin-orbit coupling and an external Zeeman field, we derive an effective spin model in the Mott insulator regime at half filling and demonstrate that the DM interaction in optical lattices can be made extremely strong with realistic experimental parameters. The rich finite temperature phase diagrams of the effective spin models for fermions and bosons are obtained via classical Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26014458

  4. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms.

  5. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592

  6. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592

  7. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Island, Joshua O; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M; Ares, José R; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S J; Ferrer, Isabel J; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161

  8. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    PubMed Central

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D’Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161

  9. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-03-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.

  10. A study of optical reflectance and localization modes of 1-D Fibonacci photonic quasicrystals using different graded dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study on the reflection properties of light through one-dimensional (1-D) quasi-periodic multilayer structures. The considered structures are as follows: F7, F8, F9, (F2)10, (F3)10 and some combinations such as: [(F2)10 (F7) (F2)10], [(F2)10 (F8) (F2)10], [(F3)10 (F7) (F3)10], [(F3)10 (F8) (F3)10], [(F2)10(F3)10], [(F2)10 (F7) (F3)10] and [(F2)10 (F8) (F3)10], where (Fj)n represents n period of the Fibonacci sequence of jth generation. These multilayer structures are considered of two types of layers. One type of layer is considered of graded material like normal, linear or exponential graded material, and the second type of layer is considered of constant refractive index material. Transfer matrix method is utilized to calculate the reflection spectra and localization modes of such structures in the frequency range 150-450 THz. This work would provide the basis of understanding of the effect of graded materials on the reflection and localization modes in Fibonacci photonic quasicrystal structures and obtained spectra can be used in the recognition of grading of materials. The considered heterostructures provide the broad reflection band and some localization modes in the calculated region.

  11. Controlling chaos in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a moving optical lattice potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhixia Zhang Xihe; Shen Ke

    2008-11-15

    The spatial structure of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice potential is investigated, and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing of the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.

  12. Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic wave functions and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M

    2011-10-21

    We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532

  13. Fano Blockade by a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Brand, Joachim; Flach, Sergej

    2007-05-04

    We study the transport of atoms across a localized Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical lattice. For atoms scattering off the condensate, we predict total reflection as well as full transmission for certain parameter values on the basis of an exactly solvable model. The findings of analytical and numerical calculations are interpreted by a tunable Fano-like resonance and may lead to interesting applications for blocking and filtering atom beams.

  14. Control of Wannier orbitals for generating tunable Ising interactions of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Kensuke; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Igeta, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Makoto; Tokunaga, Yuuki

    2014-12-04

    In this study, we propose a method for generating cluster states of atoms in an optical lattice. By utilizing the quantum properties of Wannier orbitals, we create an tunable Ising interaction between atoms without inducing the spin-exchange interactions. We investigate the cause of errors that occur during entanglement generations, and then we propose an error-management scheme, which allows us to create high-fidelity cluster states in a short time.

  15. Visibility of cold atomic gases in optical lattices for finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Pelster, Axel

    2009-05-15

    In nearly all experiments with ultracold atoms time-of-flight pictures are the only data available. In this paper we present an analytical strong-coupling calculation for those time-of-flight pictures of bosons in a three-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott phase. This allows us to determine the visibility, which quantifies the contrast of peaks in the time-of-flight pictures, and we suggest how to use it as a thermometer.

  16. Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-04-01

    Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases—a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles.

  17. Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-04-28

    Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases--a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles. PMID:27064902

  18. Identifying topological edge states in 2D optical lattices using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Nathan; Beugnon, Jérôme; Gerbier, Fabrice

    2013-02-01

    We recently proposed in a Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255303] a novel scheme to detect topological edge states in an optical lattice, based on a generalization of Bragg spectroscopy. The scope of the present article is to provide a more detailed and pedagogical description of the system - the Hofstadter optical lattice - and probing method. We first show the existence of topological edge states, in an ultra-cold gas trapped in a 2D optical lattice and subjected to a synthetic magnetic field. The remarkable robustness of the edge states is verified for a variety of external confining potentials. Then, we describe a specific laser probe, made from two lasers in Laguerre-Gaussian modes, which captures unambiguous signatures of these edge states. In particular, the resulting Bragg spectra provide the dispersion relation of the edge states, establishing their chiral nature. In order to make the Bragg signal experimentally detectable, we introduce a "shelving method", which simultaneously transfers angular momentum and changes the internal atomic state. This scheme allows to directly visualize the selected edge states on a dark background, offering an instructive view on topological insulating phases, not accessible in solid-state experiments.

  19. Resonant scattering of matter-wave gap solitons by optical lattice defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Salerno, Mario

    2011-05-15

    The physical mechanism underlying scattering properties of matter-wave gap solitons (GSs) by linear-optical-lattice defects is investigated. The occurrence of repeated reflection, transmission, and trapping regions for increasing strengths of an optical-lattice defect are shown to be due to resonances with impurity modes inside the defect potential with chemical potentials and numbers of atoms matching corresponding quantities of the incoming GSs. For small amplitude GSs the number of these resonances coincides with the number of bound states existing in the defect potential for the given defect strength. The dependence of the positions and widths of the transmission resonant peaks on incoming velocities is investigated by means of defect-mode analysis and effective-mass theory. The comparisons with direct integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation provide good agreement confirming the correctness of our approach. Multiple resonant transmissions through arrays of optical lattice defects are also investigated and the possibility of using them for very precise GS dynamical filters is also suggested.

  20. Optical NOR logic gate design on square lattice photonic crystal platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate a new configuration of all-optical NOR logic gate with square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The logic operations are based on interference effect of optical waves. We have determined the operating frequency range by calculating the band structure for a perfectly periodic PhC using plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Response time of this logic gate is 1.98 ps and it can be operated with speed about 513 GB/s. The proposed device consists of four linear waveguides and a square ring resonator waveguides on PhC platform.

  1. Three-dimensional arrays of submicron particles generated by a four-beam optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Slama-Eliau, B N; Raithel, G

    2011-05-01

    Using an optical lattice formed by four laser beams, we obtain three-dimensional light-induced crystals of 490-nm-diameter polystyrene spheres in solution. The setup yields face-centered orthorhombic optical crystals of a packing density of about 40%. An alignment procedure is developed in which the crystals are first prepared near a sample wall, and then in the bulk of the sample. A series of tests is performed that demonstrate particle trapping in all three dimensions. For one case, the trapping force is measured, and good agreement with a simple theoretical model is found. Possible applications are discussed. PMID:21728533

  2. Lasing effect enhanced by optical Tamm state with in-plane lattice plasmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Li, Yunhui; Liu, Wenxing; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong

    2016-02-01

    A new type of surface-emitting laser based on in-plane lattice plasmons (LPs) and optical Tamm states (OTSs) is proposed, with arrays of metallic micro-disks followed by a photonic crystal. Due to the presence of LP modes, the reflection properties of the combined LP-OTS structure, including the spectrum linewidth, Q-factor and electromagnetic field, can be optimized for better lasing behavior. When the combined LP-OTS structure with a gain medium is optically pumped, a much lower lasing threshold and higher emission intensity can be achieved simultaneously, compared with the individual LP structure. This phenomenon successfully demonstrates the enhancement of the lasing efficiency.

  3. Magneto-optical response in the arbitrary-Chern number topological phase on square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the magneto-optical response in the arbitrary-Chern number topological phase. Based on the Dirac theory, we derive the analytic expressions for the magneto-optical response. More importantly, we construct the model on the possible square lattice and make the numerical calculations with the exact diagonalization method. We find the analytical and numerical results are in good agreement with each other. For the optical absorption spectrum, the low-energy absorptive peaks and the corresponding hopping processes are distinct in different Chern number phases, heavily depending on the filling factor of the system. While for the optical Hall conductivities, the physical mechanisms are revealed for the dichroism of the absorption peaks in response to the right- and left-circularly polarized light. We discuss the feasibility of these results in experiment.

  4. A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Waseem S; Gillen, Jonathon I; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus

    2009-11-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in creating complex atomic many-body quantum systems. One approach is to use macroscopic, effectively thermodynamic ensembles of ultracold atoms to create quantum gases and strongly correlated states of matter, and to analyse the bulk properties of the ensemble. For example, bosonic and fermionic atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice can be used for quantum simulations of solid-state models. The opposite approach is to build up microscopic quantum systems atom-by-atom, with complete control over all degrees of freedom. The atoms or ions act as qubits and allow the realization of quantum gates, with the goal of creating highly controllable quantum information systems. Until now, the macroscopic and microscopic strategies have been fairly disconnected. Here we present a quantum gas 'microscope' that bridges the two approaches, realizing a system in which atoms of a macroscopic ensemble are detected individually and a complete set of degrees of freedom for each of them is determined through preparation and measurement. By implementing a high-resolution optical imaging system, single atoms are detected with near-unity fidelity on individual sites of a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. The lattice itself is generated by projecting a holographic mask through the imaging system. It has an arbitrary geometry, chosen to support both strong tunnel coupling between lattice sites and strong on-site confinement. Our approach can be used to directly detect strongly correlated states of matter; in the context of condensed matter simulation, this corresponds to the detection of individual electrons in the simulated crystal. Also, the quantum gas microscope may enable addressing and read-out of large-scale quantum information systems based on ultracold atoms. PMID:19890326

  5. Continuous in situ fluorescence imaging of an ultracold Fermi gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Rhys; Edge, Graham; Day, Ryan; Nino, Daniel; Trotzky, Stefan; Thywissen, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate continuous in situ fluorescence imaging of ultracold fermionic 40K atoms held in a three-dimensional optical lattice with 527 nm periodicity. Using a 4S-4P1/2 grey molasses cooling scheme with a coherent dark state, we obtain a photon scattering rate exceeding 1 kHz while measuring a steady-state population of the vibrational ground state of 80%. Collecting the scattered photons through a 200 μm thin sapphire vacuum window and into a microscope objective allows us to image the in situ density distribution of the lattice gas. Spatially selective state manipulation is used to reduce the number of occupied lattice planes along the imaging direction, as well as to create density patterns along the transverse direction. We characterize the performance of the imaging protocol over a wide range of parameters. For larger-than-unity site occupation we observe efficient removal of atoms due to light-assisted collisions. Singly occupied lattice sites can be continuously imaged for several seconds. This method is suitable for high-resolution imaging of a many-body system in the Fermi-Hubbard regime.

  6. Sudden-quench dynamics of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer states in deep optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuske, Marlon; Mathey, L.; Tiesinga, Eite

    2016-08-01

    We determine the exact dynamics of an initial Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of ultracold atoms in a deep hexagonal optical lattice. The dynamical evolution is triggered by a quench of the lattice potential such that the interaction strength Uf is much larger than the hopping amplitude Jf. The quench initiates collective oscillations with frequency | Uf|/2 π in the momentum occupation numbers and imprints an oscillating phase with the same frequency on the BCS order parameter Δ . The oscillation frequency of Δ is not reproduced by treating the time evolution in mean-field theory. In our theory, the momentum noise (i.e., density-density) correlation functions oscillate at frequency | Uf|/2 π as well as at its second harmonic. For a very deep lattice, with zero tunneling energy, the oscillations of momentum occupation numbers are undamped. Nonzero tunneling after the quench leads to dephasing of the different momentum modes and a subsequent damping of the oscillations. The damping occurs even for a finite-temperature initial BCS state, but not for a noninteracting Fermi gas. Furthermore, damping is stronger for larger order parameter and may therefore be used as a signature of the BCS state. Finally, our theory shows that the noise correlation functions in a honeycomb lattice will develop strong anticorrelations near the Dirac point.

  7. Density-induced processes in quantum gas mixtures in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2012-10-01

    We show that off-site processes and multiorbital physics have a crucial impact on the phase diagram of quantum gas mixtures in optical lattices. In particular, we discuss Bose-Fermi mixtures where the intra- and interspecies interactions induce competing density-induced hopping processes, the so-called bond-charge interactions. Furthermore, higher bands strongly influence tunneling and on-site interactions. We apply a multiorbital interaction-induced dressing of the lowest band, which leads to renormalized hopping processes. These corrections give rise to an extended Hubbard model with intrinsically occupation-dependent parameters. The resulting decrease of the tunneling competes with a decrease of the total on-site interaction energy, both affecting the critical lattice depth of the superfluid to Mott-insulator transition. In contrast to the standard Bose-Fermi Hubbard model, we predict a large shift of the transition to shallower lattice depths with increasing Bose-Fermi attraction. The applied theoretical model allows an accurate prediction of the modified tunneling amplitudes and the critical lattice depth, both being recently observed experimentally.

  8. Competing Orders in a Dipolar Bose - Fermi Mixture on a Square Optical Lattice: Mean-Field Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Scaramaazza, Jasen; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study superfluid pairings of two-component fermions interacting by exchanging virtual phonons of a dipolar condensate in an optical lattice that preserves the symmetry of D4. We construct, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We find that each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific ``effective'' interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize Fermi-Fermi interactions. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders (superfluids with s-, dx2-y2-, dxy-, and g-wave symmetries and density waves) as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance various unconventional pairings. KITP, University of Santa Barbara; ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  9. Loading Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms into the ground state of an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Julienne, P. S.; Williams, C. J.; Band, Y. B.; Trippenbach, Marek

    2005-11-15

    We optimize the turning on of a one-dimensional optical potential, V{sub L}(x,t)=S(t)V{sub 0} cos{sup 2}(kx) to obtain the optimal turn-on function S(t) so as to load a Bose-Einstein condensate into the ground state of the optical lattice of depth V{sub 0}. Specifically, we minimize interband excitations at the end of the turn-on of the optical potential at the final ramp time t{sub r}, where S(t{sub r})=1, given that S(0)=0. Detailed numerical calculations confirm that a simple unit cell model is an excellent approximation when the turn-on time t{sub r} is long compared with the inverse of the band excitation frequency and short in comparison with nonlinear time ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})/{mu} where {mu} is the chemical potential of the condensate. We demonstrate using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an optimal turn-on function S(t) that the ground state of the optical lattice can be loaded with no significant excitation even for times t{sub r} on the order of the inverse band excitation frequency.

  10. Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice

    PubMed Central

    Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a “Lieb lattice” configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system. PMID:26665167

  11. Measurement of an electron's electric dipole moment using Cs atoms trapped in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng; Leiber, Véronique; Vuletić, Vladan; Kerman, Andrew J.; Chu, Steven

    2001-03-01

    We propose to measure the electron's permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) using cesium atoms trapped in a sparsely populated, trichromatic, far blue-detuned three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice. In the proposed configuration, the atoms can be strongly localized near the nodes of the light field and isolated from each other, leading to a strong suppression of the detrimental effects of atom-atom and atom-field interactions. Three linearly polarized standing waves with different frequencies create an effectively linearly polarized 3D optical lattice and lead to a strong reduction of the tensor light shift, which remains a potential source of systematic error. Other systematics concerning external field instability and gradients and higher-order polarizabilities are discussed. Furthermore, auxiliary atoms can be loaded into the same lattices as effective ``comagnetometers'' to monitor various systematic effects, including magnetic-field fluctuations and imperfect electric-field reversal. We estimate that a sensitivity 100 times higher than the current upper bound for the electron's EDM of 4×10-27 e cm can be achieved with the proposed technique.

  12. Site-resolved measurement of spin correlations for fermions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Maxwell; Mazurenko, Anton; Chiu, Christie; Ji, Geoffrey; Greif, Daniel; Greiner, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The recent demonstrations of site-resolved imaging of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice enable local measurements of charge correlations in Fermi lattice systems. Access to local spin correlations, however, has not yet been demonstrated. Measuring spin correlations is of particular interest because in the repulsive 2D Hubbard model, away from half-filling, the interplay of the spin and charge degrees of freedom is expected to give rise to pseudo-gap physics and perhaps d-wave superconductivity, but this doped regime is difficult to describe with current theoretical techniques. In this talk, I describe a new method for locally measuring spin correlations with our Fermi Gas Microscope. We observe nearest-neighbor AFM correlations in a two-component mixture of fermionic lithium atoms in a 2D optical lattice. The ability to measure trap-resolved magnetic correlations will allow us to explore entropy redistribution schemes, and may provide a way to access the low-temperature phases of the Hubbard model using ultracold atoms.

  13. FFLO order in ultra-cold atoms in three-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate different ground-state phases of attractive spin-imbalanced populations of fermions in three-dimensional optical lattices. Detailed numerical calculations are performed using Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory to determine the ground-state properties systematically for different values of density, spin polarization and interaction strength. We first consider the high density and low polarization regime, in which the effect of the optical lattice is most evident. We then proceed to the low density and high polarization regime where the effects of the underlying lattice are less significant and the system begins to resemble a continuum Fermi gas. We explore the effects of density, polarization and interaction on the character of the phases in each regime and highlight the qualitative differences between the two regimes. In the high-density regime, the order is found to be of Larkin-Ovchinnikov type, linearly oriented with one characteristic wave vector but varying in its direction with the parameters. At lower densities the order parameter develops more structures involving multiple wave vectors.

  14. Ground-state properties of spin-imbalanced Fermions in three-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei

    2015-03-01

    The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in cold atom physics. Novel experimental techniques have made it possible to simulate many condensed matter models. One system that has received considerable focus is ultra-cold atoms in an optical lattice with unequal populations of two hyperfine states. This system is an ideal candidate for the experimental realization of the elusive Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase. We investigate the phase diagram of this system using Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Detailed numerical calculations are performed to determine the ground-state properties systematically for different values of density, spin polarization and interaction strength. We first consider the high density and low polarization regime, in which the effect of the optical lattice is most evident. We then proceed to the low density and high polarization regime where the effects of the underlying lattice are less significant and the system begins to resemble a continuum Fermi gas. We explore the effects of density, polarization and interaction on the character of the phases in each regime and highlight the qualitative differences between the two regimes.

  15. Near ground state Raman sideband cooling of an ion in a hybrid radiofrequency-optical lattice trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylinskii, Alexei; Karpa, Leon; Gangloff, Dorian; Cetina, Marko; Vuletic, Vladan

    2013-05-01

    We achieve near ground state cooling of an ion in a hybrid trap formed by a two-dimensional radio-frequency Paul trap and an optical lattice produced by a cavity in the axial dimension. We drive far-detuned lattice-assisted Raman transitions on the red vibrational sideband between the Zeeman sublevels of the 2S1/2 ground level of 174Yb+. The cooling cycle is completed by a close-detuned spontaneous Raman transition. Efficient Cooling in all three dimensions is achieved this way. Furthermore, spatially dependent AC Stark shifts induced by the lattice allow us to measure axial temperature via ion fluorescence, and we estimate the population of the lattice vibrational ground state to be above 50%. This work is an important step towards quantum information and quantum simulations with ions in hybrid traps and optical lattices. Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  16. Study for optical manipulation of a surfactant-covered droplet using lattice Boltzmann method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Bin; Kondaraju, Sasidhar; Sang Lee, Joon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we simulated deformation and surfactant distribution on the interface of a surfactant-covered droplet using optical tweezers as an external source. Two optical forces attracted a single droplet from the center to both sides. This resulted in an elliptical shape deformation. The droplet deformation was characterized as the change of the magnitudes of surface tension and optical force. In this process, a non-linear relationship among deformation, surface tension, and optical forces was observed. The change in the local surfactant concentration resulting from the application of optical forces was also analyzed and compared with the concentration of surfactants subjected to an extensional flow. Under the optical force influence, the surfactant molecules were concentrated at the droplet equator, which is totally opposite to the surfactants behavior under extensional flow, where the molecules were concentrated at the poles. Lastly, the quasi-equilibrium surfactant distribution was obtained by combining the effects of the optical forces with the extensional flow. All simulations were executed by the lattice Boltzmann method which is a powerful tool for solving micro-scale problems. PMID:24753737

  17. Thermometry of Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices via Artificial Gauge Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso

    2014-03-01

    Artificial gauge fields are a unique way of manipulating the motional state of cold atoms. Here we propose the use (practical or conceptual) of artificial gauge fields—obtained, e.g., experimentally via lattice shaking or conceptually via a Galilean transformation—to perform primary noise thermometry of cold atoms in optical lattices, not requiring any form of prior calibration. The proposed thermometric scheme relies on fundamental fluctuation-dissipation relations, connecting the global response to the variation of the applied gauge field and the fluctuation of quantities related to the momentum distribution (such as the average kinetic energy or the average current). We demonstrate gauge-field thermometry for several physical situations, including free fermions and interacting bosons. The proposed approach is extremely robust to quantum fluctuations—even in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition—when it relies on the thermal fluctuations of an emerging classical field, associated with the onset of Bose condensation or chiral order.

  18. From Berry's Phase to Wilson Lines in a Honeycomb Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleier-Smith, Monika

    I will report on methods for fully characterizing the topology and geometry of Bloch bands in optical lattices. Using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a momentum-resolved probe, we study a paradigmatic model system, the honeycomb lattice. Its salient features are two Dirac points, each producing a half-quantum of Berry flux similar to the magnetic flux of an infinitesimally narrow solenoid. We have detected this singular Berry flux by forming an Aharonov-Bohm-type interferometer in momentum space. Our technique is broadly applicable to mapping out the Berry curvature or directly measuring the Chern number of a single band. I will furthermore show how interband dynamics can reveal the matrix-valued Wilson line, the generalization of Berry's phase to the multi-band setting. In the simple case where the Wilson line is path-independent and Abelian, it serves as a powerful tool for tomographic reconstruction of the band eigenstates.

  19. Roton-maxon excitation spectrum of Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Li-Chung; Clark, Logan W.; Parker, Colin V.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Chin, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    We present a resonant lattice shaking technique for engineering the dispersion of a cesium Bose condensate. Through phase modulating an optical lattice at a frequency near the band splitting, the dispersion of the condensate can evolve from quadratic to quartic and finally into a double-well structure. We observe effective ferromagnetism in the double-well regime, and atoms form domains within one well in momentum space. We study the elementary excitations of this system by implementing projection-based Bragg spectroscopy and find a roton-maxon feature in the excitation spectrum in agreement with a Bogoliubov calculation. Consistent with Landau's prediction, we observe a suppressed superfluid critical velocity due to the existence of the roton. We will introduce more precise characterizations of the dispersion in an effort to pinpoint the critical point at which the dispersion is purely quartic, and study the dynamics of particles in that case. This work is supported by NSF, ARO and Chicago MRSEC.

  20. Frequency Ratio of (199)Hg and (87)Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-12

    We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a (199)Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a (87)Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of 7.2×10(-17) for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be νHg/νSr=2.629 314 209 898 909 60(22) with a fractional uncertainty of 8.4×10(-17), which is smaller than the uncertainty of the realization of the International System of Units (SI) second, i.e., the SI limit. PMID:26196788

  1. Observation and cancellation of a perturbing dc stark shift in strontium optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Zawada, Michal; Lorini, Luca; Gurov, Mikhail; Lemonde, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    We report on the observation of a dc Stark frequency shift at the 10-(13) level by comparing two strontium optical lattice clocks. This frequency shift arises from the presence of electric charges trapped on dielectric surfaces placed under vacuum close to the atomic sample. We show that these charges can be eliminated by shining UV light on the dielectric surfaces, and characterize the residual dc Stark frequency shift on the clock transition at the 10-(18) level by applying an external electric field. This study shows that the dc Stark shift can play an important role in the accuracy budget of lattice clocks, and should be duly taken into account. PMID:22481773

  2. Observation of Nonlinear Looped Band Structure of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Koller, Silvio; Brown, Roger; Wyllie, Robert; Wilson, Ryan; Porto, Trey

    2016-05-01

    We study experimentally the stability of excited, interacting states of bosons in a double-well optical lattice in regimes where the nonlinear interactions are expected to induce ``swallow-tail'' looped band structure. By carefully preparing different initial coherent states and observing their subsequent decay, we observe distinct decay rates, which provide direct evidence for multi-valued band structure. The double well lattice both stabilizes the looped band structure and allows for dynamic preparation of different initial states, including states within the loop structure. We confirm our state preparation procedure with dynamic Gross-Pitaevskii calculations. The excited loop states are found to be more stable than dynamically unstable ground states, but decay faster than expected based on a mean-field stability calculation, indicating the importance of correlations beyond a mean-field description. Now at Georgia Tech Research Institute.

  3. Experimental realization of strong effective magnetic fields in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Aidelsburger, M; Atala, M; Nascimbène, S; Trotzky, S; Chen, Y-A; Bloch, I

    2011-12-16

    We use Raman-assisted tunneling in an optical superlattice to generate large tunable effective magnetic fields for ultracold atoms. When hopping in the lattice, the accumulated phase shift by an atom is equivalent to the Aharonov-Bohm phase of a charged particle exposed to a staggered magnetic field of large magnitude, on the order of 1 flux quantum per plaquette. We study the ground state of this system and observe that the frustration induced by the magnetic field can lead to a degenerate ground state for noninteracting particles. We provide a measurement of the local phase acquired from Raman-induced tunneling, demonstrating time-reversal symmetry breaking of the underlying Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the quantum cyclotron orbit of single atoms in the lattice exposed to the magnetic field is directly revealed. PMID:22243087

  4. Inter-species entanglement of Bose–Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (王 巍, Wei Wang; Penna, Vittorio; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we discuss inter-species entanglement in Bose–Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices. This work is motivated by the observation that, in the presence of a second component, the MI lobe shifts differently on the hole- and particle-side with respect to the Mott lobe of the single species system (Guglielmino et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 021601; Capogrosso-Sansone et al 2011 Laser Phys. 21 1443). We use perturbation theory, formulated in a Hilbert space decomposed by means of lattice symmetries, in order to show that the nonuniform shift of the Mott lobe is a manifestation of inter-species entanglement which differs in the lowest excited states to remove and add a particle. Our results indicate that inter-species entanglement in mixtures can provide a new perspective in understanding quantum phase transitions. To validate our approach, we compare our results from perturbation theory with quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Statics, dynamics, and manipulations of bright matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Herring, G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Malomed, B.A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2005-02-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental achievements in the work with Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), we consider bright matter-wave solitons, in the presence of a parabolic magnetic trap and a spatially periodic optical lattice (OL), in the attractive BEC. We examine pinned states of the soliton and their stability by means of perturbation theory. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations. We then explore possibilities to use a time-modulated OL as a means of stopping and trapping a moving soliton, and of transferring an initially stationary soliton to a prescribed position by a moving OL. We also study the emission of radiation from the soliton moving across the combined magnetic trap and OL. We find that the soliton moves freely (without radiation) across a weak lattice, but suffers strong loss in deeper OLs.

  6. Bound states of two bosons in an optical lattice near an association resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Jerome C.; Odong, Otim; Javanainen, Juha; Mackie, Matt

    2011-03-15

    We model two bosons in an optical lattice near a Feshbach or photoassociation resonance, focusing on the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension. Whereas the usual atoms-only theory with a tunable scattering length yields one bound state for a molecular dimer for either an attractive or repulsive atom-atom interaction, for a sufficiently small direct background interaction between the atoms a two-channel atom-molecule theory may give two bound states that represent attractively and repulsively bound dimers occurring simultaneously. Such unusual molecular physics may be observable for an atom-molecule coupling strength comparable to the width of the dissociation continuum of the lattice dimer, which is the case, for instance, with narrow Feshbach resonances in Na, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs or low-intensity photoassociation in {sup 174}Yb.

  7. Off-resonant many-body quantum carpets in strongly tilted optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Arias, Manuel H.; Madroñero, Javier; Parra-Murillo, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    A unit filling Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian embedded in a strong Stark field is studied in the off-resonant regime inhibiting single- and many-particle first-order tunneling resonances. We investigate the occurrence of coherent dipole wavelike propagation along an optical lattice by means of an effective Hamiltonian accounting for second-order tunneling processes. It is shown that dipole wave function evolution in the short-time limit is ballistic and that finite-size effects induce dynamical self-interference patterns known as quantum carpets. We also present the effects of the border right after the first reflection, showing that the wave function diffuses normally with the variance changing linearly in time. This work extends the rich physical phenomenology of tilted one-dimensional lattice systems in a scenario of many interacting quantum particles, the so-called many-body Wannier-Stark system.

  8. CMOS-compatible temperature-independent tunable silicon optical lattice filters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liangjun; Zhou, Linjie; Sun, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jingya; Zou, Zhi; Zhu, Haike; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jianping

    2013-04-22

    We present a CMOS-compatible athermal tunable silicon optical lattice filter composed of 10 cascaded 2 × 2 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Active tuning experiments show that the filter central wavelength can be red-/blue-shifted by 13.1/21.3 nm with power consumption of 77/96 mW on top/bottom arms. Temperature shift measurements show that the thermal-sensitivity of the filter central wavelength before active tuning is as low as -1.465 pm/°C. The thermal-sensitivity is varied within 26.5 pm/°C to -27.1 pm/°C when the filter central wavelength is tuned in the wavelength range of 1534 nm to 1551 nm. We use the transfer matrix method to theoretically model the lattice filter and its thermal-sensitivity before and after tuning is analyzed and discussed. PMID:23609656

  9. Optical lattices as waveguides and beam splitters for atom interferometry: An analytical treatment and proposal of applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kovachy, Tim; Hogan, Jason M.; Johnson, David M. S.; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2010-07-15

    We provide an analytical description of the dynamics of an atom in an optical lattice using the method of perturbative adiabatic expansion. A precise understanding of the lattice-atom interaction is essential to taking full advantage of the promising applications that optical lattices offer in the field of atom interferometry. One such application is the implementation of large momentum transfer (LMT) beam splitters that can potentially provide multiple order of magnitude increases in momentum space separations over current technology. We also propose interferometer geometries where optical lattices are used as waveguides for the atoms throughout the duration of the interferometer sequence. Such a technique could simultaneously provide a multiple order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and a multiple order of magnitude decrease in interferometer size for many applications as compared to current state-of-the-art atom interferometers.

  10. Production of a Quantum Gas of Rovibronic Ground-State Molecules in AN Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danzl, Johann G.; Mark, Manfred J.; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Hart, Russell; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2010-02-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the field of cold and ultracold molecules. A central goal in the field is currently the realization of stable rovibronic ground-state molecular samples in the regime of quantum degeneracy, e.g. in the form of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates, molecular degenerate Fermi gases, or, when an optical lattice is present, molecular Mott-insulator phases. However, molecular samples are not readily cooled to the extremely low temperatures at which quantum degeneracy occurs. In particular, laser cooling, the 'workhorse' for the field of atomic quantum gases, is generally not applicable to molecular samples. Here we take an important step beyond previous work1 and provide details on the realization of an ultracold quantum gas of ground-state dimer molecules trapped in an optical lattice as recently reported in Ref. 2. We demonstrate full control over all internal and external quantum degrees of freedom for the ground-state molecules by deterministically preparing the molecules in a single quantum state, i.e. in a specific hyperfine sublevel of the rovibronic ground state, while the molecules are trapped in the motional ground state of the individual lattice wells. We circumvent the problem of cooling by associating weakly-bound molecules out of a zero-temperature atomic Mott-insulator state and by transferring these to the absolute ground state in a four-photon STIRAP process. Our preparation procedure directly leads to a long-lived, lattice-trapped molecular many-body state, which we expect to form the platform for many of the envisioned future experiments with molecular quantum gases, e.g. on precision molecular spectroscopy, quantum information science, and dipolar quantum systems.

  11. Towards site-resolved imaging and control of ultracold fermions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Setiawan, Widagdo; Wooley-Brown, Kate; Parsons, Maxwell; Blatt, Sebastian; Greiner, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Recent successes in site-resolved imaging and control of bosonic Rb atoms trapped in optical lattices have enable many new possibilities to emulate simple condensed matter systems. Many of the open questions in condensed matter, however, stem from the fermionic nature of electrons. Extending the high degree of control available with ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices to fermionic atoms will allow us to address these questions. The light mass of fermionic 6-Li leads to system dynamics on fast timescales, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. We report progress towards a 6-Li quantum gas microscope and present improved imaging, cooling, and trapping techniques compatible with the light mass of 6-Li. A major challenge in the pursuit of single-site imaging with Lithium is cooling atoms during the imaging process. Single-site experiments with bosons benefit from the resolved hyperfine splitting in the excited state of 87-Rb, which allows the use of optical molasses. This method cannot be straightforwardly applied to 6-Li. We present our efforts to cool and image 6-Li using Raman sideband cooling.

  12. Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.

  13. Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Xiuqin; Yao, Zhihai

    2016-07-01

    Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a moving optical lattice with attractive interaction is investigated on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Three methods are designed to control chaos in BEC. As a controller, a bias constant, periodic force, or wavelet function feedback is added to the BEC system. Numerical simulations reveal that chaotic behavior can be well controlled to achieve periodicity by regulating control parameters. Different periodic orbits are available for different control parameters only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative. The abundant effect of chaotic control is also demonstrated numerically. Chaos control can be realized effectively by using our proposed control strategies.

  14. Cavity-Enhanced Light Scattering in Optical Lattices to Probe Atomic Quantum Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut

    2007-03-09

    Different quantum states of atoms in optical lattices can be nondestructively monitored by off-resonant collective light scattering into a cavity. Angle resolved measurements of photon number and variance give information about atom-number fluctuations and pair correlations without single-site access. Observation at angles of diffraction minima provides information on quantum fluctuations insensitive to classical noise. For transverse probing, no photon is scattered into a cavity from a Mott insulator phase, while the photon number is proportional to the atom number for a superfluid.

  15. Trapped Fermi Gases in Rotating Optical Lattices: Realization and Detection of the Topological Hofstadter Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.; Zhai Hui

    2008-02-22

    We consider a gas of noninteracting spinless fermions in a rotating optical lattice and calculate the density profile of the gas in an external confinement potential. The density profile exhibits distinct plateaus, which correspond to gaps in the single particle spectrum known as the Hofstadter butterfly. The plateaus result from insulating behavior whenever the Fermi energy lies within a gap. We discuss the necessary conditions to realize the Hofstadter insulator in a cold atom setup and show how the quantized Hall conductance can be measured from density profiles using the Streda formula.

  16. Phase boundary of the boson Mott insulator in a rotating optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.

    2007-11-15

    We consider the Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional rotating optical lattice and investigate the consequences of the effective magnetic field created by rotation. Using a Gutzwiller-type variational wave function, we find an analytical expression for the Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition boundary in terms of the maximum eigenvalue of the Hofstadter butterfly. The dependence of phase boundary on the effective magnetic field is complex, reflecting the self-similar properties of the single particle energy spectrum. Finally, we argue that fractional quantum Hall phases exist close to the MI-SF transition boundaries, including MI states with particle densities greater than one.

  17. Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Sio, Kuan-Un; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We propose a point-shifted D0 nanocavity formed by locally modulating four central air holes in square lattice photonic crystal for optical sensing application. Three defect modes in this nanocavity, including monopole, whispering-gallery, and dipole modes, are identified in experiments. We also apply a chemical treatment on InGaAsP surface to form a 1-octadecanethiol linking monolayer, which enables the following protein adsorption. In experiments, the wavelength shifts of lasing modes in the D0 nanocavity due to the protein adsorption are observed and agree with the simulation results. This can be a practical tool for label-free molecule detection in biomedical researches.

  18. Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D.; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt

    2011-08-26

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10{sup -16} accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10{sup -18}.

  19. Spectral properties of strongly correlated bosons in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, Michael; Arrigoni, Enrico; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2010-01-01

    Spectral properties of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, which emulates ultracold gases of atoms confined in optical lattices, are investigated by means of the variational cluster approach. The phase boundary of the quantum phase transition from Mott phase to superfluid phase is calculated and compared to recent work. Moreover the single-particle spectral functions in both the first and the second Mott lobe are presented and the corresponding densities of states and momentum distributions are evaluated. A qualitatively similar intensity distribution of the spectral weight can be observed for spectral functions in the first and the second Mott lobe.

  20. Chiral phase from three-spin interactions in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    D'Cruz, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2005-10-15

    A spin-1/2 chain model that includes three-spin interactions can effectively describe the dynamics of two species of bosons trapped in an optical lattice with a triangular-ladder configuration. A perturbative theoretical approach and numerical study of its ground state is performed that reveals a rich variety of phases and criticalities. We identify phases with periodicity one, two, or three, as well as critical points that belong in the same universality class as the Ising or the three-state Potts model. We establish a range of parameters, corresponding to a large degeneracy present between phases with period 2 and 3, that nests a gapless incommensurate chiral phase.

  1. Influence of trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Giampaolo, S.M.; Illuminati, F.; Mazzarella, G.; De Siena, S.

    2004-12-01

    We study the effect of external trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We introduce a generalized Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that includes the structure of the energy levels of the trapping potential, and show that these levels are in general populated both at finite and zero temperature. We characterize the properties of the superfluid transition for this situation and compare them with those of the standard Bose-Hubbard description. We briefly discuss similar behaviors for fermionic systems.

  2. Interacting Fermionic Atoms in Optical Lattices Diffuse Symmetrically Upwards and Downwards in a Gravitational Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Stephan; Rapp, Akos; Rosch, Achim

    2011-06-01

    We consider a cloud of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice described by a Hubbard model with an additional linear potential. While homogeneous interacting systems mainly show damped Bloch oscillations and heating, a finite cloud behaves differently: It expands symmetrically such that gains of potential energy at the top are compensated by losses at the bottom. Interactions stabilize the necessary heat currents by inducing gradients of the inverse temperature 1/T, with T<0 at the bottom of the cloud. An analytic solution of hydrodynamic equations shows that the width of the cloud increases with t1/3 for long times consistent with results from our Boltzmann simulations.

  3. Nonlinear resonant tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in tilted optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rapedius, K.; Elsen, C.; Korsch, H. J.; Witthaut, D.; Wimberger, S.

    2010-12-15

    We study the tunneling decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate from tilted optical lattices within the mean-field approximation. We introduce a method to calculate ground and excited resonance eigenstates of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, based on a grid relaxation procedure with complex absorbing potentials. This algorithm works efficiently in a wide range of parameters where established methods fail. It allows us to study the effects of the nonlinearity in detail in the regime of resonant tunneling, where the decay rate is enhanced by resonant coupling to excited unstable states.

  4. Routes Towards Anderson-Like Localization of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Disordered Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-10-01

    We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.

  5. Local-density approximation for confined bosons in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bergkvist, Sara; Henelius, Patrik; Rosengren, Anders

    2004-11-01

    We investigate local and global properties of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with an external confining potential, describing an atomic condensate in an optical lattice. Using quantum Monte Carlo techniques we demonstrate that a local-density approximation, which relates the unconfined and the confined model, yields quantitatively correct results in most of the interesting parameter range. We also examine claims of universal behavior in the confined system, and demonstrate the origin of a previously calculated fine structure in the experimentally accessible momentum distribution.

  6. Zoo of Quantum Phases and Excitations of Cold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2005-07-15

    Quantum phases and phase transitions of weakly to strongly interacting bosonic atoms in deep to shallow optical lattices are described by a single multiorbital mean-field approach in real space. For weakly interacting bosons in one dimension, the critical value of the superfluid to Mott insulator (MI) transition found is in excellent agreement with many-body treatments of the Bose-Hubbard model. For strongly interacting bosons (i) additional MI phases appear, for which two (or more) atoms residing in each site undergo a Tonks-Girardeau-like transition and localize, and (ii) on-site excitation becomes the excitation lowest in energy. Experimental implications are discussed.

  7. Bose-Fermi solid and its quantum melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bin; Das Sarma, S.; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the quantum phase diagram of Bose-Fermi mixtures of ultracold dipolar particles trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices in the thermodynamic limit. With the presence of nearest-neighbor (NN) interactions, a long-ranged ordered crystalline phase (Bose-Fermi solid) is found stabilized in the limit of weak intersite tunneling (J). When J is increased, such a Bose-Fermi solid can be quantum melted into a Bose-Fermi liquid through different procedures, depending on whether the crystalline order is dominated by the NN interaction between fermions or bosons. These properties are qualitatively different from the classical picture of solid-liquid phase transition.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Quantum Transport Equation for Bose Gas in One Dimensional Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yukiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiya

    The quantum transport equation and the correction of the quasiparticle energy are derived by imposing the renormalization conditions on the improved time-dependent on-shell self-energy in nonequilibrium Thermo Field Dynamics. They are numerically analyzed for the one dimensional system of cold neutral atomic Bose gas confined by a combined harmonic and optical lattice potentials. The analysis indicates that the correction of the quaisparticle energy plays a crucial role in the thermal relaxation processes described by the quantum transport equation.

  9. Quantum dynamics of hard-core bosons in tilted bichromatic optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Xiaoming; Chen Shu; Wang Yupeng

    2011-09-15

    We study the dynamics of strongly repulsive Bose gas in tilted or driven bichromatic optical lattices. Using the Bose-Fermi mapping and exact numerical method, we calculate the reduced single-particle density matrices, and study the dynamics of the density profile, the momentum distribution, and the condensate fraction. We show the oscillating and breathing mode of the dynamics, and the depletion of condensate for short-time dynamics. For long-time dynamics, we clearly show the reconstruction of system at integer multiples of Bloch-Zener time. We also show how to achieve clear Bloch oscillation and Landau-Zener tunneling for many-particle systems.

  10. Routes Towards Anderson-Like Localization of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Disordered Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-10-21

    We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.

  11. Multisite mean-field theory for cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, T.; Pisarski, P.; Gooding, R. J.; Zaremba, E.

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed derivation of a multisite mean-field theory (MSMFT) used to describe the Mott-insulator to superfluid transition of bosonic atoms in optical lattices. The approach is based on partitioning the lattice into small clusters which are decoupled by means of a mean-field approximation. This approximation invokes local superfluid order parameters defined for each of the boundary sites of the cluster. The resulting MSMFT grand potential has a nontrivial topology as a function of the various order parameters. An understanding of this topology provides two different criteria for the determination of the Mott insulator superfluid phase boundaries. We apply this formalism to d-dimensional hypercubic lattices in one, two, and three dimensions and demonstrate the improvement in the estimation of the phase boundaries when MSMFT is utilized for increasingly larger clusters, with the best quantitative agreement found for d=3. The MSMFT is then used to examine a linear dimer chain in which the onsite energies within the dimer have an energy separation of Δ. This system has a complicated phase diagram within the parameter space of the model, with many distinct Mott phases separated by superfluid regions.

  12. Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices: general formulation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modugno, Michele; Ibañez-Azpiroz, Julen; Pettini, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices can be properly defined by using the concept of maximally localized Wannier functions for composite bands. The basic principles of this approach are reviewed here, along with different applications to lattice potentials with two minima per unit cell, in one and two spatial dimensions. Two independent methods for computing the tight-binding coefficients—one ab initio, based on the maximally localized Wannier functions, the other through analytic expressions in terms of the energy spectrum—are considered. In the one dimensional case, where the tight-binding coefficients can be obtained by designing a specific gauge transformation, we consider both the case of quasi resonance between the two lowest bands, and that between s and p orbitals. In the latter case, the role of the Wannier functions in the derivation of an effective Dirac equation is also reviewed. Then, we consider the case of a two dimensional honeycomb potential, with particular emphasis on the Haldane model, its phase diagram, and the breakdown of the Peierls substitution. Tunable honeycomb lattices, characterized by movable Dirac points, are also considered. Finally, general considerations for dealing with the interaction terms are presented.

  13. Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: Evidence from an optical study

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Fursova, T. N.; Löser, W.; Xu, Y.; Behr, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb2PdSi3. In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors. PMID:23189239

  14. High precision 6.8GHz phase locking of coherent laser beams for optical lattice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xun; Sang, Linlin; Zhang, Chen; Jin, Ge; Jiang, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    With the optical phase lock loop (OPLL) we made, we can achieve phase locking at frequency differences ranging from 0.5GHz to 7.5 GHz. This OPLL is fully applicable in atomic physics experiments, mostly in coherent lasers frequency locking. Two kinds of modulation modes were brought to ensure the frequency range and precision: the fast feedback current as the injection current and the slow feedback current to adjust the piezo-electric transducer. This device has been put into an optical lattice platform to lock a laser used for cooling and trapping atoms. The beat signal has a -3dB band width of 1Hz at 6.834GHz, corresponding to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state 87Rb atom.

  15. Cold-collision-shift cancellation and inelastic scattering in a Yb optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, A. D.; Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Quemener, G.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.

    2011-11-15

    Recently, p-wave cold collisions were shown to dominate the density-dependent shift of the clock transition frequency in a {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clock. Here we demonstrate that by operating such a system at the proper excitation fraction, the cold-collision shift is canceled below the 5x10{sup -18} fractional frequency level. We report inelastic two-body loss rates for {sup 3} P{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} and {sup 1} S{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} scattering. We also measure interaction shifts in an unpolarized atomic sample. Collision measurements for this spin-1/2 {sup 171}Yb system are relevant for high-performance optical clocks as well as strongly interacting systems for quantum information and quantum simulation applications.

  16. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manish Joseph, Joby

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  17. Divalent Rydberg atoms in optical lattices: Intensity landscape and magic trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Turker; Derevianko, Andrei

    2014-02-01

    We develop a theoretical understanding of the trapping of divalent Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. Because the size of the Rydberg electron cloud can be comparable to the scale of spatial variations of laser intensity, we pay special attention to averaging optical fields over the atomic wave functions. The optical potential is proportional to the ac Stark polarizability. We find that in the independent-particle approximation for the valence electrons, this polarizability breaks into two contributions: the singly ionized core polarizability and the contribution from the Rydberg electron. Unlike the usually employed free-electron polarizability, the Rydberg contribution depends both on the laser intensity profile and on the rotational symmetry of the total electronic wave function. We focus on the J =0 Rydberg states of Sr and evaluate the dynamic polarizabilities of the 5sns(1S0) and 5snp(3P0) Rydberg states. We specifically chose the Sr atom for its optical-lattice clock applications. We find that there are several magic wavelengths in the infrared region of the spectrum at which the differential Stark shift between the clock states [5s2(1S0) and 5s5p(3P0)] and the J =0 Rydberg states [5sns(1S0) and 5snp(3P0)] vanishes. We tabulate these wavelengths as a function of the principal quantum number n of the Rydberg electron. We find that because the contribution to the total polarizability from the Rydberg electron vanishes at short wavelengths, magic wavelengths below ˜1000 nm are "universal" as they do not depend on the principal quantum number n.

  18. Majorana modes and p-wave superfluids for fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, A.; Lang, N.; Kraus, C. V.; Möller, G.; Huber, S. D.; Büchler, H. P.

    2014-07-01

    The quest for realization of non-Abelian phases of matter, driven by their possible use in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing, has been spearheaded by recent developments in p-wave superconductors. The chiral px+ipy-wave superconductor in two-dimensions exhibiting Majorana modes provides the simplest phase supporting non-Abelian quasiparticles and can be seen as the blueprint of fractional topological order. Alternatively, Kitaev’s Majorana wire has emerged as an ideal toy model to understand Majorana modes. Here we present a way to make the transition from Kitaev's Majorana wires to two-dimensional p-wave superconductors in a system with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. The main idea is based on an approach to generate p-wave interactions by coupling orbital degrees of freedom with strong s-wave interactions. We demonstrate how this design can induce Majorana modes at edge dislocations in the optical lattice, and we provide an experimentally feasible protocol for the observation of the non-Abelian statistics.

  19. Driven-dissipative many-body pairing states for cold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, W.; Diehl, S.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the preparation of many-body states of cold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice via controlled dissipative processes induced by coupling the system to a reservoir. Based on a mechanism combining Pauli blocking and phase locking between adjacent sites, we construct complete sets of jump operators describing coupling to a reservoir that leads to dissipative preparation of pairing states for fermions with various symmetries in the absence of direct inter-particle interactions. We discuss the uniqueness of these states, and demonstrate it with small-scale numerical simulations. In the late-time dissipative dynamics, we identify a ‘dissipative gap’ that persists in the thermodynamic limit. This gap implies exponential convergence of all many-body observables to their steady-state values. We then investigate how these pairing states can be used as a starting point for the preparation of the ground state of the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian via an adiabatic state preparation process also involving the parent Hamiltonian of the pairing state. We also provide a proof-of-principle example for implementing these dissipative processes and the parent Hamiltonians of the pairing states, based on 171Yb atoms in optical lattice potentials.

  20. Using superlattice potentials to probe long-range magnetic correlations in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Kim G. L.; Andersen, Brian M.; Bruun, Georg M.; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2015-12-01

    We previously proposed [K. G. L. Pedersen, B. M. Andersen, G. M. Bruun, O. F. Syljuåsen, and A. S. Sørensen, Phys. Rev. A 84, 041603 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.041603] a method to utilize a temporally dependent superlattice potential to mediate spin-selective transport and thereby probe long- and short-range magnetic correlations in optical lattices. Specifically, this can be used for detecting antiferromagnetic ordering in repulsive fermionic optical lattice systems, but more generally it can serve as a means of directly probing correlations among the atoms by measuring the mean value of an observable, the number of double occupied sites. Here we provide a detailed investigation of the physical processes that limit the effectiveness of this "conveyer belt method." Furthermore, we propose a simple way to improve the procedure, resulting in an essentially perfect (error-free) probing of the magnetic correlations. These results shows that suitably constructed superlattices constitute a promising way of manipulating atoms of different spin species as well as probing their interactions.

  1. Spin-Orbit Coupled s-Wave Superconductor in One-Dimensional Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Jun; Lang, Li-Jun; Lü, Rong; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2015-04-01

    We study the topological properties of spin-orbit coupled s-wave superconductor in one-dimensional optical lattice. Compared to its corresponding continuum model, the single particle spectrum is modified by the optical lattice and the topological phase which is characterized by the Majorana edge modes can survive in two regions of the single-particle spectrum. With the help of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes calculation in the harmonic trap, we find that the existence of an upper critical magnetic field removes the topological superconductor phase to the trap wings. We also study the effects of nonmagnetic and magnetic impurity on the topological properties, and find the universal behavior of the mid-gap state induced by impurity in the topological superconductor phase in strong scattering limit. Supported by National Program for Basic Research of MOST (973 grant), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121063, 11174360, 11374354, 11274195, 2011CB606405 and 2013CB922000

  2. Characters of basic steady state solutions for superfluid Fermi gas in Bessel optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Chen, Yan; He, Yong-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Lai

    2015-08-01

    We consider a dynamical model for superfluid Fermi gas, trapped in the central well of an axially symmetric Bessel optical lattice potential. The equation includes nonlinear power-law form of the chemical potential μ(n) = C|ψ|2γ, for γ = 2 3, which accounts for Fermi pressure. Reducing the equation to two-dimensional (2D) form, we obtain the basic steady state solutions of the system along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) side by employing the energy balance condition, which are guided by the variational approximation. It is found that the strength ɛ and the radial scale r of the Bessel optical lattice have an extreme effect on the characters of basic steady state solution. Analytically, we deduce the atomic density distribution, the average atom number and the average energy of basic steady state, where the atom distribution of the system presents on periodic change with r, and increases faster at unitarity than in the BEC limit. Furthermore, because of the Fermi pressure, the atomic density distribution at the unitarity is more extensive than that in the BEC limit. In particular, there exist very interesting changes, the average energy intends to collapse state with r, however it emerges as a stable state with varying L both in the BEC limit and at unitarity.

  3. Towards the next decades of precision and accuracy in a 87Sr optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; Lin, Yige; Swallows, Matthew; Bishof, Michael; Blatt, Sebastian; Benko, Craig; Chen, Licheng; Hirokawa, Takako; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks based on ensembles of neutral atoms have the potential to operate at the highest levels of stability due to the parallel interrogation of many atoms. However, the control of systematic shifts in these systems is correspondingly difficult due to potential collisional atomic interactions. By tightly confining samples of ultracold fermionic 87Sr atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, as opposed to the conventional one-dimensional geometry, we increase the collisional interaction energy to be the largest relevant energy scale, thus entering the strongly interacting regime of clock operation. We show both theoretically and experimentally that this increase in interaction energy results in a paradoxical decrease in the collisional shift, reducing this key systematic to the 10-17 level. We also present work towards next- generation ultrastable lasers to attain quantum-limited clock operation, potentially enhancing clock precision by an order of magnitude. This work was supported by a grant from the ARO with funding from the DARPA OLE program, NIST, NSF, and AFOSR.

  4. Quantum quenches of cold-atom gases in optical lattices: the influence of Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooley, Chris; Quintanilla, Jorge; Scarola, Vito

    2014-03-01

    We consider the following kind of non-equilibrium experiment. An ultracold fluid of fermions is prepared in a potential consisting of three parts: an optical lattice; a short-range-correlated disorder potential of finite strength; and a shallow harmonic trapping potential. After the fluid has equilibrated, the minimum of the harmonic potential is suddenly ``jumped'' to the side by a finite distance, d. The observables of interest are the subsequent evolution of the density distribution and phase correlations in the fluid. This kind of experiment is theoretically interesting because it contains two energy-dependent length scales: the localization length of the single-particle orbitals due to the disorder potential, ξ and the ``Bragg localization length'' of the single-particle orbitals due to the combined effect of the harmonic trap and optical lattice, lB. We present numerical results on the evolution of the density distributions and phase correlations in such cases, for a range of strengths of the disorder. In addition, we provide an approximate analytical framework for understanding our results in terms of the relative size of the length scales ξ and lB at the Fermi energy. Possibilities for further work are also discussed.

  5. Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Tanabe, Takehiko; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2014-04-01

    The frequency ratio of the (1)S(0)(F = 1/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 1/2) clock transition in (171)Yb and the (1)S(0)(F = 9/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 9/2) clock transition in (87)Sr is measured by an optical-optical direct frequency link between two optical lattice clocks. We determined the ratio (ν(Yb)/ν(Sr)) to be 1.207 507 039 343 341 2(17) fractional standard uncertainty of 1.4 × 10(-15) [corrected]. The measurement uncertainty of the frequency ratio is smaller than that obtained from absolute frequency measurements using the International Atomic Time (TAI) link. The measured ratio agrees well with that derived from the absolute frequency measurement results obtained at NIST and JILA, Boulder, CO using their Cs-fountain clock. Our measurement enables the first international comparison of the frequency ratios of optical clocks. The measured frequency ratio will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures for a discussion related to the redefinition of the second. PMID:24718165

  6. Improved Frequency Measurement of a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice Clock with a Spin-Polarized Fermionic 87Sr Isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamoto, Masao; Hong, Feng-Lei; Higashi, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Imae, Michito; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate a one-dimensional optical lattice clock with a spin-polarized fermionic isotope designed to realize a collision-shift-free atomic clock with neutral atom ensembles. To reduce systematic uncertainties, we developed both Zeeman shift and vector light-shift cancellation techniques. By introducing both an H-maser and a global positioning system (GPS) carrier phase link, the absolute frequency of the 1S0(F=9/2)-{}3P0(F=9/2) clock transition of the 87Sr optical lattice clock is determined as 429,228,004,229,875(4) Hz, where the uncertainty is mainly limited by that of the frequency link. The result indicates that the Sr lattice clock will play an important role in the scope of the redefinition of the “second” by optical frequency standards.

  7. An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10(-18) level.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B J; Nicholson, T L; Williams, J R; Campbell, S L; Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Bromley, S L; Ye, J

    2014-02-01

    Progress in atomic, optical and quantum science has led to rapid improvements in atomic clocks. At the same time, atomic clock research has helped to advance the frontiers of science, affecting both fundamental and applied research. The ability to control quantum states of individual atoms and photons is central to quantum information science and precision measurement, and optical clocks based on single ions have achieved the lowest systematic uncertainty of any frequency standard. Although many-atom lattice clocks have shown advantages in measurement precision over trapped-ion clocks, their accuracy has remained 16 times worse. Here we demonstrate a many-atom system that achieves an accuracy of 6.4 × 10(-18), which is not only better than a single-ion-based clock, but also reduces the required measurement time by two orders of magnitude. By systematically evaluating all known sources of uncertainty, including in situ monitoring of the blackbody radiation environment, we improve the accuracy of optical lattice clocks by a factor of 22. This single clock has simultaneously achieved the best known performance in the key characteristics necessary for consideration as a primary standard-stability and accuracy. More stable and accurate atomic clocks will benefit a wide range of fields, such as the realization and distribution of SI units, the search for time variation of fundamental constants, clock-based geodesy and other precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature. This work also connects to the development of quantum sensors and many-body quantum state engineering (such as spin squeezing) to advance measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit. PMID:24463513

  8. Competing orders in a dipolar Bose-Fermi mixture on a square optical lattice: mean-field perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a mixture of a two-component Fermi gas and a single-component dipolar Bose gas in a square optical lattice and reduce it into an effective Fermi system where the Fermi-Fermi interaction includes the attractive interaction induced by the phonons of a uniform dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on this effective Fermi system in the parameter regime that preserves the symmetry of D4, the point group of a square, we explore, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, the phase competition among density wave orderings and superfluid pairings. We construct the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We show that in the weak coupling regime, each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific "effective" interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize the Fermi-Fermi interactions in our system. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that close to half filling, the dx2 - y2-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a fraction of Fermi energy (at half filling) may dominate all other phases, and at a higher filling factor, the p-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a hundredth of Fermi energy may emerge as a winner. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance the pairings with dxy- and g-wave symmetries but not enough for them to dominate other competing phases.

  9. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  10. From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Peter; Lemonde, Pierre; Bize, Sebastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Clairon, Andre; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2007-06-15

    We describe an experiment based on atoms trapped close to a macroscopic surface, to study the interactions between the atoms and the surface at very small separations (0.6-10 {mu}m). In this range the dominant potential is the QED interaction (Casimir-Polder and van der Waals) between the surface and the atom. Additionally, several theoretical models suggest the possibility of Yukawa-type potentials with sub-millimeter range, arising from new physics related to gravity. The proposed setup is very similar to neutral atom optical lattice clocks, but with the atoms trapped in lattice sites close to the reflecting mirror. A sequence of pulses of the probe laser at different frequencies is then used to create an interferometer with a coherent superposition between atomic states at different distances from the mirror (in different lattice sites). Assuming atom interferometry state-of-the-art measurement of the phase difference and a duration of the superposition of about 0.1 s, we expect to be able to measure the potential difference between separated states with an uncertainty of {approx_equal}10{sup -4} Hz. An analysis of systematic effects for different atoms and surfaces indicates no fundamentally limiting effect at the same level of uncertainty, but does influence the choice of atom and surface material. Based on those estimates, we expect that such an experiment would improve the best existing measurements of the atom-wall QED interaction by {>=} 2 orders of magnitude, while gaining up to four orders of magnitude on the best present limits on new interactions in the range between 100 nm and 100 {mu}m.

  11. Tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an accelerating optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Tie Lu; Xue Jukui

    2010-11-15

    The nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling and the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands in an accelerating optical lattice are discussed. Within the hydrodynamic theory and a two-level model, the tunneling probability of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands is obtained. We find that, as the system crosses from the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to the BCS side, the tunneling rate is closely related to the particle density: when the density is smaller (larger) than a critical value, the tunneling rate at unitarity is larger (smaller) than that in the BEC limit. This is well explained in terms of an effective interaction and an effective potential. Furthermore, the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between the bands are discussed by imposing a periodic modulation on the level bias and the strength of the lattice. Analytical expressions of the critical density for suppressing or enhancing the Rabi oscillations are obtained. It is shown that, as the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side, the critical density strongly depends on the modulation parameters (i.e., the modulation amplitude and the modulation frequency). For a fixed density, a high-frequency or low-frequency modulation can suppress or enhance the Rabi oscillations both at unitarity and in the BEC limit. For an intermediate modulation frequency, the Rabi oscillations are chaotic along the entire BEC-BCS crossover, especially, on the BCS side. Interestingly, we find that the modulation of the lattice strength only with an intermediate modulation frequency has significant effect on the Rabi oscillations both in the BEC limit and at unitarity; that is, an intermediate-frequency modulation can enhance the Rabi oscillations, especially on the BCS side.

  12. Hubbard Model study of Off Diagonally Confined fermions in a 2D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Dave; Chiesa, Simone; Scalettar, Richard; Batrouni, George

    2010-03-01

    We report Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a Hubbard Hamiltonian which incorporates a proposed new method for confining atoms in an optical lattice employing an inhomogeneous array of hopping matrix elements which trap atoms by going to zero at the lattice edges. This has been termed ``Off Diagonal Confinement (ODC)'' [1] to distinguish it from the more conventional use of a parabolic trap coupling to (diagonal) density operators. It has the advantage of producing systems which, while still being inhomogeneous, are entirely in the Mott phase, and allow simulations which are free of the sign problem at low temperatures. We analyze the effects of using ODC traps on the local density, density fluctuation, spin, and pairing correlation functions. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and importance of this new confinement technique for modeling correlated systems. Research supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science SCIDAC program, DOE-DE-FC0206ER25793. [1] V.G. Rousseau et al., arXiv:0909.3543

  13. Thermodynamics of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices versus ideal homogeneous Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the thermodynamic properties of noninteracting gases in periodic lattice potential at arbitrary integer fillings and compared them with that of ideal homogeneous gases. By deriving explicit expressions for the thermodynamic quantities and performing exact numerical calculations, we have found that the dependence of e.g., entropy and energy on the temperature in the normal phase is rather weak especially at large filling factors. In the Bose condensed phase, their power dependence on the reduced temperature is nearly linear, which is in contrast to that of ideal homogeneous gases. We evaluated the discontinuity in the slope of the specific heat which turned out to be approximately the same as that of the ideal homogeneous Bose (IHB) gas for filling factor ν = 1. The discontinuity i.e. the jump in the heat capacity per particle linearly decreases with increasing ν. These results may serve as a checkpoint for various experiments on optical lattices as well as theoretical studies of weakly interacting Bose systems in periodic potentials being a starting point for perturbative calculations.

  14. Gauge-invariant implementation of the Abelian-Higgs model on optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Meurice, Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Unmuth-Yockey, J.; Zhang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    We present a gauge-invariant effective action for the Abelian-Higgs model (scalar electrodynamics) with a chemical potential μ on a (1 +1 )-dimensional lattice. This formulation provides an expansion in the hopping parameter κ which we test with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of the inverse gauge coupling βp l=1 /g2 and small values of the scalar self-coupling λ . In the opposite limit of infinitely large λ , the partition function can be written as a traced product of local tensors which allows us to write exact blocking formulas. Gauss's law is automatically satisfied and the introduction of μ has consequences only if we have an external electric field, g2=0 or an explicit gauge symmetry breaking. The time-continuum limit of the blocked transfer matrix can be obtained numerically and, for g2=0 and a spin-1 truncation, the small volume energy spectrum is identical to the low energy spectrum of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model in the limit of large on-site repulsion. We extend this procedure for finite βp l and derive a spin-1 approximation of the Hamiltonian. It involves new terms corresponding to transitions among the two species in the Bose-Hubbard model. We propose an optical lattice implementation involving a ladder structure.

  15. Inhomogeneous BCS-BEC crossover for trapped cold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaricci, A.; Privitera, A.; Capone, M.

    2014-05-01

    The BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover in a lattice is a powerful paradigm that describes how a superconductor deviates from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer physics as the attractive interaction increases. Optical lattices loaded with binary mixtures of cold atoms allow one to access this phenomenon experimentally in a clean and controlled way. We show that, however, the possibility to study this phenomenon in actual cold-atoms experiments is limited by the effect of the trapping potential. Real-space dynamical mean-field theory calculations show indeed that interactions and the confining potential conspire to pack the fermions in the center of the trap, which approaches a band insulator when the attraction becomes sizeable. Interestingly, the energy gap is spatially more homogeneous than the superfluid condensate order parameter. We show how this physics reflects in several observables, and we propose an alternative strategy to disentangle the effect of the harmonic potential and measure the intrinsic properties resulting from the interaction strength.

  16. Topological semimetal: a probable new state of quantum optical lattice gases protected by D4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, W. Vincent; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that a novel topological semimetal emerges as a parity-protected critical theory for fermionic atoms loaded in the p and d orbital bands of a two-dimensional optical lattice. The new quantum state is characterized by a parabolic band-degeneracy point with Berry flux 2 π , in sharp contrast to the π flux of Dirac points as in graphene. We prove that this topological liquid is a universal property for all lattices of D4 point group symmetry and the band degeneracy is protected by odd parity. Turning on interparticle repulsive interaction, the system undergoes a phase transition to a topological insulator, whose experimental signature includes chiral gapless domain-wall modes, reminiscent of quantum Hall edge states. KS and SDS acknowledge the support of JQI-NSF-PFC, AFOSR-MURI, ARO-DARPA-OLE and ARO-MURI. W.V.L. is supported by ARO and ARO-DARPA-OLE. We thank the KITP at UCSB for its hospitality where this research is supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY05-51164.

  17. A quantum gas of ground state molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danzl, Johann; Mark, Manfred; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Hart, Russell; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2009-05-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are ideally suited for fundamental studies in physics and chemistry. For many of the proposed experiments full molecular state control and high phase space densities are needed. We create a dense quantum gas of ground state Cs2 molecules trapped at the wells of a 3D optical lattice, i.e. a molecular Mott-insulator-like state with ground state molecules with vibrational quantum number v = 0. We first efficiently produce weakly bound molecules with v 155 on a Feshbach resonance out of an atomic Mott-insulator state that is obtained from a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of Cs atoms. These molecules are then (coherently) transferred to the ground state by two sequential two-photon STIRAP processes via the intermediate vibrational level v 73 ^1. The molecule production efficiency and the single-step STIRAP transfer efficiency reach 50% and 80%, respectively. We discuss the stability of the system and our progress towards the creation of a BEC of ground state molecules, which is expected to form when the molecular Mott-like state is ``melted'' upon lowering the lattice depth and releasing the molecules from the wells into a large volume trap. ^1J. G. Danzl, E. Haller, M. Gustavsson, M. Mark, R. Hart, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, H. Ritsch, H.-C. Nägerl, Science 321, 1062 (2008).

  18. Entanglement and spin squeezing in a network of distant optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzik, Eugene S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an approach for the collective enhancement of precision for remote optical lattice clocks and a way of generating the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) state of remote clocks. In the first scenario, a distributed spin-squeezed state (SSS) of M clocks is generated by a collective optical quantum nondemolition measurement on clocks with parallel Bloch vectors. Surprisingly, optical losses, which usually present the main limitation to SSS, can be overcome by an optimal network design which provides close to Heisenberg scaling of the time precision with the number of clocks M . We provide an optimal network solution for distant clocks as well as for clocks positioned within close proximity of each other. In the second scenario, we employ collective dissipation to drive two clocks with oppositely oriented Bloch vectors into a steady-state entanglement. The corresponding EPR state provides secret time sharing beyond the projection noise limit between the two quantum synchronized clocks protected from eavesdropping. An important application of the EPR-entangled clock pair is the remote sensing of, for example, gravitational effects and other disturbances to which clock synchronization is sensitive.

  19. Expansion dynamics of interacting bosons and fermions in one dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian

    2013-05-01

    This talk will provide an overview over the fascinating phenomena that can be encountered in the sudden expansion of interacting fermions or bosons in a lattice, starting from a trapped gas of particles. We simulate the dynamics using the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. In the transient regime, the expansion can dramatically alter correlations. I will discuss the dynamical emergence of coherence and the quantum distillation mechanism. The latter results in a spatial separation of repulsively or attractively bound pairs from unbound particles, which can be used to dynamically purify a band insulator. Another topical example is the expansion of a spin-imbalanced gas, starting from the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, relevant in the context of a recent experiment on 1D FFLO states. In this case, the transient dynamics completely destroy the FFLO correlations. Nevertheless, experimentally accessible quantities may still preserve information on the initial state. First, the expansion velocity is sensitive to the presence of a Mott-insulator in the initial state. Second, we argue that the asymptotic momentum distributions of integrable models are constrained by non-trivial integrals of motion.

  20. Localization of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a bichromatic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-08-01

    We study the localization of a cigar-shaped superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in a quasiperiodic bichromatic optical lattice (OL) for interspecies attraction and intraspecies repulsion. The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the bosons, coupled to a hydrodynamic mean-field equation for fermions at unitarity. We confirm the existence of the symbiotic localized states in the Bose-Fermi mixture and Anderson localization of the Bose component in the interacting Bose-Fermi mixture on a bichromatic OL. The phase diagram in boson and fermion numbers showing the regions of the symbiotic and Anderson localization of the Bose component is presented. Finally, the stability of symbiotic and Anderson localized states is established under small perturbations.