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1

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

2

Reliable commercial HTS wire for power applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of HTS wire for power applications is increasingly maturing into industrial dimensions. The most widely considered manufacturing method for this conductor is the BSCCO-2223-OPIT route, used internationally by many organizations, including American Superconductor. Significant advances in HTS wire technology have been made in the past years, with currently a guaranteed minimum critical current performance of 115 A at 77 K over commercial long length. For the HTS wire itself this is equivalent to an engineering current density of 13.5 kA/cm 2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity in its Westborough operations from 250 to 500 km/year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstration purposes. While this level of quality and quantity is sufficient to demonstrate technical feasibility and reliability of prototype power applications, it cannot satisfy fully commercial requirements for economic viability. To address broader markets with a commercially viable product, a price level of $50/(kA m) is possible with BSCCO-2223-OPIT when manufactured in much larger quantities. Therefore, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated solely to the manufacturing of BSCCO-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km/year. Key initial applications for this wire are power transmission cables, industrial motors and electrical generators. This paper will report on the performance and reliability testing of BSCCO-2223 wires. We will discuss the electrical, bending, tensile, and fatigue testing results of wires manufactured for applications such as American Superconductor's 5000 hp ultra-compact motor. Due to their compactness, these motors will be less expensive to manufacture compared with conventional motors and will be more energy efficient. We will also review the stringent electrical, mechanical, and environmental testing developed jointly by American Superconductor and Pirelli Cables and Systems for simulating the behavior of HTS wires under the actual operating conditions for an underground power cable. Also, we will give an update of the status of our new manufacturing plant which is planned to be operational in 2002.

Kellers, Jürgen; Masur, Lawrence J.

2002-08-01

3

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 × the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC’s first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC’s second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

Masur, L. J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J.

4

Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC’s manufacturing approach is based on RABiTS TM/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template. In this paper, we review the status of the 2G manufacturing scale up at AMSC and describe the properties and architecture of the 2G wire being manufactured and developed for various applications.

Zhang, W.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Huang, Y.; Siegal, E.; Buczek, D.; Carter, W.; Nguyen, N.; Schreiber, J.; Prasova, M.; Lynch, J.; Tucker, D.; Fleshler, S.

2007-10-01

5

Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

2014-05-01

6

AC application of second generation HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

2008-02-01

7

Design, development and calibration of HTS wire based LOX level sensor probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For space applications, the weight of the liquid level sensors are of major concern as they affect the payload fraction and hence the cost. An attempt is made to design and test a light weight High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) wire based liquid level sensor for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank used in the cryostage of the spacecraft. The total resistance value measured of the HTS wire is inversely proportional to the liquid level. A HTS wire (SF12100) of 12mm width and 2.76m length without copper stabilizer has been used in the level sensor. The developed HTS wire based LOX level sensor is calibrated against a discrete diode array type level sensor. Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) and LOX has been used as cryogenic fluid for the calibration purpose. The automatic data logging for the system has been done using LabVIEW11. The net weight of the developed sensor is less than 1 kg.

Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, A. S.; Gowthaman, M.; Deekshith, P.; Shrivastava, V.

2014-01-01

8

Recent advances in long length Bi2223 HTS multifilamentary composite wire development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing applications for HTS technology are now enabled by a new generation of superconducting wires that bring together the required electrical and mechanical properties in long lengths that are durable when exposed to practical application environments. Advances in the development and scale-up of long-length Bi-2223 HTS composite wire are reviewed. Powder-in-tube processing was used to produce multifilamentary tapes in continuous

M. J. Minot; D. Buczek; J. J. Gannon; P. K. Miles; D. R. Parker; P. Metra

1995-01-01

9

First Model Power Cables Made of Russian 2G HTS Wires and their Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently launched production of 2G wires by SuperOx Company permitted us to start tests of representative models of power cable made of their wires. In Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute we have the test facility for extensive testing of heavily instrumented HTS cable models with full size cross-section and length up to 5 m. Our standard test program includes critical current measurements, current distribution measurements among layers, AC loss measurements, etc. In this paper we present details of first power cable models made of 4 mm width 2G wires from SuperOx and their test results. Model cables have two counter-wound layers with 18 tapes in each layer. Critical currents of cables were from 3 kA to ~4.5 kA. We also measured AC losses and compared them with losses in model cables made of 2G wires of other producers. AC losses measured were compared with calculated ones and demonstrated the good coincidence between experiments and calculations. First model cables tests permitted us to conclude that SuperOx wires have good parameters for production of 2G HTS power cables with low AC losses.

Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Zubko, V. V.; Bykovsky, N. V.; Zanegin, S. Yu; Vysotsky, V. S.; Svalov, G. G.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.

2014-05-01

10

Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

Kennth Marken

2006-08-11

11

Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

2010-04-01

12

A Study on Wire Ball\\/Pad Open Failure Mechanism of a Multi-Stack Package (MSP) under High Temperature Storage (HTS) Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of a wire ball\\/pad open failure at a gold wire and bonding pad interface of a multi-stack package (MSP) under high temperature storage (HTS) condition, 150 degC, is studied. Failure analysis using FE-SEM (field emission) and FIB-SEM (focused ion beam) was conducted. The analysis revealed that the main factors that contribute to a ball\\/pad failure were the tensile

Se Young Yang; Hyeong-Jik Byun; Sang-Wook Park; Wang-Joo Lee

2007-01-01

13

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

14

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

1994-09-27

15

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

2010-06-01

16

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

2010-11-01

17

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting

Masafumi Ogata; Yoshiki Miyazaki; Hitoshi Hasegawa; Takashi Sasakawa; Ken Nagashima

2010-01-01

18

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet

M. Ogata; Y. Miyazaki; H. Hasegawa; T. Sasakawa; K. Nagashima

2010-01-01

19

Progress on MOD/RABiTS TM 2G HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire has advanced beyond initial laboratory demonstrations and is now focused on developing and testing high critical current conductor designs required for commercial applications. The approach pursued at American Superconductor for 2G wire manufacturing is based on the combination of the RABiTS TM substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. This MOD/RABiTS TM approach has been demonstrated in 10 m lengths with critical currents of up to 184 A/cm-width (?2.3 MA/cm 2) and in short length with critical currents of up to 270 A/cm-width (?3.4 MA/cm 2). In addition to a high critical current, the superconducting wire must also meet stringent mechanical and electrical stability requirements that vary by application. Commercially viable architectures designed to meet these specifications have been fabricated and tested. Wires manufactured by this process have been successfully tested in prototype cable and coil applications.

Rupich, M. W.; Zhang, W.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Teplitsky, M.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Siegal, E.; Scudiere, J.; Maroni, V.; Venkataraman, K.; Miller, D.; Holesinger, T. G.

2004-10-01

20

Prospects for HTS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes

B. B. Gamble; G. L. Snitchier; R. E. Schwall

1996-01-01

21

Prospects for HTS applications  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed.

Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1996-07-01

22

HTS motors in aircraft propulsion: design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires exhibit high current densities enabling their use in electrical rotating machinery. The possibility of designing high power density superconducting motors operating at reasonable temperatures allows for new applications in mobile systems in which size and weight represent key design parameters. Thus, all-electric aircrafts represent a promising application for HTS motors. The design of such

Philippe J. Masson; Danielle S. Soban; Eric Upton; Jules E. Pienkos; Cesar A. Luongo

2005-01-01

23

Development of a persistent current switch for HTS magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes design concept, fabrication, and experimental results of a persistent-current switch (PCS) for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. Recently large-size HTS magnets have been fabricated with Ag-sheathed Bi2223 wires. Even in the case of HTS magnets, persistent-current mode has the advantage of maintaining a steady magnetic field for long periods. A PCS for an HTS magnet is a

Taizo Tosaka; Toru Kuriyama; Mutsuhiko Yamaji; Katsuyuki Kuwano; Motohiro Igarashi; Motoaki Terai

2004-01-01

24

Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils

S. K. Baik; Y. K. Kwon; H. M. Kim; J. D. Lee; Y. C. Kim; G. S. Park

2010-01-01

25

Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems  

SciTech Connect

The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

Knoll, David

2012-12-31

26

Review of activities in USA on HTS materials  

SciTech Connect

Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

Peterson, D.E.

1995-02-01

27

An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets.  

PubMed

This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

Hahn, Seung-Yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2009-06-01

28

HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and spacebased systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment 2 (HTSSE-2). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

1995-01-01

29

HTS Thin Films: Passive Microwave Components and Systems Integration Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems, improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper, we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

1995-01-01

30

Miniaturized HTS technologies – uHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from slow, manual, low-throughput screening to industrialized robotic ultra-high throughput screening (uHTS) in the past few years has made it possible to screen hundreds of thousands of chemical entities against a biological target in a short time-frame. The need to minimize the cost of screening has been addressed primarily by reducing the volume of sample to be screened.

Julian Wölcke; Dirk Ullmann

2001-01-01

31

HTS cable design and evaluation in YOKOHAMA Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started since FY 2007 in Japan. The target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the live network of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Various preliminary tests with the short core samples were conducted to confirm the HTS cable design. One of the technical targets in this project is to reduce the AC losses of HTS cable cores. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO wire with twisted superconducting filaments which is named TypeAC is applied in the cable core. A short cable core made with TypeAC wires shows its AC loss is 0.8 W/m/ph at 2 kArms, which is about 1/4 of the one with standard DI-BSCCO wires. Another important target is to manage a fault current. At a preliminary test with the short cable cores, it showed that the cable could manage the through-fault of 10 kA at 2 sec and survived at 31.5 kA at 2 sec. As the electric insulation tests, AC 90 kV for 3 hours and lightning impulse at ±385kV, 3 shots for each were applied to a cable core, successfully. The results of tensile and bending tests showed the cable core has good mechanical properties. The design of the HTS cable for YOKOHAMA project has been completed as well as those of a termination and a joint. A 30-meter HTS cable was manufactured and a 30-meter HTS cable system was installed in SEI facility. The cable system was cooled down and tested to verify its performance before constructing the HTS cable system in YOKOHAMA. This paper describes the design and test results of the 30-meter HTS cable, and also performance test results of the 30-meter cable system.

Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Minamino, T.; Masuda, T.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Noguchi, Y.

2010-06-01

32

HTS magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) up to 200 mm size are developed and tested in prototype fast rotating machines to demonstrate the potential to replace conventional bearings. The individual rotational bearing components HTS and PM, their physical interaction and technology is reviewed. Characterisation experiments are conducted to understand the rotor dynamic behaviour. In terms of unbalance and critical speeds the suspended wheels and rotors compare favourably with conventional bearing devices. The rationale of our present bearing technology lies in the assembling of both low-speed magnetic bearings for centrifugal and wafer processing units up to 20,000 rpm as well as a high-speed optical mirror accelerated to rim speed of more than 500 m/s (174,000 rpm) confirming stable low-drag and low energy operation. Two new-type U shaped semicircle HTS bearings coupled each with a 6 W/80 K cryocooler of the Stirling type allow the contact-free operation of a Si wafer carrier in semiconductor wet processes.

Werfel, Frank N.; Flögel-Delor, Uta; Rothfeld, Rolf; Wippich, Dieter; Riedel, Thomas

2002-08-01

33

Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30K (?243°C). Influence of an important parameter,

S. K. Baik; Y. K. Kwon; H. M. Kim; S. H. Kim; J. D. Lee; Y. C. Kim; H. J. Park; W. S. Kwon; G. S. Park

2009-01-01

34

Resistive fault current limiter using HTS single-layer coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work that is being done as a part of the project to develop a resistive current limiter using HTS Bi-2223\\/Ag tapes with the same construction scheme previously reported using LTS NbTi\\/CuNi wire with normal operating current of 170 A in liquid helium bath. The Bi–2223\\/Ag tape was helically wounded on several cylindrical G-10 tubes forming concentric

Carlos A. Baldan; Carlos Y. Shigue; Daltro G. Pinatti; Ernesto Ruppert-Filho; Rafael C. Freitas; Roberto P. Homrich

2004-01-01

35

Design research on the conductor of 10 kA class HTS DC power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable shows a wide application prospect in the field of power transmission for its nearly lossless and rather high capacity. A 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable system, which connects the rectifier output of a substation with the bus bar of an electrolytic aluminium cell, will be put into operation at Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. As one of the items in this project, a 5 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable was developed, which is used to investigate the conductor design, fabrication, current-carrying capacity and stability of the 360 m/10 kA HTS power cable. The HTS DC power cable core consists of five conductor layers wound with spliced Bi-2223 wires with the length of 600 m. The cable core has five layers and 23 conductors in each layer with the outer diameter of 45.42 mm. The superconducting power cable is fabricated and tested. The critical current is about 14.3 kA at 77 K. The superconducting power cable is charged to 10 kA with rate of 10 A/s and operates at steady-state for 30 min. In this paper, the 10 kA HTS DC power cable design, fabrication and test are presented. The experimental research of the performance of spliced superconducting wire and charging, steady-state operating performance of the cable was carried out.

Zhang, Dong; Dai, Shaotao; Zhang, Fengyuan; Huang, Tianbin; Wang, Yinshun; Lin, Yubao; Teng, Yuping; Zhang, Guomin; Xiao, Liye; Lin, Liangzhen

2012-12-01

36

Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems  

SciTech Connect

Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Hassenzahl, William V [ORNL

2011-01-01

37

Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

Eaton, Russell

2002-01-01

38

Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

2014-05-01

39

Electrical machines with bulk HTS elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO and Bi–Ag elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. Two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in these types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in multi-domain and

L. K. Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; V. T. Penkin; K. L. Kovalev; S. M.-A. Koneev; K. A. Modestov; S. A. Larionoff; W. Gawalek; B. Oswald

2001-01-01

40

Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

2010-11-01

41

Recovery Under Load Performance of 2nd Generation HTS Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Electric Power Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) has been pursued for decades and has been limited thermally and\\/or mechanically by the available superconducting materials performance characteristics . However, within the past few years a newer, more robust type of superconductor known as 2G HTS wire, has become available in sufficient quantity and lengths for developers to build prototype devices and

Juan-Carlos H. Llambes; Drew W. Hazelton; Charles S. Weber

2009-01-01

42

A New HTS Cable Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HTS cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a real grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)

Takato Masuda; Hiroyasu Yumura; M. Ohya; T. Kikuta; M. Hirose; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito; K. Yamamoto; M. Ikeuchi; R. Ohno

2009-01-01

43

High temperature storage (HTS) performance of copper ball bonding wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in a fully annealed state, copper is a naturally harder material than gold. The hardness of copper, and its greater tendency to undergo strain and strain rate hardening, has created difficulties in implementing it for widespread fine pitch ball bonding because of gross cratering or, worse still, unseen damage to the chip that only `develops' during reliability tests such

Saraswati; Ei Phyu Phyu Theint; D. Stephan; H. M. Goh; E. Pasamanero; D. R. M. Calpito; F. W. Wulff; C. D. Breach

2005-01-01

44

HTS Magnet for Maglev Applications (1)— Coil Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an HTS coil for maglev applications. The magnet consists of four persistent current HTS coils and is operated at a rated temperature of 20 K and a rated magnetomotive force of 750 kA for each coil. This paper describes the fabrication and test results of each persistent current HTS coil. The HTS coil consists of 12 single-pancake coils

Kenji Tasaki; Kotaro Marukawa; Satoshi Hanai; Taizo Tosaka; Toru Kuriyama; Tomohisa Yamashita; Yasuto Yanase; Mutsuhiko Yamaji; Hiroyuki Nakao; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Satoshi Hirano; Katsuyuki Kuwano; Takeshi Okutomi; Motoaki Terai

2006-01-01

45

A study on electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the field coil in HTS motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors electromagnetically consist of a rotator wound with HTS wires and an armature with conventional copper wires like Litz wire. The HTS rotor windings, as field coils, consist of a straight part and an end-ring part. Because a major rotation torque is induced by an interaction between magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors in the straight part, most of mechanical stresses in the motor occur at the straight part. An end-ring is placed in the edge of the straight part and used to connect to each adjacent straight-part coils. The magnetic fields by coil currents concentrate on the end-ring part, therefore, it is expected that the critical current of the entire coil, straight and end-ring, can be determined by the magnitude of the field in the end-ring. This paper deals with the overall J c degradation in the end-ring part by self-field generated from the coil. In addition to electromagnetic analyses, we have performed a numerical analysis in order to evaluate mechanical stresses in the straight part of field coil by armature reaction on steady-state operation. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

Kim, S. B.; Kadota, T.; Joo, J. H.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. P.; Kim, H. M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Jo, Y. S.

2010-11-01

46

Next generation of HTS magnetic application: HTS bulk and coil interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) will operate at magnetic field excitation higher than permanent magnets (> 1.0 T). The new bearing type is capable to support heavy -load rotors of more than one ton mass. Using FEM we calculate the interaction of HTS bulk and 2G coil to achieve higher magnetic flux excitation and flux gradients of HTS bearings at temperatures of 50 – 60 K. The new total HTS bearing type multiplies the present 10 -15 N/cm2 force density obtained with PM's by a factor of 5 and passes the force properties of active magnetic bearings (AMB). HTS coil excitation is capable to increases the levitation forces to more than the present 10 kN level and reduces relative cooling and material effort per load. We design a magnetic bearing for HTS bulk -coil excitation.

Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.; Koenig, R.

2014-05-01

47

Digital wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages:

Alfred Hübler

2009-01-01

48

Quench-Protection Strategies for HTS Superconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Assessments are made of four distinct strategies for the quench protection of HTS coils near 77 K - diamond-film insulation, cryovaristor current shunt, loaded Formvar insulation, and a sputtered ceramic insulation. An improved three-dimensional thermal m...

W. N. Lawless

2005-01-01

49

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

50

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

51

Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

2014-05-01

52

Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1 MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30 K (-243 °C). Influence of an important parameter, synchronous reactance, has been analyzed on the machine performances such as voltage variation and output power during motor and generator operation. The developed motor was also analyzed by three-dimensional electromagnetic FEM (finite element method) to get magnetic field distribution, inductance, electromagnetic stress and so forth. This motor is aimed to be utilized for industrial application such as large motors operating in large plants. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of Neon thermosiphon mechanism and the stator (armature) coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper also describes evaluation of some electrical parameters from performance test results which were obtained at steady state in generator and motor mode of our HTS machine.

Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

2009-06-01

53

Cryogen-free lkA-class Ic measurement system featuring an 8 T HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a cryogen-free critical-current (Ic) measuring system comprising a conduction-cooled 8 T HTS magnet and convection-cooled sample, both cooled by commercial cryocoolers. The sample can be rotated and transport currents of up to 800 A delivered with less than 0.5 K temperature rise during the Ic measurement. The system is automated with respect to variations in temperature (30–90 K), field (0–8 T), and field angle (0–360°). We have used this system to measure HTS wire samples, concentrating on metal-organic deposited YBCO on RABiTS substrates. Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of Ic anisotropy with temperature, and the dangers of extrapolating from 77 K to 30 K.

Strickland, N. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Wimbush, S. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Huang, T.; Lazic, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Talantsev, E. F.; Long, N. J.; Tallon, J. L.

2014-05-01

54

A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

2011-11-29

55

Practical neutral-axis conductor geometries for coated conductor composite wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

To optimize mechanical properties, particularly under bending deformation, a composite laminated architecture is proposed for second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wire in which the superconductor layer is located at or near the neutral mechanical axis. 'Neutral-axis' conductors, each approximately 7 cm long, were fabricated by solder-laminating copper strip onto silver-coated HTS coated conductor strands. 'Neutral-axis' and non-laminated

D. Verebelyi; E. Harley; J. Scudiere; A. Otto; U. Schoop; C. Thieme; M. Rupich; A. Malozemoff

2003-01-01

56

High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi–Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in

L. K. Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; K. L. Kovalev; V. T. Penkin; V. N. Poltavets; S. M.-A. Koneev; I. I. Akimov; W. Gawalek; B. Oswald; G. Krabbes

2003-01-01

57

Aging characteristics of cryogenic insulator for development of HTS transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the response to the demand for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialize high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments has been made around the world. Especially, HTS transformer is one of the most promising devices. For the development of HTS transformer, the cryogenic insulation technology should be established. In this paper V?t characteristics of polyimide (Kapton) tape

Van-Dung Nguyen; Jong-Man Joung; Seung-Myeong Baek; Chang-Hwa Lee; Sang-Hyun Kim

2005-01-01

58

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

59

Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for the HTS layer. AMSC’s wide strip process is a low cost manufacturing technology since multiple wires are produced in a single manufacturing pass by slitting the wide strip to narrower width in the last stage of the manufacturing process. Industry standard 4.4 mm wide wires are produced by laminating metallic foils, such as copper, stainless steel or any other material, to the HTS insert wire, and are chosen to tailor the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the wire for specific applications. The laminated, 4.4 mm wide wires are known as “344 superconductors.” In this paper, we summarize the status of AMSC’s manufacturing capability, the performance of the wire presently being produced, as well as the cost and technical advantages of AMSC’s manufacturing approach. In addition, future direction for research and development to improve electrical performance is presented.

Fleshler, S.; Buczek, D.; Carter, B.; Cedrone, P.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J.; Inch, J.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Otto, A.; Podtburg, E.; Roy, D.; Rupich, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Schreiber, J.; Thieme, C.; Thompson, E.; Tucker, D.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.

2009-10-01

60

US effort on HTS power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert’s ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year’s program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

Mehta, S.

2011-11-01

61

HTS electrical machines with YBCO bulk and Ag–BSCCO plate-shape HTS elements: recent results and future development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the multi-domain and

L. K Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; V. T Penkin; K. L Kovalev; S. M.-A Koneev; K. A Modestov; S. A Larionoff; W. Gawalek; B. Oswald

2001-01-01

62

Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils.  

PubMed

This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) operation of a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700) consisting of a 600 MHz LTS NMR magnet (L600) equipped with superconducting shim coils and a 100 MHz DP-assembled HTS insert (H100) and; 2) an experiment with a room-temperature (RT) Z1 shim coil coupled to a 50 MHz DP-as-sembled HTS insert (H50). A field mapping theory with a harmonic analysis is applied to interpret both results. Based on experimental results and analyses, we conclude that the screening-current-induced field (SCF) generated by a DP-assembled HTS insert is primarily responsible for the nonlinear behavior, including strength degradation, of a shim coil. PMID:20383282

Hahn, Seung-Yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bascuñán, Juan; Yao, Weijun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2009-06-01

63

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

64

From BCS to Hts and Rts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great progress has been made in high temperature superconductivity (HTS) science, material and technology in the 20 years since its discovery. The next grand challenge will be room temperature superconductivity (RTS). Room temperature superconductivity, if achieved, can change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only "at an astronomical temperature and at an astronomical distance". With the advent of HTS in 1987, the outlook for RTS has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why room temperature superconductivity should be impossible. BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but, since its inception, it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at higher temperatures. To date, empiricism remains the most effective way to discover superconductors with high transition temperatures. In this paper based on the talk given at the Professor Yang's 85th birthday celebration on October 31, 2007 in Singapore, I shall summarize the search for superconductors of higher Tc prior to and after the discovery of HTS, list the common features of HTS and describe some approaches toward RTS that we are currently pursuing.

Chu, C. W.

2008-12-01

65

Mobile conduction-cooled HTS SMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An immovable 35 kJ/7 kW high- Tc superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) system had been developed in the Electric Power System Dynamic Simulation Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2005. In order to adapt for on-site experimental conditions, the mechanical configuration of the magnet is reinforced and the SMES system is assembled in a special container to be freighted to the actual power system for the feasibility study on different applications at different sites. The mobile HTS SMES system had withstood various kinds of poor road surfaces and then arrived at the experimental site on August 18, 2009. In this paper, the reconstructed configuration and the shock absorption of the magnet are presented. The field test results show that the mobile SMES system can operate on the power network at different locations and suppress effectively power fluctuation of the generator terminal.

Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Chen, L.; Guo, F.; Fang, J.; Wen, J.

2010-11-01

66

First Russian long length HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ?8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ?30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ?0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

2012-11-01

67

Cold storage characteristics of mobile HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold storage system specialized in mobile high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets (e.g. for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles) has been proposed. In this system, a cooling source is detachable and a HTS coil is capable of maintaining superconducting state with its heat capacity. This system allows a considerably lightweight HTS magnet. An apparatus was constructed to evaluate the possibility of using cold storage systems in maglev vehicles. The thermal characteristic of this apparatus was based on a magnet for previous maglev test vehicles [1]. The operational temperature range of the magnet was assumed from 20 K to 50 K. Some experiments indicated that heat conduction by residual gas was not negligible. Especially over 30 K, gas conduction took a large part of heat input. This phenomenon is attributable to reduction of cryopumping effect. However, activated carbon in the apparatus compensates cryopumping effect. A unique heat capacitor was also used to enhance the cold storage effect. Water ice was chosen as a heat capacitor because water ice has a higher heat capacity than metallic materials at cryogenic temperatures. A small amount of water ice also prolonged cryogenic temperature condition. These results indicate 1 day of cold storage is probable in a magnet for maglev vehicles.

Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Ken; Kawano, Asumi; Okamura, Tetsuji

2011-06-01

68

Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Goodall, R.M. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering] [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

1996-07-01

69

Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

70

Superconducting Electric Machine with Permanent Magnets and Bulk HTS Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical methods of calculating of two-dimensional magnetic fields, inductive parameters and output characteristics of the new type of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors with a composite rotor are presented. The composite rotor has the structure containing HTS flat elements, permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. The developed calculation model takes into account the concentrations and physical properties of these rotor elements. The simulation results of experimental HTS motor with a composite rotor are presented. The application of new type of HTS motor in different constructions of industrial high dynamic drivers is discussed.

Levin, A. V.; Vasich, P. S.; Dezhin, D. S.; Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Penkin, V. T.

71

High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

2003-04-01

72

Residential Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

Taylor, Mark

73

Development and testing of HTS cables and terminations at ORNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Southwire Company have used the ORNL 5 m cable test facility to develop high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and terminations to support the first industrial demonstration of an HTS cable at the Southwire manufacturing complex. Two 5 m, cold dielectric cables have been tested for direct current (DC) voltage, alternating current (AC) losses,

M. J. Gouge; J. A. Demko; P. W. Fisher; C. A. Foster; J. W. Lue; J. P. Stovall; U. Sinha; J. Armstrong; R. L. Hughey; D. Lindsay; J. Tolbert

2001-01-01

74

Power system analysis of a resistive HTS fault current limiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the performance of a prototype resistive fault current limiter (FCL) made using a high temperature superconductor (HTS). Its behavior under normal operation and short-circuit conditions in a 6 kV/1 kA power system is analyzed with regard to the feasibility of using this HTS FCL device in electrical power systems.

Jin, Jian X.; Liu, Zhen Y.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

2007-09-01

75

HTS cable design and evaluation in YOKOHAMA Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTS cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started since FY 2007 in Japan. The target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the live network of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in order to demonstrate its reliability

H. Yumura; M. Ohya; Y. Ashibe; M. Watanabe; T. Minamino; T. Masuda; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kitoh; Y. Noguchi

2010-01-01

76

Wire Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

Swanquist, Barry

1998-01-01

77

Processing, fabrication, and demonstration of HTS integrated microwave circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconductor (HTS) devices can and will improve the performance of ESM and shared aperture receiver systems. For the near term the most promising candidate for the reference channelized cued ESM receiver system is an HTS IF Delsy line that can provide 200 nanoseconds of delay across a 3 to 5 GHz band. Such a delay line can improve sensitivity by 1 to 2 dB while providing about a 6 dB improvement in two tone dynamic range. Perhaps even of greater importance is that the low device loss combined with the elimination of multiple amplifiers previously needed to overcome loss can significantly improve the amplitude and phase tracking of the delay lines. In future systems it is unlikely that a single HTS device will be employed. Rather, it is more likely that large portions of the RF architecture will be placed in a cooler as a means of achieving performance and cost advantages. This is thought to include an HTS front-end, conventional IF amplifier, and HTS IF receivers. Looking even further in the future it is likely that entire HTS receivers will be remotely located with their HTS antennas and only digits will be returned to central for processing.

Wagner, G. R.; Talisa, S. H.; Talvacchio, J.

1994-09-01

78

University Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University Wire is a daily Internet news service for college newspapers. Included are a story of the day, a large list of pointers to Internet resources in topics such as current headlines, politics, medicine and health, and women's resources; a "Kopyedit Korner," with pointers to writing reference materials; a placement center with job openings lists for college journalists; a large selection of pointers to college newspapers; and pointers to general circulation newspapers. Pointers to student and professional journalism organizations, as well as a calendar of journalism related events, are also provided. University Wire is a service of The Main Quad.

1997-01-01

79

Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

1998-12-22

80

Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States); Motowidlo, L.R. [IGC Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States); Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

1993-10-01

81

Inductance and Current Distribution Analysis of a Prototype HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is partly supported by NSFC Grant 51207146, RAEng Research Exchange scheme of UK and EPSRC EP/K01496X/1. Superconducting cable is an emerging technology for electricity power transmission. Since the high power capacity HTS transmission cables are manufactured using a multi-layer conductor structure, the current distribution among the multilayer structure would be nonuniform without proper optimization and hence lead to large transmission losses. Therefore a novel optimization method has been developed to achieve evenly distributed current among different layers considering the HTS cable structure parameters: radius, pitch angle and winding direction which determine the self and mutual inductance. A prototype HTS cable has been built using BSCCO tape and tested to validate the design the optimal design method. A superconductor characterization system has been developed using the Labview and NI data acquisition system. It can be used to measure the AC loss and current distribution of short HTS cables.

Zhu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Ming; Yuan, Weijia

2014-05-01

82

Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

2014-05-01

83

Processing, Fabrication, and Demonstration of HTS Integrated Microwave Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part of this task is to determine how the HTS channelized filterbank can be most effectively demonstrated. Preferably the demonstration should be accomplished in the context of an actual ESM receiver rather than as a laboratory demonstration using laborat...

G. R. Wagner

1991-01-01

84

Practical neutral-axis conductor geometries for coated conductor composite wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To optimize mechanical properties, particularly under bending deformation, a composite laminated architecture is proposed for second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wire in which the superconductor layer is located at or near the neutral mechanical axis. 'Neutral-axis' conductors, each approximately 7 cm long, were fabricated by solder-laminating copper strip onto silver-coated HTS coated conductor strands. 'Neutral-axis' and non-laminated samples were bend/reverse-bend tested on mandrels of successively smaller diameters while measuring critical current after each reduction in mandrel size. The 'neutral-axis' samples showed significantly improved Ic retention compared to the non-laminated strands.

Verebelyi, D.; Harley, E.; Scudiere, J.; Otto, A.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Rupich, M.; Malozemoff, A.

2003-10-01

85

The installation and test results for Albany HTS cable project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albany HTS cable project is going on with the support of US Federal and New York States. The HTS cables included the Bi2223 tapes sintered by CT-OP (controlled over-pressure) process has 34.5kV and 800A capacity. The cable system was manufactured in Japan, and shipped to Albany. A 320m cable and a 30m cable were installed into the conduits under the

H. Takigawa; H. Yumura; T. Masuda; M. Watanabe; Y. Ashibe; H. Itoh; C. Suzawa; M. Hirose; K. Yatsuka; K. Sato; S. Isojima

2007-01-01

86

Outline of a new HTS cable project in Yokohama  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. This project targets operation of a 66kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the real grid in order to verify its reliability and operation performance.The Tokyo Electric Power

T. Mimura; Y. Kitoh; S. Honjo; M. Ohya; H. Yumura; T. Masuda

2009-01-01

87

Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid.Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid

T. Masuda; H. Yumura; M. Ohya; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito

2009-01-01

88

Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

2013-06-01

89

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

90

Thermodynamic optimization of conduction-cooled HTS current leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical optimization is performed for the conduction-cooling method of high Tc superconductor (HTS) current leads, which can be applied to the superconducting systems cooled directly by cryogenic refrigerators without liquid helium. The current lead is a series combination of a normal metal conductor at the warmer part and a HTS at the colder part, and is cooled by a contact with distributed or staged refrigerators instead of boil-off helium gas. An analytical method is developed to derive a mathematical expression for the required refrigerator power. By incorporating the critical characteristics of the HTS, it is demonstrated that there exist unique optimal values for the current density of HTS and the joint temperature of the two parts to minimize the total refrigerator power per unit current, for a given length of the HTS. As results of the study, the absolute minimum in the refrigerator power per unit current is presented as a thermodynamic limit and the leads cooled by a two-stage refrigerator are theoretically optimized. Some aspects in practical design are also discussed with a new and useful graphical method.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Van Sciver, Steven W.

91

Outline of a new HTS cable project in Yokohama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. This project targets operation of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the real grid in order to verify its reliability and operation performance. The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the influence of connecting the HTS cable. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd. provides the cooling system. This project consist of the design of a total system to be finalized in 2008, the manufacture of the cable, terminations and joint scheduled for completion in 2009, installation in spring and summer of 2010 and commissioning by the fall of 2010. The HTS cable will be connected to the real grid in the 154/66 kV substation. It is set up between the 154/66 kV transformer and the 66 kV bus line. This report shows the outline of this project and details of the influence of the connecting cable to the real grid.

Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Honjo, S.; Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.

2009-10-01

92

Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS  

SciTech Connect

Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Knoll, David [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture] [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture

2010-01-01

93

Angular Measurements of Hts Critical Current for High Field Solenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment is in the works at Fermilab to confirm that ionization cooling is an efficient way to shrink the size of a muon beam. This would pave the way for Muon Collider machines, which however require in their last stages of acceleration very high field solenoids. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these magnets using Helium or higher temperature refrigeration. A sample holder was designed to perform critical current (Ic) measurements of HTS conductors under externally applied magnetic fields varying from zero to 90 degree with respect to the c-axis. This was performed in an ample range of temperatures and magnetic field values. A description of the test setup and results for (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO-2223) tapes, and Second Generation HTS in the form of 348 superconductor are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Lombardo, V.; Thieme, C.; Zlobin, A. V.

2008-03-01

94

HTS SQUIDs for the nondestructive evaluation of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While LTS and HTS SQUIDs have successfully been applied in the detection of flaws in aircraft grade aluminium structures for well over a decade, interest has recently spread to a type of new material, namely composites. One example, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), is increasingly being favoured by the aircraft industry because of its strength to weight ratio and the fact that it is corrosion-resistant. Material and defect characterization using SQUIDs is still at an early stage, but due to expected rapid expansion in the use of such materials, there is ample scope for the application of HTS SQUIDs. Here we have applied HTS SQUID single-layer gradiometers to investigate artificially created defects in CFRP samples.

Carr, Chris; Graham, David; Macfarlane, John C.; Donaldson, Gordon B.

2003-12-01

95

The insulation design for transmission class HTS transformer with continuous disk winding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the response to the demands for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialize HTS power equipments have been made around the world. Among them HTS transformer is one of very promising one. In Korea, companies and universities are developing a power distribution and transmission class HTS transformer that is one of the 21st century superconducting frontier projects.

H. G. Cheon; D. S. Kwag; J. H. Choi; S. H. Kim

2007-01-01

96

Insulation Design and Experimental Results for Transmission Class HTS Transformer With Composite Winding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the response to the demand for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialize high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments has been made around the world. In Korea, companies and universities are developing a power distribution and transmission class HTS transformer that is one of the 21st century superconducting frontier projects. The composite winding of transmission class HTS

H. G. Cheon; D. S. Kwag; J. H. Choi; C. H. Min; T. S. Park; H. H. Kim; S. H. Kim

2008-01-01

97

Places Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you curious to learn more about cities? You'd do well to make a beeline for the Places Wire site, which offers a cornucopia of material on urban parks, public policy, architecture, planning, and other topics. In sum total, the site is a "curated feed of news and commentary on architecture, landscape and urbanism." The site has partnered with 20 different organizations to provide new content on a daily basis. Some of the recent articles that have found their way to the site include "9 Suggestions for Changing DC's Height Limit" and "The Demise of the Public Hearing." Visitors can also use the drop-down View tab to scroll through the last few hours or days, as the content is quite dynamic. One gem that should not be missed is the archived appearance of Frank Lloyd Wright as a guest on the 1950s television program "What's My Line?"

98

Long length HTS cable with integrated FCL property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past years have shown the growth of bottlenecks in electric power grids, among other reasons caused by the increasing demand of energy in the form of electricity and by the large-scaled integration of renewable sources. As solving of these challenges by means of traditional solutions appears to be more and more problematic, the need for new technology solutions has become apparent. The HTS cable technology demonstrates a great potential in solving of grid congestion issues. In addition to their large power transport capacity and low losses, modern-generation HTS cables also have an integrated fault-current limiting (FCL) property. Applications of such cables in power grids will help to solve fault-current issues when connecting new generators, and dispersed and large-scale renewable sources. As HTS cables, used in current projects, are limited to hundreds of meters in length, they have still not been used for energy transport over long distances. The Dutch DSO Alliander, together with Ultera, is working on the development of a 6 km FCL HTS cable for installation in the Alliander's HV grid. In order to get the low-loss benefits of the HTS technology, a cooling system with a high efficiency is needed. The FCL HTS cable will be cooled by one cooling station at each end of the cable, using a liquid nitrogen coolant. Alliander and Ultera have established and work to achieve technical performance targets believed to be required to realise a 6 km long, 50 kV retrofit system with a power rating of 250 MVA with cooling stations only at the two ends of the cable system. These targets aim to reduce the superconductor's AC loss at a nominal current, reduce the heat leak of the thermally insulating envelope, increase the voltage rating and reduce the friction coefficient of the coolant flow.

Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi

2010-06-01

99

Intermodulation distortion in HTS thin films: a global heating model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-linear microwave response of high transition-temperature superconductors (HTS) thin films is a critical issue for applications of the cuprates in future communications technologies. We report that the conventional figure of merit, the third-order intercept, does not provide a good measure of performance for HTS materials. We describe a physical model for intermodulation distortion generation which arises from global heating effects in a thin film, not previously noted. We present results on a high quality YBCO thin film which support the validity of this model. Predictions are made of techniques to reduce the intermodulation in films of this quality.

Hao, Ling; Gallop, John; Purnell, Adrian; Cohen, Lesley

2002-08-01

100

Quench detection system for twin coils HTS SMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quench detection and protection system is a critical element in superconducting magnets. After a short summary of the quench detection and protection issues in HTS magnets, an original detection system is presented. The main feature of this system is an active protection of the detection electronics during the discharges, making it possible to use standard electronics even if the discharge voltage is very high. The design of the detection system is therefore easier and it can be made very sensitive. An implementation example is presented for a twin coil HTS SMES prototype, showing the improvements when compared to classical detection systems during operation.

Badel, A.; Tixador, P.; Simiand, G.; Exchaw, O.

2010-10-01

101

Wire Chamber Aging and Wire Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on wire chamber aging has shown surprising results indicating that anode wire material may have a strong influence on the useful life-time of a chamber or counter. The aging process discussed here is related to changes in the surface characteristics of the anode wires. Those changes may be due to an oxidation process involving molecules produced from the

Muzaffer Atac

1987-01-01

102

Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 ?m thick SmBa2Cu3O7 - ? (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor.

Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

2014-04-01

103

Microstructure and jc Improvements in Multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag Wires for High Field Magnet Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi-2212/Ag conductor is one of the most promising materials for extending the field strength of superconducting magnets over present low temperature superconductor systems. From the view point of practical application, Bi-2212/Ag round wires have significant advantages over more typical HTS tape conductors, such as no anisotropy, and easier handling and coil winding, which allows considerable flexibility in the magnet design. Recent development efforts at Oxford Superconducting Technology have been aimed at manufacturing high quality multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag round wires with the varied sizes to fabricate HTS insert coils for high field magnet applications. However, further improvement of critical current density (Jc) and engineering current density (JE) in larger diameter wires is desirable for practical applications. Recent results show a strong dependence of the wire JE and Jc performance on its microstructure, in particularly, the interface of Bi-2212/Ag. Significant improvements of microstructure and Jc have resulted from the optimization of wire size and filament numbers, but not obviously on starting powder fill factors. The highest JE of 320 A/mm2 (non-Ag Jc of 1103 A/mm2) at 4.2 K, 25 T was obtained in 1.15 mm wire with 85×19 filament configuration.

Miao, H.; Meinesz, M.; Czabaj, B.; Parrell, J.; Hong, S.

2008-03-01

104

Numerical assessment of efficiency and control stability of an HTS synchronous motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature superconducting (HTS) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed and developed in Cambridge University. It is expected to become cost competitive with the conventional PMSM owing to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque density, etc. The structure and parameters of HTS PMSM are detailed. Both AC losses by transport current and applied filed in stator armature winding of HTS PMSM are also analyzed. Computed and simulated results of the characteristics of the HTS PMSM and conventional PMSM are compared. The improvement on stability of direct torque control (DTC) on the HTS PMSM is estimated, and proved by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

Xian, Wei; Yuan, Weijia; Coombs, T. A.

2010-06-01

105

Loss analysis of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) synchronous motor has advantages over the conventional synchronous motor such as smaller size and higher efficiency. Higher efficiency is due to smaller loss than the conventional motor, so it is important to do loss analysis in order to develop a machine with higher efficiency. This paper deals with machine losses those are dissipated in each part

S K Baik; Y K Kwon; H M Kim; J D Lee; Y C Kim; H J Park; W S Kwon; G S Park

2009-01-01

106

HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg – 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

2014-05-01

107

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

108

Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

2013-01-01

109

High Performance HTS Conductors: Long Length Production and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program was for ASC to address in a systematic manner the fundamental engineering issues associated with the fabrication of reliable, rugged, high power density HTS coils and systems. The goal is to provide solid technical support for...

S. Kalsi

1998-01-01

110

Optimal wiring between rectangles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of wiring together two parallel rows of points under a variety of conditions. The options include whether we allow the rows to slide relative to one another, whether we use only rectilinear wires or arbitrary wires, and whether we can use wires in one layer or several layers. In almost all of these combinations of conditions,

Danny Dolev; Kevin Karplus; Alan Siegel; Alex Strong; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1981-01-01

111

Robust Analysis of High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assay Data  

PubMed Central

Quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) assays use cells or tissues to screen thousands of compounds in a short period of time. Data generated from qHTS assays are then evaluated using nonlinear regression models, such as the Hill model, and decisions regarding toxicity are made using the estimates of the parameters of the model. For any given compound, the variability in the observed response may either be constant across dose groups (homoscedasticity) or vary with dose (heteroscedasticity). Since thousands of compounds are simultaneously evaluated in a qHTS assay, it is not practically feasible for an investigator to perform residual analysis to determine the variance structure before performing statistical inferences on each compound. Since it is well-known that the variance structure plays an important role in the analysis of linear and nonlinear regression models it is therefore important to have practically useful and easy to interpret methodology which is robust to the variance structure. Furthermore, given the number of chemicals that are investigated in the qHTS assay, outliers and influential observations are not uncommon. In this article we describe preliminary test estimation (PTE) based methodology which is robust to the variance structure as well as any potential outliers and influential observations. Performance of the proposed methodology is evaluated in terms of false discovery rate (FDR) and power using a simulation study mimicking a real qHTS data. Of the two methods currently in use, our simulations studies suggest that one is extremely conservative with very small power in comparison to the proposed PTE based method whereas the other method is very liberal. In contrast, the proposed PTE based methodology achieves a better control of FDR while maintaining good power. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a data set obtained from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Additional information, simulation results, data and computer code are available online as supplementary materials.

Lim, Changwon; Sen, Pranab K.; Peddada, Shyamal D.

2013-01-01

112

The 1 ?g cosyntropin test in normal individuals: A reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Background: The 1?g cosyntropin test has some advantages over the 250?g test as a test of adrenal function. One of the concerns regarding the 1 ?g test includes stability of the cosyntropin when reconstituted and stored. Classically the 5th percentile responses to cosyntropin in normal individuals have been used to define a normal response. Recent studies have shown that these normative values should be determined for individual assays. Materials and Methods: We performed a 1?g cosyntropin test using reconstituted and refrigerated (4-8° C) cosyntropin in saline solution in 49 non pregnant adults who were apparently healthy and had no exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. The cosyntropin solution was stored for up to 60 days following reconstitution. We analysed the data for any association between duration of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses to cosyntropin administration. Results: The mean ± SD cortisol level at baseline, 30 and 60 min were-12.19 ± 3 ?g/dl, 20.72 ± 2.63 ?g/dl, 16.86 ± 3.33 ?g/dl. The 5th percentile cortisol response at 30 min was 16.5 ?g/dl (16.33 ?g/dl rounded off). The correlation coefficients between number of days of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses at 30 and 60 min were (Spear mans rho = 0.06,-0.24 respectively) (P = 0.69 and 0.41). There were no differences in cortisol values whether the storage was for less than 30 days or more than 30 days (mean difference 0.25 ?g/dl P = 0.44). Conclusion: The 5th percentile normative values determined for our assay is lower than what is currently being used clinically and in research publications. Prolonged refrigerated storage of cosyntropin solution does not affect the validity of the 1 ?g cosyntropin test.

Anantharaman, R.; Menezes, Geraldine; Yusuf, Razif; Ganapathi, B.; Ayyar, S. Vageesh; Srinivasan, R.

2013-01-01

113

Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S. A.; Gunther, D.

2005-01-01

114

Textured powder wires  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for fabricating a wire from textured powder includes compressing a powder comprising a plurality of particles into a ribbon. The method further includes encasing the ribbon between two foil sheets to create a sheet of encased ribbon. The method additionally includes rolling the encased ribbon into a substantially cylindrical undrawn wire. The method further includes drawing the undrawn wire to create a substantially cylindrical wire having a diameter less than a diameter of the substantially cylindrical undrawn wire.

2013-11-26

115

[pT1G3 bladder carcinoma: our experience].  

PubMed

Approximately 6 to 23% of the patients with transitional cell carcinoma confined to the superficial mucosa of the bladder suffer for a pT1G3 tumor. Between 1984 and 1994, 12 patients were treated for high grade stage T1 tumores. Trans-urethral resection of the bladder cancer was performed in 8 patients, supported in two cases by immunotherapy with B.C.G. and in one case by endovesical chemotherapy. Radical cystectomy was carried out in 4 patients. Our results are similar to what reported by other Authors, but we didn't have any progression in all 8 patients treated with conservative therapy. PMID:8664927

Dell'Orto, P; Trinchieri, A; D'Addezio, F; Bernardini, P; Mangiarotti, B; Del Nero, A; Pisani, E

1996-02-01

116

Wire Test Grip Fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

Burke, Christopher S.

2011-01-01

117

Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet.  

PubMed

This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2009-07-17

118

Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 °C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable ?'-CuAl2 IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c = 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable ?'-CuAl2 phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and ?'-CuAl2, which can minimize lattice mismatch for ?'-CuAl2 to grow on Cu.

Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du, Yong

2012-12-01

119

Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Chen, William T.; Du Yong [Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc., 1255 E Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2012-12-15

120

Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

1996-01-01

121

Installation and performance test of cooling system for HTS cable in ICHEON substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable systems have many advantages such as high transmission efficiency, high capacity, and low over conventional cables. On the other hand, the reliability and economic efficiency of the HTS cable system has not been verified; therefore, there are not many precedent studies for applying HTS cables on commercial power grids, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has started a project of operating and manufacturing technology for applying 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, and 500 m class HTs cable to the commercial power grid in 2008. LS cable Ltd. has joined this project for designing and manufacturing HTS power cable including the colling system. We have verified the reliability and economic efficiency of the system throughout this real power grid connection project. In this paper, we introduce the design of the colling sytem for the 500 m class HTS cable and summarize the results of its performance testing.

Lim, Ji Hyun; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Oh, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, G. T.; Jang, H. M.; Lee, S. G.; Hwang, Si Dole

2012-06-01

122

Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as

M. Miki; B. Felder; K. Tsuzuki; Y. Xu; Z. Deng; M. Izumi; H. Hayakawa; M. Morita; H. Teshima

2010-01-01

123

Comparison of pulsed magnetization processes for HTS bulk parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

With respect to the potential application as cryo-permanent magnets, melt-textured YBaCuO bulk parts were used to investigate various pulsed magnetization processes employing pulsed copper coils. Results for different multi-pulse processes including different peak fields, pulse durations, temperatures and geometries are compared. The strong current-carrying capabilities of HTS material, even for currents above the critical current Jc, result in strong shielding

M. Sander; U. Sutter; M. Adam; M. Kläser

2002-01-01

124

HTS coils for the Navy's superconducting homopolar motor\\/generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the development of HTS coils at Intermagnetics for the Navy's homopolar motor\\/generator program. Two coil sizes were used. A series of small test coils (14.0 cm i.d.×15.0 cm o.d.×1.4 cm long) were employed to evaluate various conductor winding, insulation and epoxy impregnation issues. Based upon the results of these test coils, the larger coil modules (19.37

D. W. Hazelton; M. T. Gardner; J. A. Rice; M. S. Walker; C. M. Trautwein; P. Haldar; D. U. Gubser; M. Superczynski; D. Waltman

1997-01-01

125

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

126

Test results of HTS magnet for SMES application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnet for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) conducting cooled by SRDK-408 cryocooler is described in this paper. The superconducting magnet consists of 7 double-pancake coils made of Bi-2223 HTS tape with the inner and outer diameters 210 mm, 315 mm respectively and height of 191 mm. The inductance of the magnet is approximately 1 H. In this paper we report the design improvements and the measurement results taken at the cooling of the magnet.

Kozak, J.; Majka, M.; Jaroszynski, L.; Janowski, T.; Kozak, S.; Kondratowicz – Kucewicz, B.; Wojtasiewicz, G.

2010-06-01

127

Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid\\/gas to

P. S. Spoor; J. A. Corey

2010-01-01

128

Characteristics of HTS tube depending on heat-treatment conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-2212 HTS tube was fabricated by centrifugal forming process (CFP). As a variation of melt casting process (MCP) or centrifugal casting technique, the CFP is a flexible method for manufacturing Bi-2212 bulk tubes and has been optimized to achieve smooth surface and uniform thickness. At this process, the slurry was prepared in the mixing ratio of 10:1 of Bi-2212 powder

Yong-Min Park; Gun-Eik Jang

2001-01-01

129

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

130

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

131

HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler is discussed. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application, the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Woloshun, K. A.

132

Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

133

Testing of an HTS Power Cable Made from YBCO Tapes  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed, built, and tested a 1.25-m-long, prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable made from second-generation YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO)-coated conductor tapes. Electrical tests of this cable were performed in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. DC testing of the HTS cable included determination of the V-I curve with a critical current of about 2100 A, which was consistent with the critical currents of the two layers of 4.4-mm wide YBCO tapes. AC testing of the cable was conducted at currents up to about 1500 Arms. The ac losses were determined calorimetrically by measuring the response of a calibrated temperature sensor placed on the former and electrically by use of a Rogowski coil with a lock-in amplifier. Over-current testing was conducted at peak current values up to 4.9 kA for pulse lengths of 0.3-0.5 s. Test results are compared to earlier data from a 1.25-m-long power cable made from 1-cm-wide YBCO tapes and also comparable BSCCO cables. This commercial-grade HTS cable demonstrated the feasibility of second-generation YBCO tapes in an ac cable application.

Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL

2007-01-01

134

Electromagnetic force analysis of HTS bulk in DC-magnetic fields due to electromagnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type linear synchronous motor which is based on an idea considering pinning force of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk as synchronizing force in using current-carrying-armature winding is proposed. However, HTS bulk could not produce lift force enough to levitate the HTS bulk ship for basic experiments. To research larger lift force, DC-magnet which generates higher magnetic fields has

K. Yoshida; H. Matsumoto

2002-01-01

135

Operation of HTS dc-SQUID sensors in high magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

For HTS dc-SQUID sensors operating in high magnetic fields we have used quasiplanar HTS Josephson junctions, HTS films prepared at optimized conditions with a high oxygen pressure dc-sputtering technique, a capsulation with a heater, and a proper dc-SQUID layouts. DC-SQUIDs tested in magnetic fields up to about 1 kG demonstrate no reduction of the critical current. A model is proposed,

M. I. Faley; U. Poppe; K. Urban; E. Zimmermann; W. Glaas; H. Halling; M. Bick; H.-J. Krause; D. N. Paulson; T. Starr; R. L. Fagaly

1999-01-01

136

Characteristics of a 3-D HTS Actuator With Various Shaped Electromagnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop the transportation device with non-contact and move in free space. Proposed superconducting actuator consists of the stator constructed by two-dimensional arranged electromagnets and HTS bulk superconductor as a mover. The 2-D arranged electromagnets were individually controlled to move the HTS bulk. It is expected that our

S. B. Kim; T. Inoue; A. Shimizu; J. H. Joo; S. Murase

2007-01-01

137

The high voltage problem in the saturated core HTS fault current limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small model of a one-phase saturated core HTS fault current limiter was developed. It consists of an iron core, an AC coil and a DC HTS coil. The HTS coil comprised six 126 turns double-pancakes (ID 70 mm), wound after heat treatment from Bi-2223 multifilamentary tape in Ag matrix. A fault simulation circuit was set up to characterize the

Y. F. He; J. H. Li; X. H. Zong; J. Sun; Y. N. Wang; C. L. Wu; J. X. Wang

2003-01-01

138

Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS

Chen Gu; Menglin Liu; Huawei Xing; Tong Zhou; Wensheng Yin; Jun Zong; Zhenghe Han

2005-01-01

139

Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min?1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

2014-05-01

140

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

141

Flying wires at Fermilab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called flying wires have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. A flying wire is a device that passes (flies) a 25-?m carbon filament through a particle beam, transversely, at a constant velocity of between 2 and 5 m\\/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary

J. Gannon; C. Crawford; D. Finley; R. Flora; T. Groves; M. MacPherson

1989-01-01

142

Design of sub-1g microelectromechanical systems accelerometersa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers for sensing sub-1g (g = 9.8 m/s2) acceleration. The accelerometer has a high-density proof mass to suppress the Brownian noise that dominates the output noise of the sensor. The low-temperature (<400 °C) process enables to integrate the accelerometer on the sensing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuit by electroplating of gold; a proof mass of 1020 ?m × 1020 ?m in area with the thickness of 12 ?m has been found to suppress the measured noise floor to 0.78 ?g /?Hz at 300 K, which is nearly one order of magnitude smaller than those of the conventional MEMS accelerometers made of silicon.

Yamane, D.; Konishi, T.; Matsushima, T.; Machida, K.; Toshiyoshi, H.; Masu, K.

2014-02-01

143

Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ??0.7 to 0.8).

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

2000-05-01

144

A defect in the RNA-processing protein HNRPDL causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1G (LGMD1G).  

PubMed

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined muscle disorders with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. More than 20 genes with autosomal recessive (LGMD2A to LGMD2Q) and autosomal dominant inheritance (LGMD1A to LGMD1H) have been mapped/identified to date. Mutations are known for six among the eight mapped autosomal dominant forms: LGMD1A (myotilin), LGMD1B (lamin A/C), LGMD1C (caveolin-3), LGMD1D (desmin), LGMD1E (DNAJB6), and more recently for LGMD1F (transportin-3). Our group previously mapped the LGMD1G gene at 4q21 in a Caucasian-Brazilian family. We now mapped a Uruguayan family with patients displaying a similar LGMD1G phenotype at the same locus. Whole genome sequencing identified, in both families, mutations in the HNRPDL gene. HNRPDL is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein family member, which participates in mRNA biogenesis and metabolism. Functional studies performed in S. cerevisiae showed that the loss of HRP1 (yeast orthologue) had pronounced effects on both protein levels and cell localizations, and yeast proteome revealed dramatic reorganization of proteins involved in RNA-processing pathways. In vivo analysis showed that hnrpdl is important for muscle development in zebrafish, causing a myopathic phenotype when knocked down. The present study presents a novel association between a muscular disorder and a RNA-related gene and reinforces the importance of RNA binding/processing proteins in muscle development and muscle disease. Understanding the role of these proteins in muscle might open new therapeutic approaches for muscular dystrophies. PMID:24647604

Vieira, Natássia M; Naslavsky, Michel S; Licinio, Luciana; Kok, Fernando; Schlesinger, David; Vainzof, Mariz; Sanchez, Nury; Kitajima, João Paulo; Gal, Lihi; Cavaçana, Natale; Serafini, Peter R; Chuartzman, Silvia; Vasquez, Cristina; Mimbacas, Adriana; Nigro, Vincenzo; Pavanello, Rita C; Schuldiner, Maya; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana

2014-08-01

145

Gold wire stress analysis of wire feed system in automatic wire bonder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wire feed system is an important subsystem of typical automatic wire bonder. The resistance control of wire transmission and tensile force control are the key technologies of the wire feed system, which has a strong impact on the bonding quality. This paper describes the stress analysis of gold wire in the automatic wire bonder. The analysis is useful in

Yuetao Liu; Yanjie Liu; Lining Sun; Ji Li

2009-01-01

146

Design optimization of a HTS current lead with large current capacity for fusion application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design study of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) current lead having a large current transportation capacity has been performed for thermonuclear fusion application on the basis of a 60 kA HTS current lead developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The lead consists of copper and HTS parts, and the conductors of the parts are a forced flow cooled bundle and conduction cooled cylindrically arrayed stacks of silver-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes for the copper and the HTS parts, respectively. The objective of the design study is to reduce cost for fabrication and operation of the HTS current lead by computing the optimum HTS operating temperature, where the total amount, including increase of fabrication cost and decrease of operating cost by adoption of HTS lead, is minimized. Results of the study show that HTS operating temperature of 75 K is optimum for 10,000 h operation and reduction by 1/5 of electric power consumption for a conventional lead can be achieved at the temperature.

Isono, T.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.

2006-09-01

147

Cap core design for high levitation force in a 3D superconducting actuator with HTS bulk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a 3D superconducting actuator with HTS (high temperature superconducting) bulk and two-dimensionally arranged multiple electromagnets. The application of HTS bulk enables stable levitation and suspension due to its strong pinning force. The performance of the actuator is determined mainly by the spatial distribution of the generated magnetic field of the electromagnets. For the sake of improving

J. H. Joo; S. B. Kim; T. Inoue; A. Shimizu; S. Murase

2007-01-01

148

Electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation: moving HTS SQUIDs, inducing field nulling and dual frequency measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that simple, single layer HTS SQUIDs can be used effectively in electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using eddy current techniques in a magnetically unshielded environment. HTS SQUID systems for NDE applications are expected to be small and portable allowing non-stationary measurements to be carried out in the Earth's field above a stationary sample. Here we present application-oriented

C. Carr; D. Mc A. McKirdy; E. J. Romans; G. B. Donaldson; A. Cochran

1997-01-01

149

Development of Robust HTS-SQUID for Non-destructive Inspection System in Unshielded Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-shaped YBa2Cu3O7?x (YBCO) film was overlapped on directly-coupled multi-pickup-coil HTS-dc-SQUID magnetometer in flip-chip configuration as a superconducting shield, and the characterestics of the SQUID were examined in DC and AC magnetic fields. We created slots in the YBCO film and pickup-coil of HTS-SQUID magnetometer for suppression of flux trapping. In low magnetic field environment, we measured the characteristics of the SQUID without and with HTS film. The most of the parameters were same with and without the HTS films, while S1/2phi with the HTS film was a bit smaller than that of the bare SQUID. In the DC field, Ic of the HTS-SQUID covered with the HTS film did not change until a DC field over 140 ?T was applied to the SQUID, while the bare SQUID's Ic decreased with the increase of the applied DC field. In the AC fields at 10 MHz, the SQUID with the HTS film showed degradation of the parameters such as Vpp and S12phi at lower field amplitude than the bare SQUID.

Yoshida, K.; Kage, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hatsukade, Y.; Tanaka, S.

2014-05-01

150

Electrical breakdown properties of liquid nitrogen for electrical insulation design of pancake coil type HTS transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the electrical insulation design of a pancake coil type high temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer, knowledge of the dielectric behavior of both liquid nitrogen (LN2) and gaseous nitrogen (GN2) is very important. Also, the breakdown strength under a quench conditions is an important factor of the insulation engineering. Since spacers are used in the pancake coil type HTS transformer, the

S. M. Baek; J. M. Joung; J. H. Lee; S. H. Kim

2003-01-01

151

Manufacturing and test of model double-pancake coils of HTS transformer for cryogenic insulation design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the development of HTS transformer has been grown and now its researches are going on actively around the world. Also the development research of 22.9 kV, 1 MVA HTS transformer is going on in Korea. To realize the development, various breakdown tests at liquid nitrogen temperature should be carried out and the breakdown mechanism should be understood.

Jong-Man Joung; Sung-Myeong Baek; Sang-Hyun Kim

2004-01-01

152

High performance HTS conductors: Long length production and evaluation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the program was for ASC to address in a systematic manner the fundamental engineering issues associated with the fabrication of reliable, rugged, high power density HTS coils and systems. The goal is to provide solid technical support for the broad array of specific applications programs funded from other DoD sources. These include the HTS coil development program

Kalsi

1998-01-01

153

THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

154

Analysis of shielding layers in HTS cable taking account of spiral structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis code for shielding layers of HTS cable, which was taken account of spiral structure of Bi-2223\\/Ag tape conductors, was developed based on finite element method. The 66 kV class HTS cable, which was fabricated and successfully tested in cooperation of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI), was subjected in this study. Electric field vs.

Taketsune Nakamura; Haruyuki Kanzaki; Kohei Higashikawa; Tsutomu Hoshino; Itsuya Muta

2005-01-01

155

A Possible Path from BCS through HTS to VHTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years after celebrating the 50th anniversary of the BCS theory and the 20th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTS), it appears to be most fitting for us to contemplate the possibility of very high temperature superconductivity (VHTS). VHTS, preferably at room temperature, if achieved, could change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only ``at an astronomical distance and under an astronomical pressure.'' With the advent of liquid nitrogen superconductivity in 1987, the outlook has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why VHTS would be impossible, in spite of the 2006 prediction of the death of HTS by 2010-2015 through the so-called scientometric analysis of the publication record of the previous 20 years. The recent discovery of the new class of Fe-pnictide HTSs fuels more cautious optimism. Since its inception, BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at a higher temperature. This may be attributed to the small energy scale of superconductivity in comparison with those of other excitations in the solids. After examining existing data, we believe that a holistic multidisciplinary enlightened empirical approach appears to be the most effective way to discover novel superconductors with higher transition temperatures. In this talk, I shall present several possible approaches toward VHTS that we are currently pursuing, after briefly summarizing what has happened in the long search for HTS and VHTS.

Chu, C. W.

2010-03-01

156

Expanded Adoption of HTS Cables in a Metropolitan Area and its Potential Impact on the Neighboring Electric Power Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in installing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) cables to an highly populated metropolitan area to significantly improve power transmission capacity with minimal electrical loss. Regardless of the attractive advantage, the HTS cable could unpleasantly change power flows in the neighboring grid because of reduced series inductance. Reduced damping of the HTS cables due to lower resistance, but

Hee Jin Kim; Kyeon Hur

2012-01-01

157

Development of a PSCAD\\/EMTDC Model Component for AC Loss Characteristic Analysis of HTS Power Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Electromagnetic power transient analysis software (PSCAD\\/EMTDC) is one of the useful simulation tools, it does not provide a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) power cable component, which has the same impedance characteristic of a real HTS power cable. The authors have already proposed a model component of the HTS power cable under the fault condition and simulated power system including

Jin Geun Kim; A.-Rong Kim; Daewon Kim; In-Keun Yu; Jeonwook Cho; Ki-Deok Sim; Seokho Kim; Jun Kyoung Lee; Young-Jin Won

2010-01-01

158

Development of important elementary technologies for a 66 kV-class three-phase HTS power cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Tc superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to serve as underground power lines supplying electrical power to densely populated cities in the future. TEPCO and Furukawa have developed compact HTS cables that can replace the old cables in their existing ducts under metropolitan Tokyo. To connect HTS cables with actual electrical networks requires confirmation of long-term reliability of the electrical

S. Mukoyama; M. Yagi; S. Tanaka; K. Matsuo; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; T. Aiba; Y. Takahashi

2002-01-01

159

HTS ion damage Josephson junction technology for SQUID arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson Junction (JJ) ion damage technology we are developing is well suited for making large SQUID arrays. We have studied arrays of similar SQUIDs together with large SQIFs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) with 2000 SQUIDs of different loop areas. Magnetic field sensitivity has been measured in both types of devices as a function of bias current and temperature. The effects of the barrier thickness (from 20 to 80 nm) and JJ length (2 or 5 ?m) on characteristics have been investigated.

Ouanani, S.; Kermorvant, J.; Crété, D.-G.; Lemaître, Y.; Mage, J.-C.; Marcilhac, B.; Bergeal, N.; Malnou, M.; Lesueur, J.; Mailly, D.; Ulysse, C.

2014-05-01

160

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

161

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

162

The Results of Cooling Test on Hts Power Cable of Kepco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the inherent characteristics of the superconductivity that allows large power transmission capability, much research on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables has been carried out world-wide. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) had installed a three-phase, 100-m class, HTS cable system at Gochang power test center of KEPCO that handles 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 50 MVA. The HTS cable system of KEPCO consists of two terminations, the HTS power cable, and cooling system. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is used for the HTS power cable coolant, providing an inlet temperature to the cable during operations from 66 K to 77 K. Circulation cooling tests at different temperatures were performed to investigate operating conditions, and heat losses under alternating-current (AC) load conditions were measured. The results of performance correlated with cooling test will be presented in this paper.

Lim, J. H.; Sohn, S. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.

2008-03-01

163

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-01-01

164

The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-11-01

165

Most wired 2011.  

PubMed

Hospitals made steady progress over the past year in their use of information technology, but federal criteria for meaningful use have thrown a bit of a monkey wrench in those efforts. H&HN's annual Most Wired Survey shows how far the field has come and where it must sharpen its focus. The 2011 Most Wired list includes 154 organizations. We also name the Most Improved, Most Wired-Small and Rural and the Innovators. PMID:21834435

Weinstock, Matthew; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

2011-07-01

166

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

167

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

168

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

169

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

170

Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

2008-09-01

171

5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

2014-05-01

172

Long Term Vacuum Maintenance in HTS Equipment without External Pumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices being developed, such as motors, generators, and electric power transmission cables, are intended to replace conventional, room temperature equipment. As such, the cryogenic and vacuum operation of this equipment has to be nearly transparent to ensure market acceptance. The cryostat has to deliver a stable operating temperature requiring little or no maintenance for a period of years. To maintain a nearly constant and low heat load on the refrigeration system, the vacuum must be kept at less than about 7 mPa (5 × 10-5 torr), preferably with no external pumping system. This, in turn, requires the use of low outgassing materials, and adsorbers or getters that can effectively remove the residual gasses in the system. Each particular device differs in the system volume, the materials used, the fabrication and degassing techniques, the operating temperatures of the various components, and the availability and maintenance requirements, necessitating an individual analysis. In this paper, we present a general approach to determining the outgassing properties of typical materials used in HTS devices, the likely gas constituents, techniques for determining adsorber and getter materials and estimating the quantity of such materials needed based on the operating temperature of the device.

Waynert, J. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Jankowski, T. A.; Stewart, J. A.

2004-06-01

173

HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

1999-07-12

174

Wire Array Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

Turner-Evans, Dan

175

Fuse Wire Arc Tester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the viability of the new fuse wire arc test (FWAT) as a substitute for the comparative tracking index (CTI) for determining surface resistance to electrical tracking, the Bureau of Mines constructed a fuse wire arc tester and undertook a detail...

P. G. Kovalchik

1987-01-01

176

Commercial and Industrial Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

177

Wire Bond Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the first demonstration of a bond pad test structure with embedded thermopile sensors for the measurement of the transient temperature response during the wire bonding operation. This paper will present the design and operation of the bond pad test structure and show and discuss temperature measurements during the wire bonding operation. The test structure can be used

Shivesh Suman; Michael Gaitan; Yogendra Joshi; George Harman

178

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

179

Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

180

Development of 3kA conduction cooled HTS current lead system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research and development of superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) system, a national project, began in 1999. One of the purposes of this project is investigation concerning the application of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SMES. As a part of this project, the 3 kA class HTS small model coil was manufactured in order to verify the possibility of realizing conduction cooled HTS SMES. Therefore, it is important to develop the conduction cooled current lead system for applying this coil. We developed a kA class conduction cooled HTS current lead system. This current lead system consists of the copper current lead and the YBaCuO (YBCO) HTS current lead. The YBCO bulk manufactured by Nippon Steel Corporation was applied to the HTS current lead. The YBCO bulk keeps high critical current density ( Jc > 10,000 A/cm 2) in the magnetic field (1 T) at 77 K compared with Bi2223 superconductor. The experiment of this HTS current lead system was carried out, and rated current of 3000 A was achieved successfully.

Ohsemochi, Koichi; Ono, Michitaka; Nomura, Shunji; Kuriyama, Toru; Kasahara, Hirofumi; Akita, Shirabe; Koso, Seiichi

2003-10-01

181

Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million sca...

C. Field, D. McCormick, P. Raimondi, M. Ross

1998-01-01

182

RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

2008-09-01

183

Optical-Optical Double Resonance Spectroscopy of the 1 g( 3P 1)- A3? (1 u)- X1? g+ Transition of I 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy was used to study the 1 g( 3P 1) ion-pair state of I 2 correlating to I -( 1S)+I +3P 1) at the dissociation limit. We gained access to the 1 g( 3P 1) state though the A3? (1 u) state in the (1+1) photon-excitation scheme. The pump laser excited the A3? (1 u)-X 1? g+ transition at a fixed frequency for state selection. The probe laser was scanned to detect the 1 g( 3P 1)- A3? (1 u) resonance by monitoring the ultraviolet emission from the 1 g( 3P 1) state at 278 nm. The 1 g( 3P 1) state was observed in a vibrational progression consisting of P and R doublets. An energy level analysis was carried out for the 1 g( 3P 1) state in the 0? v ? 14 and 12? J?135 range, which led to a set of molecular parameters including the ?-doubling constant. The ?-doubling of the 1 g( 3P 1) state was discussed by the pure precession model and interpreted to occur through the heterogeneous coupling with the 0 g-( 3P 1) state correlating to the same ionic asymptote.

Kagi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Fukushima, Masaru; Ishiwata, Takashi

2002-11-01

184

Next Generation Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

2007-01-01

185

Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

2013-07-01

186

Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body.

Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2008-09-01

187

Bi-2223 HTS winding in toroidal configuration for SMES coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy can be stored in the magnetic field of a coil. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is very promising as a power storage system for load levelling or power stabilizer. However, the strong electromagnetic force caused by high magnetic field and large coil current is a problem in SMES systems. A toroidal configuration would have a much less extensive external magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in winding. The paper describes the design of HTS winding for SMES coil in modular toroid configuration consist of seven Bi-2223 double-pancakes as well as numerical analysis of SMES magnet model using FLUX 3D package. As the results of analysis the paper presents the optimal coil configuration and the parameters such as radius of toroidal magnet, energy stored in magnet and magnetic field distribution.

Kondratowicz-Kucewicz, B.; Janowski, T.; Kozak, S.; Kozak, J.; Wojtasiewicz, G.; Majka, M.

2010-06-01

188

Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

2012-01-01

189

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

190

75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wire rack decking,'' ``wire mesh decking,'' ``bulk storage shelving...decking.'' Wire decking consists of wire mesh that is reinforced with structural supports...structural supports, that reinforce the wire mesh and that are welded or otherwise...

2010-01-28

191

Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

Peterson, R. V.

1994-01-01

192

Discrete Wire Effects on Wire Array Instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend earlier theory (F.S. Felber, N. Rostoker. Phys. Fluids, v. 24, p. 1049 (1981).) ( A.A. Samokhin. J. Appl. Mech. Techn. Physics, v. 29, p. 243 (1988).) of wire array Z-pinch instability in the limit of wire radius, r, small compared to interwire spacing, d, to arbitrary azimuthal and axial mode structure. We assume scales <<<< array radius so the array curvature is neglected. We find the dominant growth rate approaches the classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) value for a thin shell once d/r becomes less than ~ 10. We also examine flow effects on instability. Recent calculations (see poster by D. B. Reisman in this session) show that the plasma is composed of high density cores surrounded by low density plasma until well into the main current pulse. Plasma flows from the RT unstable region near the cores into the interwire gap. We will estimate the effect of the flow on RT growth.

Hammer, James H.; Ruytuv, D.; Tabak, Max; Toor, A.; Liberman, M.; Reisman, D.; Degroot, J. S.

1998-11-01

193

Wire Rope Slings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safe working load tables, in metric units, were prepared for the Divisional Accident Prevention Advisory Committee. At the same time an investigation was made into the possibility of preparing a Divisional Standard for wire rope slings. It is recommended ...

P. J. Bramhill

1972-01-01

194

Wire Object Detection Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytic study and an experimental feasibility demonstration of the detection of wire objects has been completed. The techniques employed were based upon the geometric compatibility of the object to be detected and the sensor used, which in this instan...

R. Kleehammer

1978-01-01

195

The H 1? + g( v= 0 and 1) and EF 1? + g( v= 28 and 32) States of D 2: Term Values and Fluorescence Lifetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme ultraviolet-visible double resonant excitation method was applied to the gerade Rydberg states of D2molecules. Tunable coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation near 103 nm prepared D2in theB1?+u(v= 7,J) state. Visible laser light subsequently brought them to theH1?+g(v= 0 and 1),EF1?+g(v= 28 and 32), andGK1?+g(v= 2 and 5) states. Our term values for theGK1?+gstate were in complete agreement with previous values,

H. Suzuki; M. Nakata; Y. Ogi; K. Tsukiyama

1998-01-01

196

Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

2012-10-01

197

Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

Song, Peng; Qu, Timing; Yu, Xiaoyu; Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Han, Zhenghe

2013-11-01

198

Design of an HTS Levitated Double-Sided HTSLSM for Maglev  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous propulsion system composed of a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in the middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been proposed for a middle-low-speed maglev. Three carriages has been made up for the proposed maglev, and each carriage consists of four HTSLSM modules. The HTSLSM has been designed to reach a speed of 69 km/h and a maximum thrust of 48.9 kN for each motor. The finite element analysis has been used for the theoretical verification. The results obtained show that the HTS linear propulsion system satisfies the principal requirements for the maglev.

Zheng, Luhai; Jin, Jianxun; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

199

Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Electric Motors for Rotorcraft Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several cla...

J. Doernbach

1990-01-01

200

Axial Fatigue of Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Axial fatigue tests in air were conducted on wire rope, strand, and single wires under the same load spectrum with an Amsler Vibrophore machine. The wire rope tests permitted a comparison of lang and regular construction with independent wire rope core (I...

F. Matanzo S. R. Heller

1971-01-01

201

Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

Ciana, J. J.

1984-01-01

202

Dual wire weld feed proportioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

Nugent, R. E.

1968-01-01

203

Myosin 1g regulates cytoskeleton plasticity, cell migration, exocytosis, and endocytosis in B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Myosin 1g (Myo1g) is a hematopoietic-specific myosin expressed mainly by lymphocytes. Here, we report the localization of Myo1g in B-cell membrane compartments such as lipid rafts, microvilli, and membrane extensions formed during spreading. By using Myo1g-deficient mouse B cells, we detected abnormalities in the adhesion ability and chemokine-induced directed migration of these lymphocytes. We also assessed a role for Myo1g in phagocytosis and exocytosis processes, as these were also irregular in Myo1g-deficient B cells. Taken together, our results show that Myo1g acts as a main regulator of different membrane/cytoskeleton-dependent processes in B lymphocytes. PMID:24310084

Maravillas-Montero, José L; López-Ortega, Orestes; Patiño-López, Genaro; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

2014-03-01

204

The R&D Project of HTS Magnets for the Superconducting Maglev  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes landmarks in the R&D project and the progress of persistent current HTS magnets, which has been in development for the Superconducting Maglev trains since 1999. The first trial HTS magnet is operated with a very small current decay rate of 0.44%\\/day and can be cooled by a cryocooler below 20 K, using a conduction cooling method. The

Motoaki Terai; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Toru Kuriyama; Satoshi Hanai; Tomohisa Yamashita; Hiroyuki Nakao

2006-01-01

205

Design and test of HTS coils for resistive fault current limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, manufacturing and test results of HTS coils for single-phase resistive current limiters using two different Bi-2223\\/Ag tapes. Two coils were separately wound on cylindrical G-10 tubes with helical path. One of the coil was wound in a bifilar conductor arrangement aiming at reducing the self-inductance. The maximum flux density is 40 mT on the HTS

C. A. Baldan; C. Y. Shigue; D. G. Pinatti; E. Ruppert-Filho; R. C. Freitas; R. P. Homrich

2004-01-01

206

Nonlinear buffer layers relevant for reduced nonlinear effects in HTS microwave devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave devices made of a High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) exhibit a nonlinear response as the microwave power increases. The HTS nonlinearities generate a nonlinear inductance Ld(irf) and a nonlinear resistance Rd(irf) in a device. Ld(irf) and Rd(irf) are responsible for an increase of the device loss, a small frequency dispersion as well as the generation of spurious signals like Intermodulation Distortion (IMD). Nevertheless, the HTS nonlinearities in a microwave device can be reduced using a nonlinear dielectric like a ParaElectric Material (PEM). This assumption has recently been demonstrated theoretically. In a microwave device made of a HTS and a PEM, the nonlinear contribution to the capacitance Cd(vrf) from the PEM acts oppositely to the nonlinear contribution to Ld(irf). This may cancel the effect of the HTS inductive nonlinearities. The PEM also produces a nonlinear conductance Gd(vrf) in a device. All these nonlinear terms contribute to the IMD output power and the nonlinear quality factor (Q0) of a resonant passive microwave device. In this paper, the dependence of the different nonlinear contributions on frequency and applied dc bias voltage (Vdc) is investigated. The relevance to employ PEM in order to reduce the nonlinearities in HTS microwave devices is discussed.

Seron, D.

2008-02-01

207

Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN 2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

2009-10-01

208

Critical current measurement of HTS tape relating with cable structure for a DC power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 200 m high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable test facility at Chubu University, a coaxial power cable is used and composed of two BSCCO (Bi-2223) superconducting layers. The tapes are wound closely to reduce effects on the critical current of BSCCO at self-field. Accordingly, each superconducting layer has a different number of BSCCO tapes. Previously, we have investigated dependence of the critical current (Ic) on the gap in order to optimize the HTS DC cable design. We have been studying the effect on the performance of HTS tapes for the superconducting DC power cables by critical current measurements. In the present experiments several HTS tapes are used and set as a similar structure in the cable with a two-layer structure. The critical current of HTS tapes are measured against the gap between the tapes in the same layer. The experiments show the improvement of the critical current by optimizing the tape arrangements due to magnetic field interaction between the tapes. We will present the experimental results and discuss the design of the HTS DC cable.

Sun, Jian; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Satarou

2014-05-01

209

Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

1990-01-01

210

Ab Initio Investigation of the … ? 2g ( X3? -g, 1 1? g, 1 1? +g) Electronic States of NCN. Study of the Renner-Teller Effect in the 1 1? g State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale CI calculations are carried out to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces for the … ? 2g manifold ( X3? -g, 1 1? g, 1 1? +g) of electronic states of NCN. Separation of the low-lying singlet states from the triplet ground state is computed in close agreement with the results of a recent photoelectron study by T. R. Taylor, R. T. Bise, K. R. Asmis, and D. M. Neumark [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 301, 413-416 (1999)]. Vibronic coupling (Renner-Teller effect) in the 1 1? g state is studied by means of a perturbative and a variational approach. Results of the present ab initio study confirm explicitly the ? 4 dependence postulated for the splitting of bending potential curves in ? electronic states at small deviations from linearity.

Peri?, Miljenko; Krmar, Marija; Radi?-Peri?, Jelena; Hanrath, Michael

2000-12-01

211

Characteristic analysis of 154 kV HTS power cable under fault conditions using PSCAD\\/EMTDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the characteristic analysis of 154kV HTS power cable system under fault conditions using PSCAD\\/EMTDC (Power System Computer Aided Design\\/Electromagnetic Transients including DC). Before applying the HTS power cable to the real utility, the system needs to be analyzed using certain simulation tools. The resistance of conventional power cables is not changed by fault current. But HTS

J. G. Kim; J. Lee; J. H. Kim; A. R. Kim; J. Cho; K. D. Sim; S. Kim; I. K. Yu; J. K. Lee

2009-01-01

212

Liquid ``Wires" for Microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate liquid ``wires'' in a simple solution measurement device. This device highlights the possibility of fabricating liquid circuits. These ``wires'' were formed by filling micro-milled PMMA channels with 5M NaCl solution. Wires were connected to these salt solution channels; the impedance of a test channel filled with solution was measured by an HP 4294A Impedance Analyzer. Deionized water, 2-propanol, and 5M NaCl were measured. Numerical simulations were performed on the channel cross-section to determine the predicted impedance of the device. The simulated results were compared to the experimental data. Graphs of simulations and experiments are presented for the frequency range 1 KHz to 110 MHz. The data show electrode polarization at the electrode-electrolyte interface, as well as parasitic capacitance inherent in the experimental arrangement.

Kellis, Nathan; Mazzeo, Aaron; Mazzeo, Brian

2009-10-01

213

Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

2012-11-01

214

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

215

Molecular photonic wire  

SciTech Connect

We felt that an appropriate synthetic array of pigments could function as a molecular photonic wire. The structure of the molecular photonic wire is shown. A boron-dipyrromethene dye provides an optical input at one end, a linear array of three zinc porphyrins is employed as a signal transmission element, and a free base porphyrin provides an optical output at the other end. The synthesis combines modular building blocks in a stepwise manner using coupling reactions similar to those in our synthesis of multi-porphyrin light-harvesting arrays. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Wagner, R.W.; Lindsey, J.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-10-10

216

Wiring and Cabling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to wiring and cabling principles, including transmission lines, computer network and wireless systems, and troubleshooting. The Knowledge Probes allow students to answer open-ended questions covering the content of the module, and the Learning Resources present activities, laboratories, and games to further solidify the material. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for vocational electronics educators as a ready-made classroom introduction to wiring and cabling.

2008-12-08

217

Deposition and characterization of thin HTS and magnetic perovskite films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-situ growth and physical properties were investigated of thin films and bilayers of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (FM) manganites La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) with thicknesses of several tens of nm obtained by magnetron sputtering. Similar twin structures were observed by an optical microscope in areas on the LaAlO3 substrate surface void of films, in areas containing YBCO, in LSMO films, and in YBCO/LCMO bilayers, although the main spatial period of the twin structure seemed to be slightly different in the areas containing the LSMO film. The resistance (and its temperature dependence) of the LCMO films strongly depends on the annealing conditions. The resistance of the LSMO and LCMO films grown on Al2O3 substrates decreased as the temperature (T) was increased in the lower and higher temperature ranges, and increased as T was increased at medium temperatures.

Blagoev, B. S.; Gostev, I. G.; Nurgaliev, T. K.; Strbik, V.; Bineva, I. E.; Uspenskaya, L.; Mateev, E. S.; Neshkov, L.; Dobro?ka, E.; Chromik, Š.

2014-05-01

218

Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

2010-04-01

219

Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

2002-01-01

220

Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

221

Mobile HTS SQUID System for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the detection of deep-lying flaws in aircraft structures, a mobile eddy-current system is being developed in conjunction with a high-temperature superconductor (Yba_2Cu_3O_7) thin-film HTS SQUID gradiometer. The challenge is to operate the SQUID sensor during movement in strong ambient fields, independent of orientation. A planar rf double hole gradiometer with a gradient sensitivity of 500 fT/(cm ?Hz) was designed for that purpose. Two different cooling concepts were successfully implemented: the SQUID operation in the vacuum region of a lightweight nitrogen cryostat, constructed for operation in any orientation, and the use of a commercial Joule-Thomson cryocooler for liquid-nitrogen-free SQUID cooling. With a SQUID integration scheme using a sapphire cold finger, motion-related additional noise is nearly eliminated. Using a system equipped with a differential eddy current excitation, two-dimensional scans were performed to find fatigue cracks and corrosion pits hidden below several layers of aluminum. For demonstration in the Lufthansa maintenance facility at Frankfurt Airport, the system was used to detect flaws in aircraft wheels. Work in progress includes developing longer base gradiometers for detection of deep flaws.

Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hohmann, Rainer; Grueneklee, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Braginski, Alex I.

1997-03-01

222

One hundred angstrom niobium wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

1968-01-01

223

WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

224

Effect of Various Straining Maneuvers on Cardiac Volumes at 1G and during +Gz Acceleration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valsalva (Val), isometric contraction (Iso) and the L-1 maneuvers (L-1) on cardiac volumes at 1G and during 4G. Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to measure volumes. 1G Phase: Eight seated ma...

T. Jennings L. Tripp L. Howell J. Seaworth D. Ratino

1989-01-01

225

Improved wire chamber  

DOEpatents

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12

226

Wires by Patchy Particles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

Zhang, Zhenli

2005-01-31

227

NewsWire, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

2002-01-01

228

Polyphosphazene Wire Coverings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 2:3 ((C6H5O)2PN- (4-C2H5C6H4O)2PN)n copolymer was selected from several candidates for compounding studies to develop fire-retardant electrical wire insulation. All formulations prepared did not contain halogen either in the polymer or in the filler sys...

K. A. Reynard J. C. Vicic

1976-01-01

229

Reliable Wiring Harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

Gaspar, Kenneth C.

1987-01-01

230

BookWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BookWire, "the first place to look for book information on the world wide web," offers many literary and publishing sites, including the Hungry Mind Review and the Boston Book Review, as well as links to publishers, authors, and booksellers.

231

Residential Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

Taylor, Mark; And Others

232

Basic Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

233

Stress controlling superconductor wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a superconductor wire. It comprises a thin-walled tube extending from a first end to a second end; superconductor filaments disposed within the lumen of the tube for transmitting electricity from the first end to the second end of the tube; and a solid filler contained in the tube and surrounding the filaments to provide support for the

R. L. Creedon; Y. H. L. Hsu

1991-01-01

234

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

235

Coated Antenna Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this project was to develop a method for coating high modulus steel and tungsten wires with a material containing a stable high atomic number particulate filler. Since the matrix material in this composite coating is sacrificed during use a ...

D. M. Bigg M. M. Epstein R. E. Maringer

1976-01-01

236

Performance test of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor for industrial application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with development activities of high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor at DOOSAN heavy industry and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) in Korea, and is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments. At present time, 1 MW HTS motor is developed for the purpose to fully represent the design and manufacturing issues for the larger capacity machine. The number of pole and rotating speed of machine are 2 pole and 3600 rpm. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of neon thermosyphon mechanism and the stator coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper describes status of 1 MW HTS motor development, such as design, fabrication and performance test results, which was conducted at steady state in generator mode and motor mode.

Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Baik, S. K.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. P.; Jo, Y. S.; Ryu, K. S.

2008-09-01

237

Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

2014-05-01

238

Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particular attention. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can play an important role in solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at transmission voltages are numerous: more transmittable power together with less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, lower ac loss, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, less magnetic field emissions, etc. The main obstacle at present is the relatively high price of HTS conductor. However as the price goes down, initial market penetration of several HTS components (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters) is expected by year 2015. In the full paper we present selected ways to integrate EHV AC HTS cables depending on a particular future grid scenario in the Netherlands.

Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

239

Transport characteristics of the 100 m KEPCO HTS cable system for balanced three-phase currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a 100 m, 22.9 kV/50 MVA high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable system was installed at the Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO) in 2005, a long-term test has been performed. In this paper, the transport characteristics of the KEPCO HTS cable system were examined by the electrical and calorimetric methods. To analyze the shield current in this system, an equivalent circuit model for the KEPCO HTS cable was suggested, and the calculated shield current compared with the measured one. The results show that the electrically measured total loss, which includes the AC and ohmic losses, corresponds well with the loss measured from the calorimetric method. The measured AC loss of the HTS cable is proportional to the 2.5th power of transport current, and four times larger than the conductor loss calculated from the monoblock model. This is because the conductor’s geometry in the HTS cable is not identical to a cylindrical superconductor in the monoblock model, its temperature rises due to a thick insulator, and the shield loss is included in the measured AC loss. In addition, the measured AC resistance of the current-lead is constant regardless of transport current, particularly in the low current region. Finally, the shield current calculated from our equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the measured one.

Li, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. H.; Choi, B. J.; Ryu, K.; Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

2010-11-01

240

Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

Longcai, Zhang

2014-07-01

241

Semiautomatic labeling of small wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semi-automatic-wire labeling equipment installs heat-shrink identification sleeves on small-diameter wires for moderate-size production runs. Supply reel contains wire of desired diameter and is cut into lengths set on the measuring rolls. Required number of identification sleeves are slipped over wire, which is then placed through sleeve-releasing mechanism. Sleeves are shrunk at 350 degrees F in an infrared oven.

David, L. P.; Heisman, R. M.; Keir, A. R.

1977-01-01

242

Wire EDM for Refractory Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

1982-01-01

243

Potential risk of sternal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To understand the potential fracture mechanism of sternal wires, we collected extracted stainless steel sternal wires from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart operations. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were inspected and analyzed. Methods: Eight fractured and 12 non-fractured wires extracted from five patients (closure method: figure-of-eight or straight twisted; two without and three with mediastinitis)

Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Su; Shing-Jong Lin

2004-01-01

244

Potential risk of sternal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To understand the potential fracture mechanism of sternal wires, we collected extracted stainless steel sternal wires from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart operations. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were inspected and analyzed. Methods: Eight fractured and 12 non-fractured wires extracted from five patients (closure method: figure-of-eight or straight twisted; two without and three with mediastinitis)

Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Sua; Shing-Jong Lina

2010-01-01

245

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. I. Isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), b(1)?(g)(+) states.  

PubMed

We have developed a simultaneous global fit to the MW, THz, infrared, visible, and UV transitions of all six oxygen isotopologues, (16)O(16)O, (16)O(17)O, (16)O(18)O, (17)O(17)O, (17)O(18)O, (18)O(18)O, with the objective of predicting all transitions below the O((3)P) + O((3)P) dissociation threshold as well as the B(3)?(u) (-) state from O((3)P)+O((1)D) within state-of-the-art experimental uncertainty. Here, we report an isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the lowest three electronic states, X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), and b(1)?(g)(+). Experimental transition frequencies involving these three states of all six O(2) isotopologues were critically reviewed and incorporated into the analysis. For the (16)O(16)O isotopologue, experimental data sample vibrational states v = 0-31 for X(3)?(g)(-), v = 0-10 for a(1)?(g), and v = 0-12 for b(1)?(g)(+). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis that simultaneously fits spectra from all six O(2) isotopologues. PMID:22803533

Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Drouin, Brian J; Müller, Holger S P

2012-07-14

246

49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...when the train detection circuit is shunted. Installation of a single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations having single duplex wires with a single plug for fouling wires may be continued in...

2013-10-01

247

Involvement of a membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G, for Sertoli/germ cell interaction.  

PubMed

We previously reported that a membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G (also known as EPB41L2), is immunolocalized in mouse seminiferous tubules. In this study, the 4.1G immunolocalizaiton was precisely evaluated at various stages of the mouse seminiferous epithelial cycle with 'in vivo cryotechnique' and also with pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy in testicular tissues whose ultrastructures were well preserved with glycerol treatment before cryosectioning. In addition, 4.1G-deficient mice were produced, and the morphology of their seminiferous tubules was also evaluated. The 4.1G immunolocalization was different among stages, indicating that it was not only along cell membranes of Sertoli cells, but also those of spermatogonia and early spermatocytes. To confirm the 4.1G immunolocalization in germ cells, in vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) was used for immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting analysis. In the cultured SSCs, 4.1G was clearly expressed and immunolocalized along cell membranes, especially at mutual attaching regions. In testicular tissues, cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1), an intramembranous adhesion molecule, was colocalized on basal parts of the seminiferous tubules and immunoprecipitated with 4.1G in the tissue lysate. Interestingly, in the 4.1G-deficient mice, histological manifestation of the seminiferous tubules was not different from that in wild-type mice, and the CADM1 was also immunolocalized in the same pattern as that in the wild-type. Moreover, the 4.1G-deficient male mice were fertile. These results were probably due to functional redundancy of unknown membrane skeletal molecules in germ cells. Thus, a novel membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G, was found in germ cells, and considering its interaction with CADM family, it probably has roles in attachment of both Sertoli-germ and germ-germ cells. PMID:20200204

Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Sei; Saitoh, Yurika; Komada, Masayuki; Kubota, Hiroshi; Ohno, Shinichi

2010-05-01

248

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

249

Resonance of metallic wire structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic wire structures form a common class of physical systems. We illustrate how to understand the general physics of the wire systems with a specific example, the split ring resonantor. We derived simple polynomial equations to determine the entire resonance spectra of split ring structures, which can be analytically solved in the limit of narrow wires. A resonance spectrum very

Lei Zhou; Y. Zhang; Siu Tat Chui

2008-01-01

250

Nano wires by self assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique to fabricate nano wires on silicon substrates without any lithography. The wires are 50 nm or less in width, but their lengths can be 10 s of micro meters. They can be formed by a single or multiple layers of metals. The wires can be designed to form a network which can be partially released from

Taher Saif; Erdem Alaca; Huseyin Sehitoglu

2003-01-01

251

Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

2001-04-01

252

Manufacture and Insulating Test of a Mini-Model for 154 kV-Class HTS Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconductor (HTS) power cables enable larger transmission of electrical power than that of the conventional counterparts. As electrical power consumption is increased, HTS power cables are expected to play an important role in a next generation electrical power transmission grid because of their smaller transmission loss and, in consequence, better efficiency of operational cost. Currently, a world-wide research has

Jin-Wook Choi; Jae-Hyeong Choi; Hae-Jong Kim; Jeonwook Cho; Sang-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

253

Characteristics of lift and restoring force in HTS bulk-Application to two-dimensional maglev transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the advantages of magnetic levitation using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk is that stable levitation can be achieved without any control systems. The authors have been investigating the electromagnetic behaviors of an HTS bulk to realize a two-dimensional magnetic levitating transporter without any fixed guides. The characteristics of lift and stability are key parameters to design and optimize

Y. Sanagawa; H. Ueda; M. Tsuda; A. Ishiyama; S. Kohayashi; S. Haseyama

2001-01-01

254

Characteristics of high efficiency current charging system for HTS magnet with solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of electrical energy, the technical fusion with solar energy system is promisingly applied in order to improve the efficiency in the power applications, since the solar energy system can convert an eternal electric energy in all-year-around. As one of such power applications, we proposed a current charging system for HTS magnet combined with solar energy (CHS). As this system can operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy, the operating efficiency is practically improved. The power converter, which is interfaced with solar energy and HTS magnet systems, plays an important role to transfer the stable electric energy and thus, the stabilized performance of the converter with solar energy system is one of essential factors. In this study, we investigated various charging performances under different operating conditions of the converter. In addition, operating characteristics have been analyzed by solving solar cell equivalent equations based on circuit simulation program.

Kim, Dae-Wook; Yoon, Yong-Soo; Chung, Yoon-Do; Jo, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Ho-Min; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Oh, Jae-Gi; Ko, Tae-Kuk

255

Low Temperature Performance of a Boost Converter with MPP and HTS Inductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low temperature performance of a 150 W, 50 kHz, 24/48 V boost PWM dc-to-dc converter is reported. The efficiency of the converter using a molypermalloy powder (MPP) core based inductor went up from 94% at room temperature (23 C) to 95.9% at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 C). A BSCCO based high temperature superconducting (HTS) inductor with a transition temperature of approximately -158 C was compared to a MPP core based inductor in terms of the power converter performance at liquid nitrogen temperature. The use of the HTS inductor in the converter tested yielded no significant performance improvement over the same converter with the MPP inductor. The experimental results are discussed along with the HTS inductor characteristics.

Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Dickman, John E.

1996-01-01

256

Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ? 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

257

A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet-A Progress Report  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented.

Bascunan, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2011-01-01

258

Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT)--a unified approach to HTS triage.  

PubMed

The selection of the highest quality chemical matter from high throughput screening (HTS) is the ultimate aim of any triage process. Typically there are many hundreds or thousands of hits capable of modulating a given biological target in HTS with a wide range of physicochemical properties that should be taken into consideration during triage. Given the multitude of physicochemical properties that define drug-like space, a system needs to be in place that allows for a rapid selection of chemical matter based on a prioritized range of these properties. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, coined Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT) that enables hit prioritization based on ranges of these important physicochemical properties. This tool is now used routinely at Abbott to help prioritize hits out of HTS during the triage process. Herein we describe how this tool was developed and validated using Abbott internal high throughput ADME data (HT-ADME). PMID:22727778

Cox, Philip B; Gregg, Robert J; Vasudevan, Anil

2012-07-15

259

Development of 220 V\\/300 A Class Non-Inductive Winding Type Fault Current Limiter Using 2G HTS Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program in Korea being performed from 2004, a non-inductive winding type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is being developed. The target of the second year in phase II of the program is to develop a 220 V\\/300 A class non-inductive winding type SFCL as a prototype for a 13.2 kV\\/630 A

Dong Keun Park; Min Cheol Ahn; Seong Eun Yang; Yong Soo Yoon; Bok-Yeol Seok; Chanjoo Lee; Ho-Myung Chang; Tae Kuk Ko

2007-01-01

260

Magnetic Force Three Wires Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Force Three Wires model investigates the force between long straight current-carrying wires. Initially, the simulation shows a cross-section view of three long straight parallel wires, each on the corner of an equilateral triangle. The wires carry currents that have different magnitudes, and the currents are directed either into or out of the page. The task in this simulation is to rank the wires based on the magnitude of their currents, from largest to smallest. The Magnetic Force Three Wires model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Three_Wires.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. This is part of a collection of similar tutorial simulations created by the author.

Duffy, Andrew

2009-10-20

261

Absorption in atomic wires  

SciTech Connect

The transfer matrix formalism is implemented in the form of the multiple collision technique to account for dissipative transmission processes by using complex potentials in several models of atomic chains. The absorption term is rigorously treated to recover unitarity for the non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. In contrast to other models of parametrized scatterers we assemble explicit potentials profiles in the form of delta arrays, Poeschl-Teller holes, and complex Scarf potentials. The techniques developed provide analytical expressions for the scattering and absorption probabilities of arbitrarily long wires. The approach presented is suitable for modeling molecular aggregate potentials and also supports new models of continuous disordered systems. The results obtained also suggest the possibility of using these complex potentials within disordered wires to study the loss of coherence in the electronic localization regime due to phase-breaking inelastic processes.

Cervero, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Alberto [Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2004-11-01

262

Wire insulation defect detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

263

Dental Arch Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

1979-01-01

264

A study on insulation characteristics according to cooling methods of the HTS SMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) stores electric power in the form of magnetic energy, and then converts it to electric energy. For the operation, the HTS SMES must have a cryogenic temperature. The cooling methods for a cryogenic temperature are divided into an immersed method and a conduction cooled method. The immersed method is a direct cooling method that immerses the superconducting magnet into a cryogen. On the other hand, the conduction cooled method is an indirect cooling method that cools a superconductor through thermal conduction with a cryocooler. This paper classified the structures of insulation according to cooling methods, and studied the insulation characteristics of each insulation factor.

Choi, J. H.; Cheon, H. G.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Seong, K. C.; Kim, S. H.

2010-11-01

265

The development of a Roebel cable based 1 MVA HTS transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent experimental results in a continuing program to develop a 1 MVA demonstration transformer that employs HTS Roebel cable for the high current windings. The electrical design parameters of the transformer are presented, including the configuration of the specially developed Roebel cable. This paper discusses estimation of the cable Ic from measured Ic(B) data for samples of the strands, AC loss minimization using flux diverters, proving the suitability of the polyimide insulation scheme to withstand the effects of a high voltage impulse and modelling and experimental verification of the fault current limiting behaviour expected from the HTS conductor.

Staines, Michael; Glasson, Neil; Pannu, Mohinder; Thakur, Kailash P.; Badcock, Rod; Allpress, Nathan; D'Souza, Premal; Talantsev, Evgueni

2012-01-01

266

Development of 16 kA HTS current leads for 40 T hybrid magnet application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of 16 kA high temperature superconducting current leads which will serve a 40 T hybrid magnet at the CHMFL was designed, manufactured and performed the factory acceptance test at the ASIPP site. The major design includes the LN2-cooling copper heat exchanger part as well as the HTS module made of BSCCO 2223/AgAu matrix tapes in parallel which allows the operation of the current lead at a minimum coolant mass flow. The paper briefly describes the design of the 16 kA HTS current leads. And the cold test results of current leads are also presented in the paper.

Bi, Y.; Ding, K.; Feng, H.; Liu, C.; Liu, X.; Lu, K.; Wu, H.; Song, Y.; Xu, C.; Ye, B.; Zhou, T.

2014-05-01

267

High performance HTS conductors: Long length production and evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program was for ASC to address in a systematic manner the fundamental engineering issues associated with the fabrication of reliable, rugged, high power density HTS coils and systems. The goal is to provide solid technical support for the broad array of specific applications programs funded from other DoD sources. These include the HTS coil development program funded through NRL, the minesweeping program of NAVSEA/ONR, the airborne generator program presently funded by the Air Force, and programs currently under development in electric propulsion and advanced submarine technology.

Kalsi, S.

1998-12-31

268

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

269

Superconducting magnet wire  

DOEpatents

A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

1986-01-01

270

PRIMARY T1G3 BLADDER CANCER: ORGAN PRESERVING APPROACH OR IMMEDIATE CYSTECTOMY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:In this retrospective nonrandomized study we compared the long-term outcome in patients with newly diagnosed stage T1G3 bladder cancer treated with transurethral resection and bacillus Calmette-Guerin or immediate cystectomy.

GEORGE N. THALMANN; REGULA MARKWALDER; OSAMA SHAHIN; FIONA C. BURKHARD; WERNER W. HOCHREITER; URS E. STUDER

2004-01-01

271

Examining the Gm18 and m1G Modification Positions in tRNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

The tRNA structure contains conserved modifications that are responsible for its stability and are involved in the initiation and accuracy of the translation process. tRNA modification enzymes are prevalent in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. tRNA Gm18 methyltransferase (TrmH) and tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase (TrmD) are prevalent and essential enzymes in bacterial populations. TrmH involves itself in methylation process at the 2'-OH group of ribose at the 18th position of guanosine (G) in tRNAs. TrmD methylates the G residue next to the anticodon in selected tRNA subsets. Initially, m1G37 modification was reported to take place on three conserved tRNA subsets (tRNAArg, tRNALeu, tRNAPro); later on, few archaea and eukaryotes organisms revealed that other tRNAs also have the m1G37 modification. The present study reveals Gm18, m1G37 modification, and positions of m1G that take place next to the anticodon in tRNA sequences. We selected extremophile organisms and attempted to retrieve the m1G and Gm18 modification bases in tRNA sequences. Results showed that the Gm18 modification G residue occurs in all tRNA subsets except three tRNAs (tRNAMet, tRNAPro, tRNAVal). Whereas the m1G37 modification base G is formed only on tRNAArg, tRNALeu, tRNAPro, and tRNAHis, the rest of the tRNAs contain adenine (A) next to the anticodon. Thus, we hypothesize that Gm18 modification and m1G modification occur irrespective of a G residue in tRNAs.

Subramanian, Mayavan; Srinivasan, Thangavelu

2014-01-01

272

The Pex1-G844D mouse: a model for mild human Zellweger spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a disease continuum that results from inherited defects in PEX genes essential for normal peroxisome assembly. These autosomal recessive disorders impact brain development and also cause postnatal liver, adrenal, and kidney dysfunction, as well as loss of vision and hearing. The hypomorphic PEX1-G843D missense allele, observed in approximately 30% of ZSD patients, is associated with milder clinical and biochemical phenotypes, with some homozygous individuals surviving into early adulthood. Nonetheless, affected children with the PEX1-G843D allele have intellectual disability, failure to thrive, and significant sensory deficits. To enhance our ability to test candidate therapies that improve human PEX1-G843D function, we created the novel Pex1-G844D knock-in mouse model that represents the murine equivalent of the common human mutation. We show that Pex1-G844D homozygous mice recapitulate many classic features of mild ZSD cases, including growth retardation and fatty livers with cholestasis. In addition, electrophysiology, histology, and gene expression studies provide evidence that these animals develop a retinopathy similar to that observed in human patients, with evidence of cone photoreceptor cell death. Similar to skin fibroblasts obtained from ZSD patients with a PEX1-G843D allele, we demonstrate that murine cells homozygous for the Pex1-G844D allele respond to chaperone-like compounds, which normalizes peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Thus, the Pex1-G844D mouse provides a powerful model system for testing candidate therapies that address the most common genetic cause of ZSD. In addition, this murine model will enhance studies focused on mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:24503136

Hiebler, Shandi; Masuda, Tomohiro; Hacia, Joseph G; Moser, Ann B; Faust, Phyllis L; Liu, Anita; Chowdhury, Nivedita; Huang, Ning; Lauer, Amanda; Bennett, Jean; Watkins, Paul A; Zack, Donald J; Braverman, Nancy E; Raymond, Gerald V; Steinberg, Steven J

2014-04-01

273

Oxygen consumption during cold exposure at 2.1 G in rats adapted to hypergravic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermoregulation ability of rats exposed to various gravitational fields is examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 22 C and 1 G, and 9 C and 2.1 G in experiment one, 1 G, 2.4 G, 5.8 G and 22 + or - 1.5 C in experiment two, and 1 G, 19-22 C, and 5 C in experiment three. It is observed that the core temperature in the control rats was 36.8 + or 0.4 C at 22C and 30.8 + or - 0.6 C at 9 C, and oxygen consumption dropped from 37 + or - 0.3 C core temperature at 22 C, 36.4 + or - 0.3 C at 9 C, 0.4 oxygen consumption was 8.18 + or - 0.9 ml/min at 22 C, and 14.2 + or - 0.4 ml/min at 9 C. The data from experiment two reveal that tail temperature in the control rats peaked at 2.4 G and at 5.8 G for the acclimated rats, and in experiment three a greater decrease in core temperature is detected in the 2.1-G rats. It is noted that prior acclimation to 2.1 G enhances the thermoregulation ability when exposed to the cold.

Horowitz, J.; Patterson, S.; Monson, C.

1985-01-01

274

Microwave properties of HTS (high temperature superconductor) films  

SciTech Connect

High-frequency applications of high-temperature superconductors generally fall into two categories: devices that require low values of surface resistance R{sub s} in ambient surface magnetic fields H{sub rf}, and devices that require low R{sub s} in modest fields. Moreover, many applications can be realized with small-surface-area films whereas others require larger areas-radiofrequency (rf) cavities, for example. Regardless of the application, the potential of HTS films is predicated on satisfying one or both of the above-stated requirements. We have measured the surface resistance of small-area (1 cm{sup 2}) and large-area (6.5 cm{sup 2}) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) films that have been laser ablated onto LaA{ell}O{sub 3} substrates, large-area (5.1 cm{sup 2}) YBCO films that have been e-beam deposited onto LaA{ell}O{sub 3}, and large-area (11.4 cm{sup 2}) T{ell}-based films that have been magnetron sputtered onto metallic substrates. The best R{sub s} values are obtained from the 1-cm{sup 2} laser-ablated films; they are 40 {mu}{Omega} and 340 {mu}{Omega} at 4 K and 77 K, respectively ({omega}/2{pi} = 10 GHz). Comparable values for Cu are 6 and 13 m{Omega}, respectively. Large-area T{ell}-based films yield typical R{sub s} values of 4 m{Omega} and 14 m{Omega} at 4 K and 77 K, respectively ({omega}/2{pi} = 18 GHz). The dependence of R{sub s} on H{sub rf} for these films indicates that surface fields as large as 55 Oe can be achieved with R{sub s} increasing only by a factor of 10. This field dependence is associated with c-axis texturing.

Cooke, D.W.; Arendt, P.N.; Gray, E.R.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Bennett, B.L.; Foltyn, S.R.; Estler, R.C.; Wu, X.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Elliott, N.E.; Brown, D.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Portis, A.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Taber, R.C. (Hewlett-Packard Corp., Palo Alto, CA (USA). Labs.); Mogro-Campero, A. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA). Corporate Research and Development Ce

1990-01-01

275

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

276

Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

2010-06-01

277

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

278

Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) suffic

Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

2012-06-30

279

Design method of miniaturized HTS coplanar waveguide bandpass filters using cross coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design method of miniaturizing HTS coplanar waveguide bandpass filters using cross coupling is presented. When the size of the filter decreases, the cross coupling between the resonators tends to appear, which causes attenuation poles. In order to control the cross-coupling section, we redesigned the meanderline interval and shape, so that we can design the frequency and number of

H. Kanaya; J. Fujiyama; R. Oba; K. Yoshida

2003-01-01

280

High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable  

SciTech Connect

High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL

2007-01-01

281

Scaling Up of HTS Motor Based on Trapped Flux and Flux Concentration for Large Aircraft Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor has been designed to power a general aviation aircraft. The propulsion requirements of the Cessna 172 have been chosen as baseline for the study: 200 HP at 2700 RPM. The designed motor is based on flux trapping in bulk YBCO plates and concentration of the flux generated by Bi-2223 coils and an ironless air-cooled

Philippe J. Masson; J. E. Pienkos; Cesar A. Luongo

2007-01-01

282

Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

Doernbach, Jay

1990-01-01

283

Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

284

Measurements and tests of HTS bulk material in resistive fault current limiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of superconducting fault current limiters (SCFCL) depends highly on their technical and economical benefits. Therefore it is obvious that the main requirements on the SCFCL are a reliable, fail-safe and rapid current limitation, low losses, and an inexpensive production.As a potential candidate material we have investigated HTS bulk material in resistive fault current limiters. Our report focuses on

M. Noe; K.-P Juengst; F. N Werfel; S. Elschner; J. Bock; A. Wolf; F. Breuer

2002-01-01

285

Evaluation of joint interface of friction stir welding between dissimilar metals using HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated conductive properties of joint interfaces of friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar metals, stainless steel SUS304 and aluminum A6063, using a SQUID nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. With current injection method, the current maps above the FSW specimens jointed under various conditions were measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. The conductivities of the joint interfaces, which were

Y. Mashiko; Y. Hatsukade; T. Yasui; H. Takenaka; Y. Todaka; M. Fukumoto; S. Tanaka

2010-01-01

286

Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

2010-06-01

287

Analysis of Ultra-High Speed, High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) digital Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to determine the expected yields and bit error rates of HTS digital circuits operated at tens of gigahertz at various temperatures. This was done by using device parameters from TRW, Conductus, and Northrup Grumman for sta...

T. VAN Duzer

2000-01-01

288

A vHTS approach for the identification of beta-adrenoceptor ligands.  

PubMed

Using a vHTS based on a pharmacophore alignment on known beta3-adrenoceptor ligands, a set of intriguing beta-adrenoceptor ligands was identified, optimization of which resulted in a selective and potent human beta2-AR antagonist. PMID:20434333

Tasler, Stefan; Baumgartner, Roland; Aschenbrenner, Andrea; Ammendola, Astrid; Wolf, Kristina; Wieber, Tanja; Schachtner, Josef; Blisse, Marcus; Quotschalla, Udo; Ney, Peter

2010-06-01

289

Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

290

Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

2014-05-01

291

AC losses of HTS power transmission cables using Bi2223 tapes with twisted filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEPCO and Furukawa have been developing compact 66 kV HTS power cables that can fit into 150 mm ducts. To realize these compact and highly efficient cables, decreasing AC losses in the cables is important. An effective method for reducing the AC losses is to suppress the electromagnetic coupling between layers and between filaments: equalizing the impedance of each layer

S. Mukoyama; K. Miyoshi; H. Tsubouti; H. Tanaka; A. Takagi; K. Wada; S. Megro; K. Matsuo; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Takahashi

2001-01-01

292

Mechanical Loss of HTS Coils Reinforced With Negative Thermal Expansion Fiber Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-Tc superconducting (HTS) coils with various types of reinforcement are investigated with respect to the reduction of mechanical loss. The total AC loss of the coils is measured under an external DC magnetic field at liquid nitrogen temperature, the reduction of the mechanical loss components are estimated. Tensioned stainless-steel tape is found to be the most effective for reducing the

Mitsuho Furuse; Masaichi Umeda; Tomoaki Takao; Yuta Fukasawa; Shigetoshi Minowa; Tsutomu Iwamura; Hidenori Sato; Takashi Asano; Atsuhiko Yamanaka

2006-01-01

293

Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

1986-01-01

294

Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

2010-11-01

295

Novel quantum wire infrared photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes novel semiconductor quantum wire infrared photodetectors in the long- and very long-wavelength regions. The infrared photodetectors are based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wires and have the potential for higher operational temperature, increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced dark current, wider spectral range and sensitivity to normal incident radiation. The quantum wire IR detectors are implemented using a

Biswajit Das; Pavan Singaraju

2005-01-01

296

On-Wire Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a high-throughput procedure for lithographically processing one-dimensional nanowires. This procedure, termed on-wire lithography, combines advances in template-directed synthesis of nanowires with electrochemical deposition and wet-chemical etching and allows routine fabrication of face-to-face disk arrays and gap structures in the range of five to several hundred nanometers. We studied the transport properties of 13-nanometer gaps with and without nanoscopic amounts of conducting polymers deposited within by dip-pen nanolithography.

Qin, Lidong; Park, Sungho; Huang, Ling; Mirkin, Chad A.

2005-07-01

297

Stress controlling superconductor wire  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a superconductor wire. It comprises a thin-walled tube extending from a first end to a second end; superconductor filaments disposed within the lumen of the tube for transmitting electricity from the first end to the second end of the tube; and a solid filler contained in the tube and surrounding the filaments to provide support for the filaments. The filler being a solder selected from the group consisting of alloys of lead bismuth, silver, indium or mixtures thereof and the filler being a material capable of being heated to a liquified state within the tube.

Creedon, R.L.; Hsu, Y.H.L.

1991-02-05

298

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

299

NetNewsWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Keeping tabs on the news (or anything else) online can be a bit overwhelming, so it's nice to know that NetNewsWire can help out. While this RSS reader can perform the usual tasks of fetching and displaying news from thousands of different websites and weblogs, it also includes a weblog editor that allows users to post to a host of different popular blogging sites. The program also features an integrated podcast manager, which will automatically send new podcasts to a selected music jukebox. This version is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.4 or greater.

2008-01-01

300

Doping molecular wires.  

PubMed

The concept of doping inorganic semiconductors enabled their successful application in electronic devices. Furthermore, the discovery of metal-like conduction in doped polymers started the entire field of organic electronics. In the present theoretical study, we extend the concept of doping to monomolecular wires suspended between two metal electrodes. Upon doping, the conductivity of representative model systems is found to increase by 2 orders of magnitude. More importantly, by providing a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms, our results pave the way for the development of novel molecular components envisioned as functional units in nanoscale devices. PMID:19505133

Heimel, Georg; Zojer, Egbert; Romaner, Lorenz; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Stellacci, Francesco

2009-07-01

301

Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ~1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; van Drie, A.

1999-01-01

302

Texture development in Galfenol wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

2013-05-01

303

Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

1989-01-01

304

MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the potential of promoter methylation of two tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 189 subjects were included in this retrospective cohort, which contained 121 HCC patients without any history of curative treatment, 37 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 31 normal controls (NCs). DNA samples were extracted from 400 ?L of serum of each subject and then modified using bisulfite treatment. Methylation of the promoters of the TSGs (metallothionein 1M, MT1M; and metallothionein 1G, MT1G) was determined using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of combined MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the methylation status of serum MT1M (48.8%, 59/121) and MT1G (70.2%, 85/121) promoters in the HCC group was significantly higher than that in the CHB group (MT1M 5.4%, 2/37, P < 0.001; MT1G 16.2%, 6/37, P < 0.001) and NC group (MT1M 6.5%, 2/31, P < 0.001; MT1G 12.9%, 4/27, P < 0.001). Aberrant serum MT1M promoter methylation gave higher specificity to discriminate HCC from CHB (94.6%) and NCs (93.5%), whereas combined methylation of serum MT1M and MT1G promoters showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (90.9%), suggesting that they are potential markers for noninvasive detection of HCC. Furthermore, MT1M promoter methylation was positively correlated with tumor size (rs = 0.321, P < 0.001), and HCC patients with both MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation tended to show a higher incidence of vascular invasion or metastasis (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation may be used as serum biomarkers for noninvasive detection of HCC.

Ji, Xiang-Fen; Fan, Yu-Chen; Gao, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kai

2014-01-01

305

A miniaturized HTS microwave receiver front-end subsystem for radar and communication applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a miniaturized high performance high temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave receiver front-end subsystem, which uses a mini stirling cryocooler to cool a high selective HTS filter and a low noise amplifier (LNA). The HTS filter was miniaturized by using specially designed compact resonators and fabricating with double-sided YBCO films on LAO substrate which has a relatively high permittivity. The LNA was specially designed to work at cryogenic temperature with noise figure of 0.27 dB at 71 K. The mini cryocooler, which is widely used in infrared detectors, has a smaller size (60 mm × 80 mm × 100 mm) and a lighter weight (340 g) than the stirling cryocoolers commonly used in other HTS filter subsystem. The whole front-end subsystem, including a HTS filter, a LNA, a cryocooler and the vacuum chamber, has a size of only ?120 mm × 175 mm and a weight of only 3.3 kg. The microwave devices inside the subsystem are working at 71.8 K with a consumed cooling power of 0.325 W. The center frequency of this subsystem is 925.2 MHz and the bandwidth is 2.7 MHz (which is a fractional bandwidth of 0.2%), with the gain of 19.75 dB at center frequency and the return loss better than -18.11 dB in the pass band. The stop band rejection is more than 60 dB and the skirt slope is exceeding 120 dB MHz -1. The noise figure of this subsystem is less than 0.8 dB. This front-end subsystem can be used in radars and communication systems conveniently due to it’s compact size and light weight.

Bian, Yongbo; Guo, Jin; Gao, Changzheng; Li, Chunguang; Li, Hong; Wang, Jia; Cui, Bin; He, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Li, Na; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xueqiang; Meng, Jibao; He, Yusheng

2010-08-01

306

Development of important elementary technologies for a 66 kV-class three-phase HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Tc superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to serve as underground power lines supplying electrical power to densely populated cities in the future. TEPCO and Furukawa have developed compact HTS cables that can replace the old cables in their existing ducts under metropolitan Tokyo. To connect HTS cables with actual electrical networks requires confirmation of long-term reliability of the electrical insulation and the ability to withstand accidents caused by short circuit. This report gives the results of our examination of these problems.

Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, S.; Matsuo, K.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Aiba, T.; Takahashi, Y.

2002-10-01

307

Improved superconducting magnet wire  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1983-08-16

308

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF are three planned NASA missions for infrared astronomy. Each will make significant contributions to the study of exo-zodiacal dust, planetary debris disks, and/or the zodiacal material within our own solar system. These missions and their measurement and scientific capabilities are synopsized. The principal contribution of these missions to this field of study will be to establish and strengthen its intellectual foundations rather than to pinpoint specific targets for planetary searches. This is consistent with their relatively near-term availability. Moreover, this intellectual understanding can assure that subsequent missions approach this subject from a sound scientific perspective which will yield valuable results independent of the success of a particular planet finding strategy. Each of these missions - most urgently WIRE with its Fall, 1998 launch date - would make good use of a list of candidate target stars for exo-zodiacal/planet-finding studies. The preparation of such a list was one of the recommendations of the exo-zodiacal workshop.

Werner, Michael

1998-01-01

309

CIIA prevents SOD1(G93A)-induced cytotoxicity by blocking ASK1-mediated signaling  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease with higher selectivity in degeneration of motor neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which the ALS-linked mutants of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene induce neurotoxicity remains obscure yet. Here, we show that depletion of CIIA expression by RNA interference (RNAi) promoted cytotoxicity caused by ALS-linked G93A mutant of the SOD1 gene. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of CIIA also enhanced the SOD1(G93A)-induced interaction between ASK1 and TRAF2 as well as ASK1 activity. Furthermore, endogenous silencing of CIIA by RNAi augmented the effects of SOD1(G93A) on reduction of mitochondria membrane potential (??m), release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and caspase activation. Together, our results suggest that CIIA negatively modulates ASK1-mediated cytotoxic signaling processes in a SOD1(G93A)-expressing cellular model of ALS.

Lee, Jae Keun; Hwang, Sang Gil; Shin, Jin Hee; Shim, Jaekyung; Choi, Eui-Ju

2014-01-01

310

Double Resonance Excitation of the Rubidium Dimer : the 2 ^{1}?_g State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a series of optical-optical double resonance experiments with one or two cw Ti:sapphire lasers, to excite the 2 ^{1}?_g state of Rb_2, recording infrared fluorescence from 2 ^{1}?_g on a Fourier transform spectrometer. Fluorescence from the lower vibrational levels of 2 ^{1}?_g (T_e = 22069.56 cm^{-1}) is dominated by transitions to the B ^{1}?_u state studied by Amiot and Vergès. Vibrational and rotational relaxation from laser-pumped levels v' < 15 now give a rather complete description around the potential minimum of the 2 ^{1}?_g state, completing the observations for 6 ? v ? 50 reported by Han et al last year. Fluorescence from v' > 35, occurs also to the 0^+ components of the A ^{1}?_u^+ ˜ b ^{3}?_u complex. Fitting all available 2 ^{1}?_g ? B ^{1}?_u data for ^{85}Rb_2 and ^{85}Rb^{87}Rb (several thousand transitions) has also given an improved description of the bottom of the B ^{1}?_u state potential well. The 2 ^{1}?_g state correlates at long-range with Rb 5s + Rb 4d ^2D_{3/2} atoms, giving a dissociation energy of 1279.6 cm^{-1}. Most new data lie below v = 45, 250 cm^{-1} below this dissociation threshold. Amiot and Vergès, {Chem. Phys. Lett.} {294} 91-98 (1997) X. Han et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. {538} 1-4 (2011) A.-R.Allouche, M. Aubert-Frécon, {J. Chem. Phys} {136} 37-41 (2012)

Drozdova, Anastasia; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Wannous, Ghassan; Crozet, Patrick; Ross, Amanda J.

2013-06-01

311

O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) charge exchange with simple ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X^3? -_g and a1?g states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O2(a1?g) and the cations O+, CO+, Ar+, and N_2^+, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O2 reacting with the atomic ions Ar+, Kr+, Xe+, Cl+, and Br+. The T-shaped orientation of the (X - O2)+ potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b^1? ^+_g. The calculated rate constants for both O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O2, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O2(a1?g) are similar to those for O_2(X^3? -_g) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O2(a1?g) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O2 have about the same attractive interactions with ions.

Zió?kowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak

2014-06-01

312

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

313

Screening of the B1g Raman response in d-wave superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed calculations of the response function for electronic Raman scattering in clean d-wave superconductors including vertex corrections in a conserving approximation and obtain contributions to the B1g Raman response that we believe have not been considered previously. These contributions remove the well-known singularity at the threshold energy 2?0 for a d-wave superconductor, yielding instead a peak at a slightly higher frequency with an intensity of the same order as the A1g response. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data on YBa2Cu3O7.

Manske, D.; Rieck, C. T.; Das Sharma, R.; Bock, A.; Fay, D.

1997-08-01

314

The effect of cross-section geometry of bonding wire on wire sweep for semiconductor packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire diameter reduction is an effective way to reduce cost, as gold content accounts for the majority of bonding wire costs. Replacing gold wire with copper wire is another way to reduce cost. The advantages of using Cu instead of Au wire are the lower price and the higher electrical conductivity. However, the oxidation problem of copper wire during the

Huang-Kuang Kung; Bo-Wun Huang; Hsiang-Chen Hsu

2010-01-01

315

Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Rabinowitz, Sandy

2009-01-01

316

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. S...

R. Kasturi, O. I. Camps

2002-01-01

317

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this research we addressed the problem,of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action

Rangachar Kasturi Sup; I Octavia; Ying Huang; Anand Narasimhamurthy; Nitin Pande

318

MT75 Wire Rope Tester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the ability of the MT75 Rope Tester to detect wire rope defects both externally and internally. The test instrument performed well in its ability to detect defects purposely inplanted into test wire rope samples. However, in an actu...

K. S. Chapman

1982-01-01

319

Wire detecting apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about

Kronberg

1991-01-01

320

Brake-By-Wire Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two design iterations for electric calipers and two systems (full brake by wire and hybrid brakes) were developed for use on a ground vehicle. The program demonstrated a fully integrated-rated electric caliper and full brake- by-wire system on a sports ut...

R. J. Bowman P. F. Flanagan E. S. Baumgartner

2003-01-01

321

The Current in a Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

Thompson, Keith

2009-01-01

322

Aircraft wiring program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR\\/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Rex Beach

1995-01-01

323

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-01-01

324

Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1-4 vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1-4 vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A cm-1 at 77 K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455 A cm-1 at 65 K and 3 T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates.

Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

2013-08-01

325

Welding wire pressure sensor assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

Morris, Timothy B. (inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (inventor); White, J. Kevin (inventor)

1994-01-01

326

Nano-storage wires.  

PubMed

We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

2013-08-27

327

Development, documentation and correlation of a NASTRAN vibration model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASTRAN was evaluated for vibration analysis of the helicopter airframe. The first effort involved development of a NASTRAN model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe and comprehensive documentation of the model. The next effort was to assess the validity of the NASTRAN model by comparisons with static and vibration tests.

Cronkhite, J. D.

1976-01-01

328

Origin of a1g and eg' orderings in NaxCoO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has often been suggested that correlation effects suppress the small eg' Fermi-surface pockets of NaxCoO2 that are predicted by LDA, but absent in ARPES measurements. It appears that within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) the ARPES results can be reproduced only if the on-site energy of the eg' complex is lower than that of the a1g complex at the one-electron level, prior to the addition of local correlation effects. Current estimates regarding the order of the two orbital complexes range from -200 to 315 meV in terms of the energy difference. In this work, we perform density-functional theory calculations of this one-electron splitting ?=?a1g-?eg' for the full two-layer compound, accounting for the effects of Na ordering, interplanar interactions and octahedral distortion. We find that ?a1g-?eg' is negative for all Na fillings and that this is primarily due to the strongly positive Coulomb field created by Na+ ions in the intercalant plane that disproportionately affects the extended a1g orbital. We discuss also the effects of octahedral compression and multiorbital filling on the value of ? as a function of Na content. Our results indicate that if the eg' pockets are indeed suppressed, that can only be due to nonlocal correlation effects beyond the standard DMFT.

Pillay, D.; Johannes, M. D.; Mazin, I. I.; Andersen, O. K.

2008-07-01

329

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

330

Experimental study of the effects of alternating fields on HTS coils according to the winding insulation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the effects of alternating fields on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils according to the winding insulation condition. Alternating fields can occur in synchronous machines (armature reaction, faults) and other devices. In superconducting synchronous machines, alternating fields affect the operational characteristics of the machine and the superconducting field coil. Therefore, a method of reducing the effects of alternating fields is necessary in superconducting synchronous design. In this study, the effects of alternating fields on the HTS field coil according to the winding insulation condition were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that HTS coils made using the no-insulation technique can be a solution for reducing the effects of the alternating field. These results are expected to suggest useful data for applications of HTS field coils in superconducting synchronous machines.

Hwang, Y. J.; Ahn, M. C.; Lee, T. S.; Lee, W. S.; Ko, T. K.

2013-08-01

331

The forefront of practical superconducting wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the practical superconducting wires, such as Nb–Ti alloy wires, Nb3Sn compound wires, and bismuth system superconducting wires, the workability of long wire, transport critical current density, AC losses and mechanical properties were investigated. Practical superconducting wires of Nb–Ti alloy and Nb3Sn compound have already been used as DC superconducting windings, and are expected to be used for AC applications.

Yasuzo Tanaka

2000-01-01

332

Development of MVA class HTS SMES system for bridging instantaneous voltage dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SMES system of MVA class for bridging instantaneous voltage dips has been developed using Bi-2212 wire. The Bi-2212 wire has high-performance conductive characteristics that do not deteriorate at a low temperature in high magnetic fields beyond 10 T. These characteristics enable a compact design of a SMES system of the Bi-2212 wire. In addition, coils of the Bi-2212 wire

Koji Shikimachi; Hiromi Moriguchi; Naoki Hirano; Shigeo Nagaya; Toshinobu Ito; Junji Inagaki; Satoshi Hanai; Masahiko Takahashi; Tsutomu Kurusu

2005-01-01

333

[Formula: see text] and O2(a(1)?g) charge exchange with simple ions.  

PubMed

We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the [Formula: see text] and a(1)?g states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O2(a(1)?g) and the cations O(+), CO(+), Ar(+), and [Formula: see text], and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O2 reacting with the atomic ions Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+), Cl(+), and Br(+). The T-shaped orientation of the (X - O2)(+) potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule [Formula: see text]. The calculated rate constants for both [Formula: see text] and O2(a(1)?g) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O2, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O2(a(1)?g) are similar to those for [Formula: see text] for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O2(a(1)?g) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O2 have about the same attractive interactions with ions. PMID:24908008

Zió?kowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C; Viggiano, A A; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak

2014-06-01

334

Inrush-modeling of a single-phase 1-MVA-HTS (High Temperature Superconducting)- transformer for rail vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-MVA-HTS-transformer has been designed, manufactured and tested according to specifications for rail vehicles as has been reported. The HTS-transformer for railway drive systems has to meet the demands of the rough operational conditions-comparable to conventional copper-oil-transformers. One main focus is the energizing of the transformer by switching via the vacuum main circuit-breaker to the grid. Due to the very

Michael Meinert; Andreas Binder

2003-01-01

335

Homogeneous current distribution experiment in a multi-laminated HTS tape conductor for a double-pancake coil of SMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-laminated HTS tape conductor wound into double-pancake coils has recently been used for large SMES. If the HTS tapes are simply laminated to form the conductor, the current distribution in the laminated tape conductor of the coil is not homogeneous because of the differences among all the tape inductances. Transposition of these tapes at the innermost or outermost layer of the coil is effective for homogeneous current distribution. However, this method would requires the same number of single-pancake coils as that of the HTS tape conductor, and hence the number of HTS tape conductors is restricted. In this paper, we propose a new method to control the current distribution in the laminated conductor using transposition at the innermost layer of a double-pancake coil and adjusting the gaps between the laminated tapes. We analyze the current distributions for multi-laminated HTS tape conductors for a double-pancake coil, and show the homogeneous current distribution of the laminated tape conductor. In order to verify the theory, we designed homogeneous current distribution coil wound with the multi-laminated (four times) HTS tape conductors by transposing them at the innermost layer and by adjusting the additional thickness 0.075 mm between the parallel conductors. We obtained the homogeneous current distribution in the tape conductor. The experimental data were in good agreement with the theory.

Atomura, N.; Takahashi, T.; Chiba, Y.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

2011-11-01

336

Simulation of chain of quenches on toroidal HTS-SMES taking account of thermal and electromagnetic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a temperature rise occurs at a local area inside a coil of toroidal HTS-SMES by any reason, a temperature hotspot which results in a thermal runaway appears at the local area. Subsequently, after appearing the local normal zone in the HTS coil, the transport current of the HTS coil decrease since the resistance of HTS coil appears and the current partially flows into a parallel-connecting shunt resistance. However, if the transport current of the normal-transitioned HTS coil is hardly changed, the temperature on the hotspot would rise more and then the normal zone would spread rapidly. It may cause a serious accident due to high stored energy. Therefore, using the numerical simulation, we have investigated the behaviors of the coil current, the critical current, and the temperature in the superconducting element coils of HTS-SMES. Consequently, the temperature of the superconducting element coils rises up extremely when a large heat is generated at a certain area of one of them by any reason. Moreover, there is a possibility that the shunt resister hardly functions for protection since the coil is burned out due to high inductances and low resistance of the superconducting element coil.

Oga, Y.; Noguchi, S.; Igarashi, H.

337

The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

Kim, S. B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

2013-11-01

338

Plasma chemistry in wire chambers  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

Wise, J.

1990-05-01

339

A study on thickness effect of HTS cable for insulation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical insulating design is important to realize the HTS (high temperature superconducting) cable because this cable is operated under the high voltage environment. For the insulation design of HTS cable, it is necessary to investigate the PD (partial discharge) inception, ac and impulse breakdown strength of LN2 (liquid nitrogen)/LPP (laminated polypropylene) composite insulation system. However, the designed insulation thickness by ac and impulse could not be applied to cable fabrication process due to much low electrical breakdown strength. The effect of the multi-layered insulation paper was not considered on the previous insulation design and the insulation thickness by PD inception strength could be applied only. In this paper, the electrical breakdown characteristic, which considered the effect of multi-layered of LPP, was investigated to design the insulation thickness.

Cheon, H. G.; Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

2006-06-01

340

5 GHz HTS power filters with TM-mode microstrip-disk resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For RF wireless applications, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave power filters are desired to satisfy the requirements of higher power handling capability, lower intermodulation distortion (IMD), and dimensions that are more compact. In this report, we propose a 5 GHz HTS band bandpass filter (BPF) that has 2 dual-mode resonators using TM 11-mode microstrip-disk (MD) resonators and waveguide line for electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the MDs. The BPF sample with YBCO films on both sides of an MgO (1 0 0) substrate was fabricated, and their RF characteristics of the S parameters, the power, and 3rd IMD (IMD3) were examined. The filter sample exhibited an IMD3 value less than -70 dBc at 10 W input power, and was estimated the half volume of a conventional 4-pole MD BPF.

Yamanaka, K.; Ishii, M.; Akasegawa, A.; Nakanishi, T.; Baniecki, J. D.; Kurihara, K.

2008-09-01

341

Effect of corrugated characteristics on the liquid nitrogen temperature field of HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system, liquid nitrogen is usually chosen to be the coolant because of its low saturation temperature and large latent heat of vaporization. Thus, it is very important for superconducting cables that the liquid nitrogen temperature field keeps stable. However, the cryostat is usually made of flexible corrugated pipes and multi-layer insulation materials. The characteristics (e.g. wave pitch and wave depth) of corrugated pipes may have an effect on the heat exchange between cable and liquid nitrogen, even the whole temperature field of liquid nitrogen. In this paper, a two-dimensional model for 30 m long HTS cable has been modified to analyze the effect of corrugated characteristics on the temperature field of liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen temperature difference between the outlet and the inlet of passage gradually increases as the wave pitch of the corrugated tube decreases and the wave depth increases.

Li, Z. M.; Li, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Gao, C.; Qiu, M.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.

2014-01-01

342

HTS by NMR of combinatorial libraries: a fragment-based approach to ligand discovery.  

PubMed

Fragment-based ligand design (FBLD) approaches have become more widely used in drug discovery projects from both academia and industry, and are even often preferred to traditional high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds (>10(5)). A key advantage of FBLD approaches is that these often rely on robust biophysical methods such as NMR spectroscopy for detection of ligand binding, hence are less prone to artifacts that too often plague the results from HTS campaigns. In this article, we introduce a screening strategy that takes advantage of both the robustness of protein NMR spectroscopy as the detection method, and the basic principles of combinatorial chemistry to enable the screening of large libraries of fragments (>10(5) compounds) preassembled on a common backbone. We used the method to identify compounds that target protein-protein interactions. PMID:23352136

Wu, Bainan; Zhang, Ziming; Noberini, Roberta; Barile, Elisa; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard A; Pasquale, Elena B; Pellecchia, Maurizio

2013-01-24

343

The study on stress-cone based on HTS cable terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research aims at improving the performance of 35 kV class stress-cone for HTS cable terminal. Firstly, the equivalent circuit model of a stress-cone is constructed for simulation. The relation between the sag voltage of each layer can be characterized by structural and material parameters, such as the stress-cone’s plate length, plate radius, insulating material thickness and dielectric constant. Secondly, the simulation based on ANSYS is developed for analyzing the electric field of stress cone of HTS cable terminal, by altering the length of step and insulation material parameter of stress cone, we get the voltage of each plate layer, horizontal electric field and vertical electric field, and the influence of stress-cone parameter on stress cone electric field is analyzed.

Wu, C. Y.; Fang, J.; Huang, X. H.; Lu, W. J.; Li, D.; Guo, L. J.

2013-01-01

344

HTS electrical machines with BSCCO/Ag composite plate-shaped rotor elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work relates to the investigation of electrical machines having advanced BSCCO/Ag-sheathed elements which are being produced by the well-known technology “powder in tube”. That foliate HTS material is being considered to be used in three types of electric machines: reluctance and hysteresis motors and synchronous machines with “trapped magnetic flux”. Depending on the thickness, quantity of BSCCO layers and filling factor they are being produced as thin and thick ones. Several small-scale experimental models of the above-mentioned types were developed and tested in liquid nitrogen. The output power rating of reluctance motors with thin and thick HTS elements are 3 and 4 kW respectively. “Trapped field” machine was tested in generator mode for open circuit operation. The value of obtained magnetic flux density in the air gap is 0.8 T.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Akimov, I. I.; Dew-Hughes, D.

2002-08-01

345

Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, You-He

2010-03-01

346

Vacuum-Insulated Flexible Cryostats for Long Hts Cables: Requirements, Status and Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable demonstration projects have begun operation on the electric grid in the last few years with the liquid nitrogen-cooled, three-phase cable contained in one or more vacuum-insulated, flexible cryostats with lengths up to ~600 meters. These grid demonstration projects are realistic prototypes of the anticipated commercial market which will require superconducting cable lengths in the multiple kilometer range with the vacuum-jacketed cryostats in underground ducts providing acceptable thermal insulation for up to decades. The current state-of-the art for flexible cryostats (installation constraints, heat loads with a good and degraded vacuum, impact of cable bends, getter performance and lifetime, weld and accessory reliability) is discussed. Further development needed to meet the challenging commercial HTS cable application is outlined.

Gouge, M. J.; Demko, J. A.; Roden, M. L.; Maguire, J. F.; Weber, C. S.

2008-03-01

347

Fabrication of PDA/HTS prototype components. [graphite composites for space shuttle and YF-12 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process was developed for autoclave molding structural poly-(Diels-Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin/HTS graphite composites for short-term 600 F service. The autoclave molding process used to fabricate these composites required a maximum cure temperature of 427 K (400 F) and a maximum molding pressure of 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psig). This process then was adapted to the fabrication of co-cured polyimide sandwich panels consisting of PDA/HTS skins, PDA syntactic foam and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by manufacturing five three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels using the PDA resin. It was concluded from successful evaluation of these prototype units that the PDA resin is suitable for fabrication of components using commercial equipment.

Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

1976-01-01

348

Vacuum-Insulated, Flexible Cryostats for Long HTS Cables: Requirements, Status, and Prospects.  

SciTech Connect

Several high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable demonstration projects have begun operation on the electric grid in the last few years with the liquid nitrogen-cooled cable contained in one or more vacuum-insulated, flexible cryostats with lengths up to 600 meters. These grid demonstration projects are prototypes of the anticipated commercial market which will require superconducting cable lengths in the multiple kilometer range with the vacuum-jacketed cryostats in underground ducts providing acceptable thermal insulation for decades. The current state-of-the art for flexible cryostats (installation constraints, heat loads with a good and degraded vacuum, impact of cable bends, getter lifetime and reliability) is discussed. Further development needed to meet the challenging commercial HTS cable application is outlined.

Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Maguire, J. F. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Weber, C. S. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

2008-01-01

349

A Single-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Horizontally Cooling HTS MRI Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-stage GM type pulse tube cryocooler, model HPT10, has been developed to operate horizontally to meet certain cooling requirements (including applications such as high temperature superconducting (HTS) MRI probe coils, detectors, etc). A rotary valve (with motor) is physically separated from a pulse tube expander through a 2.1 meter stainless steel flexible line. The HPT10 provides 16.0 W at 77 K when operating in a horizontal position and 17.6 W at 77 K when operating in a vertical position, thus demonstrating only small performance degradation when operating horizontally. The HTS probe coil cooled by this type pulse tube cryocooler will significantly improve the image quality of MRI systems.

Wang, C.; Gifford, P. E.

2004-06-01

350

Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

2011-06-01

351

A power handling capability improved HTS filter using modified sliced line resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a modified sliced-line resonator for high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters with high power handling capability is proposed. The resonator consists of 18 equal length lines in parallel with 3 unequal length lines on both outsides. The maximum current density of this kind of resonator is investigated and compared with the conventional microstrip line resonator and the sliced-line resonator. The simulations show that the resonator enables an increase of 76% power handling capability compared with the sliced-line resonator. A four-pole HTS filter with a centre frequency of 3.65 GHz and a bandwidth of 0.7% was designed and fabricated based on the proposed resonator. The measurements of the filter show a power handling capability more than 10 W.

Zheng, Tianning; Wei, Bin; Feng, Cheng; Cao, Bisong; Guo, Xubo; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ying, Zhijun

2014-05-01

352

Quench developing process of HTS tape in sinusoidal overcurrents with different amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting equipments applied in electric power system might suffer overcurrents during the dynamic state of power system, such as short circuit faults. In those cases, superconducting equipments might transit from superconducting state to normal state, which is called quench, and then brings a series of problems to the supply of electric power. Thus, detecting quench timely and protecting superconducting equipments from overcurrents become an important subject. Our lab has carried out a lot of experiments to study the quench characteristics for the HTS tape in sinusoidal overcurrents with different amplitudes. By the analysis of these experimental data, this paper presents the quench developing process of HTS tape in different currents and puts out a three-stage theory for it. Based on that, the prediction theory for quench detection and protection is put forward.

Xiaoyan, Yu; Yuejin, Tang; Jingdong, Li; Saijun, Zhang; Yuan, Pan

353

HTS by NMR of Combinatorial Libraries: A Fragment-Based Approach to Ligand Discovery  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Fragment-based ligand design (FBLD) approaches have become more widely used in drug discovery projects from both academia and industry, and are even often preferred to traditional high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds (>105). A key advantage of FBLD approaches is that these often rely on robust biophysical methods such as NMR spectroscopy for detection of ligand binding, hence are less prone to artifacts that too often plague the results from HTS campaigns. In this article, we introduce a screening strategy that takes advantage of both the robustness of protein NMR spectroscopy as the detection method, and the basic principles of combinatorial chemistry to enable the screening of large libraries of fragments (>105 compounds) preassembled on a common backbone. We used the method to identify compounds that target protein-protein interactions.

Wu, Bainan; Zhang, Ziming; Noberini, Roberta; Barile, Elisa; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard A.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

2014-01-01

354

HTS SQUID system with Joule-Thomson cryocooler for eddy current nondestructive evaluation of aircraft structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the detection of deep-lying flaws in aircraft structures, an eddy current system in conjunction with a planar SQUID gradiometer is being developed. The need for a mobile system imposes additional requirements on cooling regarding mobility, operation independent of spatial orientation, and handling. We present results on the operation of HTS SQUIDs with the commercial Joule-Thomson-cryocooler KC 100 (“cryotiger”) by

R. Hohmann; H.-J. Krause; H. Soltner; H. Zhang; C. A. Copetti; H. Bousack; A. I. Braginski; M. I. Faley

1997-01-01

355

Surface resistance measurements of HTS films by means of sapphire dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sapphire dielectric resonator with a copper cylindrical shield and two endplates replaced by high-temperature superconducting (HTS) layers was used for very accurate surface resistance measurements on laser-ablated YBCO films. A system using the TE011 mode has a resonant frequency of about 18.1 GHz and parasitic-loss Q factor of about 120000. It allows 10 mm×10 mm samples to be measured

Jerzy Krupka; Martin Klinger; Matthias Kuhn; A. Baryanyak; Michael Stiller; Johann Hinken; J. Modelski

1993-01-01

356

Bi2212 HTS Tubular Bulk with Conical Shape for Current Lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current leads using HTS material have been developed for application in a large scale superconducting magnet system. Tokai University and NIFS have developed Bi2212 tubular bulk which was prepared by a diffusion process. 8 kA of maximum transport current was achieved by a tubular bulk with a cylindrical shape. The maximum current was estimated to be 2 kA at 50

H Tamura; T Mito; Y Yamada; M Watanabe; J Ohkubo; R Heller

2006-01-01

357

On the effect of NiW on the inductance and AC loss of HTS cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of Ni-5at%W substrates on ac loss and inductance of HTS cables was examined. Two 1.2-m prototype cables were made with stainless steel laminated BSCCO tapes and were wound on a 25.4 mm diameter former. Each cable consisted of two layers of 15 BSCCO tapes wound at opposite lay angles and has an estimated critical current of 3000 A

R. C. Duckworth; M. J. Gouge; J. Caughman; J. W. Lue; J. A. Demko; J. Tolbert; C. L. H. Thieme; D. T. Verebelyi

2005-01-01

358

Study on nondestructive inspection using HTS-SQUID for friction stir welding between dissimilar metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an SQUID-NDI technique for evaluation of friction stir welding (FSW) between aluminum alloy A6063 and stainless steel SUS304 from the electric conductivities in board specimens bonded by FSW. A SQUID-NDI system employing an HTS-SQUID gradiometer was constructed to measure current distribution in the FSW specimens by applying voltage to the specimen. By measuring field gradients dBz\\/dy and

Y. Hatsukade; T. Takahashi; T. Yasui; M. Tsubaki; M. Fukumono; S. Tanaka

2007-01-01

359

AC loss properties of a 1 MVA single-phase HTS power transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed and built a single-phase 1 MVA-22\\/6.9 kV HTS transformer with the multi-layered cylindrical windings composed of Bi2223 parallel conductors. In advance of the design, the AC loss induced in the windings was estimated on the basis of the observed results in a strand. A subcooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with the corresponding cooling capacity was developed and attached

M. Iwakuma; K. Funaki; K. Kajikawa; H. Tanaka; T. Bohno; A. Tomioka; H. Yamada; S. Nose; M. Konno; Y. Yagi; H. Maruyama; T. Ogata; S. Yoshida; K. Ohashi; K. Tsutsumi; K. Honda

2001-01-01

360

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. II. Rotational spectra of a(1)?(g)? O2 isotopologues.  

PubMed

As part of a comprehensive review on molecular oxygen spectroscopy, we have measured rotational spectra of isotopic forms of molecular oxygen in its a(1)?(g) electronic state with high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy. The data are recorded in close proximity to predicted positions. Due to the high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio, the fundamental hyperfine parameters eQq and C(I) are determinable for (17)O-substituted species for the first time. A refined nuclear spin orbit coupling constant, a = -211.9328(283) MHz, was determined, and is roughly two orders of magnitude more precise than values determined from near infrared spectroscopy or electron spin resonance studies. Vibrationally excited oxygen in the a(1)?(g) electronic state was also observable with small signal levels for many of the rotational transitions. PMID:22803534

Drouin, Brian J; Gupta, Harshal; Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Müller, Holger S P

2012-07-14

361

Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

2010-06-01

362

Development of a HTS SQUID module for use with an external pickup coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed HTS SQUID modules applicable to various systems, such as nondestructive evaluation and low-field NMR/MRI systems. The SQUID module consists of a directly coupled HTS planar gradiometer and a HTS multi-turn input coil, which are fabricated on separate substrates and stacked with a flip-chip configuration. Two types of input coils, 26-turns and 59-turns, are fabricated. The SQUID module is mounted on a printed circuit board with large electrodes for soldering to the external pickup coil. The mutual inductances between the input coil and SQUID varied from 0.5 to 2.3 nH, depending on the number of turns of the input coil and the inductance of the SQUID. The SQUID modules with an external pickup coil made of normal metal showed a lower cut-off frequency of 45 Hz and a field noise as low as 35 fT Hz-1/2 (>4 kHz).

Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Enpuku, K.

2013-01-01

363

Magnetizing technique for permanent magnets by intense static fields generated by HTS bulk magnets: Numerical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned in the strong magnetic field space just above the magnetic pole containing a HTS bulk magnet which generates the magnetic field 3.4 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. The finite element method was carried out for the static field magnetization of a permanent magnet using a HTS bulk magnet. Previously, our research group experimentally demonstrated the possibility of full magnetization of rare earth permanent magnets with high-performance magnetic properties with use of the static field of HTS bulk magnets. In the present study, however, we succeeded for the first time in visualizing the behavior of the magnetizing field of the bulk magnet during the magnetization process and the shape of the magnetic field inside the body being magnetized. By applying this kind of numerical analysis to the magnetization for planned motor rotors which incorporate rare-earth permanent magnets, we hope to study the fully magnetized regions for the new magnetizing method using bulk magnets and to give motor designing a high degree of freedom.

N. Kawasaki; Oka, T.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Terasawa, T.; Itoh, Y.

364

HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

2010-06-01

365

Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

Yeom, H. K.; Koh, D. Y.; Ko, J. S.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.; Seong, K. C.

2011-11-01

366

Current distribution and re-distribution in HTS cables made from 2nd generation tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current redistribution in carpet-stack cables made from 2nd generation HTS tapes is investigated. In the carpet stack geometry tapes are stacked with their broad faces parallel to each other to build up a cable. Current redistribution in HTS cables is complex because the built-in insulation layer in each tape prevents effective current transfer between tapes. A method of shunting the tapes using periodically distributed superconducting bridges is investigated to improve current transfer, avoiding the need to solder the cable together. We calculate the mutual inductance between different tapes in a cable, and the effective resistance/transconductance for representative cable configurations. The effective time constants for current transfer and current redistribution are then calculated under different assumptions. We show that periodic shunting of the tapes using distributed superconducting bridges is an attractive method to achieve uniform current distribution in a HTS cable. The solution is flexible, and the performance of the system can be optimized by changing the width of shunt and/or the distance between shunts.

Bromberg, L.; Takayasu, M.; Michael, Philip; Minervini, J. V.; Dietz, Anthony

2012-06-01

367

The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

2012-12-01

368

Two HTS options for a 600 MHz insert of a 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet: YBCO and BSCCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008, the Phase 3 program to complete a 1.3 GHz (30.5 T) NMR magnet started at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It comprises two sub-phases, 3A and 3B. In Phase 3A, a 600 MHz high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert magnet (H600) will be designed, constructed, and operated in the bore of a 500 MHz low temperature superconductor (LTS) background magnet. This will be followed by Phase 3B, in which the H600 will be combined with a 700 MHz LTS background magnet to complete a 1.3 GHz NMR LTS/HTS magnet. This paper presents and discusses design issues for two conductor options for H600: BiSCCO-2223 (Bi2223) and coated-YBCO or its variants, here designated as YBCO. For each conductor option, we focused on the following issues: (1) elastic and thermal properties; (2) critical current vs. field performance; (3) splice and index heat dissipations; (4) mechanical and thermal stresses; and (5) protection.

Hahn, S.; Bascuñán, J.; Yao, W.; Iwasa, Y.

2010-11-01

369

Toxicity of Chitinase-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD1 (G) toward Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fifty isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their ability to produce chitinase using colloidal chitin agar as the primary plating medium. Of 14 strains that produced chitinase, B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1(G) was identified as the highest chitinase producer and selected for further study. This bacterium produced the highest amount of chitinase (19.3 mU\\/ml) when it was cultivated

Chanpen Wiwat; Saranya Thaithanun; Somsak Pantuwatana; Amaret Bhumiratana

2000-01-01

370

Amino acids as biomarkers in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS.  

PubMed

The development of therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been hindered by the lack of biomarkers for both identifying early disease and for monitoring the effectiveness of drugs. The identification of ALS biomarkers in presymptomatic individuals might also provide clues to the earliest biochemical correlates of the disease. Previous attempts to use plasma metabolites as biomarkers have led to contradictory results, presumably because of heterogeneity in both the underlying genetics and the disease stage in the clinical population. To eliminate these two sources of heterogeneity we have characterized plasma amino acids and other metabolites in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for ALS. Presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice have significant differences in concentrations of several plasma metabolites compared to wild type animals, most notably in the concentrations of aspartate, cystine/cysteine, and phosphoethanolamine, and in changes indicative of methylation defects. There are significant changes in amino acid compositions between 50 and 70days of age in both the SOD1(G93A) and wild type mice, and several of the age-related and disease-related differences in metabolite concentration were also gender-specific. Many of the SOD1(G93A)-related differences could be altered by treatment of mice with methionine sulfoximine, which extends the lifespan of this mouse, inhibits glutamine synthetase, and modifies brain methylation reactions. These studies show that assaying plasma metabolites can effectively distinguish transgenic mice from wild type, suggesting that one or more plasma metabolites might be useful biomarkers for the disease in humans, especially if genetic and longitudinal analysis is used to reduce population heterogeneity. PMID:24129262

Bame, Monica; Grier, Robert E; Needleman, Richard; Brusilow, William S A

2014-01-01

371

Realizing microgravity flame spread characteristics at 1 g over a bed of nano-aluminum powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale aluminum (nAl) powders demonstrate relatively fast counter-flow flame spread rates compared to typical fuels such as Poly(methyl methacrylate) or cellulose at similar conditions. This allows for the dominant forward heat transfer mechanism to be through the solid fuel at higher applied oxidizer velocities, and flame structure characteristics typically observed in microgravity to be realized at 1g conditions. Because of

J. Y. Malchi; J. Prosser; R. A. Yetter; S. F. Son

2009-01-01

372

Atomic and molecular wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of molecular electronics has an ambitious but realistic goal: the use of synthesis, assembly and miniaturation on the molecular level to achieve a huge density of devices such as molecular wires, rectifiers, switches, transistors and memories. With a characteristic length about one nanometer, the molecules are also expected to provide unprecendented confined systems for the study of quantum confinement effects and single electron tunneling effects. This thesis describes work on the electronic transport properties of conjugated molecules. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto gold surfaces. We describe two techniques, called a "break junction" and a "nanopore", to connect the molecules to macroscopic leads. Pronounced conductance quantization using break junctions is reported, indicating that an atomic scale metallic quantum point contact is formed in such structures. Deposition of benzene-1,4-dithiol is demonstrated to change the current-voltage characteristics of the junction dramatically, indicative of molecules bridging the tunneling gap between the two gold electrodes. The "nanopore" technique is developed to construct intrinsically stable metal/self-assembled monolayer/metal sandwich structures. This technique enables low temperature transport studies on the molecular junctions and therefore the critical transport mechanisms can be determined. The so-called gated transport due to conformation changes is also observed for one type of molecules.

Zhou, Chongwu

1999-10-01

373

GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

Jochum, K. P.; Wilson, S. A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L. M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; Mcdonough, W. F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R. L.; Scholz, D.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J. D.

2011-01-01

374

Oil production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g using rice bran hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1-4% v/v), reaction times (1-8 h), and reaction temperatures (60-120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2012-01-01

375

Collisional removal of O2(b 1?g+,?=2,3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of the collisional removal of O2 in the ?=3 level of the b 1?g+ state by N2, O2, and CO2 was investigated at room temperature and below. Measurements on the ?=2 level with the colliders, O2, N2O, Ar, and He are also reported. For ?=3 removal by O2, the trend of sharply decreasing loss rate coefficients with increasing ? is seen to continue. For example, at 200 K the rate coefficient for collisional removal of O2 from the ?=3 level by O2 is some three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the ?=1 level. We argue that the mechanism of the deactivation is electronic-electronic (E-E) energy transfer. Observation of emission from a broad range of O2(b 1?g+) vibrational levels in the terrestrial nightglow, recently discovered in astronomical sky spectra, show less than an order of magnitude difference in population between the more highly populated ?=3 level and the less populated ?=1 level. The implications of these two observations on the vibrational-level-specific atmospheric sources of vibrationally excited molecules in the b 1?g+ electronic state are explored.

Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Copeland, Richard A.; Slanger, Tom G.

2002-03-01

376

Relationship between neuropathology and disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. However, recent reports suggest an active role of non-neuronal cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we examined quantitatively the temporal development of neuropathologic features in the brain and spinal cord of a mouse model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)). Four phases of the disease were studied in both male and female SOD1(G93A) mice: presymptomatic (PRE-SYM), symptomatic (SYM), endstage (ES) and moribund (MB). Compared to their control littermates, SOD1(G93A) mice showed an increase in astrogliosis in the motor cortex, spinal cord and motor trigeminal nucleus in the SYM phase that worsened progressively in ES and MB animals. Associated with this increase in astrogliosis was a concomitant increase in motor neuron cell death in the spinal cord and motor trigeminal nucleus in both ES and MB mice, as well as in the ventrolateral thalamus in MB animals. In contrast, microglial activation was significantly increased in all the same regions but only when the mice were in the MB phase. These results suggest that astrogliosis preceded or occurred concurrently with neuronal degeneration whereas prominent microgliosis was evident later (MB stage), after significant motor neuron degeneration had occurred. Hence, our findings support a role for astrocytes in modulating the progression of non-cell autonomous degeneration of motor neurons, with microglia playing a role in clearing degenerating neurons. PMID:21145892

Yang, Wendy W; Sidman, Richard L; Taksir, Tatyana V; Treleaven, Christopher M; Fidler, Jonathan A; Cheng, Seng H; Dodge, James C; Shihabuddin, Lamya S

2011-02-01

377

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

378

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

ScienceCinema

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-04-09

379

The 100 most wired 2004.  

PubMed

Even as they speed ahead in their quest to improve quality and operations, the top IT hospitals are shifting gears away from a fascination with whiz-bang technology to the nitty-gritty work that ensures success. In the foldout, you'll find the 100 Most Wired, Innovator Award winners, Most Wired-Small and Rural, Most Wireless and Most Improved. PMID:15303684

Solovy, Alden

2004-07-01

380

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2013-07-01

381

Partial Discharge Detection of Continuous Length Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to eliminate or minimize defects in high voltage wire can help in extending system reliability by eliminating or minimizing sources of partial discharge. Partial discharge testing of single conductor wire is traditionally performed on discrete lengths of wire or wires terminated to connectors. However, when excessive partial discharge is detected in completed assemblies, expensive rework is the result.

J. L. Rush

2006-01-01

382

New Bonding Wire for Fine Pitch Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years the trend in bonding wire applications has been characterized by the minimisation of assembling components, and has in turn led to thinner wire and finer pad and pitch size. In particular for gold bonding thinner wire means less expense for precious metal. The requirements for such small wire diameters can only partially be met by

E. Milke; T. Mueller; A. Bischoff

2007-01-01

383

47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431...Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include...cost of drop and block wires served by aerial wire shall be included in Account...

2013-10-01

384

Electron transport in molecular wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular wire is defined to be a single molecule which is connected to metallic leads and acts as a conductor for electrons. It is a physically interesting system since it functions on a size scale where the quantum wave nature of the current carriers is important. Because of their size, molecular wires may also be of technological importance as future replacements for conventional solid-state devices. This thesis details theoretical work done on electron transport through molecular wires. The transport problem was studied by developing several methods based on Landauer theory which relates the electrical current to the transmission probability for a single electron to scatter through the molecule. Problems of current interest that were addressed include: current-voltage characteristics of 1,4 benzene-dithiolate bonded to gold electrodes, conductance characteristics of antiresonances in molecular wires, atomic orbital non-orthogonality, electron standing wave formation in atomic chains, inelastic electron scattering in molecular wires and a molecular wire transistor.

Emberly, Eldon Glenn

385

1 mil gold bond wire study.  

SciTech Connect

In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

2013-05-01

386

Oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge: Part 1—1 g Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical study was conducted to investigate convection in a silicone oil liquid bridge of dimensionless volume V/ Vo between hot and cool disks under both normal gravity (1 g) conditions and under microgravity (?g) conditions in free-fall. The study explored the influences on the critical temperature difference (? Tc) at which thermocapillary convection changes from steady to oscillatory, and on the process of transition from periodic to chaotic thermocapillary convection. This paper is divided into two parts. Part 1 (this part) describes the experiments conducted under normal gravity conditions, and part 2 describes experiments under ?g conditions in free-fall. The results of the study indicate that ? Tc is very sensitive to V/ Vo. Very high critical temperature difference ranges (the gap or stable range) were examined over the V/ Vo range. In cases where V/ Vo is larger than the specific V/ Vo range, it was found that ? Tc decreases with increasing V/ Vo. Conversely, where V/ Vo is smaller than the specific V/ Vo range, ? Tc increases with increasing V/ Vo. The study also clarified the effects of the kinematic viscosity of the working medium. These findings suggest that the striations of grown crystals can be controlled by varying the volume of the melt. Five types of temperature oscillatory phenomena (P, P2, QP, P2+QP, and C) were identified and shown on a ? T- V/ Vo plane diagram under 1 g and ?g conditions. Moreover, the velocity pattern in a transverse cross-section of the liquid bridge, the critical condition for the onset of oscillation, and simultaneous measurements of three-dimensional flow pattern and temperature were obtained under normal gravity conditions. The findings of these experiments may be useful for establishing techniques for controlling thermocapillary convection when semiconductor or opto-electronic crystals are grown by the floating zone method under 1 g and ?g conditions.

Sakurai, Masato; Ohishi, Naoya; Hirata, Akira

2007-10-01

387

Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H Irradiation Report  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. These experiments are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 20 atom % burnup. Results of the evaluations show that AFC-1D will remain in the ATR for approximately 100 additional effective full power days (EFPDs), and AFC-1G and AFC-1H for approximately 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports.

Debra J. Utterbeck; Gray Chang

2005-09-01

388

Investigation of difficult component effects on FEM vibration prediction for the AH-1G helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Secondary structure and damping were found to have significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. The nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomeric mounts on the low-frequency pylon modes below the main rotor were also significant.

Dompka, Robert V.

1988-01-01

389

Proposed plan for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan is issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for SRS remedial activities, and with concurrence by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G) (K BPOP) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and to solicit public comments on the preferred alternative.

Palmer, E.

1997-06-01

390

Correlation of AH-1G airframe test data with a NASTRAN mathematical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test data was provided for evaluating a mathematical vibration model of the Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe. The math model was developed and analyzed using the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program. Data from static and dynamic tests were used for comparison with the math model. Static tests of the fuselage and tailboom were conducted to verify the stiffness representation of the NASTRAN model. Dynamic test data were obtained from shake tests of the airframe and were used to evaluate the NASTRAN model for representing the low frequency (below 30 Hz) vibration response of the airframe.

Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

1976-01-01

391

Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake  

PubMed Central

Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 ± 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 ± 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 ± 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (?4.2 ± 4.1%) and BMC (?4.8 ± 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (?1.4 ± 5.6% and ?1.1 ± 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women.

Riedt, Claudia S.; Cifuentes, Mariana; Stahl, Theodore; Chowdhury, Hasina A.; Schlussel, Yvette; Shapses, Sue A.

2014-01-01

392

Wire chambers revisited.  

PubMed

Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative ejection fraction information of the highest quality. The detection of higher energy gamma rays has proved more problematical, needing a solid photon-electron convertor to be incorporated into the chamber. Several groups have been working on this problem with modest success so far. The only clinical detectors have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now in routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8491229

Ott, R J

1993-04-01

393

Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

2011-11-01

394

A study on the improvement of protective relay system for the utility application of HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the analysis and improvement of protective relay systems are performed with respect to HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable applied in a model power system. The over current relay and differential relay with proposed new decision making algorithm are implemented under a couple of fault conditions, a single line-to-ground fault and three phase short circuit. According to the analysis results, there is not a particular aspect for the protection system of HTS power cable, but the impedance variation of HTS power cable should be taken into account under the fault conditions. In the case of the differential relay system, the induced current ratio based fault detection scheme is proposed and applied for the bus to bus connection of HTS power cable protection. The circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm well. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide more useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems.

Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Park, I. K.; Lee, S. R.; Park, J. D.; Kwon, Y. K.; Yu, I. K.

2009-10-01

395

Choice of flexible cryostat for 2.5 km DC HTS cable to be laid in St. Petersburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS tapes production technology has reached the level which allows the manufacture of high-quality cables of long length. In this connection, the issue of creating an HTS power transmission line of some kilometer length had been raised. Pressure loss appears as one of the limiting factors in the circulation of the liquid nitrogen cooling HTS cable placed in a long cryostat. Pressure loss is small in short lines and for this reason did not attract close attention of researchers until recently. Within the framework of the Russian R&D program for HTS power devices, 30 and 200 m AC HTS power transmission lines were created in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and a new 2.5 km 50 MW DC line to be installed in a real city network of St. Petersburg is now at the design and development phase. Pressure loss calculations show the 64/70 mm NEXANS-type corrugated flexible cryostat to be optimal for the cooling channel and the 39/44 mm one - for the return channel. In this case, it is possible to use just one cryopump and one cryocooler to achieve an operational temperature difference of 4-6 K and a pressure drop of 0.1-0.2 MPa in the cooling channel at a flow rate of 20-30 l/min.

Ivanov, Yury V.; Romashov, Maxim A.; Bemert, Sergey E.; Sytnikov, Victor E.

2014-01-01

396

Compartmentalization of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) aggregates determines their toxicity  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a class of illnesses marked by pathological protein aggregation in the brains of affected individuals. Although these disorders are invariably characterized by the degeneration of highly specific subpopulations of neurons, protein aggregation occurs in all cells, which indicates that toxicity arises only in particular cell biological contexts. Aggregation-associated disorders are unified by a common cell biological feature: the deposition of the culprit proteins in inclusion bodies. The precise function of these inclusions remains unclear. The starting point for uncovering the origins of disease pathology must therefore be a thorough understanding of the general cell biological function of inclusions and their potential role in modulating the consequences of aggregation. Here, we show that in human cells certain aggregate inclusions are active compartments. We find that toxic aggregates localize to one of these compartments, the juxtanuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ), and interfere with its quality control function. The accumulation of SOD1G93A aggregates sequesters Hsp70, preventing the delivery of misfolded proteins to the proteasome. Preventing the accumulation of SOD1G93A in the JUNQ by enhancing its sequestration in an insoluble inclusion reduces the harmful effects of aggregation on cell viability.

Weisberg, Sarah J.; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Werdiger, Ayelet-chen; Gitler, Aaron D.; Soen, Yoav; Kaganovich, Daniel

2012-01-01

397

Time-course and characterization of orolingual motor deficits in SOD1-G93A mice  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Symptom onset may occur in the muscles of the limbs (spinal onset) or those of the head and neck (bulbar onset). Bulbar involvement is particularly important in ALS as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize bulbar motor deficits in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of familial ALS. We measured orolingual motor function by placing thirsty mice in a customized operant chamber that allows for measurement of tongue force and lick rhythm as animals lick water from an isometric disc. Testing spanned the pre-symptomatic, symptomatic, and end-stage segments of the disease. Rotarod performance, fore- and hindlimb grip strength, and locomotor activity were also monitored regularly during this period. We found that spinal involvement was apparent first, with both fore- and hindlimb grip strength being affected in SOD1-G93A mice from the onset of testing (64 days of age). Rotarod performance was affected by 71 days of age. Locomotor activity was not affected, even near end-stage. Bulbar involvement appeared much later, with tongue motility being affected by 100 days of age. Tongue force was affected by 115 days of age. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to describe the onset of bulbar v. spinal motor signs and characterize orolingual motor deficits in this preclinical model of ALS.

Smittkamp, Susan E.; Brown, Jordan W.; Stanford, John A.

2008-01-01

398

Peroxynitrite does not decompose to singlet oxygen (1?gO2) and nitroxyl (NO?)  

PubMed Central

According to Khan et al. [Khan, A. U., Kovacic, D., Kolbanovskiy, A., Desai, M., Frenkel, K. & Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2984–2989], peroxynitrite (ONOO?) decomposes after protonation to singlet oxygen (1?gO2) and singlet oxonitrate (nitroxyl, 1NO?) in high yield. They claimed to have observed nitrosyl hemoglobin from the reaction of NO? with methemoglobin; however, contamination with hydrogen peroxide gave rise to ferryl hemoglobin, the spectrum of which was mistakenly assigned to nitrosyl hemoglobin. We have carried out UV–visible and EPR experiments with methemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide-free peroxynitrite and find that no NO? is formed. With this peroxynitrite preparation, no light emission from singlet oxygen at 1270 nm is observed, nor is singlet oxygen chemically trapped; however, singlet oxygen was trapped when hydrogen peroxide was also present, as previously described [Di Mascio, P., Bechara, E. J. H., Medeiros, M. H. G., Briviba, K. & Sies, H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 355, 287–289]. Quantum mechanical and thermodynamic calculations show that formation of the postulated intermediate, a cyclic form of peroxynitrous acid (trioxazetidine), and the products 1NO? and 1?gO2 requires Gibbs energies of ca. +415 kJ?mol?1 and ca. +180 kJ?mol?1, respectively. Our results show that the results of Khan et al. are best explained by interference from contaminating hydrogen peroxide left from the synthesis of peroxynitrite.

Martinez, Glaucia R.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Augusto, Ohara; Briviba, Karlis; Sies, Helmut; Maurer, Patrick; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.

2000-01-01

399

Phosphorylation of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS controls Magi2-mediated endocytosis.  

PubMed

The human Usher syndrome (USH) is a complex ciliopathy with at least 12 chromosomal loci assigned to three clinical subtypes, USH1-3. The heterogeneous USH proteins are organized into protein networks. Here, we identified Magi2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2) as a new component of the USH protein interactome, binding to the multifunctional scaffold protein SANS (USH1G). We showed that the SANS-Magi2 complex assembly is regulated by the phosphorylation of an internal PDZ-binding motif in the sterile alpha motif domain of SANS by the protein kinase CK2. We affirmed Magi2's role in receptor-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis and showed that phosphorylated SANS tightly regulates Magi2-mediated endocytosis. Specific depletions by RNAi revealed that SANS and Magi2-mediated endocytosis regulates aspects of ciliogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the localization of the SANS-Magi2 complex in the periciliary membrane complex facing the ciliary pocket of retinal photoreceptor cells in situ. Our data suggest that endocytotic processes may not only contribute to photoreceptor cell homeostasis but also counterbalance the periciliary membrane delivery accompanying the exocytosis processes for the cargo vesicle delivery. In USH1G patients, mutations in SANS eliminate Magi2 binding and thereby deregulate endocytosis, lead to defective ciliary transport modules and ultimately disrupt photoreceptor cell function inducing retinal degeneration. PMID:24608321

Bauß, Katharina; Knapp, Barbara; Jores, Pia; Roepman, Ronald; Kremer, Hannie; Wijk, Erwin V; Märker, Tina; Wolfrum, Uwe

2014-08-01

400

Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

2003-01-01

401

Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed  

DOEpatents

A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

402

Testing of a 1.5-m single-phase short-sample cable made with copper laminated HTS tapes at ORNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials for power transmission cable applications is being realized in several utility demonstration projects. Tape testing on short-sample cables is conducted to determine the suitability of HTS tapes for use in different cable designs. Testing includes determining the DC critical current, ac loss and overcurrent behavior in a wound cable configuration. The short-sample

J. A. Demko; J. W. Lue; R. C. Duckworth; M. A. Young; M. J. Gouge; D. Lindsay; J. Tolbert; M. Roden; D. Willen; C. Traeholt

2005-01-01

403

Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

2007-12-01

404

Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005.

Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Son Park, In; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

2006-06-01

405

High Temperature Superconducting Degaussing-Cooling Two Hts Coils with One Cryocooler for the Littoral Combat Ship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of creating a high temperature superconducting degaussing system has previously been studied by the Navy and shown to provide significant weight savings over conventional copper based degaussing systems. Modeling efforts have shown that in a HTS Degaussing System (HTSDG) for the Littoral Combat Ship, the dominant costs are cryocoolers. In an effort to minimize the number of cryocoolers, a two coil demonstrator cooled by one cryocooler has been constructed at NSWCCD Philadelphia. The demonstration consists of two 22 m long sections of flexible cryostat that are electrically isolated but connected in series through two junction boxes for serial gas flow. Within each cryostat section, 12 turns of HTS represent a vertical and horizontal degaussing coil. Use of Helium as the working fluid reduces safety impacts and allows higher current density in the HTS conductor due to lower temperature operation. Design, testing results, and lessons learned from the installation and operation of this cable are presented in this paper.

Fitzpatrick, B. K.; Golda, E. M.; Kephart, J. T.

2008-03-01

406

Effects of spaceflight on rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of spaceflight on Rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G. Locomotor performance, activation patterns of the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) and MG tendon force during quadrupedal stepping were studied in adult Rhesus before and after 14 days of either spaceflight (n = 2) or flight simulation at 1G (n = 3). Flight simulation involved duplication of the spaceflight conditions and experimental protocol in a 1G environment. Postflight, but not postsimulation, electromyographic (EMG) recordings revealed clonus-like activity in all muscles. Compared with preflight, the cycle period and burst durations of the primary extensors (Sol, MG, and VL) tended to decrease postflight. These decreases were associated with shorter steps. The flexor (TA) EMG burst duration postflight was similar to preflight, whereas the burst amplitude was elevated. Consequently, the Sol:TA and MG:TA EMG amplitude ratios were lower following flight, reflecting a "flexor bias." Together, these alterations in mean EMG amplitudes reflect differential adaptations in motor-unit recruitment patterns of flexors and extensors as well as fast and slow motor pools. Shorter cycle period and burst durations persisted throughout the 20-day postflight testing period, whereas mean EMG returned to preflight levels by 17 days postflight. Compared with presimulation, the simulation group showed slight increases in the cycle period and burst durations of all muscles. Mean EMG amplitude decreased in the Sol, increased in the MG and VL, and was unchanged in the TA. Thus adaptations observed postsimulation were different from those observed postflight, indicating that there was a response unique to the microgravity environment, i.e., the modulations in the nervous system controlling locomotion cannot merely be attributed to restriction of movement but appear to be the result of changes in the interpretation of load-related proprioceptive feedback to the nervous system. Peak MG tendon force amplitudes were approximately two times greater post- compared with preflight or presimulation. Adaptations in tendon force and EMG amplitude ratios indicate that the nervous system undergoes a reorganization of the recruitment patterns biased toward an increased recruitment of fast versus slow motor units and flexor versus extensor muscles. Combined, these data indicate that some details of the control of motor pools during locomotion are dependent on the persistence of Earth's gravitational environment.

Recktenwald, M. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Roy, R. R.; Riazanski, S.; McCall, G. E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Washburn, D. A.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

407

Peculiarities of Wire Array Implosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experiments on Z-pinch produced from wire arrays performed on the facility Angara-5-1 are presented. The models of liner implosion, i.e. prolonged plasma production have found their confirmation. Estimation based on our experimental data show that W wire cores are heterogeneous. The velocity of core expansion is determined by energy deposited at the first nanoseconds after current start. The effect of the inner array on the current distribution in the region between the arrays has been revealed. The ?lost mass ? was measured at initial radius of array at the moment of X-ray pulse maximum.

Aleksandrov, V.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovski, E.V.; Zaitsev, V.I.; Zukakishvili, G.G.; Medovschikov, S.F.; Mitrofanov, K.N.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Porofeev, I.Yu.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Frolov, I.N.; Fedulov, M. V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Reg., 142190 (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, 142190 (Russian Federation)

2006-01-05

408

Designing potentials by sculpturing wires  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Bar-Joseph, Israel [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7600 (Israel); Lezec, Henri J. [ISIS, Universite Louis Pasteur, 8 Allee Gaspard Monge, 67083 Strasbourg (France)

2007-06-15

409

Single-phase ac losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The authors report single-phase ac loss measurements on 8, 4, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. They use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in one-meter long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8 and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher--probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

Daney, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boenig, H.J.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G. [Pirelli Cavi SpA (Italy)

1998-12-01

410

Single-phase AC losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report single-phase AC loss measurements on 8-, 4-, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. We use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in 1-m long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8- and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher - probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

Daney, D. E.; Maley, M. P.; Boenig, H. J.; Willis, J. O.; Coulter, J. Y.; Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G.

1998-12-01

411

Risk Mitigation in the Development of a Roebel Cable Based 1 MVA HTS Transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported on the development of a 3-phase 1 MVA 11 kV/415 V HTS transformer using Roebel cable for the secondary windings. We describe efforts to address risks associated with short circuits, insulation, and heat transfer. We present modelling results for the response of the windings to a short circuit. Sample strands have been tested to demonstrate that cables immersed in liquid nitrogen can survive short circuits. The primary windings use insulated conductor to withstand computed impulse voltages. Breakdown and partial discharge testing confirms that the production insulation scheme is adequate for our design. Heat transfer results are presented for a sample Roebel cable winding

Glasson, Neil; Staines, Mike; Badcock, Rod; Ward, Logan; Allpress, Nathan; Thakur, Kailash; Pannu, Mohinder

412

Characterization of Hybrid Ferroelectric/HTS Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the discovery of High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, a diversity of HTS-based microwave components has been demonstrated. Because of their low conductor losses, HTS-based components are very attractive for integration into microwave circuits for space communication systems. Recent advancements have made deposition of ferroelectric thin films onto HTS thin films possible. Due to the sensitivity of the ferroelectric's dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) to an externally applied electric field (E), ferroelectric/superconducting structures could be used in the fabrication of low loss, tunable microwave components. In this paper, we report on our study of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) and Ba(0.08)Sr(0.92)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) ferroelectric/superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. For the (Ba:Sr, 0.50:0.50) epitaxial sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 425 and a loss tangent (tan delta) of 0.040 were measured at 298 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. For the same sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 360 and tan delta of 0.036 were obtained at 77 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. Variations in epsilon(sub r) from 180 to 360 were observed over an applied E range of 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5.62 x 10(exp 4) V/cm with little change in tan delta. However, the range of epsilon(sub r) variation for the polycrystalline (Ba:Sr, 0.08:0.92) sample over 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 4.00 x 10(exp 4) V/cm was only 3.6 percent while tan delta increased markedly. These results indicate that a lack of epitaxy between the ferroelectric and superconducting layers decreases tuning and increases microwave losses.

Winters, M. D.; Mueller, C. H.; Bhasin, K. B.; Miranda, F. A.

1996-01-01

413

Restraint hypothermia in cold-exposed rats at 3 G and 1 G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between heat loss, heat production, and hypothermia was investigated in experiments with rats which determined if hypergravity affects heat production by altering oxygen consumption and if restraint modifies the ability of the rats to activate thermogenic mechanisms after cold exposure in a hypergravic field. Restrained and unrestrained rats were exposed for 1 hr periods to 1 G and 3 G at ambient temperatures of 24 C or 10 C, and the rate of oxygen consumption, the core temperatures, and the tail temperatures were measured. Results show that thermoregulatory mechanisms are impaired when rats are exposed to 3 G fields, and at 24 C as well as at 10 C this impairment leads to an inappropriate increase in heat loss.

Monson, C. B.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

1982-01-01

414

Synthesis and Characterization of Five New F-bearing Basalt Reference Materials (Fba Glasses): Quantifying the Fluorine Content of the Basaltic Glass Standards BCR-2G, BHVO-2G. GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, ML3B-G, KL2-G, and ALV-519-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts have been detected in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace to minor F with high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, F contents of low-silica, basaltic glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories are not well known. In this study, we synthesized five basalt glasses doped with variable amounts of fluorine (Fba glasses) to serve as new glass standards for the analysis of F in low-silica, iron-rich geological materials, and we used the new Fba glasses to determine the F content of nine commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic composition. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2 to create five glasses with the following F content (wt.% ± 1?): Fba-1 (0.13 ± 0.05); Fba-2 (0.53 ± 0.11); Fba-3 (0.87 ± 0.10); Fba-4 (1.41 ± 0.11); Fba-5 (2.24 ± 0.12). The mixtures were heated in a 1 atm furnace to 1470 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). EPMA used Biotite-3 (Bt-3: 3.3 wt.% F) and synthetic fluorphlogopite (F-phlog: 9.02 wt.% F) as F calibration standards. Wavelength scans of the F K? line on Bt-3 and F-phlog showed asymmetric peaks, necessitating the use of peak-integration analysis of the K? signal. EPMA was conducted on a Cameca SX100 with a 15 ?m diameter defocused electron beam, 15 kV accelerating voltage, 20 nA primary current, TAP crystal for detecting F K? X-rays, and five iterations in peak-integration mode. Results showed < 6% difference in the F content of the Fba glasses between the Bt-3 and F-phlog standards, implying the peak-integration method is standard-independent. SIMS analysis was conducted on a Cameca ims 6f with a primary beam of 16O-, detection of low-energy negative secondary ions (-5 kV), and a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Homogeneity of the Fba glasses was established by both SIMS and EPMA. Glasses labeled Fba-2, -3. -4, and -5 pass statistical tests for homogeneity and may be used as EPMA or SIMS standards. SIMS calibration curves were constructed using the Fba glasses and other F standards of varying silica, iron, and sodium content, including Bt-3, F-phlog, NIST 610, KE-12, and UTR-2. The calibration curves revealed large matrix effects for the analysis of F by SIMS (~ 50%) between an Fba:Bt-3 curve and a high-silica glass:F-phlog curve. The Fba:Bt-3 calibration curve was used to determine the F contents (ppm ± 1 ?) of the following nine commonly used basaltic glass standards: BCR-2G (321 ± 15), BHVO-2G (297 ± 14), GSA-1G (7 ± 0.1), GSC-1G (9 ± 0.5), GSD-1G (18 ± 1), GSE-1G (154 ± 7), ML3B-G (47 ± 2), KL2-G (82 ± 4), ALV-519-4 (76 ± 4).

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2011-12-01

415

Free-Vibration Characteristics of a Large Split-Blanket Solar Array in a 1-G Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods for studying the free vibration characteristics of a large split blanket solar array in both a 0-g and a 1-g cantilevered configuration are presented. The 0-g configuration corresponds to an in-orbit configuration of the array; the 1-g configu...

F. J. Shaker

1976-01-01

416

Laser excitation of O 2(b 1? g+, ?' = 0, 1, 2) - rates and channels of energy transfer and quenching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular oxygen was selectively excited to vibrational levels ?' =0, 1 and 2 of the b 1? g+ state by pulsed dye laser absorption in the (0,0), (1,0) and (2,0) bands of the b 1? g+ ? X 3? g- system in the near-infrared region. Time-resolved fluorescence was observed in the ??=0 and -1 sequences of the b?X system near ? = 760 and 860 nm and in the (0,0) band of the a?X system at ? = 1270 nm. Lower limits have been deduced for the rate constants of vibrational relaxation in the b 1? g+ state and for electronic-to-electronic energy exchange of the b 1? g+ state energy between 16O 2 and 18O 2 isotopes. Rate constants for quenching of O 2 (b 1? g+, ?'=0) were remeasured for H 2, D 2, N 2, CO 2, and CH 4. From studies of the a?X emission intensity as a function of added gas pressure it was concluded that, with most gases, the b 1? g+ state is quenched to the a 1? g state with yields of ? 90%. Measurements of the decay of the a?X band as a function of time at different O 2 pressures yielded a rate constant for self-quenching of the a 1? g state by O 2 of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10 -18 cm 3 s -1.

Wildt, J.; Bednarek, G.; Fink, E. H.; Wayne, R. P.

1988-06-01

417

Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.  

PubMed

Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond. PMID:11395707

Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

2001-06-01

418

Quantitative assessment of tension in wires of fine-wire external fixators.  

PubMed

Fine-wire fixators are widely used in fracture management. Stable fixation requires the wires maintaining tension throughout the treatment. Clinical experience indicates that wire site complications relate to wire tension. However, there lacks a method to assess wire tension quantitatively in the clinic. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative assessment method for in situ wire tension and to investigate the factors that influence the assessment. An apparatus was developed based on a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) displacement transducer that measured the deflection of the testing wire with respect to a parallel reference wire when a constant transverse force of 30N was applied to the testing wire. The wire deflection measured was correlated with the wire tension measured by the force transducer. The experiment was performed under different conditions to assess the effect of bone-clamp distance, reference wire tension, number of wires, and fracture stiffness. The results showed that there was a significant and negative correlation between wire tension and deflection and the bone-clamp distance was the most important factor that affected the wire tension-deflection relationship. The assessment method makes it possible to investigate the relationship between wire tension and wire site complications in the clinic. PMID:15604006

Dong, Yin; Saleh, Micheal; Yang, Lang

2005-01-01

419

Microplasmas: physics and application to the production of singlet oxygen O2(a^1?g)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplasmas refer to electric discharges created in very small geometries able to operate in DC mode at high pressure without glow to arc transition. The recent and considerable interest in microplasmas is due to their unique properties in term of discharge stability and power loading. A microplasma configuration which has proven to be stable at atmospheric pressure and up to a power density of some 100 kW/cm3 is the Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) developed by Schoenbach and coworkers. MHCDs are created by applying a voltage between two closely spaced hollow electrodes separated by a dielectric layer. The thickness of the dielectric and the diameter of the hole are both on the order of some 100's microns. These MHCDs can be used as plasma cathodes for generating a diffuse discharge between the MHCD cathode and a third positively-biased electrode placed some distance away. This is the so-called Micro Cathode Sustained Discharge (MCSD) configuration, which can be operated as a non self-sustained discharge. In that mode, the MCSD appears as a unique tool for producing, at high pressure, large fluxes of O2(a^1?g) metastable states which cannot be efficiently produced in classical self-sustained discharges. Based on experimental works performed by our group and on modeling studies done by Pitchford and coworkers at Toulouse University, this paper summarizes the properties of the plasmas generated by the MHCD and the MCSD, with an emphasis on the new fascinating opportunities for the production of O2(a^1?g) metastable states by electrical discharges in high pressure rare gas-oxygen mixtures.

Puech, V.

2008-04-01

420

Effect of proton irradiation on the critical current and critical temperature of Bi-2212 wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS superconductors are being investigated for potential applications in particle accelerators in high field magnets operating at 4 K. When such magnets are also in a highradiation environment, the effects of radiation on the superconductor need to be evaluated. In this paper we report on the performance of Bi-2212 superconductor irradiated with highenergy protons. 7 cm long samples of 0.8 mm diameter wire were irradiated at room temperatures in the BLIP facility at BNL to five fluence levels, covering the range from 1016 to 4×1017 protons/cm2. The beam parameters for the irradiations were 42 ?A and 142 MeV. After irradiation the critical current at 4.2 K was measured in fields of 0 to 8 T to quantify the effects of high-dose proton-induced radiation damage on the performance of the conductor. Wires typically had a pre-irradiation current of about 480-500 A at 0 T and 210-220 A at 5 T. The critical current is observed to be relatively unchanged for proton fluence up to 1017 protons/cm2, and decreases linearly past that threshold. The zero field critical temperature measured resistively, decreases linearly with proton fluence. Details of these measurements are presented.

Ghosh, Arup; Greene, George A.

2012-06-01

421

Serine phosphorylation of Fc?RI cytoplasmic domain directs lipid raft localization and interaction with protein 4.1G  

PubMed Central

The high-affinity IgG receptor (CD64, Fc?RI) has several special capacities, including the receptor-stimulated cleavage of the cell surface B cell-activating factor of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF13B). With the use of the yeast two-hybrid system, we and others have shown that Fc?RI interacts with protein 4.1G (EPB41L2). Our mutational analyses identified two required 4.1G-interacting regions in the Fc?RI CY and one Fc?RI-interacting site in the C-terminus of protein 4.1G. Herein, we explore mechanism(s) that may regulate the interaction between protein 4.1G and Fc?RI CY and influence Fc?RI membrane mobility and function. We show that Fc?RI CY interacts with protein 4.1G in vitro and that Fc?RI coimmunoprecipitates protein 4.1G in freshly isolated human PBMC. With the use of immunostaining, we show that Fc?RI colocalizes with protein 4.1G in unstimulated U937 cells, in which the Fc?RI CY is constitutively serine-phosphorylated, but significant uncoupling occurs following Fc?RI cross-linking, suggesting phosphoserine-regulated interaction. In vitro, protein 4.1G interacted preferentially with CK2-phosphorylated Fc?RI CY, and compared with WT Fc?RI, a nonphosphorylatable Fc?RI mutant receptor was excluded from lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for protein 4.1G in targeting phosphorylated Fc?RI to rafts. These data are consistent with a phosphoserine-dependent tethering role for protein 4.1G in maintaining Fc?RI in lipid rafts and provide insight into the unique phosphoserine-based regulation of receptor signaling by Fc?RI CY.

Gibson, Andrew W.; Li, Xinrui; Wu, Jianming; Baskin, Julie G.; Raman, Chander; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.

2012-01-01

422

New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

Slenski, George

1994-09-01

423

New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

Slenski, George

1994-01-01

424

Wire mesh isolator protects sensitive electronic components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitive electronic components are enclosed in wire mesh for protection. The wire mesh isolates the component from shock and vibration. It acts as a heat sink and as a screen against RF interference.

Kerley, J. J., Jr.

1965-01-01

425

Printed Wiring Assembly and Interconnection Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents reliability prediction models for printed wiring assemblies, solderless wrap assemblies, wrapped and soldered assemblies, and discrete wiring assemblies w/electroless deposited PTH for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-217. Collected field failur...

D. W. Coit

1981-01-01

426

Ultrasonic Aluminum Wire Bonding. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aluminum wire bonding process was developed. Techniques were developed for bonding large diameter wire to a power transistor and evaporated gold. Bond schedules were made to be used in producing hybrid microcircuits. Calibration techniques utilizing an...

J. R. Sim

1980-01-01

427

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2013-07-01

428

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2013-07-01

429

Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

1975-01-01

430

Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

Bich, George J. (Penn Hills, PA); Gupta, Tapan K. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

431

Failure mechanisms in wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable attrition of wire rope in service is discussed with an overview of the consequences in terms of inspection and replacement criteria. Details are presented of specific degradation mechanisms observed in three different applications: a mine hoist rope operating on a drum winder, a mooring rope for an offshore structure and a spin-resistant single-fall offshore crane rope. In each

C. R. Chaplin

1995-01-01

432

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

433

Wire line soil sampler apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-line coring apparatus is described. The apparatus has a head assembly having a latch body with extendable latches for engaging the latch seat of a drill stem. A latch release member extends into the latch body to retract the latches. A fitting is mounted by the latch body. A locking ring axially movable on the fitting a limited amount

J. R. Cooper; W. W. Svendsen

1975-01-01

434

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

435

Breakdown testing of wiring insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric strength of potential wiring insulation, recommended by NASA Lewis Research Center to replace existing M81381 (polyimide), was evaluated at high temperature. Results, given in view-graph format, show that their is no dependence of breakdown strength on temperature for the constructions tested and that their was little effect of frequency on the breakdown characteristics.

Laghari, Javaid R.

1994-01-01

436

Light rail systems without wires?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 110 years, the use of overhead wires to power streetcars and more recently their successors, light rail vehicles, has been considered unsightly and undesirable by politicians and the general public alike. At the turn of the century many cities passed ordinances against them and many alternative power feed concepts were attempted, the most successful being the slot or

J. D. Swanson

2003-01-01

437

Flexible substrate for printed wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

1982-01-01

438

REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

439

Health care's 100 most wired.  

PubMed

They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

Solovy, A; Serb, C

1999-02-01

440

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

441

Troubleshooting plated-wire memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Faults in plated wire memories are identified and located from outside of system by applying electrical impulses and analyzing their reflectance in technique of Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Intermittent faults are easier to find because memory system is not disturbed by probing or disassembly.

Baker, C. M.; Bright, T. M.; Constable, R. C.

1979-01-01

442

Method of Producing Fine Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invention consists of a method of obtaining thin wire, for Ex., of the diameter of 0.001 mm, by drawing a bimetallic billet with subsequent scouring of the outer surface which is distinguished by the fact that for the purpose of getting a constant section...

L. A. Lysenko N. S. Agushevich

1964-01-01

443

Shape-Memory Wires Switch Rotary Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermomechanical rotary actuator based on shape-memory property of alloy composed of equal parts of titanium and nickel. If alloy stretched while below transition temperature, it reverts to original length when heated above transition temperature. Two capstans on same shaft wrapped with shape-memory wires. As one wire heated, it contracts and stretches opposite wire. Wires heated in alternation so they switch shaft between two extreme angular positions; "on" and "off" positions of rotary valve.

Brudnicki, Myron J.

1992-01-01

444

Force on a Current Carrying Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple set up consisting of a current carrying wire and a magnet to explore the forces which enable biomedical imaging. In doing so, students run a current through a wire and then hold magnets in various positions to establish and explore the magnetic force acting on the wire. They move the magnets and change the current in the wire to explore how the force changes.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

445

Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

2013-08-01

446

Microglia and motor neurons during disease progression in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: changes in arginase1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase  

PubMed Central

Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor system. Although the etiology of the disease is not fully understood, microglial activation and neuroinflammation are thought to play a role in disease progression. Methods We examined the immunohistochemical expression of two markers of microglial phenotype, the arginine-metabolizing enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase1 (Arg1), in the spinal cord of a mouse model carrying an ALS-linked mutant human superoxide dismutase transgene (SOD1G93A) and in non-transgenic wild-type (WT) mice. Immunolabeling for iNOS and Arg1 was evaluated throughout disease progression (6 to 25 weeks), and correlated with body weight, stride pattern, wire hang duration and ubiquitin pathology. For microglia and motor neuron counts at each time point, SOD1G93A and WT animals were compared using an independent samples t-test. A Welch t-test correction was applied if Levene’s test showed that the variance in WT and SOD1G93A measurements was substantially different. Results Disease onset, measured as the earliest change in functional parameters compared to non-transgenic WT mice, occurred at 14 weeks of age in SOD1G93A mice. The ventral horn of the SOD1G93A spinal cord contained more microglia than WT from 14 weeks onwards. In SOD1G93A mice, Arg1-positive and iNOS-positive microglia increased 18-fold and 7-fold, respectively, between 10 and 25 weeks of age (endpoint) in the lumbar spinal cord, while no increase was observed in WT mice. An increasing trend of Arg1- and iNOS-expressing microglia was observed in the cervical spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Additionally, Arg1-negative motor neurons appeared to selectively decline in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A mice, suggesting that Arg1 may have a neuroprotective function. Conclusions This study suggests that the increase in spinal cord microglia occurs around and after disease onset and is preceded by cellular pathology. The results show that Arg1 and iNOS, thought to have opposing inflammatory properties, are upregulated in microglia during disease progression and that Arg1 in motor neurons may confer protection from disease processes. Further understanding of the neuroinflammatory response, and the Arg1/iNOS balance in motor neurons, may provide suitable therapeutic targets for ALS.

2014-01-01

447

Study of Holding Power of Wire Rope Clips in a Wire Rope Loop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of tests performed on 3/8, 1/2, and 5/8 inch independent wire rope core (IWRC) wire rope, and 3/8, 1/2, and 5/8 inch fiber core wire rope. The test samples consisted of end-over-end wire rope loops held together with vario...

E. Jackson D. Skoneczka

1978-01-01

448

Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire

J. J. Diao; Qing Cao

2011-01-01

449

Rupture failure and mechanical strength of the electrode wire used in wire EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the application of wire EDM, wire rupture is very troublesome and impedes further increase of cutting speed. Instead of the spark characteristics or the temperature distribution, the rupture mechanism and the mechanical strength of the wire are the focus of this investigation. Wire rupture is a mechanical failure in essence, although the process heat has significant influence on the

Y. F. Luo

1999-01-01

450

Wire bonding of Cu and Pd coated Cu wire: Bondability, reliability, and IMC formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire bonding with bare Cu and Pd coated Cu (PdCu) wire have been adopted quickly as a mainstream packaging technology for high pin count and fine pitch devices. The differences between Au and Cu wire bonding are well understood as a result of extensive research. However, the differences between Cu and PdCu wire have not been investigated in as much

Ivy Qin; Hui Xu; Horst Clauberg; Ray Cathcart; Viola L. Acoff; Bob Chylak; Cuong Huynh

2011-01-01

451

Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

James, David Randy [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL

2009-01-01

452

The electric characteristics of HTS double-pancake coil with AC pulse over currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double pancake coil was designed and manufactured with a 36-m long Bi-2223/Ag tape. The tape was insulated by 25 ?m thick Kapton tapes, which can stand a voltage of 400 Vrms in liquid nitrogen. The whole double pancake was impregnated with epoxy resin. AC over-current experiments of the coil were performed by applying constant AC voltages to the two terminals of the coil and lasted for 3 s. The experiment began first at a lower voltage of 33.6 Vrms, and then the voltage stepped up till the coil was burned out at the pulse voltage of 202.7 Vrms. All of the experiments were carried out with the coil dipped in liquid nitrogen. The current waveforms were measured. The impedance and resistance characters of the HTS coil with its over pulse currents were analyzed from the experiment results. At the end of this paper, some conclusions derived from the experiment results and their analyses are given, which are helpful for the safety operating of the HTS coils in power applications.

Zhang, Jingye; Dai, Shaotao; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Zikai; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhang, Fengyuan; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

2012-01-01

453

Microwave characteristics of interconnects for 4 GHz-band HTS power devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applications of high- Tc superconducting HTS filters with microstrip line structure to microwave power devices in linear operations, it is important not only to achieve handling power sufficient for the devices not to break down, but also to decrease the intermodulation distortion (IMD) as much as possible. One of main causes of the IMD is the pattern of the HTS resonators. Other factors we have considered as a cause of IMD are I/O interconnects and thermal conditions inside a filter package. To clarify these influences, we fabricated and examined the model devices that consisted of a YBCO microstrip disk resonator chip with TM 11 resonant mode, the I/O interconnects with metal electrodes, and packages with and without the introduction of He gas. As the results of the third-order IMD (IMD3) examinations of the model devices for 4 GHz band, it is confirmed that the IMD can be reduced by improving the I/O interconnects and the gas atmosphere inside the power-filter package.

Yamanaka, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Akasegawa, A.

2007-10-01

454

Design and fabrication of 5 GHz band pass filter using circle-type HTS bulk resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and fabricated a transmit band pass filter (BPF) using circle-type high temperature superconductor (HTS) bulk resonators. A Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk was fabricated using a modified quench and melt growth (QMG) process and cut into specimens of 8.40 and 8.44 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick for use as the HTS bulk resonators. A three-pole stripline (SL) BPF was designed based on a Chebyshev function and the frequency response and electromagnetic field of the filter were simulated using a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator. From the results of the simulation, the center frequency, bandwidth, insertion loss, and ripple of the designed filter were 4.97 GHz, 100 MHz, 0.03 dB, and 0.048 dB, respectively. In the experimental results on the actual fabricated filter, the filtering response was clearly observed; however, the center frequency of 5.46 GHz was higher than that of the simulation. The simulated maximum surface current in the resonators of the SL filter was approximately 86% smaller than that of a conventional hairpin filter. Furthermore, the measured response of the Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk filter at an input power of 20 dBm was almost the same as that at 0 dBm. These results mean that an SL filter using a Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk resonator may be practicable as a high-power transmit BPF.

Saito, A.; Teshima, H.; Ono, S.; Hirano, H.; Hirano, S.; Ohshima, S.

2007-10-01

455

Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

2014-05-01