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Sample records for 1g hts wire

  1. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  2. Customised 2G HTS wire for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilenkov, S.; Molodyk, A.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.; Martynova, I.; Makarevich, A.; Markelov, A.; Moyzykh, M.; Blednov, A.

    2016-02-01

    Reproducibility of superconducting properties and suitability for specific applications by means of customised finish are two important attributes required from commercial 2G HTS wire. This paper reviews the consistent performance of SuperOx production 2G HTS wire and describes two novel customisation options: surround polyimide varnish insulation and composite bulk materials assembled with 2G HTS wires soldered together.

  3. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  4. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  5. Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Huang, Y.; Siegal, E.; Buczek, D.; Carter, W.; Nguyen, N.; Schreiber, J.; Prasova, M.; Lynch, J.; Tucker, D.; Fleshler, S.

    2007-10-01

    American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC's manufacturing approach is based on RABiTSTM/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template. In this paper, we review the status of the 2G manufacturing scale up at AMSC and describe the properties and architecture of the 2G wire being manufactured and developed for various applications.

  6. HTS wire irradiation test with 8 GeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    S. Feher; H. Glass; Y. Huang; P.J. Limon; D.F. Orris; P. Schlabach; M.A. Tartaglia; J.C. Tompkins

    1999-11-02

    The radiation level at High Energy Particle Accelerators (HEPA) is relatively high. Any active component which should be close to the accelerator has to be radiation hard. Since High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) have a great potential to be used in HEPAs (e.g., in superconducting magnets, current leads, RF cavities), it is important to understand the radiation hardness of these materials. A radiation test of HTS wire (Bi-2223) was performed at Fermilab. The HTS sample was irradiated with 8 GeV protons and the relative I{sub c} was measured during the irradiation. The total radiation dose was 10 Mrad, and no I{sub c} degradation was observed.

  7. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  8. A study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for HTS wind power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Minwon; Go, Byeong-Soo; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-05-01

    YBCO or REBCO coated conductor (2G) materials are developed for their superior performance at high magnetic field and temperature. Power system applications based on high temperature superconducting (HTS) 2G wire technology are attracting attention, including large-scale wind power generators. In particular, to solve problems associated with the foundations and mechanical structure of offshore wind turbines, due to the large diameter and heavy weight of the generator, an HTS generator is suggested as one of the key technologies. Many researchers have tried to develop feasible large-scale HTS wind power generator technologies. In this paper, a study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for large-scale wind power generators is discussed. A 12 MW class large-scale wind turbine and an HTS generator are designed using 2G HTS wire. The total length of the 2G HTS wire for the 12 MW HTS generator is estimated, and the essential prerequisites of the 2G HTS wire based generator are described. The magnetic field distributions of a pole module are illustrated, and the mechanical stress and strain of the pole module are analysed. Finally, a reasonable price for 2G HTS wire for commercialization of the HTS generator is suggested, reflecting the results of electromagnetic and mechanical analyses of the generator.

  9. Thermal conductivity of 2G HTS wires for current lead applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, C.; Strickland, N.; Pooke, D.; Gannon, J.; Carter, B.; Otto, A.

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the thermal conductivity of several 2G HTS coated conductor wires produced by AMSC's RABiTSTM/MOD processes. The measurements employed a non-steady state method in which the sample is connected to a cold head on one end and a copper block on the other end. The heat capacity of the copper block is used to determine heat flow through the sample as the cold head slowly warms up. Measurements were done at temperatures ranging from 10 K to 130 K on 2G wires made with a Ni 5at%W substrate and different lamination architectures. The focus of the investigation was on the effects of lamina material type, thickness of the silver layer and alloyed silver. The data show that 2G wires can be 3 times less thermally conductive when compared to 1G BSCCO wires with a Ag-Au matrix, making them excellent candidates for use in current lead applications.

  10. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  11. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  12. Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

    2010-04-01

    High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

  13. MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Fabricate Low-Cost Second Generation HTS Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Bhuiyan, Md S; Martin, Patrick M; Aytug, Tolga; Kim, Kyunghoon; Fayek, Mostafa; Leonard, Keith J; Li, Jing; Zhang, W.; Rupich, Marty

    2007-01-01

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) of buffer layers on RABiTS substrates is considered a potential, low-cost approach to manufacturing high performance Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The typical architecture used by American Superconductor in their 2G HTS wire consists of a Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a reactively sputtered Y2O3 seed layer, YSZ barrier layer and a CeO2 cap layer. This architecture supports critical currents of over 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) with 0.8 mum YBCO films deposited by the TFA-MOD process. The main challenge in the development of the MOD buffers is to match or exceed the performance of the standard vacuum deposited buffer architecture. We have recently shown that the texture and properties of MOD - La2Zr2Ogamma (LZO) barrier layers can be improved by inserting a thin sputtered Y2O3 seed layer and prepared MOD deposited LZO layers followed by MOD or RF sputtered CeO2 cap layers that support MOD-YBCO films with Ic's of 200 and 255 A/cm-width, respectively. Detailed X-ray and microstructural characterizations indicated that MOD - CeO2 cap reacted completely with MOD YBCO to form BaCeOs. However, sputtered CeO2 cap/MOD YBCO interface remains clean. By further optimizing the coating conditions and reducing the heat-treatment temperatures, we have demonstrated an Ic of 336 A/cm with improved LZO layers and sputtered CeO2 cap and exceeded the performance of that of standard vacuum deposited buffers.

  14. V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.

    2003-05-25

    For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

  15. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  16. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  17. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-06-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  18. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

    2010-11-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  19. Magnetic field and field orientation dependence of the critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires and other HTS conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.O.; Holesinger, T.G.; Coulter, J.Y.; Maley, M.P.

    1996-10-01

    The authors have performed measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c} of Bi-2212/Ag round wire produced by isothermal melt processing. In contrast to the case for flat tape, there is very little dependence of J{sub c} on the direction of the magnetic field as it is rotated normal to the wire axis, which is the direction of the nominal current flow. However, when the angle of the magnetic field direction is rotated from normal to the wire axis to parallel to that axis, J{sub c} at 64 K and 0.2 T increases by more than a factor of four. Again, this is in contrast to the results observed for Bi-2212/Ag and Bi-2223/Ag flat tapes, which show no anisotropy under similar experimental conditions. They can explain these differences in angular anisotropy by referring to the microstructure of these two conductor types, which have distinctly different types of grain alignment. They discuss the general behavior of the dependence of J{sub c} on the orientation of a magnetic field for high temperature superconductors.

  20. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  1. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  2. Development of a brushless HTS exciter for a 10 kW HTS synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Min; Jiang, Zhenan; Pantoja, Andres E.; Bernardo, Patrick; Park, Minwon; Buckley, Robert G.

    2016-02-01

    HTS synchronous generators, in which the rotor coils are wound from high-T c superconducting wire, are exciting attention due to their potential to deliver very high torque and power densities. However, injection of the large DC currents required by the HTS rotor coils presents a technical challenge. In this paper we discuss the development of a brushless HTS exciter which operates across the cryostat wall to inject a superconducting DC current into the rotor coil circuit. This approach fundamentally alters the thermal load upon the cryogenic system by removing the need for thermally inefficient normal-conducting current leads. We report results from an experimental laboratory device and show that it operates as a constant voltage source with an effective internal resistance. We then discuss the design of a prototype HTS-PM exciter based on our experimental device, and describe its integration with a demonstration HTS generator. This 200 RPM, 10 kW synchronous generator comprises eight double pancake HTS rotor coils which are operated at 30 K, and are energised to 1.5 T field through the injection of 85 A per pole. We show how this excitation can be achieved using an HTS-PM exciter consisting of 12 stator poles of 12 mm YBCO coated-conductor wire and an external permanent magnet rotor. We demonstrate that such an exciter can excite the rotor windings of this generator without forming a thermal-bridge across the cryostat wall. Finally, we provide estimates of the thermal load imposed by our prototype HTS-PM exciter on the rotor cryostat. We show that duty cycle operation of the device ensures that this heat load can be minimised, and that it is substantially lower than that of equivalently-rated conventional current leads.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Rupich, M.

    2012-10-23

    Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

  4. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  5. Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ˜200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-Φ) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  6. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  7. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  8. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and spacebased systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment 2 (HTSSE-2). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  9. HTS Thin Films: Passive Microwave Components and Systems Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems, improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper, we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  10. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Ellis, Alvin R; Gouge, Michael J; James, David Randy; Tuncer, Enis

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  11. Influence of Proton Irradiation on Angular Dependence of Second Generation (2G)HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Greene, G.; Gupta, R.; Sampson, W.

    2011-05-01

    In the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) the quadrupoles in the fragment separator are exposed to very high radiation and heat loads. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are a good candidate for these magnets because they can be used at {approx}30-50 K and tolerate higher heat generation than Nb-Ti magnets. Radiation damage studies of HTS wires are crucial to ensure that they will survive in a high radiation environment. HTS wires from two vendors were studied. Samples of 2G HTS wires from SuperPower and American Superconductor (ASC) were irradiated with a 42 {mu}A, 142 MeV proton beam from the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The angular dependence of the critical current was measured in magnetic fields at 77K.

  12. Tunable HTS Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancusi, Joseph E.; Roberson, Mark

    2002-06-01

    The tunable HTS program goals are to develop a process, method, or device to tune high-temperature superconductor (HTS) resonant circuits. The process for tuning should preserve the low-loss nature of the s preconducting resonant circuits and be compatible with the operating environment of packaged HTS RF circuitry. Although we were originally developing three technologies to perform this tuning, we have down selected to the two that offer the greatest potential for high 0 operation, the half-HTS MEMS variable capacitor and the continuously variable inductor. The target application is for this technology is SIGINT applications in the 400 MHz to 3000 MHz frequency band, with potential applications in areas from 20 MHz to 20 GHz. We reached a significant milestone with the demonstration of the continuously variable inductors. In this demonstration we achieved a 23% tuning range, with better than 1 pan in 10,000 resettability, and a 0 of over 1.0,000. These are significant achievements in the area of tunable filters.

  13. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  14. Loss characteristic analysis of high capacity HTS DC power cable considering harmonic current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K. D.; Cho, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables offer an innovative transmission line that differs from conventional technologies because HTS power cables can send bulk power with extremely low loss. This paper investigates the loss characteristic of HTS DC power cable considering harmonic current caused by power electronic devices in practical power systems. We focused on the losses of HTS DC power cables and designed a model cable using YBa 2Cu 3O 7 HTS wire. The losses under DC current with harmonic components at 77 K are measured. The lower DC transport current yields more losses with the same ripple current in the unsaturated region. If DC transport current is increased within the critical current, the high frequency ripple current will have less influence on the loss. It was clearly monitored that the losses are proportional to the magnitude of the ripple current and the frequency in this study.

  15. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  16. HTS power lead test results

    SciTech Connect

    G. Citver, S. Feher, P.J. Limon D. Orris, T. Peterson, C. Sylvester, M.A. Tartaglia and J.C. Tompkins

    1999-11-02

    R&D High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power leads were developed and built for Fermilab by American Superconductor Corporation and Intermagnetics General Corporation. Each company provided one pair of 5kA HTS current leads, and these have been successfully tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the test results.

  17. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  18. An HTS Machine Laboratory Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovic, N.; Jensen, B. B.; Trholta, C.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Zermeno, V. M. R.; Pedersen, N. F.

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which is in this design integral part of the cryostat. The discussion of the requirements for the TTE supported with a simple case study comparing a shaft and a cylinder as candidates for TTE are presented. The discussion resulted with a cylinder as a TTE design rated for a 250Nm and with more then 10 times lower heat conduction compared to a shaft. The HTS machine was successfully cooled to 77K and tests have been performed. The IV curves of the HTS field winding employing 6 HTS coils indicate that two of the coils had been damaged. The maximal value of the torque during experiments of 78Nm was recorded. Loaded with 33%, the TTE performed well and showed suffcient margin for future experiments.

  19. Design research on the conductor of 10 kA class HTS DC power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Dai, Shaotao; Zhang, Fengyuan; Huang, Tianbin; Wang, Yinshun; Lin, Yubao; Teng, Yuping; Zhang, Guomin; Xiao, Liye; Lin, Liangzhen

    2012-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable shows a wide application prospect in the field of power transmission for its nearly lossless and rather high capacity. A 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable system, which connects the rectifier output of a substation with the bus bar of an electrolytic aluminium cell, will be put into operation at Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. As one of the items in this project, a 5 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable was developed, which is used to investigate the conductor design, fabrication, current-carrying capacity and stability of the 360 m/10 kA HTS power cable. The HTS DC power cable core consists of five conductor layers wound with spliced Bi-2223 wires with the length of 600 m. The cable core has five layers and 23 conductors in each layer with the outer diameter of 45.42 mm. The superconducting power cable is fabricated and tested. The critical current is about 14.3 kA at 77 K. The superconducting power cable is charged to 10 kA with rate of 10 A/s and operates at steady-state for 30 min. In this paper, the 10 kA HTS DC power cable design, fabrication and test are presented. The experimental research of the performance of spliced superconducting wire and charging, steady-state operating performance of the cable was carried out.

  20. Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Hassenzahl, William V

    2011-01-01

    Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

  1. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  2. Development of the Current Bypassing Methods into the Transverse Direction in Non-insulation HTS Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, S. B.; Ikoma, H.; Kanemoto, D.

    In the case of motors and generators, the benefits of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils can be represented by the reduction of 50% in both losses and sizes compared to conventional machines. However, it is hard to establish quench detection and protection devices for the HTS coils applied to the rotors of motors and generators. So, the stability of the coils is lower than for the quiescent coils applied to NMR, MRI and so on. Therefore, it is important to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the layer-to-layer insulation and inserting metal tape instead of the electrical insulation. The operating current in the non-insulated HTS coil was bypassed into the transverse direction by the generated normal region because of their electrical contact among the winding. In this study, we examined the method to control the current bypassing on layer-to-layer for controlling the inductance of the non-insulated HTS coil. The current bypassing properties on non-insulated HTS coil wound with 2G wires will be discussed.

  3. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, E.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-01

    Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  4. Large Scale Applications of HTS in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimbush, Stuart C.

    New Zealand has one of the longest-running and most consistently funded (relative to GDP) programmes in high temperature superconductor (HTS) development and application worldwide. As a consequence, it has a sustained breadth of involvement in HTS technology development stretching from the materials discovery right through to burgeoning commercial exploitation. This review paper outlines the present large scale projects of the research team at the newly-established Robinson Research Institute of Victoria University of Wellington. These include the construction and grid-based testing of a three-phase 1 MVA 2G HTS distribution transformer utilizing Roebel cable for its high-current secondary windings and the development of a cryogen-free conduction-cooled 1.5 T YBCO-based human extremity magnetic resonance imaging system. Ongoing activities supporting applications development such as low-temperature full-current characterization of commercial superconducting wires and the implementation of inductive flux-pump technologies for efficient brushless coil excitation in superconducting magnets and rotating machines are also described.

  5. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  6. Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

    2014-05-01

    AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

  7. Wire Weight

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  8. Microwave properties of HTS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, D. W.; Arendt, P. N.; Gray, E. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Bennett, B. L.; Foltyn, S. R.; Estler, R. C.; Wu, X. D.; Reeves, G. A.; Elliott, N. E.

    High-frequency applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) generally fall into two categories: devices that require low values of surface resistance R(sub s) in ambient surface magnetic fields H(sub RF), and devices that require low R(sub s) in modest fields. Moreover, many applications can be realized with small-surface-area films whereas others require larger areas-radiofrequency (RF) cavities, for example. Regardless of the application, the potential of HTS films is predicated on satisfying one or both of the above-stated requirements. We have measured the surface resistance of small-area (1 sq cm) and large-area (6.5 sq) YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films that have been laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates, large-area (5.1 sq cm) YBCO films that have been e-beam deposited onto LaAlO3, and large-area (11.4 sq cm) Tl-based films that have been magnetron sputtered onto metallic substrates. The best R(sub s) values are obtained from the 1 sq cm laser-ablated films; they are 40 and 340 micro-ohm at 4 and 77 K, respectively (omega/2pi = 10 GHz). Comparable values for Cu are 6 and 13 milli-ohm, respectively. Large-area Tl-based films yield typical R(sub s) values of 4 and 14 milli0ohm at 4 and 77 K, respectively (omega/2pi = 18 GHz). The dependence of R(sub s) on H(sub RF) for these films indicates that surface fields as large as 55 Oe can be achieved with R(sub s) increasing only by a factor of 10. This field dependence is associated with c-axis texturing.

  9. Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

  10. Operating characteristics of contactless power transfer for electric vehicle from HTS antenna to normal conducting receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Do; Lee, Chang Young; Jo, Hyun Chul; Park, Young Gun; Yim, Seong Woo

    2014-09-01

    As contactless power transfer (CPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUCPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density and high quality factor Q value, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy and improved efficiency in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a reasonable option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS transmitted antenna coils within 40 cm distance at radio frequency (RF) generator of 60 W, 370 kHz. In addition, we achieved impedance matching conditions for different material coils between HTS and normal conductors.

  11. Hydrogen in Mono-Atomic Gold Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Robert N.; Sherbakov, Andrew G.; Landman, Uzi; Hakkinen, Hannu

    2004-03-01

    Results of ab-initio scalar relativistic density functional calculations of the interaction between a mono-atomic gold wire (suspended between two gold tips) and a hydrogen molecule, at various stages of wire stretching, are presented. The hydrogen molecule does not bind to the wire until the wire is sufficiently stretched, i.e. starting to break, at which time the molecule inserts itself into the wire restoring a fraction of the conductance quantum g. With subsequent compression of the wire the axis of the molecule gradually tips away from the wire axis until it becomes "quasi-dissociated" with the H-H axis perpendicular to the wire. At this point the conductance almost vanishes, while for the bare wire the conductance at this tip-to-tip separation is close to 1g. These results, and the frequency of various vibrational modes of the hydrogen molecule, are compared with recent experimental and theoretical work involving platinum wires.

  12. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  13. Development of Non-destructive Evaluation System Using an HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, J.; Kawauchi, S.; Ishikawa, F.; Tanabe, K.

    We are developing a new eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with the aim of applying it to power plants. Electric power facilities such as ducts and vessels are generally untransportable because of their size, and thus it is difficult to apply a conventional SQUID NDE system. The new NDE system employs an external Cu pickup coil which is supposed to be driven flexibly by a robot arm at room temperature and an HTS-SQUID chip which is placed in a magnetically shielded vessel. In the present research, we investigated the performance of an HTS-SQUID sensor connected with external pickup coils before mounting them to a robot arm. By varying the Cu coil conditions such as their sizes, the number of turns, and the diameter of wire, we qualitatively evaluated the frequency dependence of the effective area and the cutoff frequency.

  14. Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K; Hooker, M W; Lizotte, M J; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor

    2009-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology is rapidly developing for use in the areas of power generation and distribution. While significant progress has been made thus far in developing this technology, further effort is needed to improve the efficiency and cost of dielectric materials for use in these systems. These materials must be compatible with cryogenic operation, exhibit excellent dielectric properties at cryogenic temperatures, and provide a high level of reliability when in service. Moreover, the dielectric materials must be able to be produced into complex forms using cost-effective, industrially scalable processes. To improve upon current fiber-reinforced-polymer composite dielectric materials, the present study investigates the advantages of including nanomaterial reinforcement within the polymer resins. It was found that the nanomaterial additions did not greatly impact the polymer viscosity or increase the cure rate, which enables the nanomaterial-enhanced polymer to be used in fabricating fiber-reinforced composite dielectric materials. The nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials demonstrated greater than 60% higher AC dielectric breakdown strengths and improved consistency of performance compared to the current standard, G10. Similarly, shear and compression strengths of nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials compared well with those of G10.

  15. Stability test of conduction-cooled LTS/HTS composite coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying Min; Wang, Yin Shun; Lv, Gang; Pi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A small LTS/HTS composite coil made of NbTi/Cu and YBCO, with an inner diameter of 80 mm, an outer diameter of 88mm, a height of 50 mm, and an inductance of 5.5 μH, was designed to test its heat disturbance performance in a GM cryocooler. For comparison, a conventional LTS coil of a similar size made of NbTi/Cu wire was also tested. Transport current was applied from 50 A to 700 A at 8 K and 8.5 K, respectively. The two coils’ heat disturbance, minimum quench energy and quench propagation velocity performance were investigated and simulated. The results indicate that the LTS/HTS composite coil shows better thermal stability and is more fit for operation in conductive cryocooler systems compared to LTS coils.

  16. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  17. Experimental study of thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wanqing; Yan, Zhongming; Luo, Wenbo; Zhang, Peixing; Gui, Zhixing; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system were measured the first time and will be presented in this paper. The HTS coil magnet is made of second generation YBCO wire. The coil is a double pancake coil consisting of 34 turns wire. The inner diameter, outer diameter and height of the coil are 20, 30 and 13 mm, respectively. The armature of the motor is three phases, and the inner diameter is 40 mm. It is made of copper windings. With a direct current of 40 A for the HTS coil magnet and a RMS current of 10 A for the armature, a peak thrust of 3.8 N was measured at the temperature of 77 K and a radial gap of 5 mm between the armature and the excitation system. Effects of armature current, coil current, running time, magnetizers and seams between magnetizers were also studied. In the experiments, the peak thrusts of different types of HTS coil magnets were about from 1.3 times to 8 times as strong as the peak thrust of the coreless coil magnet under the same conditions.

  18. R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

  19. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  20. Wire stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economu, M. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An insulation stripper is described which is especially useful for shielded wire, the stripper including a first pair of jaws with blades extending substantially perpendicular to the axis of the wire, and a second pair of jaws with blades extending substantially parallel to the axis of the wire. The first pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the device is turned to form circumferential cuts in the insulation. Then the second pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the wire is moved through the device to form longitudinal cuts that permit easy removal of the insulation. Each of the blades is located within the concave face of a V-block, to center the blades on the wire and to limit the depth of blade penetration.

  1. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  2. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  3. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  4. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  5. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

  6. Cold storage characteristics of mobile HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Ken; Kawano, Asumi; Okamura, Tetsuji

    2011-06-01

    A cold storage system specialized in mobile high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets (e.g. for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles) has been proposed. In this system, a cooling source is detachable and a HTS coil is capable of maintaining superconducting state with its heat capacity. This system allows a considerably lightweight HTS magnet. An apparatus was constructed to evaluate the possibility of using cold storage systems in maglev vehicles. The thermal characteristic of this apparatus was based on a magnet for previous maglev test vehicles [1]. The operational temperature range of the magnet was assumed from 20 K to 50 K. Some experiments indicated that heat conduction by residual gas was not negligible. Especially over 30 K, gas conduction took a large part of heat input. This phenomenon is attributable to reduction of cryopumping effect. However, activated carbon in the apparatus compensates cryopumping effect. A unique heat capacitor was also used to enhance the cold storage effect. Water ice was chosen as a heat capacitor because water ice has a higher heat capacity than metallic materials at cryogenic temperatures. A small amount of water ice also prolonged cryogenic temperature condition. These results indicate 1 day of cold storage is probable in a magnet for maglev vehicles.

  7. Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H.; Goodall, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

  8. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  9. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  10. Thermal analysis for the HTS stator consisting of HTS armature windings and an iron core for a 2.5 kW HTS generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Lai, L.-F.; Wu, M.-S.; Yu, X.-Y.; Han, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Most present demonstrations of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors/generators are partially superconducting, only installing HTS coils on the rotor as excitation windings. The possible applicability of HTS armature windings is an interesting research topic because these windings can certainly increase the power density attributed to a potentially high armature loading capacity. In this study, we analysed the thermal behaviours of a developed 2.5 kW-300 rpm synchronous generator prototype that consists of an HTS stator with Bi-2223-Ag armature windings on an iron core and a permanent magnet (PM) rotor. The entire HTS stator, including the iron core, is cooled with liquid nitrogen through conduction cooling. The rated frequency is set at 10 Hz to reduce AC loss. The properties of the HTS windings and the iron core are characterized, and the temperatures in the HTS stator under different operation conditions are measured. The estimated iron loss is 11.5 W under operation in 10 Hz at liquid nitrogen temperature. Conduction cooling through the silicon iron core is sufficient to cool the iron core and to compensate for the temperature increment caused by iron loss. The stable running capacity is limited to 1.6 kW when the armature current is 12.6 A (effective values) due to the increasing temperature in the slots as a result of the AC loss in the HTS coils. The thermal contact between the HTS coils and the cooling media should be improved in the future to take away the heat generated by AC loss.

  11. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  12. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  13. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Dominguez, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

  14. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  15. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  16. Impact of flux gap upon dynamic resistance of a rotating HTS flux pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Long, Nicholas J.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    HTS flux pumps enable superconducting currents to be directly injected into a magnet coil without the requirement for thermally inefficient current leads. Here, we present results from an experimental mechanically rotating HTS flux pump employing a coated-conductor stator and operated at 77 K. We show the effect of varying the size of the flux gap between the rotor magnets and coated conductor stator from 1 to 7.5 mm. This leads to a corresponding change in the peak applied perpendicular magnetic field at the stator from approximately 350 to 50 mT. We observe that our experimental device ceases to maintain a measurable output at flux gaps above 7.5 mm, which we attribute to the presence of screening currents in the stator wire. We show that our mechanically rotating flux pump is well described by a simple circuit model which enables the output performance to be described using two simple parameters, the open-circuit voltage V oc and the internal resistance, R d. Both of these parameters are found to be directly proportional to magnet-crossing frequency and decrease with increasing flux gap. We show that the trend in R d can be understood by considering the dynamic resistance experienced at the stator due to the oscillating amplitude of the applied rotor field. We adopt a literature model for the dynamic resistance within our coated-conductor stator and show that this gives good agreement with the experimentally measured internal resistance of our flux pump.

  17. HTS coil development and fabrication. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Ranze, R.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this subtask (Task 2C) was to develop high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil technology aimed specifically at superconducting generator applications. Bi-2223 tape produced in a separate subtask (Task 2A) was first wound and tested in a small circular coil. This small coil winding experience led the authors to develop a tape strengthening method using a lamination process and to develop a turn insulation method using a paper wrap process. A prototype racetrack coil was wound using 2500 feet of the laminated and insulated Bi-2223 tapes. The racetrack coil was cooled to 20K in a vacuum dewar using a unique closed-cycle helium gas refrigeration system.

  18. H-formulation for simulating levitation forces acting on HTS bulks and stacks of 2G coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, F.; Sotelo, G. G.; Junior, R. de Andrade; Sirois, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques to model high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are used throughout the world. At the same time, the use of superconductors in transportation and magnetic bearings promises an increase in energy efficiency. However, the most widespread simulation technique in the literature, the H-formulation, has not yet been used to simulate superconducting levitation. The goal of this work is to present solutions for the challenges concerning the use of the H-formulation to predict the behavior of superconducting levitators built either with YBCO bulks or stacks of 2G wires. It is worth mentioning the originality of replacing bulks with HTS stacks in this application. In our simulation methodology, the movement between the HTS and the permanent magnet was avoided by restricting the simulation domain to the HTS itself, which can be done by applying appropriate boundary conditions and analytical expressions for the source field. Commercial finite element software was used for the sake of ease of implementation. Simulation results were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. We conclude that the H-formulation is suitable for problems involving moving objects and is a good alternative to other approaches for simulating superconducting magnetic bearings.

  19. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  20. Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

  1. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  2. Design and Evaluation of Ybco Cable for the Albany Hts Cable Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, T.; Sato, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Albany Cable Project's aim is to develop a 350 meter long HTS cable system with a capacity of 800 A at 34.5 kV, located between two substations in the National Grid Power Company's grid. In-grid use of BSCCO HTS cable began on July 20, 2006, and successful long-term operation proceeded as planned. The cable system consists of two cables, one 320 meters long and the other 30 meters, a cable-to-cable splice in a vault, two terminations, and a cooling system. In Phase-II of the Albany project, this autumn, the 30-meter section will be replaced with YBCO cable. The test manufacturing and evaluation of YBCO cable has been carried out using SuperPower's YBCO wires in order to confirm the credibility of the cable design. No degradation of the critical current was found at any stage of manufacture. The fault-current test, involving a 1-meter sample carrying 23 kA at 38 cycles, was conducted under open-bath conditions. The temperature increases at the conductor and shield were comparable to those of the BSCCO core, and no Ic degradation was found after the fault-current test. After the design suitability was confirmed, a 30-meter YBCO cable was manufactured. The critical current of the conductor and the shield were approximately 2.6 kA and 2.4 kA, respectively, almost the same as the design values, considering the wire's Ic and the effect of the magnetic field. The AC loss of the sample cable was 0.34 W/m/phase at 800 Arms and 60 Hz. Following favorable shipping test results, the YBCO cable was shipped to the United States, and arrived at the site in June 2007.

  3. Performance tests of an HTS power transmission cable splice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Lue, J. W.; Gouge, M. J.; Fisher, P. W.; Stovall, J. P.; Tolbert, J.; Lindsay, D.; Roden, M.; Sinha, U.; Hughey, R. L.

    2002-05-01

    Practical applications of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables require that cable sections be periodically spliced together. An HTS transmission cable splice with a cold dielectric construction rated at 1250-A phase current and 7.5-kV phase-to-ground voltage has been fabricated by Southwire Company and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The splice joins the HTS phase and the neutral conductors as well as the Cryoflex™ dielectric tapes between the HTS conductors. Testing has demonstrated the nominal operating capability of the HTS cable splice and consisted of direct-current characterization and alternating-current high-voltage withstand testing at 18 kV. In addition, overcurrents up to 14 kA for 2 s were applied to the cable splice repeatedly without impacting the performance. The splice generates less than 1 W of heat into the cable at rated current. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility of splicing HTS power transmission cables.

  4. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  5. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  6. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  7. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc transmission.

  8. Effect of the axial stress and the magnetic field on the critical current and the electric resistance of the joints between HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Sarazin, M.; Granados, X.; Y Pastor, J.; Obradors, X.

    2015-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires require a detailed characterization of the possible degradation of their properties by handling at room temperature as well as during their service life, establishing the limits for associated functional devices and systems. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of spliced joints between commercial HTS coated conductors based on YBCO at room (300 K) and service temperatures (77 K). Single lap shear tests were performed and the evolution of the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were measured. The complete strain field for the tape and joints was also obtained by digital image correlation. In addition, tensile tests under an external magnetic field were performed, and the effect of the applied field on the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were studied. Finally, finite element simulations were employed to reproduce the distribution of the stress field developed in the spliced joint samples during axial loading.

  9. The installation and test results for Albany HTS cable project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.; Watanabe, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Itoh, H.; Suzawa, C.; Hirose, M.; Yatsuka, K.; Sato, K.; Isojima, S.

    2007-10-01

    Albany HTS cable project is going on with the support of US Federal and New York States. The HTS cables included the Bi2223 tapes sintered by CT-OP (controlled over-pressure) process has 34.5 kV and 800 A capacity. The cable system was manufactured in Japan, and shipped to Albany. A 320 m cable and a 30 m cable were installed into the conduits under the ground. Subsequently, a splice box was assembled in the vault, and two terminations were connected to the HTS cable on the ground. Cryogenic refrigeration system was also mounted at the site by BOC. Initial cooling process was conducted as measuring distributed temperatures along the cable. The results of off-grid test, i.e. measuring heat loss, pressure loss, critical current, and DC withstand test, were carried out successfully. HTS cable system was connected to the real grid on 20 July 2006. The cable has been operated stably for 3 months as monitored by Remote Operation Center of BOC. This report outlines the installation and test results on Albany HTS cable project.

  10. Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Gouge, Michael J; Knoll, David

    2010-01-01

    Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

  11. Role of HTS devices in greenhouse gas emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Teemu; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

    2003-08-01

    By applying high temperature superconductors (HTS) in generators, transformers and synchronous motors it is possible to improve their efficiency. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and thus reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well. The reduction of GHG emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. This environmental viewpoint can accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications if certain efficiency and sufficiently large power range are reached. In this paper, a detailed study about the replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is made in order to find the efficiency level and the power range where HTS becomes competitive. Finland is taken, as an example of an EU country, to present accurate figures of saved electricity. The structure of energy production and consumption was investigated and the emission data from different types of power plants were screened. The potential savings were allocated to the reduced usage of coal. Finally, an expanded view towards the possible emissions reduction gained by superconducting technology in the whole EU is presented. A market penetration model was introduced to investigate the time-scale in which conventional devices can be replaced with HTS devices.

  12. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  13. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  14. HTS SQUIDs for the nondestructive evaluation of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Chris; Graham, David; Macfarlane, John C.; Donaldson, Gordon B.

    2003-12-01

    While LTS and HTS SQUIDs have successfully been applied in the detection of flaws in aircraft grade aluminium structures for well over a decade, interest has recently spread to a type of new material, namely composites. One example, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), is increasingly being favoured by the aircraft industry because of its strength to weight ratio and the fact that it is corrosion-resistant. Material and defect characterization using SQUIDs is still at an early stage, but due to expected rapid expansion in the use of such materials, there is ample scope for the application of HTS SQUIDs. Here we have applied HTS SQUID single-layer gradiometers to investigate artificially created defects in CFRP samples.

  15. Development of Termination Cryostat for HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Cho, S.; Kim, D. H.; Jung, W. M.; Ryoo, H. S.; Cho, J. W.; Seong, K. C.

    2004-06-01

    Termination cryostat for 22.9 kV, 1.26 kA-class high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable has been designed. The cryostat consists of vacuum vessel, liquid nitrogen vessel, current lead, shield current lead and HTS power cable. The current lead and the HTS power cable are connected in the liquid nitrogen vessel. It is cooled by forced-circulation subcooled liquid nitrogen at temperatures of 70˜80 K and pressures of 0.3˜1.0 MPa. The optimum position and diameter of inlet and outlet for the liquid nitrogen is determined by numerical analysis. Temperature distributions in the liquid nitrogen vessel were investigated for seeking an effective cooling condition based on the flow stream profiles. The cryostat is designed to endure the mechanical stress induced by thermal shrinkage.

  16. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than .04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station which includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 fig.

  17. Microstructure and jc Improvements in Multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, H.; Meinesz, M.; Czabaj, B.; Parrell, J.; Hong, S.

    2008-03-01

    Bi-2212/Ag conductor is one of the most promising materials for extending the field strength of superconducting magnets over present low temperature superconductor systems. From the view point of practical application, Bi-2212/Ag round wires have significant advantages over more typical HTS tape conductors, such as no anisotropy, and easier handling and coil winding, which allows considerable flexibility in the magnet design. Recent development efforts at Oxford Superconducting Technology have been aimed at manufacturing high quality multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag round wires with the varied sizes to fabricate HTS insert coils for high field magnet applications. However, further improvement of critical current density (Jc) and engineering current density (JE) in larger diameter wires is desirable for practical applications. Recent results show a strong dependence of the wire JE and Jc performance on its microstructure, in particularly, the interface of Bi-2212/Ag. Significant improvements of microstructure and Jc have resulted from the optimization of wire size and filament numbers, but not obviously on starting powder fill factors. The highest JE of 320 A/mm2 (non-Ag Jc of 1103 A/mm2) at 4.2 K, 25 T was obtained in 1.15 mm wire with 85×19 filament configuration.

  18. Ultra-high performance, high-temperature superconducting wires via cost-effective, scalable, co-evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 μm thick SmBa2Cu3O7--δ (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

  19. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dr. Hosup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, HS; Youm, D; Moon, SH; Kim, JH; Heo, YU; Dou, SX; Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 m thick SmBa2Cu3O7- (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1000 A/cm for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor.

  20. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 μm thick SmBa2Cu3O7 − δ (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

  1. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  3. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  4. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.

  5. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  6. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  7. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  8. NDE of coated-conductor using HTS SQUID array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, T.; Adachi, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Hata, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Machi, T.; Tanabe, K.

    2009-10-01

    We developed a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using an HTS SQUID array in order to examine rare-earth (RE)-123 HTS coated conductors striated into multi-filamentary lines. The 5-channel HTS SQUID gradiometer array was composed of ramp-edge junctions with LaErBaCuO and SmBaCuO electrode layers, and fabricated by using an HTS multi layer fabrication technique. The planar gradiometers with 1 1 mm 2 pickup loops and a baseline of 1 mm detected the vertical element of magnetic field gradient induced around defects by an eddy current. The gradiometer array cooled by thermal conduction from a liquid nitrogen bath was placed above the coated conductor on the main stage with a lift-off of about 1.5 mm. A coated conductor was fed from a reel to reel, and cooled blow its Tc by stages connected to Gifford-Mcmahon (GM) coolers. By employing a 3 kHz induction current generating the maximum field of 0.14 mT, we could identify a distribution of defects in a long-length non-striated conductor. Furthermore, we could detect and distinguish three kinds of defects, existence of a spotty normal-state region, electrical short between striated filaments, and delamination of the superconducting layer from the Hastelloy tape for each filamentary superconducting line at a high speed up to 30 m/h.

  9. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  10. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  11. Development of HTS Cable System for ALBANY Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, M.; Yumura, H.; Takigawa, H.; Ito, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Kato, T.; Suzawa, C.; Masuda, T.; Sato, K.; Isojima, S.

    2006-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is anticipated to transmit a large amount of electricity with a compact size and can reduce the transmission loss and greenhouse gas emission. The Albany project is being undertaken to verify the practicability of a long HTS cable in the real grid by performing a long-term operation test. The cable is 350-meter long and carries 800 A at 34.5 kV between two electric power substations (Menands and Riverside) in Albany, N.Y. [1]. The project is scheduled to run from 2002 to 2007 and is proceeding as planned. The HTS cable and its apparatus were manufactured in Japan, and the cable was shipped to the USA in the middle of August. After it arrives at the site, the cable installation and the apparatus assembly will be carried out sequentially. This system is expected to begin operating early next year after initial cooling. This paper gives an overview and the current status of the development of the HTS cable system.

  12. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  13. Astronaut adaptation to 1 G following long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, John; Greenisen, Michael; Cowell, Lynda L.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of studies of changes undergone by several physiological systems (including the cardiovascular system, the fluid and electrolyte characteristics, the red blood cells, the bone and the muscle tissues, and the exercise capacity) due to the exposures to microgravity and to the adaptation to 1 G after a long-duration space flight. Special attention is given to the effects of various training protocols and countermeasures used to attenuate the physiological problems encountered upon return from space.

  14. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  15. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  16. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  17. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  18. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

  20. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  1. Project Overview of HTS Magnet for Ultra-high-field MRI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, Taizo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    A project to develop an ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system based on HTS magnets using (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO; RE=rear earth) coils is underway. The project is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and aims to establish magnet technologies for a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system. REBCO wires have high critical current density in high magnetic fields and high strength against hoop stresses, and therefore, MRI magnets using REBCO coils are expected to have cryogenic systems that are smaller, lighter, and simpler than the conventional ones. A major problem in using REBCO coils for MRI magnets is the huge irregular magnetic field generated by the screening current in REBCO tapes. Thus, the main purpose of this project is to make the influence of this screening current predictable and controllable. Fundamental technologies, including treatment of the screening currents, were studied via experiments and numerical simulations using small coils. Two types of model magnets are planned to be manufactured, and the knowledge gained in the development of the model magnets will be reflected in the magnet design of a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system.

  2. Conceptual design of contactless power transfer into HTS receiver coil using normal conducting resonance antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyoung Ku; Chung, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo

    2014-09-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators has been recently explored to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire across a large air gap. As the CPT technology makes possible the process of connector-free charging, it has been studied for practical applications to a variety of power applications. In the superconducting magnet system, a widespread method of electric energy supply is realized by the current lead which is one of indispensable subsystems in the power transfer equipment; however, it causes energy losses. To overcome such a problem, the combination CPT technology with HTS receiver coils has been proposed. It is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Such a technique has been expected a reasonable approach to provide a safe and convenient way of charging or storage without connecting joints in the superconducting applications. In this study, we presented the feasibility and various effects of transmission property from room temperature to very low temperature vessel within 40 cm under different material’s cooling vessels using radio frequency (RF) generator is 370 KHz.

  3. QRNT: A primary thermometer based on an HTS SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Reed, Richard

    1997-08-01

    We propose a novel form of cryogenic primary thermometer based on flux quantisation in a HTS superconducting ring, interrupted by a Josephson junction which we call the Quantum Roulette Noise Thermometer (QRNT). Unlike other superconductivity-based noise thermometers this device is essentially dissipationless, requires no input or output connections and may be remotely interrogated. The QRNT has the potential to provide high accuracy with short measuring times.

  4. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Avrin, W.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  5. HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

  6. HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Woloshun, K. A.

    The design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler is discussed. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application, the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

  7. Development of Substrate for RABiTS-based HTS Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-05

    During its fifteen years of life, this CRADA has evolved in both scope and purpose. Early efforts to develop high performance bismuth-based powder-in-tube first generation high temperature superconductors (HTS) have shifted toward efforts to understand and develop technologies required to fabricate second generation HTS coated conductors. Since the two original longstanding principal investigators from UT-Battelle and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) are not presently employed by their respective organizations, this final report shall focus primarily on results of the more recent past involving research and development of the deformation and annealing processes required to fabricate metallic substrates for RABiTS-based second generation coated conductors. The specific objectives of this recent work involve the development of OST Ni/3%W tape for HTS coated conductors and include: (a) to improve uniformity of cube texture through control of deformation and annealing parameters, (b) to minimize delamination and other buffer deposition problems through understanding and control of key parameters related to the metal substrate, (c) to ensure that the textured metal substrate allows well textured buffers with no delamination, and (d) to prepared a final report.

  8. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  9. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  10. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  12. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  13. Mechanisms of plant resistance to 1 g gravity and hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sakaki, Takeshi

    Resistance to the gravitational force is one of two major graviresponses in plants, comparable to gravitropism. We have examined mechanisms of gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. Under hypergravity conditions, the expression of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, was up-regulated in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the level of membrane sterols was kept higher, without influencing the level or composition of other membrane components. Out of sterols, the levels of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides were greatly increased, suggesting the stimulation of sterol raft formation under hypergravity conditions. On the other hand, the expression of the majority of alphaand beta-tubulin genes was up-regulated and the percentage of cells with longitudinal cortical microtubules was increased by hypergravity. Hypergravity also increased the expression of genes encoding gamma-tubulin complex and katanin transiently, whereas it decreased that encoding various microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP65. The role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance was confirmed using Arabidopsis mutants. The analysis with mutants has also revealed that the signal transduction process via sterol rafts is distinct from that via cortical microtubules. These results indicate that membrane sterol rafts and cortical microtubules are deeply and independently involved in maintenance of normal growth capacity against the gravitational force. To confirm that the hypothesis is applicable to plant resistance to 1 g gravity, we will carry out the space experiment. This experiment, termed Resist Wall, is to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the Resist Wall experiment, Arabidopsis mutant strains will be cultivated under microgravity and at 1 g conditions on the ISS up to reproductive stage and phenotypes on growth and development will be compared using video images. Also, we will analyze the levels of gene expression and the cell wall properties of the mutants as well as the wild type, using materials fixed on orbit and collected to earth. The results obtained in this space experiment will also be presented.

  14. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

  15. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  16. Resistance of streamline wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defoe, George L

    1928-01-01

    This note contains the results of tests to determine the resistance of four sizes of streamline wire. The investigation was conducted in the six-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made at various velocities and it was found that the resistance of streamline wires was considerably less than that of round wires of equivalent strength. Scale effect was also found since, with an increase of Reynolds Number, a decrease in the resistance coefficient was obtained.

  17. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  18. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  19. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  20. Magnetic uniaxial wire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Costa, João T.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may have a dual electromagnetic response, such that for arbitrarily large wavelengths it concurrently supports two modes with hyperbolic- and elliptical-type dispersions. Importantly, one of the eigenwaves is nearly dispersionless and sees the metamaterial as a medium with extreme magnetic anisotropy. The metamaterial may thus behave as the magnetic analog of the conventional wire medium formed by a set of parallel straight metallic wires. It is demonstrated that the magnetic wire medium enables channeling the subwavelength details of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves.

  1. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.; Leslie, K. E.; Binks, R. A.; Lam, S. H. K.; Du, J.; Tilbrook, D. L.; Mitchell, E. E.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Lee, J. B.; Turner, R.; Downey, M.; Maddever, A.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  3. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

  4. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  5. Application of shielding current in bulk HTS to control magnetic field distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kii, T.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting shielding current is excited when external field is applied to superconductor. In case for field cooling of bulk superconductor, shielding current is an origin of strong trapped field. When external field is changed to a properly arranged bulk HTS array, various magnetic field distribution can be formed by an excited shielding current in each bulk HTS. This paper presents a simple intuitively method to design magnetic field distribution using supercurrents in bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) array. In this method, an ideal current path for intended field distribution is represented by shielding currents in bulk HTS array. Expected performance can be roughly estimated by using Biot-Savart law. As examples, Maxwell coil pair and helical field generator are designed. This method can be applied to design various magnet devices using bulk HTS array.

  6. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  7. Wire Weight with Housing

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  8. The exploding wire phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, H.

    1985-02-01

    Graneau's recent interpretation of the exploding wire phenomenon as an electrodynamic effect verifying Ampère's classical formulation is questioned. Instead, it is shown that the rupturing force arising from the imbalance of the self-induced electromotive force and the ohmic potential during an explosive current surge will account for the wire breaking into several segments, as is observed.

  9. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  10. Tap into the Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dick

    1986-01-01

    A story on the wire services puts an institution's name before editors and news directors at media outlets all over the state and region and maybe even across the nation. To get potential stories onto the wires, the development officer needs to have sound news judgment, the ability to write clearly, and tact. (MLW)

  11. Wire Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1983-03-01

    The Wire Transport Code was developed to study the dynamics of relativistic-electron-beam propagation in the transport tube in which a wire-conditioning zone is present. In order for the beam to propagate successfully in the transport section it must be matched onto the wire by focusing elements. The beam must then be controlled by strong lenses as it exits the wire zone. The wire transport code was developed to model this process in substantial detail. It is able to treat axially symmetric problems as well as those in which the beam is transversely displaced from the axis of the transport tube. The focusing effects of foils and various beamline lenses are included in the calculations.

  12. HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1999-07-12

    Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

  13. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  14. New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Takaike, A.; Hirokawa, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted, but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo-compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also, a heat-exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K, and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

  15. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-09-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  16. Sub-Micron Long HTS Ho Electron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harnack, 0.; Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a high-T, superconductor (HTS) was introduced recently as an alternative to a Schottky mixer at THz frequencies. The performance of the mixer depends on the total thermal conductance for heat removal from the phonon sub-system due to either length-dependent phonon diffusion or phonon escape to the substrate. We have measured both the length and temperature dependencies of the IF bandwidth of the mixers fabricated from 25-35 mn thick YBCO films on MgO and sapphire substrates. The films were grown by a laser deposition technique and electron-beam lithography was used to define bridge lengths down to 50 nm. Mixer measurements were done using signal frequencies in the range of 1-100 GHz. For 50 nm and 400 nm long devices on MgO, the 3-dB bandwidth was about 100 MHz. At temperatures below 60 K, the hot-electron plateau was clearly seen starting around 2-3 GHz. At temperatures above 70 K, the flux-flow effects begin to dominate and the IF bandwidth increases to 1-8 GHz, while the conversion efficiency drops by several dB. This temperature dependence of the IF bandwidth can account for previously reported unexpectedly high bandwidth of HTS mixers.

  17. Long Term Vacuum Maintenance in HTS Equipment without External Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynert, J. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Jankowski, T. A.; Stewart, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices being developed, such as motors, generators, and electric power transmission cables, are intended to replace conventional, room temperature equipment. As such, the cryogenic and vacuum operation of this equipment has to be nearly transparent to ensure market acceptance. The cryostat has to deliver a stable operating temperature requiring little or no maintenance for a period of years. To maintain a nearly constant and low heat load on the refrigeration system, the vacuum must be kept at less than about 7 mPa (5 × 10-5 torr), preferably with no external pumping system. This, in turn, requires the use of low outgassing materials, and adsorbers or getters that can effectively remove the residual gasses in the system. Each particular device differs in the system volume, the materials used, the fabrication and degassing techniques, the operating temperatures of the various components, and the availability and maintenance requirements, necessitating an individual analysis. In this paper, we present a general approach to determining the outgassing properties of typical materials used in HTS devices, the likely gas constituents, techniques for determining adsorber and getter materials and estimating the quantity of such materials needed based on the operating temperature of the device.

  18. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  19. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  20. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  1. Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

  2. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  3. A Swinging Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a safer alternative to the traditional physics demonstration known as the "kicking wire" experiment. The new method eliminates the use of an open dish of mercury but is less dramatic in the visible effects it produces. (DDR)

  4. The Improved Transient Stabilities of HTS Coils by Removing the Insulation and Inserting the Metal Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kajikawa, H.; Ikoma, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

    NMR/MRI magnets have a protection device to prevent the damages due to a quench. On the other hand, the protection device design of HTS coils or magnets are very difficult because it has a very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicate behaviors of quench. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the turn-to-turn insulation and inserting the metal tape instead of insulation. In this paper, the improved transient stabilities and self- protection abilities of HTS coils by removing the insulation and inserting metal tapes will be presented by minimum quench energy (MQE).

  5. Simulation and Test for the Thermal Behaviour of a Prototype Synchronous Generator with HTS Armature Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.-Y.; Qu, T.-M.; Song, P.; Li, L.-N.; Chen, D.-X.; Han, Z.

    A synchronous generator prototype with HTS armature windings and a permanent magnet rotor (HTS-PM) was developed. The temperature evolution during cooling and operation processes of the HTS coils was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). The simulated results coincided well with the temperature measurement data acquired by PT-100 sensors. Cooling time, terminal temperature, contact thermal conductivity, during cooling, as well as the proportion between real and calculated iron loss, contact thermal conductivity, at various rotating speeds during operation, were worked out using the FEM model.

  6. Development of Field Control Method and Basic Design of HTS Magnet for MDDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, A.; Kim, S. B.; Eritate, I.; Abe, T.; Shima, S.; Takahashi, M.; Sanada, N.

    The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications. We proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of superconducting magnet, high temperature superconductors (HTS) tapes and iron blocks. In this study, it was confirmed that the control of magnetic field gradient was possible by arranging the HTS tapes and iron blocks on the superconducting magnet. In addition, the multiple racetrack HTS magnets were proposed in order to generate the high field gradient along the longitudinal direction.

  7. The electrical characteristics of solid insulators for 154 kV class HTS transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, H. G.; Choi, J. H.; Pang, M. S.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2011-11-01

    HTS transformer, without any loss of insulation lifetime due to the reduction in terms of size and weight, can increase the overload capacity, and have some benefits such as the improvement in efficiency, minimization of environmental pollution, and convenient spatial arrangement, which contribute a lot to electric power system operation. However, for practical insulation design of the HTS transformer, it is necessary to establish the research on electrical properties LN 2 as well as solid insulators. These solid insulators have been used as main insulations for HTS transformer. In this paper, we discussed breakdown and V- t characteristics of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and pressboard in LN 2.

  8. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  9. Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

  10. HTS Josephson heterodyne oscillator on a pulse-tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Lam, S. H. K.; Taylor, R.

    2009-10-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson heterodyne oscillator based on step-edge junction technology has recently been developed (Du et al 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 033507, Macfarlane et al 2009 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19 920). In this work, the implementation and characterization of such a heterodyne oscillator on a compact pulse-tube cryocooler (PTC) are presented. The rf performance of the oscillator cooled by the cryocooler is compared to that of the same device when cooled in the quiet gas phase of a liquid helium Dewar. Any measurable influence of additional electromagnetic noise and mechanical vibration of the cryocooler on the oscillator performance is assessed by measuring the linewidth broadening of the heterodyne oscillation. The cryocooled oscillator demonstrated excellent performance and negligible excess noise was observed when operating the PTC.

  11. Medicinal chemistry tools: making sense of HTS data.

    PubMed

    Kolossov, Evgueni; Lemon, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    The main problem in QSAR modeling from the high throughput screening (HTS) data is that by definition, it produces only a small proportion of hits against a given assay. This leads to a very small statistical significance of the hits in comparison with the "noise". Analysis based purely on the "hit" compounds removes useful information about the biological response of all the test compounds. What is needed is an analysis technique that increases the significance of the active compounds, while using the information present in the original data. In this paper we present a method for application of intelligent filtering of the data to improve statistical significance of the active compounds to generate predictive models that provide medicinal chemists with a powerful tool for both optimizing compounds and mining screening candidates in libraries. PMID:16368163

  12. Conductance Degradation in HTS Coated Conductor Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, Edgar R.; Leidecker, Henning; Panashchenko, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    Solder joints between YBCO coated conductors and normal metal traces have been analysed as part of an effort to develop a robust HTS lead assembly for a spaceflight mission. Measurements included critical current and current transfer profiles. X-ray micrographs were used to verify proper solder flow and to determine the extent of voiding. SEM of cross-sections with EDS analysis was crucial in understanding the diffusion of the protective silver layer over the YBCO into the solder for different solder processes. The assembly must be stored for an extended period of time prior to final cool-down and operation. Measurements of the joint resistance over the course of months show a significant increase with time. Understanding the interface condition suggests an explanation for the change.

  13. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  14. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  15. Design of an HTS Levitated Double-Sided HTSLSM for Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Luhai; Jin, Jianxun; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    A hybrid high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous propulsion system composed of a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in the middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been proposed for a middle-low-speed maglev. Three carriages has been made up for the proposed maglev, and each carriage consists of four HTSLSM modules. The HTSLSM has been designed to reach a speed of 69 km/h and a maximum thrust of 48.9 kN for each motor. The finite element analysis has been used for the theoretical verification. The results obtained show that the HTS linear propulsion system satisfies the principal requirements for the maglev.

  16. Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

  17. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  18. Investigation of DC current injection effect on the microwave characteristics of HTS YBCO microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Mateev, E.; Neshkov, L.; Strbik, V.; Uspenskaya, L.; Nedkov, I.; Chromik, Š.

    2014-03-01

    The DC current injection effect from a ferromagnetic (FM) La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin film was investigated by the microwave surface impedance measurements in a FM/HTS structure, formed as a microstrip resonator for improving the sensitivity of the experiments. The quality factor and the resonance frequency of this structure were found to strongly depend on the current strength, injected from the LSMO electrode into the HTS microstrip electrode. The magnetic penetration depth and the quasiparticle conductivity of the HTS component were determined to increase under DC current injection process, which in all probability stimulated breaking of Cooper pairs and led to a decrease of the superfluid concentration and an increase of the normal fluid concentration without significantly affecting the relaxation time of the quasiparticles.

  19. Status of 275 kV REBCO HTS Cable Development in the NEDO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Okuma, Takeshi; Maruyama, Osamu; Shiohara, Yuu; Hayakawa, Naoki; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting cable (HTS cable), which could be used as a backbone power line in the future, was developed in the NEDO project called M-PACC. One of the most important developments of a high voltage HTS cable was the high voltage insulation technology. A design guideline and a test specification that was necessary to design, product and demonstrate of a 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable have been studied by obtaining the various experimental data such as AC withstand voltage, impulse withstand voltage, partial discharge inception stress, and the V-t characteristics of the insulation, on the basis of the Japan Electrical Standards (JEC) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Moreover, the 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable with a length of 30 m was demonstrated under a long-term voltage and current loading test.

  20. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  1. Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN 2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

  2. Verification test of 22.9 kV underground HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Hyun, O. B.; Kim, H. R.; Yatsuka, K.; Masuda, T.; Isojima, S.; Watanabe, M.; Ryoo, H. S.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.

    2007-10-01

    Several verification tests are being underway world widely in order to apply HTS cable to real grid. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) has initiated HTS cable project since 2002 with the aid of MOCIE (Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy), Korea. The HTS cable system with the specification of three-phase, 1.25 kArms, 22.9 kV and 100 m was installed at the KEPCO's Gochang test yard. In consideration of economical efficiency on retrofit for typical underground cable, the HTS cable was designed to be applicable for 175 mm ELP duct and 55 m-long cable was laid on underground trench in the same manner as the conventional pulling method. Cool-down to LN2 temperature and warm-up to room temperature were performed several times to investigate the influence of thermal cycle. The main objectives of this project are to verify performance of the HTS cable system and evaluate the economical and technical feasibility from all angles. Expected pros and cons of HTS cable including reliability and maintainability will be assessed with the view point of utilities. This paper summarizes some results of installation and after-laying tests.

  3. Numerical and experimental comparison of electromechanical properties and efficiency of HTS and ferromagnetic hysteresis motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, D.; Inácio, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Leão Rodrigues, A.

    2008-02-01

    Hysteresis motors are very attractive in a wide range of fractional power applications, due to its torque-speed characteristics and simplicity of construction. This motor's performance is expected to improve when HTS rotors are used, and in fact, hysteresis motors have shown to be probably the most viable electrical machines using HTS materials. While these motors, either conventional or HTS, are both hysteresis motors, they base their operation on different physical phenomena: hysteretic behaviour in conventional ferromagnetic materials is due to the material's non-linear magnetic properties, while in HTS materials the hysteresis has an ohmic nature and is related with vortices' dynamics. In this paper, theoretical aspects of both conventional and HTS hysteresis motors are discussed, its operation principles are highlighted, and the characteristics of both motors are presented. The characteristics, obtained both by experimental tests and numerical simulation (made with commercial software), are compared, in order to evaluate not only the motor's electromechanical performances but also the overall systems efficiency, including cryogenics for the HTS device.

  4. Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.

    2010-06-01

    A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

  5. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  6. Wiring up, reaching out.

    PubMed

    Serb, C

    1999-05-01

    Taking another step in our Most Wired project, we conducted cyber-interviews with health plans and asked them to tell us just how wired they are. Find out how well they connect to members and employers, which HR and educational services they offer online, and whether they do business with doctors and hospitals electronically. Plus: profiles of major info tech undertakings at six health plans. They range from a $78,000 intranet to a $4 million data warehouse. But while the six projects differ in cost, they overlap in purpose: putting more information into the hands of doctors, hospitals, employers, and consumers. In doing that, they show what being wired is all about. PMID:10404661

  7. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  8. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  9. Hts, the Drosophila homologue of Adducin, physically interacts with the transmembrane receptor Golden goal to guide photoreceptor axons.

    PubMed

    Ohler, Stephan; Hakeda-Suzuki, Satoko; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Neurons steer their axons towards their proper targets during development. Molecularly, a number of guidance receptors have been identified. The transmembrane protein Golden goal (Gogo) was reported previously to guide photoreceptor (R) axons in the Drosophila visual system. Here, we show that Hts, the Drosophila homologue of Adducin, physically interacts with Gogo's cytoplasmic domain via its head-neck domain. hts null mutants show similar defects in R axon guidance as do gogo mutants. Rescue experiments suggest that the C-terminal tail but not the MARCKS homology domain of Hts is required. Overexpression of either gogo or hts causes abnormally thick swellings of R8 axons in the medulla, but if both are co-overexpressed, R8 axons appear normal and the amount of excessive Hts is reduced. Our results fit with a model where Gogo both positively and negatively regulates Hts that affects the Actin-Spectrin cytoskeleton in growth cone filopodia, thereby guiding R axons. PMID:21128303

  10. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Engineering Nanocolumnar Defect Configurations for Optimized Vortex Pinning in High Temperature Superconducting Nanocomposite Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit; Ahuja, Raj; Abiade, J.

    2013-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS), coated conductor wires based on nanocomposite films containing self-assembled, insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumnar defects have previously been reported to exhibit enhanced vortex pinning. Here, we report on microstructural design via control of BZO nanocolumns density in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO)+BZO nancomposite films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc(H, ,T). X-ray diffraction and microstructural examination shows increasing number density of epitaxial BZO nanocolumns in the highly cube-textured YBCO matrix with increasing nominal BZO additions. Transport property measurement reveals that an increase in BZO content upto 4 vol% is required to sustain the highest pinning and Jc performance as the magnetic field increases. By growing thicker, single-layer nanocomposite films (~4 m) with controlled density of BZO columnar defects, the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A/cm at 77 K, self-field and the minimum Ic of 455 A/cm at 65 K and 3 T for all magnetic field orientations were obtained. This is the highest Ic reported to date for films on metallic templates which are the basis for the 2nd generation, coated conductor-based HTS wires.

  12. Caroviologens: Towards molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Desce, M.; Arrhenius, T. S.; Dvolaïtzky, M.; Kugimiya, S.-I.; Lazrak, T.; Lehn, J.-M.

    1992-07-01

    Bispyridinium conjugated polyenes of different lengths and charges have been synthesized. Since they combine the features of carotenoids and of viologens, they have been termed caroviologens. Such molecules, possessing an extended conjugated chain fitted with polar electroactive endgroups, and having a length sufficient to span a lipid membrane could function as transmembrane electron channels, i.e., as molecular wires.

  13. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  14. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  15. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  16. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  17. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  18. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  19. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  20. Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

  1. Investigation of the resistive properties of HTS/manganite bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Štrbik, V.; Chromik, Š.; Sojková, M.

    2016-03-01

    Temperature dependences of the resistivity of manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) films deposited on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering were shown to be successfully simulated in the whole temperature range (covering metal, insulator and metal-insulator transition regions) using a phenomenological phase-coexistence transport model. Quantitative data on the internal parameters of these films were obtained. The possibility was also considered for investigation of individual resistive characteristics and excess conductivity of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin film in the vicinity of T C included into a YBCO/LCMO bilayer structure. It was shown that the considered YBCO film in the temperature range from 85.5 K to 114.9 K behaves as a two-dimensional system with respect to the fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter, while a three-dimensional regime is observed in a narrow range of temperatures at T < 85.5 K. Such behavior was assumed to be partly due to the FM LCMO component of the bilayer, the spin-polarized charge carriers of which enter into the YBCO film and cause a "breaking" of superconducting pairs in the superconducting gap and pseudogap regimes.

  2. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  3. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  4. Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Gouge, Michael J; Lindsay, David T; Roden, Mark L; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American Electric Power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 132/13.8 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype with full scale terminations tested at ORNL was conducted prior to the manufacture and installation of the AEP triaxial cable. These prototypes were used to demonstrate the crucial operating conditions including steady state operation at the 3000 Arms design current, high voltage operation, high voltage withstand and 110 kV impulse, and overcurrent fault capability. A summary of the results from the thermal analysis and testing conducted by Ultera and ORNL will be presented. Some analysis of the cable thermal-hydraulic response based on the testing that were used to determine some of the cable cryogenic system requirements are also presented.

  5. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  6. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  7. Development of Coated Conductors in Japanese National Project "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    RE1Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE=rare earth) coated conductors have attracted the attention of many scientists due to the high superconducting properties, etc. Due to the great progress of R&D on coated conductors, the activities have shifted to specific applications. The new Japanese national project, named as "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils", started last year aiming for the applications of MRI and medical accelerators. To meet the requirements of those applications, the R&D of REBCO coated conductors (CCs) are being performed with that of coiling technology in parallel. The theme has two sub-themes of "development of long CCs with high in-field performance" and "development of CCs with extremely low heat generation" in this national project. The ambitious goals of these themes are set as intermediate ones due 2016 Mar; the theme of in-field: 100m-500A/cm-w@65K, 3T -850A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 100m-500 ?m of filament width w/ Icfilament inhomogeneity of distribution within 10% and joint resistance below 5n?. The final goals of these themes due 2018 Mar. were set as follows; the theme of in-field: 200m-600A/cm-w@65K, 3T -1000A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 200m-500 ?m of filament width w/ Icfilament distribution within 5% and joint resistance below 3n?. The objectives, goals and progress of this project will be reviewed in this article. As for the progress, for example, the combination of EuBCO+BHO was found to be effective to improve the in-field performance of PLD derived coated conductors. A 94 m long wire with Icmin of 108A/cm-w@77K, 3T (corresponding to 472A/cm-w @65K, 3T) was successfully fabricated. It is as twice Icmin of the long tape as the highest one in the previous project.

  8. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  9. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  10. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  11. RILP regulates vacuolar ATPase through interaction with the V1G1 subunit.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Cogli, Laura; Progida, Cinzia; Nisi, Veronica; Pascolutti, Roberta; Sigismund, Sara; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Bucci, Cecilia

    2014-06-15

    Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) is a downstream effector of the Rab7 GTPase. GTP-bound Rab7 recruits RILP to endosomal membranes and, together, they control late endocytic traffic, phagosome and autophagosome maturation and are responsible for signaling receptor degradation. We have identified, using different approaches, the V1G1 (officially known as ATP6V1G1) subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) as a RILP-interacting protein. V1G1 is a component of the peripheral stalk and is fundamental for correct V-ATPase assembly. We show here that RILP regulates the recruitment of V1G1 to late endosomal and lysosomal membranes but also controls V1G1 stability. Indeed, we demonstrate that V1G1 can be ubiquitylated and that RILP is responsible for proteasomal degradation of V1G1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that alterations in V1G1 expression levels impair V-ATPase activity. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that RILP regulates the activity of the V-ATPase through its interaction with V1G1. Given the importance of V-ATPase in several cellular processes and human diseases, these data suggest that modulation of RILP activity could be used to control V-ATPase function. PMID:24762812

  12. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  13. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  14. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  15. Lithium niobate photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Ricken, R; Sohler, W

    2009-12-21

    LN photonic wires of cross-section dimensions down to 1 x 0.73 microm2 were fabricated by Ar milling of a single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. Mode intensity distributions, propagation losses, and group indices of refraction were measured at 1.55 microm wavelength and compared with simulation results. Moreover, effective mode indices and end face reflectivities were numerically evaluated. The waveguide of 1 microm top width is the smallest LN photonic wire reported to date; it has a mode size of approximately 0.4 microm2 (0.5 microm2) only and propagation losses of 9.9 dB/cm (12.9 dB/cm) for qTM (qTE) polarization. PMID:20052137

  16. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  17. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  18. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  19. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  20. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  1. Impact Wire Dislodges Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1990-01-01

    Snakelike tool loosens trapped debris obstructing narrow passages in normally inaccessible locations. Flexible tool threaded into obstructed channel, much like common plumbing snake. Wire fed along inner tube of tool until tip reaches obstruction. Delivers impact from impact tool to obstruction. Designed for use in narrow, intricate coolant channels of rocket engine. Lends itself readily to modification for use in engine blocks, heat exchangers, general plumbing, and like.

  2. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  4. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  5. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  6. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54.01-10 Section 54.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam...

  7. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  8. Low Temperature Performance of a Boost Converter with MPP and HTS Inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Dickman, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature performance of a 150 W, 50 kHz, 24/48 V boost PWM dc-to-dc converter is reported. The efficiency of the converter using a molypermalloy powder (MPP) core based inductor went up from 94% at room temperature (23 C) to 95.9% at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 C). A BSCCO based high temperature superconducting (HTS) inductor with a transition temperature of approximately -158 C was compared to a MPP core based inductor in terms of the power converter performance at liquid nitrogen temperature. The use of the HTS inductor in the converter tested yielded no significant performance improvement over the same converter with the MPP inductor. The experimental results are discussed along with the HTS inductor characteristics.

  9. The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  10. Fabrication of hybrid thin film structures from HTS and CMR materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojková, M.; Štrbík, V.; Nurgaliev, T.; Chromik, Š.; Dobročka, E.; Španková, M.; Blagoev, B.; Gál, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present the preparation of bilayers from high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and half-metallic ferromagnetic (FM) manganite with a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). We used YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (TBCCO) thin films as a HTS material and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) film as a CMR material. In the case of YBCO/LSMO, we prepared FM/HTS heterostructure for studying the spin-polarized current injection effect on the electrical properties of the YBCO strip in dc or low-frequency regimes and on the microwave characteristics of the strip. For the first time, we report the preparation of a TBCCO/LSMO bilayer. In some applications, the TBCCO offers better parameters (higher working temperature, lower surface resistance, lower 1/f noise) than YBCO.

  11. A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet-A Progress Report.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

  12. A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet–A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

  13. Voltage-current characteristics of two soldered 2G HTS tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Radchenko, I. P.; Fetisov, S. S.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Zubko, V. V.

    2010-06-01

    Most prospective 2G HTS are asymmetric in cross section due to technology feature. Superconducting layer is located more close to one side of a tape, while from the other side highly resistive substrate is located. Thus, it is possible to combine two 2G HTS tapes with different mutual orientations of superconducting layers. In this work we studied voltage current characteristics (VCC) of eight samples made of two soldered HTS tapes (copper coated SCS4050 tapes from Super Power Inc.). Connection of samples to terminations varied as well. VCC measured were different depending on tapes' combining method, joint to terminations and external magnetic fields. Peculiarities on VCC were indicated a current transfer between tapes. Possible explanation of the phenomenon is discussed also.

  14. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) sufficiently high to meet the field decay requirements (in persistent magnets), piece lengths long enough to wind coils, and acceptably low costs. HEP has traditionally used very high current magnets made from Rutherford cables, and the ability to be cabled is another key advantage. Very high on the list of materials able to fulfill the requirements above is Bi-2212 round wire. Both cables and high field coils on a small scale have been demonstrated using this material. By contrast, YBCO is a single-filament tape that is not easy to cable. As shown in Figure 1 these tapes are highly anisotropic in their current density. In the good orientation the performance is considerably better than Bi-2212, however at the highest fields measured, the isotropic current behavior of 2212 exceeds the bad orientation of YBCO.

  15. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  16. The Dynamic Characteristics on the Wall Traveling of the HTS Bulk Superconducting Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, M.; Kim, S. B.; Ozasa, S.; Nakano, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop the transportation device with non-contact and moves in free space. It is expected that our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in clean room which manufactures the silicon wafer where dislikes mechanical contact and dust. Proposed the actuator consists of a field-cooled HTS bulk for mover and two-dimensional arranged multiple electromagnets as a stator. In our previous study, the dynamic characteristics on the floor traveling of the HTS bulk mover had been studied. Therefore in this study, a system for the wall traveling was proposed to use the limited space effectively. It is expected that the wall traveling system is very useful to apply the transporter used in the tunnels which flammable gas may be produced. In this paper, the optimal angle between electromagnets located at floor and wall for moving to the wall traveling from the floor traveling was investigated experimentally. The position displacement on the rotating of the HTS bulk during the wall traveling was measured. As a result, the bulk with initial gap of 2 mm could move to the wall traveling from the floor traveling. Also, the position displacement on the height direction during the rotating of the HTS bulk was 18 mm from the initial position because of its gravity,but it was possible to rotate by changing the pattern NSNS of the trapped magnetic field in near the initial position.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Characteristics of Flowing Liquid Nitrogen in HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has heat intrusion from the termination including joule heat generation at the terminal joint and from the room temperature cable through the Cu current lead. According to the length of the HTS cable, this heat loss may become a considerable amount which cannot be ignored in the HTS cable system. In this study, referring to a high-voltage cable (HV cable) which was developed in M-PACC project, the effect of heat transfer at the interface between the terminal joint and LN2 in the terminal vessel (ho) on the temperature of the HTS cable were calculated and evaluated. The condition of flow in the terminal vessel was assumed to be natural convection, forced flow or static condition for evaluating this effect with various heat transfer condition. As a result, in the case of the natural convection, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the terminal vessel where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is large since ho becomes high. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe of Cu former and the terminal vessel can be restricted. However, in the cases of the forced flow and the static condition, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the inner pipe where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is small since ho becomes small. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe becomes high. This temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe makes the temperature of the HTS conductor large resulting in remarkable increase of AC losses. Consequently, on the HV cable design, for restriction of the AC loss increase, it is expected that designing the HTS cable termination such as extending outer surface of the terminal joint for increasing of the heat inflow from the terminal joint to the LN2 in the vessel is effective.

  18. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  19. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  1. Development of 16 kA HTS current leads for 40 T hybrid magnet application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Y.; Ding, K.; Feng, H.; Liu, C.; Liu, X.; Lu, K.; Wu, H.; Song, Y.; Xu, C.; Ye, B.; Zhou, T.

    2014-05-01

    A pair of 16 kA high temperature superconducting current leads which will serve a 40 T hybrid magnet at the CHMFL was designed, manufactured and performed the factory acceptance test at the ASIPP site. The major design includes the LN2-cooling copper heat exchanger part as well as the HTS module made of BSCCO 2223/AgAu matrix tapes in parallel which allows the operation of the current lead at a minimum coolant mass flow. The paper briefly describes the design of the 16 kA HTS current leads. And the cold test results of current leads are also presented in the paper.

  2. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

    2014-09-01

    The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

  3. Catalytic properties of decationated HTsVM and H-mordenite zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Buisian, N.R.; Martynov, G.B.; Nikitina, G.I.; Zhemchugova, E.I.

    1986-06-01

    This paper compares the catalytic properties of decationated HTsVM zeolites and of H-mordenite in conversions of m-xylene and ethylbenzene under elevated hydrogen pressures, under conditions tending to improve the stability of operation of zeolite catalysts. For tests of catalytic activity, the zeolites were formed into granules 2 mm in diameter with gamma-alumina, which is inert in conversions of xylenes and ethylbenzene. In conversions of m-xylene and ethylbenzene under hydrogen pressure the amount of coke on the catalyst containing H-mordenite was double the amount on the catalyst containing HTsVM zeolite.

  4. Levitation or suspension: Which one is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Kang, Dong; Yang, X. F.; Wang, Fei; Peng, G. H.; Zheng, Jun; Ma, G. T.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Because of the limitation of permanent magnet (PM), the efficient of bulk high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) in a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system is not very high. It is better to magnetize the bulk HTSC with a high trapped field to increase the force density. The different application type of magnetized bulk HTSC in a maglev system, namely, levitation or suspension type, will bring quite different operation performance. This paper discusses the influence of application type on operation performance of magnetized bulk HTSC by experiments and simulations. From the discussion, it can be found which application type is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev system.

  5. High performance HTS conductors: Long length production and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, S.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the program was for ASC to address in a systematic manner the fundamental engineering issues associated with the fabrication of reliable, rugged, high power density HTS coils and systems. The goal is to provide solid technical support for the broad array of specific applications programs funded from other DoD sources. These include the HTS coil development program funded through NRL, the minesweeping program of NAVSEA/ONR, the airborne generator program presently funded by the Air Force, and programs currently under development in electric propulsion and advanced submarine technology.

  6. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  7. Inelastic scattering in atomic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrait, Nicolas; Untiedt, Carlos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Vieira, Sebastian

    2001-03-01

    Using a low-temperature STM, we fabricate stable freely suspended atomic wires up to 7 atoms in length[1], and show that the voltage dependence of their conductance reveals inelastic backscattering of electrons with phonons within the atomic wire. In the longer wires, backscattering takes place mostly with one phonon as expected for one-dimensional wires. Applying stress to the atomic wire we observe phonon softening and a strong increase in the backscattering rate, showing an enhancement of the electron-phonon interaction in the wire. [1] A.I. Yanson, G. Rubio Bollinger, H.E. van den Brom, N. Agrait and J.M. van Ruitenbeek, Nature 395, 783(1998).

  8. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Microwave properties of HTS (high temperature superconductor) films

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.W.; Arendt, P.N.; Gray, E.R.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Bennett, B.L.; Foltyn, S.R.; Estler, R.C.; Wu, X.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Elliott, N.E.; Brown, D.R. ); Portis, A.M. ); Taber, R.C. . Labs.); Mogro-Campero, A. . Corporate Research and Development Ce

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency applications of high-temperature superconductors generally fall into two categories: devices that require low values of surface resistance R{sub s} in ambient surface magnetic fields H{sub rf}, and devices that require low R{sub s} in modest fields. Moreover, many applications can be realized with small-surface-area films whereas others require larger areas-radiofrequency (rf) cavities, for example. Regardless of the application, the potential of HTS films is predicated on satisfying one or both of the above-stated requirements. We have measured the surface resistance of small-area (1 cm{sup 2}) and large-area (6.5 cm{sup 2}) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) films that have been laser ablated onto LaA{ell}O{sub 3} substrates, large-area (5.1 cm{sup 2}) YBCO films that have been e-beam deposited onto LaA{ell}O{sub 3}, and large-area (11.4 cm{sup 2}) T{ell}-based films that have been magnetron sputtered onto metallic substrates. The best R{sub s} values are obtained from the 1-cm{sup 2} laser-ablated films; they are 40 {mu}{Omega} and 340 {mu}{Omega} at 4 K and 77 K, respectively ({omega}/2{pi} = 10 GHz). Comparable values for Cu are 6 and 13 m{Omega}, respectively. Large-area T{ell}-based films yield typical R{sub s} values of 4 m{Omega} and 14 m{Omega} at 4 K and 77 K, respectively ({omega}/2{pi} = 18 GHz). The dependence of R{sub s} on H{sub rf} for these films indicates that surface fields as large as 55 Oe can be achieved with R{sub s} increasing only by a factor of 10. This field dependence is associated with c-axis texturing.

  10. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs. PMID:19051875

  11. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  12. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  13. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of 1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

  14. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  15. Myo1g is an active player in maintaining cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, O; Ovalle-García, E; Ortega-Blake, I; Antillón, A; Chávez-Munguía, B; Patiño-López, G; Fragoso-Soriano, R; Santos-Argumedo, L

    2016-05-01

    B-lymphocytes are migrating cells that specialize in antigen presentation, antibody secretion, and endocytosis; these processes implicate the modulation of plasma membrane elasticity. Cell stiffness is a force generated by the interaction between the actin-cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, which requires the participation of several proteins. These proteins include class I myosins, which are now considered to play a role in controlling membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study, we identified the motor protein Myosin 1g (Myo1g) as a mediator of this phenomenon. The absence of Myo1g decreased the cell stiffness, affecting cell adhesion, cell spreading, phagocytosis, and endocytosis in B-lymphocytes. The results described here reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which Myo1g mediates and regulates cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27106882

  16. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  17. Examining the Gm18 and m1G Modification Positions in tRNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Mayavan; Srinivasan, Thangavelu

    2014-01-01

    The tRNA structure contains conserved modifications that are responsible for its stability and are involved in the initiation and accuracy of the translation process. tRNA modification enzymes are prevalent in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. tRNA Gm18 methyltransferase (TrmH) and tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase (TrmD) are prevalent and essential enzymes in bacterial populations. TrmH involves itself in methylation process at the 2'-OH group of ribose at the 18th position of guanosine (G) in tRNAs. TrmD methylates the G residue next to the anticodon in selected tRNA subsets. Initially, m1G37 modification was reported to take place on three conserved tRNA subsets (tRNAArg, tRNALeu, tRNAPro); later on, few archaea and eukaryotes organisms revealed that other tRNAs also have the m1G37 modification. The present study reveals Gm18, m1G37 modification, and positions of m1G that take place next to the anticodon in tRNA sequences. We selected extremophile organisms and attempted to retrieve the m1G and Gm18 modification bases in tRNA sequences. Results showed that the Gm18 modification G residue occurs in all tRNA subsets except three tRNAs (tRNAMet, tRNAPro, tRNAVal). Whereas the m1G37 modification base G is formed only on tRNAArg, tRNALeu, tRNAPro, and tRNAHis, the rest of the tRNAs contain adenine (A) next to the anticodon. Thus, we hypothesize that Gm18 modification and m1G modification occur irrespective of a G residue in tRNAs. PMID:25031570

  18. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  19. Oxygen consumption during cold exposure at 2.1 G in rats adapted to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J.; Patterson, S.; Monson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The thermoregulation ability of rats exposed to various gravitational fields is examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 22 C and 1 G, and 9 C and 2.1 G in experiment one, 1 G, 2.4 G, 5.8 G and 22 + or - 1.5 C in experiment two, and 1 G, 19-22 C, and 5 C in experiment three. It is observed that the core temperature in the control rats was 36.8 + or 0.4 C at 22C and 30.8 + or - 0.6 C at 9 C, and oxygen consumption dropped from 37 + or - 0.3 C core temperature at 22 C, 36.4 + or - 0.3 C at 9 C, 0.4 oxygen consumption was 8.18 + or - 0.9 ml/min at 22 C, and 14.2 + or - 0.4 ml/min at 9 C. The data from experiment two reveal that tail temperature in the control rats peaked at 2.4 G and at 5.8 G for the acclimated rats, and in experiment three a greater decrease in core temperature is detected in the 2.1-G rats. It is noted that prior acclimation to 2.1 G enhances the thermoregulation ability when exposed to the cold.

  20. Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

  1. First Electrical Characterization of Prototype 600 A HTS Twisted-pair Cables at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Beduz, C.; Ballarino, A.

    Following the development of twisted-pair cables prepared with High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes and their initial tests at 4.2 K in liquid helium at CERN, the cable samples of 2 m lengths were subsequently tested in flowing helium gas at temperatures between 10 K and 77 K at University of Southampton. A cryostat with optimized hybrid HTS current leads was purposely built for the tests up to 2.5 kA. The cryostat has two separate helium flow conduits, each accommodating a twisted pair and allowing independent temperature control. With the completion of the tests on the twisted-pair cables, a 5 m long semi-flexible Nexans cryostat was also set up for the testing of prototype HTS links assembled at CERN. The link, which is optimized for application to the remote powering of LHC 600 A electrical circuits, consists of a compact multi-cable assembly with up to 25 twisted-pair 600 A HTS tapes. The cables are cooled by a forced-flow of helium gas the inlet temperature of which can be changed in order to compare the electrical performance over a range of temperatures. The paper reports on the results of powering tests performed on the individual cables and the integration process for the forthcoming tests of the prototype links.

  2. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  3. Long-term operating characteristics of Japan's first in-grid HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tetsutaro; Maruyama, Osamu; Honjo, Shoichi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hirose, Masayuki; Shimoda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Yaguchi, Hiroharu; Machida, Akito

    2015-11-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd and Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd have jointly conducted the first in-grid demonstration test of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in Japan, from FY2007 to FY2013. The objective of this project is to evaluate the reliability, stability and other characteristics of the system. The cable structure used in this project is the type of three-in-one cable. As a coolant, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen flows through the gap between the corrugated cryostat and the three cable cores. This structure can realize compactness and reduce heat invasion compared with three single-core HTS cables housed in separate cryostats. The cooling system consists of six refrigerators, two circulation pumps and a reservoir tank. Each refrigerator has a cooling power of 1.0 kW at 77 K, 0.8 kW at 67 K. The number of operating refrigerators is controlled so that the coolant temperature at the cable inlet is kept to preset value. The HTS cable was connected to the live electricity grid from October 29, 2012 to December 25, 2013. In-grid operation continued for more than one year without any accidental interruption of operation or other operating issues. During this time, we studied the operating performance of the HTS cable in dependence on the sub-cooled LN2 temperature.

  4. High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Pace, Marshall O; Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Lindsay, David T

    2007-01-01

    High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

  5. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPAs ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  6. Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doernbach, Jay

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

  7. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPA’s ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  8. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  9. Anisotropy of 2G HTS racetrack coils in external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudy, Michal; Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.

    2013-07-01

    Pancake or racetrack coils wound with second generation high-temperature superconductors (2G HTSs) are important elements for numerous applications of HTS. The applications of these coils are primarily in rotating machines such as motors and generators where they must withstand external magnetic fields from various orientations. The characterization of 2G HTS coils is mostly focused on AC loss assessment, critical current and maximum magnetic field evaluation. In this study, racetrack coils will be placed in different orientations of external magnetic fields—Jc (Ic) versus angle measurements will be performed and interpreted. Full attention is paid to studies of anisotropy Jc versus angle curves for short samples of 2G HTS tapes. As will be shown, the shape of the Jc versus angle curves for tapes has a strong influence on the Jc (Ic) versus angle curves for coils. In this work, a unique and unpredicted behavior of the Jc versus angle curves for the 2G HTS racetrack coils was found. This will be analyzed and fully explained.

  10. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast™ Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast™ research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  11. Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

    2012-06-01

    Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

  12. Analysis of Iterative Screening with Stepwise Compound Selection Based on Novartis In-house HTS Data.

    PubMed

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-05-20

    With increased automation and larger compound collections, the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) started replacing previous approaches in drug discovery from around the 1980s onward. However, even today it is not always appropriate, or even feasible, to screen large collections of compounds in a particular assay. Here, we present an efficient method for iterative screening of small subsets of compound libraries. With this method, the retrieval of active compounds is optimized using their structural information and biological activity fingerprints. We validated this approach retrospectively on 34 Novartis in-house HTS assays covering a wide range of assay biology, including cell proliferation, antibacterial activity, gene expression, and phosphorylation. This method was employed to retrieve subsets of compounds for screening, where selected hits from any given round of screening were used as starting points to select chemically and biologically similar compounds for the next iteration. By only screening ∼1% of the full screening collection (∼15 000 compounds), the method consistently retrieves diverse compounds belonging to the top 0.5% of the most active compounds for the HTS campaign. For most of the assays, over half of the compounds selected by the method were found to be among the 5% most active compounds of the corresponding full-deck HTS. In addition, the stringency of the iterative method can be modified depending on the number of compounds one can afford to screen, making it a flexible tool to discover active compounds efficiently. PMID:26878899

  13. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  14. Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

  15. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  16. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving

  17. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  18. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  19. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  20. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  1. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  2. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  3. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  4. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  5. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  6. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  7. Caspase 6 has a protective role in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Marion C; Mitchem, Mollie R; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2016-06-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it has been suggested that the process of neurodegeneration starts at the neuromuscular junction and is propagated back along axons towards motor neurons. Caspase-dependent pathways are well established as a cause of motor neuron death, and recent work in other disease models indicated a role for caspase 6 in axonal degeneration. Therefore we hypothesised that caspase 6 may be involved in motor neuron death in ALS. To investigate the role of caspase 6 in ALS we profiled protein levels of caspase-6 throughout disease progression in the ALS mouse model SOD1(G93A); this did not reveal differences in caspase 6 levels during disease. To investigate the role of caspase 6 further we generated a colony with SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice lacking caspase 6. Analysis of the transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(-/-) revealed an exacerbated phenotype with motor dysfunction occurring earlier and a significantly shortened lifespan when compared to transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(+/+) mice. Immunofluorescence analysis of the neuromuscular junction revealed no obvious difference between caspase 6(+/+) and caspase 6(-/-) in non-transgenic mice, while the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice showed severe degeneration compared to non-transgenic mice in both genotypes. Our data indicate that caspase-6 does not exacerbate ALS pathogenesis, but may have a protective role. PMID:26976329

  8. Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1-4 vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, Bφ, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1-4 vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-μm-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A cm(-1) at 77 K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455 A cm(-1) at 65 K and 3 T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

  9. Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1–4 vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, Bφ, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1–4 vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-μm-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A cm−1 at 77 K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455 A cm−1 at 65 K and 3 T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

  10. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  11. Crimping: A wire fastening technique in wire chamber construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, B.; Koltick, D.; Kobayashi, M.

    1990-04-01

    The successful crimping technique for fasteninng wires individually in place, developed during the construction of the TOPAZ high-resolution vertex chamber, is described. A model of how crimping works which yeilds the parameters for successful crimping, the tools needed and their properties, results of a study of the relaxation rate for wires that have been crimped under various conditions and finally the results of applying this technique to the TOPAZ vertex chamber are presented. Wire size range from 20 to 400 μm in diameter, typically tensioned to half their breaking strength and crimped in thin-walled tubing. Applying this technique to 400 μm wires spaced only 2.0 mm apart in tubing with 160 μm walls yield upper limit tension loss rates of between 0.2% and 0.4% per year.

  12. Control Methods for Wire Arrangement Unit of New Multi-Wire Saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Qian, Juying; Cai, Ji-Fei; Wang, Yan

    To solve such problems as unstable wire transmission caused by overly dense or overlaid local wire arrangement, an electronic cam wire arrangement method is put forward in this paper, adopting servo motor to drive the cam, making the wire arrangement motor follow the speed change of taking-up motor, outputing the wire arrangement motor speed with the deduced functional operation relation, and controlling the wire arrangement pulley to evenly distribute the steel wire on the taking-up roller.

  13. Magnetic fields end-face effect investigation of HTS bulk over PMG with 3D-modeling numerical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujie; Lu, Yiyun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the magnetic fields end-face effect of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) is researched with 3D-modeling numerical method. The electromagnetic behavior of the bulk is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The framework is formulated by the magnetic field vector method (H-method). A superconducting levitation system composed of one rectangular HTS bulk and one infinite long PMG is successfully investigated using the proposed method. The simulation results show that for finite geometrical HTS bulk, even the applied magnetic field is only distributed in x-y plane, the magnetic field component Hz which is along the z-axis can be observed interior the HTS bulk.

  14. Requirements for printed wiring boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  15. Critical currents of YBCO tapes and Bi-2212 wires at different temperatures and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V.; Barzi, e.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Design studies for the cooling channel of a Muon Collider call for straight and helical solenoids generating field well in excess of the critical fields of state of the art Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn or NbTi. Therefore, High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) will need to be used for the manufacturing of all or certain sections of such magnets to be able to generate and withstand the field levels at the cryogenic temperatures required by the new machine. In this work, two major High Temperature Superconductors - Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductor tapes - are investigated to understand how critical current density of such conductors scales as a function of external field and operating temperature. This is vital information to make conductor choices depending on the application and to proceed with the design of such magnets.

  16. Modal parameters of space structures in 1 G and 0 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicos, Andrew S.; Crawley, Edward F.; Barlow, Mark S.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.; Masters, Brett

    1993-01-01

    Analytic and experimental results are presented from a study of the changes in the modal parameters of space structural test articles from one- to zero-gravity. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules was assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. The structures were modeled as if hanging from a suspension system in one gravity, and unconstrained, as if free floating in zero-gravity. The analysis is compared with ground experimental measurements, which were made on a spring-wire suspension system with a nominal plunge frequency of one Hertz, and with measurements made on the Shuttle middeck. The degree of change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, reassembly, shipset, suspension, and ambient gravity level.

  17. Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

    2009-12-01

    To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and μ G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at μ G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and μ G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at μ G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at μ G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary. PMID:21319014

  19. Evidence for the 1 g{9}/{2} strength in 41Sc and proton decay mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; van de Wiele, J.; Gerlic, E.; Florent, J. J.; Willis, A.; Duhamel-Chretien, G.; Hourani, E.

    1991-04-01

    The centroid of the widely spread 1 g{9}/{2} proton particlestrength in 41Sc has been located at Ex=8.8 MeV. Relatively large decay branching ratios to the ground state and the first 3 - level of 40Ca have been observed in the 40Ca( 3He, dp) reaction at E3He=240 MeV.

  20. Environmental Influence of Gravity and Pressure on Arc Tracking of Insulated Wires Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Momentary short-circuit arcs between a defective polyimide-insulated wire and another conductor may thermally char (pyrolize) the insulating material. The charred polyimide, being conductive, can sustain the short-circuit arc, which may propagate along the wire through continuous pyrolization of the polyimide insulation (arc tracking). If the arcing wire is part of a multiple-wire bundle, the polyimide insulation of other wires within the bundle may become thermally charred and start arc tracking also (flash over). Such arc tracking can lead to complete failure of an entire wire bundle, causing other critical spacecraft or aircraft failures. Unfortunately, all tested candidate wire insulations for aerospace vehicles were susceptible to arc tracking. Therefore, a test procedure was designed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to select the insulation type least susceptible to arc tracking. This test procedure addresses the following three areas of concern: (1) probability of initiation, (2) probability of reinitiation (restrike), and (3) extent of arc tracking damage (propagation rate). Item 2 (restrike probability) is an issue if power can be terminated from and reapplied to the arcing wire (by a switch, fuse, or resettable circuit breaker). The degree of damage from an arcing event (item 3) refers to how easily the arc chars nearby insulation and propagates along the wire pair. Ease of nearby insulation charring can be determined by measuring the rate of arc propagation. Insulation that chars easily will propagate the arc faster than insulation that does not char very easily. A popular polyimide insulated wire for aerospace vehicles, MIL-W-81381, was tested to determine a degree of damage from an arcing event (item 3) in the following three environments: (1) microgravity with air at 1-atm pressure, (2) 1g with air at 1 atm, and (3) 1g within a 10^-6 Torr vacuum. The microgravity 1-atm air was the harshest environment, with respect to the rate of damage of arc tracking, for the 20 AWG (American Wiring Gauge) MIL-W-81381 wire insulation type . The vacuum environment resulted in the least damage. Further testing is planned to determine if the environmental results are consistent between insulation types and to evaluate the other two parameters associated with arc tracking susceptibility.

  1. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  2. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  3. High strength, wire-reinforced electroformed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, J. M.; Duscha, R. A.; Mccandless, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Using half-round reinforcing wires, electrodeposited matrix metal readily fills spaces between wires in intimate contact with wires and without voids. Procedure combines advantages of electroforming with high-strength of commonly available wire to produce non-welded shell structures for high pressure uses.

  4. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  5. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions.

  6. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Rech, Jérôme; Matveev, K A

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions. PMID:18352498

  7. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  8. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  9. Study on heat leakage of current leads of 300 kVA HTS transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Tang, Yuejin; Si, Hansong; Li, Jingdong; Shi, Jing; Wei, Bin; Cheng, Shijie

    2006-08-01

    Current leads of HTS transformer are a part that leads to heat leakage. Its design and fabrication influence greatly the loss of nitrogen during operation. It is important to calculate and identify the heat leakage of current leads. According to the requirements of the 300 kVA HTS transformer used for electrical locomotives, based on finite element method and heat transfer theory, this paper designed unitary current leads, which are winded just like solenoid shape. And, as the low voltage current lead was not feed DC current or feed different DC currents, a series of experiments were carried out on measuring the gas flux respectively. Then, the calorimetry principle about heat leak is obtained. The experimental results show a good according with the simulation, which show that the unitary helical current lead meets the requirements of design.

  10. Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. )

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

  11. A cryogen-free HTS Josephson junction detector for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Smart, K.; Li, L.; Leslie, K. E.; Hanham, S. M.; Wang, D. H. C.; Foley, C. P.; Ji, F.; Li, X. D.; Zeng, D. Z.

    2015-08-01

    A cryogen-free terahertz (THz) imaging system based on a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction detector is reported. The detector was made of a YBa2Cu3O7-x step-edge Josephson junction and integrated into an on-chip thin-film antenna. The HTS Josephson detector was cooled via a commercial mechanical cryocooler; an important step towards cryogen-free THz instrumentation, which is critical for industrial acceptance. In addition, it is shown that operating the detector in a cryocooler provides improved flexibility for optimizing the detector parameters and performance due to the ability to adjust the temperature compared to liquid nitrogen cooling methods. The dc and ac characteristics, the detector responsivity and the noise-equivalent power of the detector, and resulting image quality were studied as the function of operating temperatures.

  12. A method to enhance the curve negotiation performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, T.; Gou, Y. F.; Deng, Z. G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, B. T.; Chen, P.

    2015-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev has attracted more and more attention due to its special self-stable characteristic, and much work has been done to achieve its actual application, but the research about the curve negotiation is not systematic and comprehensive. In this paper, we focused on the change of the lateral displacements of the Maglev vehicle when going through curves under different velocities, and studied the change of the electromagnetic forces through experimental methods. Experimental results show that setting an appropriate initial eccentric distance (ED), which is the distance between the center of the bulk unit and the center of the permanent magnet guideway (PMG), when cooling the bulks is favorable for the Maglev system’s curve negotiation. This work will provide some available suggestions for improving the curve negotiation performance of the HTS Maglev system.

  13. Influence of Off-Centre Operation on the Performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Y.; He, D.; Zheng, J.; Ye, C.; Xu, Y.; Sun, R.; Che, T.; Deng, Z.

    2014-03-01

    Owing to instinctive self-stable levitation characteristics, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev using bulk high-temperature superconductors attracts more and more attention from scientists and engineers around the world. In this paper, the levitation force relaxation and guidance force characteristics of a Y-Ba-Cu-O levitation unit with different eccentric distances (EDs) off the center of the permanent magnet guideway were experimentally investigated under field-cooling (FC) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the levitation force slightly increases at small EDs firstly, but degrades with further increasing of EDs. However, the maximum guidance force and its stiffness exhibit enhancement in moderate ED range. The results demonstrate that a properly designed initial FC eccentric distance is important for the practical applications of HTS maglev according to specific requirements like running in curve lines.

  14. HTS electrical machines with BSCCO/Ag composite plate-shaped rotor elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Akimov, I. I.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2002-08-01

    This work relates to the investigation of electrical machines having advanced BSCCO/Ag-sheathed elements which are being produced by the well-known technology “powder in tube”. That foliate HTS material is being considered to be used in three types of electric machines: reluctance and hysteresis motors and synchronous machines with “trapped magnetic flux”. Depending on the thickness, quantity of BSCCO layers and filling factor they are being produced as thin and thick ones. Several small-scale experimental models of the above-mentioned types were developed and tested in liquid nitrogen. The output power rating of reluctance motors with thin and thick HTS elements are 3 and 4 kW respectively. “Trapped field” machine was tested in generator mode for open circuit operation. The value of obtained magnetic flux density in the air gap is 0.8 T.

  15. [Development of HTS model on SERT inhibitors combined biological screening model with HTVS].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Fang, Jian-song; Liu, Ai-lin; Du, Guan-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of drug screening on serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors, a high-throughput screening (HTS) model is established in RBL-2H3 cells. The RBL-2H3 cells are very similar to the serotonin genetic neuro, in modulation of post-receptor mechanisms and transduction pathway of SERT reactivated. Depending on a fluorescence substrate ASP+ used in detection method of inhibitor rates, it's convenient, quick, accurate and effective, not making the environmental biohazard compared with radioactive experiments. Furthermore, biological screening model combined with computer aided virtual screening technique describing high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS). Bayesian classification method and molecular fingerprint similarity were applied to virtual screening technique, for screening compounds in compound library. Some compounds have been found, and then validated further by biological screening model. Combination of HTS and HTVS improves the efficiency of screening SERT inhibitors. PMID:26757547

  16. Fabrication of PDA/HTS prototype components. [graphite composites for space shuttle and YF-12 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A process was developed for autoclave molding structural poly-(Diels-Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin/HTS graphite composites for short-term 600 F service. The autoclave molding process used to fabricate these composites required a maximum cure temperature of 427 K (400 F) and a maximum molding pressure of 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psig). This process then was adapted to the fabrication of co-cured polyimide sandwich panels consisting of PDA/HTS skins, PDA syntactic foam and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by manufacturing five three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels using the PDA resin. It was concluded from successful evaluation of these prototype units that the PDA resin is suitable for fabrication of components using commercial equipment.

  17. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  18. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  19. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  20. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  1. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  2. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  3. On some consequences of an external magnetic field applied to HTS coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitel, Jozef; Kováč, Pavol

    2011-12-01

    A computational model which enables to evaluate the distribution of the critical currents, electric fields and the voltage in the winding of a solenoidal high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets subjected to an external magnetic field parallel with the magnet axis, was developed. The model comes out from the well-known power law between the electric field and the transport current of the HTS tape short sample. It allows to predict the voltage-current V( I) characteristics of both the pancake coils and the complete magnet. The model was applied to the magnet system consisting of 22 pancake coils made of multifilamentary Bi(2223)/Ag tape at 20 K, which is subjected to an external uniform magnetic field parallel with the coil axis. A rather unexpected behavior of the magnet at different operating conditions (operating current and external magnetic field strength) is predicted, analyzed and reported together with a theoretical explanation. On one hand, the external uniform magnetic field parallel with the coil axis increases the resulting magnetic field strength, however, on the other hand it simultaneously decreases the angle between the resulting magnetic field and the tape surface. Thus, the effect of higher magnetic loading caused by the presence of an external magnetic field strength which is acting on individual turns located close to the coil’s flanges is compensated by more favorable orientation of the tape with respect to the resulting magnetic field. As a result, increase in the critical currents of these turns is expected. Further, the results indicate, that in case of the high field HTS insert coils the anisotropy in the I c( B) characteristic does not play a substantial role. As a consequence, the technology of the production of the tapes for high field insert HTS coils should concentrate rather on the tapes having the current carrying capacity as high as possible, than on the attempt how to decrease the anisotropy in the I c( B) by changing the architecture of the filaments in the tape.

  4. Concepts for using trapped-flux HTS in motors and generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.; Strasik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examine the expected performance of a brushless motor/generator that uses trapped-flux (TF) bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to provide magnetomotive force, where the stator windings are used to create the TF. A key feature is the use of dysprosium (Dy) for the stator and rotor cores. We also examine methods to energize TF in HTS for generators used in pulsed-power applications.

  5. Numerical models for ac loss calculation in large-scale applications of HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéval, Loïc; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models are powerful tools to predict the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. In recent years, a variety of models have been successfully developed to simulate high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) coated conductor tapes. While the models work well for the simulation of individual tapes or relatively small assemblies, their direct applicability to devices involving hundreds or thousands of tapes, e.g., coils used in electrical machines, is questionable. Indeed, the simulation time and memory requirement can quickly become prohibitive. In this paper, we develop and compare two different models for simulating realistic HTS devices composed of a large number of tapes: (1) the homogenized model simulates the coil using an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous bulk with specifically developed current constraints to account for the fact that each turn carries the same current; (2) the multi-scale model parallelizes and reduces the computational problem by simulating only several individual tapes at significant positions of the coil’s cross-section using appropriate boundary conditions to account for the field generated by the neighboring turns. Both methods are used to simulate a coil made of 2000 tapes, and compared against the widely used H-formulation finite-element model that includes all the tapes. Both approaches allow faster simulations of large number of HTS tapes by 1-3 orders of magnitudes, while maintaining good accuracy of the results. Both models can therefore be used to design and optimize large-scale HTS devices. This study provides key advancement with respect to previous versions of both models. The homogenized model is extended from simple stacks to large arrays of tapes. For the multi-scale model, the importance of the choice of the current distribution used to generate the background field is underlined; the error in ac loss estimation resulting from the most obvious choice of starting from a uniform current distribution is revealed.

  6. Optimization of a condensed-neon cooling system for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, B.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2010-06-01

    The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below Tc. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.

  7. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government’s financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  8. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  9. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  10. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  11. Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Pan; Lu Yongjin; Lei Liping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang

    2010-06-15

    The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to a type of the micro-forming in macro-scale processing. There are two main characteristics founded: (a) contact and friction between silver and BSCCO surfaces, (b) interface between two materials. A series of micro-tensile experiments of silver foil with thicknesses of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 mm are designed to investigate the behaviors of silver with various scale of sizes. And the surface topography measurements have been carried out to analyze the changes in surface topography. Based upon experiments, some topics are researched which are referred to inhomogeneous, local effect, size effect, grain and micro-structure affecting, surface roughness, long-distance sausage phenomenon. Further the local breakdown of silver by Bi-HTS powder during process is analyzed through failure criterion. The results of this work will bring out an important exploration value to the theory and computation of micro-forming.

  12. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  13. Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ∅ 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

  14. Non-destructive inspection using HTS SQUID on aluminum liner covered by CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2007-10-01

    An eddy-current-based SQUID non-destructive inspection (NDI) system to detect deep-lying cracks in multi-layer composite-Al vessels was developed taking advantage of the uncontested sensitivity of HTS-SQUID in low-frequency range. An HTS-SQUID gradiometer was mounted in a pulse tube cryocooler. A pair of differential coils with C-shaped ferrite cores was employed to induce an enhanced eddy current in an Al vessel wrapped in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover. Ellipsoidal dome-shaped Al liners containing through cracks, which were made by pressure cycle tests, in the CFRP covers with total thickness of 6 mm (CFPR 3 mm, and Al 3 mm) were inspected by the system. While inducing eddy currents in the vessels with excitation fields at 100 Hz or 7 kHz, the vessels were rotated under the HTS-SQUID. Above the cracks, anomalous signals due to the cracks were clearly detected at both frequencies. These results suggested the SQUID-NDI technique would be a possible candidate for inspection of high-pressure multi-layer composite-Al vessels.

  15. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  16. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:24386790

  17. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  18. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  19. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  20. The association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: Evidence from 33 studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; He, Jing; Cai, Jiao; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Jinhong; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant folate metabolism is closely related to tumorigenesis. Genetic variations in the Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) may alter the progress of folate metabolism, and thereby cause the initiation and progress of the cancer. Considerable studies have performed to investigate the association between RFC1 G80A (rs1051266) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions were conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism with cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. The association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer risk was evaluated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The significant association was found between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and hematological malignance susceptibility (A vs. G: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.003-1.23, P=0.045; GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31, P=0.002; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.07-1.29, P=0.001). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that the association became more prominent among Caucasians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.12-1.45, P<0.001; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.36, P=0.001). In term of the cancer type, this polymorphism significantly increased the risk of acute lymphoblast leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.001-1.28, P=0.048; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.46, P<0.001) and acute myeloid leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=2.57, 95%CI=1.37-4.85, P=0.003). No significant association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and overall solid cancer risk was observed, but a protective association with digestive cancer risk was found (GA vs. GG: OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.81-0.99, P=0.030). The comprehensive meta-analysis encouraged the notion that RFC1 G80A polymorphism may play an important role in hematopoietic system malignance. These findings need further validation in the large multicenter investigations. PMID:26819637

  1. The X1? +g ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knckel, H.; Rhmann, S.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-03-01

    The A^1? u^+ - X^1? g^+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X^1? g^+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.

  2. Quantitative assessment of caveolin-1 G14713A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility in the Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianjun; Wang, Gang; Li, Qiang; Song, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between caveolin-1 (CAV1) G14713A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility remains inconclusive. The current meta-analysis was performed on the basis of a systematic search in electronic databases for a more precise estimation of the associations. Methods Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the pooled effect. Results A total of 12 studies including 4,994 cases and 5,606 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, CAV1 G14713A polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer (A vs G: OR =1.77, 95% CI: 1.49–2.10, Phet<0.01; [AA + AG] vs GG: OR =2.03, 95% CI: 1.64–2.53, Phet<0.01; AA vs [AG + GG]: OR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.40–2.12, Phet<0.01; AA vs GG: OR =2.24, 95% CI: 1.69–2.98, Phet<0.01; AG vs GG: OR =1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41, Phet<0.01). Subgroup analysis by cancer type showed that CAV1 G14713A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancer and other cancer types. Conclusion Our findings suggest that CAV1 G14713A polymorphisms may modify the risk of cancer, especially digestive system cancer. However, further well-designed studies are warranted to validate this association. PMID:27022292

  3. BSND and ATP6V1G3: Novel Immunohistochemical Markers for Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Igarashi, Hisaki; Kato, Hisami; Koda, Kenji; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seishiro; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Funai, Kazuhito; Takayama, Tatsuya; Ozono, Seiichiro; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2015-06-01

    Differentiating between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other RCC subtypes can be problematic using routine light microscopy. This study aimed to identify novel immunohistochemical markers useful for a differential diagnosis between chromophobe RCC and other RCC subtypes. We selected 3 genes (including BSND and ATP6V1G3) that showed specific transcriptional expression in chromophobe RCC using expression data (n = 783) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subsequent immunohistochemical examination of 186 RCCs obtained in our patient series resulted in a strong diffuse positivity of BSND and ATP6V1G3 proteins (both of which are involved in the regulation of membrane transport) in all the chromophobe RCC specimens (23/23 cases, 100%) but not in the clear cell RCC specimens (0/153 cases, 0%) or the papillary RCC specimens (0/10 cases, 0%). BSND and ATP6V1G3 protein expressions were also detected in renal oncocytoma (13/14 cases, 92.9%) and in the distal nephron, including the collecting duct, in the normal kidney. A computational analysis of TCGA data suggested that DNA methylation was involved in the differential expression pattern of both genes among RCC subtypes. Finally, an immunohistochemical analysis showed lung carcinomas were negative (0/85 cases, 0%) for the expression of both proteins. These results suggest that BSND and ATP6V1G3 are excellent novel immunohistochemical markers for differentiating between chromophobe RCC and other subtypes of RCC, including clear cell and papillary RCCs. PMID:26091477

  4. BSND and ATP6V1G3: Novel Immunohistochemical Markers for Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Igarashi, Hisaki; Kato, Hisami; Koda, Kenji; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seishiro; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Funai, Kazuhito; Takayama, Tatsuya; Ozono, Seiichiro; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Differentiating between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other RCC subtypes can be problematic using routine light microscopy. This study aimed to identify novel immunohistochemical markers useful for a differential diagnosis between chromophobe RCC and other RCC subtypes. We selected 3 genes (including BSND and ATP6V1G3) that showed specific transcriptional expression in chromophobe RCC using expression data (n = 783) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subsequent immunohistochemical examination of 186 RCCs obtained in our patient series resulted in a strong diffuse positivity of BSND and ATP6V1G3 proteins (both of which are involved in the regulation of membrane transport) in all the chromophobe RCC specimens (23/23 cases, 100%) but not in the clear cell RCC specimens (0/153 cases, 0%) or the papillary RCC specimens (0/10 cases, 0%). BSND and ATP6V1G3 protein expressions were also detected in renal oncocytoma (13/14 cases, 92.9%) and in the distal nephron, including the collecting duct, in the normal kidney. A computational analysis of TCGA data suggested that DNA methylation was involved in the differential expression pattern of both genes among RCC subtypes. Finally, an immunohistochemical analysis showed lung carcinomas were negative (0/85 cases, 0%) for the expression of both proteins. These results suggest that BSND and ATP6V1G3 are excellent novel immunohistochemical markers for differentiating between chromophobe RCC and other subtypes of RCC, including clear cell and papillary RCCs. PMID:26091477

  5. Amino acids as biomarkers in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Bame, Monica; Grier, Robert E; Needleman, Richard; Brusilow, William S A

    2014-01-01

    The development of therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been hindered by the lack of biomarkers for both identifying early disease and for monitoring the effectiveness of drugs. The identification of ALS biomarkers in presymptomatic individuals might also provide clues to the earliest biochemical correlates of the disease. Previous attempts to use plasma metabolites as biomarkers have led to contradictory results, presumably because of heterogeneity in both the underlying genetics and the disease stage in the clinical population. To eliminate these two sources of heterogeneity we have characterized plasma amino acids and other metabolites in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for ALS. Presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice have significant differences in concentrations of several plasma metabolites compared to wild type animals, most notably in the concentrations of aspartate, cystine/cysteine, and phosphoethanolamine, and in changes indicative of methylation defects. There are significant changes in amino acid compositions between 50 and 70days of age in both the SOD1(G93A) and wild type mice, and several of the age-related and disease-related differences in metabolite concentration were also gender-specific. Many of the SOD1(G93A)-related differences could be altered by treatment of mice with methionine sulfoximine, which extends the lifespan of this mouse, inhibits glutamine synthetase, and modifies brain methylation reactions. These studies show that assaying plasma metabolites can effectively distinguish transgenic mice from wild type, suggesting that one or more plasma metabolites might be useful biomarkers for the disease in humans, especially if genetic and longitudinal analysis is used to reduce population heterogeneity. PMID:24129262

  6. Final Remediation Report for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    SciTech Connect

    Morganstern, M.

    2002-06-18

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (K BPOP) Building Number 643-1G, is situated immediately south and outside the K-Reactor fence line and is approximately 400 feet in length and 60 feet in width. For the K BPOP operable unit, the Land Use Control (LUC) objectives are to prevent contact, removal, or excavation of buried waste in the area and to preclude residential use of the area.

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  12. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  13. Th17 Cell Response in SOD1(G93A) Mice following Motor Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Allen; Yang, Tao; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A; Gutierrez, Rafael; Stubbs, Evan B; McGuire, Susan O; Sanders, Virginia M; Jones, Kathryn J; Foecking, Eileen M; Xin, Junping

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of ALS has been reported for veterans, varsity athletes, and professional football players. The mechanism underlying the increased risk in these populations has not been identified; however, it has been proposed that motor nerve injury may trigger immune responses which, in turn, can accelerate the progression of ALS. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal immune reactions and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, but the specific immune cells involved have not been clearly defined. To understand how nerve injury and immune responses may contribute to ALS development, we investigated responses of CD4(+) T cell after facial motor nerve axotomy (FNA) at a presymptomatic stage in a transgenic mouse model of ALS (B6SJL SOD1(G93A)). SOD1(G93A) mice, compared with WT mice, displayed an increase in the basal activation state of CD4(+) T cells and higher frequency of Th17 cells, which were further enhanced by FNA. In conclusion, SOD1(G93A) mice exhibit abnormal CD4(+) T cell activation with increased levels of Th17 cells prior to the onset of neurological symptoms. Motor nerve injury exacerbates Th17 cell responses and may contribute to the development of ALS, especially in those who carry genetic susceptibility to this disease. PMID:27194826

  14. Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S.; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8 h), and reaction temperatures (60–120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

  15. Some Important Aspects of Physical Modelling of Liquefaction in 1-g Shaking Table

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Towhata, Ikuo

    2008-07-08

    Physical modeling of liquefaction in 1-g shaking table and dynamic centrifuge test become very popular to simulate the ground behavior during earthquake motion. 1-g shaking table tests require scaled down model ground which can be prepared in three methods; water sedimentation, moist tamping and dry deposition method. Moist tamping and dry deposition method need saturation of model ground which is expensive and very difficult to achieve. Some model tests were performed in 1-g shaking table to see the influence of preparation method of model ground. Wet tamping and water sedimentation method of ground preparation were compared in these tests. Behavior of level ground and slope were also examined. Slope and level ground model test increased the understanding of excess pore pressure generation in both cases. Wet tamping method has a possibility of not being fully saturated. Pore pressure transducers should be fixed vertically so that it can not settle down during shaking but can move with ground. There was insignificant difference in acceleration and excess pore pressure responses between wet tamping and water sedimentation method in case of level ground. Spiky accelerations were prominent in slope prepared by water sedimentation method. Spiky accelerations were the result of lateral displacement induced dilatancy of soil.

  16. Metallothionein 1G acts as an oncosupressor in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Cristina; Lavagni, Paola; Gariboldi, Manuela; Miranda, Claudia; Losa, Marco; Cleris, Loredana; Formelli, Franca; Pilotti, Silvana; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of tumors arising from the thyroid follicular epithelial cells, including papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), is only partially understood, and the role of tumor suppressor genes has not yet been assessed. The metallothionein (MT) gene family encodes a class of metal-binding proteins involved in several cellular processes, and their expression is often deregulated in human tumors. Recently, downregulation of MT gene expression in PTC has been reported, suggesting a possible oncosuppressor role of this gene family in the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors. To further explore this possibility, we performed expression and functional studies. Analysis of microarray data of thyroid tumors of different histologic types showed that several MT genes were downregulated with respect to normal tissue. The microarray data were corroborated by quantitative PCR experiments, showing downregulation of MTs in PTC and FTC, but to a greater extent in papillary carcinoma. The expression of MTs was also investigated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry; the results were consistent with the microarray data, showing general downregulation in tumor samples, which was more evident in PTC. The functional consequence of MT downregulation was addressed employing an experimental model made of the PTC-derived K1 cell line in which MT1G expression is repressed by promoter methylation. Restoration of MT1G expression by cDNA transfection affected growth rate and in vivo tumorigenicity of K1 cells, indicating an oncosuppressor role for MT1G in thyroid papillary tumorigenesis. PMID:18332874

  17. Th17 Cell Response in SOD1G93A Mice following Motor Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Allen; Yang, Tao; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A.; Gutierrez, Rafael; Stubbs, Evan B.; McGuire, Susan O.; Sanders, Virginia M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Foecking, Eileen M.; Xin, Junping

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of ALS has been reported for veterans, varsity athletes, and professional football players. The mechanism underlying the increased risk in these populations has not been identified; however, it has been proposed that motor nerve injury may trigger immune responses which, in turn, can accelerate the progression of ALS. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal immune reactions and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, but the specific immune cells involved have not been clearly defined. To understand how nerve injury and immune responses may contribute to ALS development, we investigated responses of CD4+ T cell after facial motor nerve axotomy (FNA) at a presymptomatic stage in a transgenic mouse model of ALS (B6SJL SOD1G93A). SOD1G93A mice, compared with WT mice, displayed an increase in the basal activation state of CD4+ T cells and higher frequency of Th17 cells, which were further enhanced by FNA. In conclusion, SOD1G93A mice exhibit abnormal CD4+ T cell activation with increased levels of Th17 cells prior to the onset of neurological symptoms. Motor nerve injury exacerbates Th17 cell responses and may contribute to the development of ALS, especially in those who carry genetic susceptibility to this disease. PMID:27194826

  18. H, G1, G2 photometric phase function extended to low-accuracy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Wilkman, O.; Muinonen, K.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a constrained nonlinear least-squares algorithm to be used in estimating the parameters in the H, G1, G2 phase function. As the algorithm works directly in the magnitude space, it will surpass the possible bias problem that may be present in the existing H ,G1 ,G2 fit procedure when applied to low-accuracy observations with large magnitude variations. With constraints on the photometric phase-curve shape parameters G1 and G2, it guarantees a physically reasonable phase-curve estimate. With a new data set of 93 asteroids, we re-assess the two-parameter version of the H ,G1 ,G2 function. Finally, we introduce a one-parameter version of the phase function that can give a suggestion of the asteroids taxonomic group based only on its phase curve. A statistical model selection procedure is presented that can automatically select between the different versions of the photometric phase functions. An online tool that implements these algorithms is introduced.

  19. Lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the possibility of utilizing detoxified sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (DSCBH) as an alternative carbon source to culture Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g for microbial oil and biodiesel production. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% HCl resulted in maximum total sugar concentration (21.38 g/L) in which 13.59 g/L is xylose, 3.98 g/L is glucose, and 2.78 g/L is arabinose. Detoxification of SCBH by Ca(OH)₂ neutralization reduced the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural by 21.31% and 24.84%, respectively. Growth of Y. lipolytica Po1g in DSCBH with peptone as the nitrogen source gave maximum biomass concentration (11.42 g/L) compared to NH₄NO₃ (6.49 g/L). With peptone as the nitrogen source, DSCBH resulted in better biomass concentration than D-glucose (10.19 g/L), D-xylose (9.89 g/L) and NDSCBH (5.88 g/L). The maximum lipid content, lipid yield and lipid productivity of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in DSCBH and peptone was 58.5%, 6.68 g/L and 1.76 g/L-day, respectively. PMID:21757339

  20. Cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and glioma risk in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Song, Zhi; Liao, Da-Guang; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Liu, Feng; Zheng, Wen; Luo, Kui; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have suggested that the Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to various cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and the risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Materials and methods: CCND1 genotyping was determined by the PCR-RFLP method. The χ 2 test was used to assess for any deviation of the genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and to compare the genotype distributions among glioma patients and healthy control subjects. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) by using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The A allele frequency was higher in cases than that in controls (49.40% vs. 36.39%), and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Using the G allele as the reference allele, the subjects carrying the A allele had 3.926-fold increase in the risk of glioma (95% CI, 2.172-7.889), and p-value was significant (P = 0.007). Compared to individuals with the GG genotype, individuals with the AA genotype exhibited significantly increased glioma risk (OR = 3.661, 95% CI: 1.658-6.287, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CCND1 G870A polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese population. PMID:26309688

  1. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  2. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  3. Wires for Shape Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

  4. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  5. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce photometric fits to very scarce and low-accuracy data. There are a few details that should be considered with the H,G_1,G_2 or H,G_{12} systems with scarce data. The first point is the distribution of errors in the fit. The original H,G system allowed linear regression in the flux space, thus making the estimation computationally easier. The same principle was repeated with the H,G_1,G_2 system. There is, however, a major hidden assumption in the transformation. With regression modeling, the residuals should be distributed symmetrically around zero. If they are normally distributed, even better. We have noticed that, at least with some NEO observations, the residuals in the flux space are far from symmetric, and seem to be much more symmetric in the magnitude space. The result is that the nonlinear fit in magnitude space is far more reliable than the linear fit in the flux space. Since the computers and nonlinear regression algorithms are efficient enough, we conclude that, in many cases, with low-accuracy data the nonlinear fit should be favored. In fact, there are statistical procedures that should be employed with the photometric fit. At the moment, the choice between the three-parameter and two-parameter versions is simply based on subjective decision-making. By checking parameter error and model comparison statistics, the choice could be done objectively. Similarly, the choice between the linear fit in flux space and the nonlinear fit in magnitude space should be based on a statistical test of unbiased residuals. Furthermore, the so-called Box-Cox transform could be employed to find an optimal transformation somewhere between the magnitude and flux spaces. The H,G_1,G_2 system is based on cubic splines, and is therefore a bit more complicated to implement than a system with simpler basis functions. The same applies to a complete program that would automatically choose the best transforms to data, test if two- or three-parameter version of the model should be fitted, and produce the fitted parameters with their error estimates. Our group has already made implementations of the H,G_1,G_2 system publicly available [2]. We plan to implement the abovementioned improvements to the system and make also these tools public.

  6. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

  7. Charge transport along proton wires.

    PubMed

    Karahka, Markus Leopold; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Using density functional theory we look at the quantum mechanics of charge transport along water wires both with free ends and donor/acceptor terminated. With the intermediate geometries in the DFT iterations we can follow the charge transfer mechanism and also construct the energy landscape explicitly. It shows activation barriers when a proton is transferred from one water molecule to the next. This, together with snapshots of intermediate geometries, leads to a justification and further elucidation of the Grotthuss mechanism and the Bjerrum effect. The charge transfer times and the conductivity of the proton wire are obtained in agreement with experimental results. PMID:24706126

  8. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  9. A study on the improvement of protective relay system for the utility application of HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Park, I. K.; Lee, S. R.; Park, J. D.; Kwon, Y. K.; Yu, I. K.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, the analysis and improvement of protective relay systems are performed with respect to HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable applied in a model power system. The over current relay and differential relay with proposed new decision making algorithm are implemented under a couple of fault conditions, a single line-to-ground fault and three phase short circuit. According to the analysis results, there is not a particular aspect for the protection system of HTS power cable, but the impedance variation of HTS power cable should be taken into account under the fault conditions. In the case of the differential relay system, the induced current ratio based fault detection scheme is proposed and applied for the bus to bus connection of HTS power cable protection. The circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm well. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide more useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems.

  10. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  11. Correlation of AH-1G airframe test data with a NASTRAN mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Test data was provided for evaluating a mathematical vibration model of the Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe. The math model was developed and analyzed using the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program. Data from static and dynamic tests were used for comparison with the math model. Static tests of the fuselage and tailboom were conducted to verify the stiffness representation of the NASTRAN model. Dynamic test data were obtained from shake tests of the airframe and were used to evaluate the NASTRAN model for representing the low frequency (below 30 Hz) vibration response of the airframe.

  12. Crystal structures of human gephyrin and plant Cnx1 G domains: comparative analysis and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, G; Schrader, N; Mendel, R R; Hecht, H J; Schindelin, H

    2001-09-14

    The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) consists of a unique and conserved pterin derivative, usually referred to as molybdopterin (MPT), which coordinates the essential transition metal molybdenum (Mo). Moco is required for the enzymatic activities of all Mo-enzymes, with the exception of nitrogenase and is synthesized by an evolutionary old multi-step pathway that is dependent on the activities of at least six gene products. In eukaryotes, the final step of Moco biosynthesis, i.e. transfer and insertion of Mo into MPT, is catalyzed by the two-domain proteins Cnx1 in plants and gephyrin in mammals. Gephyrin is ubiquitously expressed, and was initially found in the central nervous system, where it is essential for clustering of inhibitory neuroreceptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Gephyrin and Cnx1 contain at least two functional domains (E and G) that are homologous to the Escherichia coli proteins MoeA and MogA, the atomic structures of which have been solved recently. Here, we present the crystal structures of the N-terminal human gephyrin G domain (Geph-G) and the C-terminal Arabidopsis thaliana Cnx1 G domain (Cnx1-G) at 1.7 and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. These structures are highly similar and compared to MogA reveal four major differences in their three-dimensional structures: (1) In Geph-G and Cnx1-G an additional alpha-helix is present between the first beta-strand and alpha-helix of MogA. (2) The loop between alpha 2 and beta 2 undergoes conformational changes in all three structures. (3) A beta-hairpin loop found in MogA is absent from Geph-G and Cnx1-G. (4) The C terminus of Geph-G follows a different path from that in MogA. Based on the structures of the eukaryotic proteins and their comparisons with E. coli MogA, the predicted binding site for MPT has been further refined. In addition, the characterized alternative splice variants of gephyrin are analyzed in the context of the three-dimensional structure of Geph-G. PMID:11554796

  13. Investigation of difficult component effects on FEM vibration prediction for the AH-1G helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Secondary structure and damping were found to have significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. The nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomeric mounts on the low-frequency pylon modes below the main rotor were also significant.

  14. Functional interplay between PPM1G and the transcription elongation machinery

    PubMed Central

    Gudipaty, Swapna Aravind; D’Orso, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Transcription elongation is a critical regulatory step in the gene expression cycle. One key regulator of the switch between transcription initiation and elongation is the P-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and several negative elongation factors to relieve the elongation block at paused promoters to facilitate productive elongation. Here, we highlight recent findings signifying the role of the PPM1G/PP2Cγ phosphatase in activating and maintaining the active transcription elongation state by regulating the availability of P-TEFb and blocking its assembly into the catalytic inactive 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. PMID:27088130

  15. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  16. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  17. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  18. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  19. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conductor shall be of sufficient conductivity and shall be maintained in such condition to ensure proper... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations...

  20. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  1. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  2. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  3. η collective mode as A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Pépin, C.; Benhabib, S.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible existence of a spin singlet excitation with charge ±2 (η mode) originating the A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors. This η mode relates the d -wave superconducting singlet pairing channel to a d -wave charge channel. We show that the η boson forms a particle-particle bound state below the 2 Δ threshold of the particle-hole continuum where Δ is the maximum d -wave gap. Within a generalized random phase approximation and Bethe-Salpeter approximation study, we find that this mode has energies similar to the resonance observed with inelastic neutron scattering below the superconducting (SC) coherent peak at 2 Δ in various SC cuprate compounds. We show that it is a very good candidate for the resonance observed in Raman scattering below the 2 Δ peak in the A1 g symmetry. Since the η mode sits in the S =0 channel, it may be observable via Raman, x-ray, or electron energy loss spectroscopy probes.

  4. Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

  5. A Miniaturized Glucocorticoid Receptor Translocation Assay using Enzymatic Fragment Complementation Evaluated with qHTS

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping Jun; Zheng, Wei; Auld, Douglas S.; Jadhav, Ajit; MacArthur, Ryan; Olson, Keith R.; Peng, Kun; Dotimas, Hyna; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear translocation is an important step in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling and assays that measure this process allow the identification of nuclear receptor ligands independent of subsequent functional effects. To facilitate the identification of GR-translocation agonists, an enzyme fragment complementation (EFC) cell-based assay was scaled to a 1536-well plate format to evaluate 9,920 compounds using a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) strategy where compounds are assayed at multiple concentrations. In contrast to conventional assays of nuclear translocation the qHTS assay described here was enabled on a standard luminescence microplate reader precluding the requirement for imaging methods. The assay uses beta-galactosidase alpha complementation to indirectly detect GR-translocation in CHO-K1 cells [Fung, P., et al. Assay Drug Devel. Technol. 2006, 4(3): 263–272]. 1536-well assay miniaturization included the elimination of a media aspiration step, and the optimized assay displayed a Z′ of 0.55. qHTS yielded EC50 values for all 9,920 compounds and allowed us to retrospectively examine the dataset as a single concentration-based screen to estimate the number of false positives and negatives at typical activity thresholds. For example, at a 9 μM screening concentration the assay showed an accuracy that is comparable to typical cell-based assays as judged by the occurrence of false positives that we determined to be 1.3% or 0.3%, for a 3σ or 6σ threshold, respectively. This corresponds to a confirmation rate of ~30% or ~50%, respectively. The assay was consistent with glucocorticoid pharmacology as scaffolds with close similarity to dexamethasone were identified as active, while, for example, steroids that act as ligands to other nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor were found to be inactive. PMID:18694391

  6. Design of Conduction-cooled HTS Coils for a Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shigeki; Koyanagi, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ishii, Yusuke; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; Noda, Koji

    Carbon ion cancer therapy is becoming more widespread due to its high curative effects and low burden on patients. Carbon ions are delivered to patients through electromagnets on a rotating gantry.A rotating gantry is attractive because it allows carbon ions to irradiate a tumor from any direction without changing the posture of the patient. On the other hand, because of the high magnetic rigidity of carbon ions, the weight of a rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy is about three times higher than one for proton cancer therapy, according to our estimation. The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets has been considered for reducing the size of the rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy. The target weight is 200 t or less,which is equivalent to the weight of a typical rotating gantry for proton cancer therapy.In this study, the magnet layout of the rotating gantry and the superconducting magnets were designed from the viewpoint of beam optics.When applying high-temperature superconductors to accelerator magnets, there are some issues that should be considered, for example, the influence of tape magnetization and manufacturing accuracy on the field quality, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils under an alternating magnetic field, and methods to protect the coils from thermal runaway caused by an anomalous thermal input such as that due to beam loss. First, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils was simulated numerically, and the thermal runaway current was calculated in a static situation.

  7. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    PubMed

    Polireddy, Kishore; Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J; Haynes, Mark K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Tegos, George P; Sklar, Larry A; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  8. 3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications.

  9. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph

    2014-01-29

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  10. A Novel Flow Cytometric HTS Assay Reveals Functional Modulators of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J.; Haynes, Mark K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Tegos, George P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6’s ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  11. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  12. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  13. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  14. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  15. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  16. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  17. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  18. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  19. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. An introduction to the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G HTS motor for the ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Heejong; Kim, Yeong-Chun; Park, Heui-Joo; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Minwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor for the ship propulsion application at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction. The purpose of this 2G HTS propulsion motor is to launch the business area for marine applications such as surface ship, submarine, merchant ship etc. The principles and interpretation of the magnetic field for 2G HTS motor and permanent magnet type motors are similar on the basis of 3D design and production. The most important component of an HTS motor is the rotor, which is composed of HTS coil, non-ferrous metal, torque disk, damper, and hollow shaft. A HTS rotor using hastelloy-based 2G HTS coils was designed and built. Open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics of the superconducting motor were investigated and compared with the analysis results at reduced excitation to verify the design. Preliminary testing of a 2G HTS motor has been conducted at a few hundred kilowatts as per the design. Through these results, we anticipate that most of the design criteria can be satisfied. However, we have faced several issues during the testing of the motor and these issues need to be resolved in order to take the design further.

  2. Probe molecules (PrM) approach in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high throughput screening (HTS): in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient and accurate adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high-throughput screening (HTS) methods use a systems biology based approach to computationally model in vitro cellular and molecular data for rapid chemical prioritization; however, not all HTS assays are grounded by rel...

  3. Plate-fin Heat-exchangers for a 10 kW Brayton Cryocooler and a 1 km HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Jung, Seyong; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si-Dole

    Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHX) are designed and fabricated for a cryogenic cooling system, serving for a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler and a 1 km HTS transmission cable under development in Korea. To achieve compactness and thermal efficiency at the same time, a recuperative HX for Brayton cycle and a sub-cooling HX of liquid nitrogen for HTS cable are designed as integrated parts. A key design feature is focused on the coldest part of sub-cooling HX, where the streams of liquid nitrogen and refrigerant (helium gas) are arranged as two-pass cross-flow so that the risk of freeze-out of liquid nitrogen can be reduced. Details of hardware PFHX design are presented and discussed towards its immediate application to the HTS cable system.

  4. Improvement of sensitivity of multisample biological immunoassay system using HTS SQUID and magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Saitoh, K.; Sugita, N.; Kuma, H.; Sugiura, Y.; Hamaoka, S.; Hamasaki, N.; Enpuku, K.

    2006-10-01

    Recently, we have developed a prototype magnetic immunoassay system using a high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to investigate the performance and usability of the magnetic immunoassay. In this study, we improved the immunoassay system to heighten the sensitivity of the immunoassay measurement. To reduce the SQUID-to-sample distance, we introduced a structure to compensate for thermal shrinkage in the cryostat and reduce the warpage of the window. The shape of pickup coil was also optimized to improve the field sensitivity. After these improvements, the magnetic signal intensity from Fe3O4 nanoparticles became about two times stronger than that achieved by our original system.

  5. The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

    2002-08-01

    With one firm offering to provide SMES with HTS current leads and several other entities developing flywheels with bearings that incorporate bulk ReBaCuO, the progress made toward meeting their technical goals appears promising. Another question needs attention from the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) community: 'Will technical success yield equipment that will sell?' Here, we recall what is being done and review issues touching on the specifications for equipment that customers might want. These specifications pose technical challenges that have received little attention from the community.

  6. Characterization of Hybrid Ferroelectric/HTS Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, M. D.; Mueller, C. H.; Bhasin, K. B.; Miranda, F. A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, a diversity of HTS-based microwave components has been demonstrated. Because of their low conductor losses, HTS-based components are very attractive for integration into microwave circuits for space communication systems. Recent advancements have made deposition of ferroelectric thin films onto HTS thin films possible. Due to the sensitivity of the ferroelectric's dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) to an externally applied electric field (E), ferroelectric/superconducting structures could be used in the fabrication of low loss, tunable microwave components. In this paper, we report on our study of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) and Ba(0.08)Sr(0.92)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) ferroelectric/superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. For the (Ba:Sr, 0.50:0.50) epitaxial sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 425 and a loss tangent (tan delta) of 0.040 were measured at 298 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. For the same sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 360 and tan delta of 0.036 were obtained at 77 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. Variations in epsilon(sub r) from 180 to 360 were observed over an applied E range of 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5.62 x 10(exp 4) V/cm with little change in tan delta. However, the range of epsilon(sub r) variation for the polycrystalline (Ba:Sr, 0.08:0.92) sample over 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 4.00 x 10(exp 4) V/cm was only 3.6 percent while tan delta increased markedly. These results indicate that a lack of epitaxy between the ferroelectric and superconducting layers decreases tuning and increases microwave losses.

  7. Calorimeter for measuring AC losses in HTS cables for superconducting power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Boenig, H. J.; Maley, M. P.; Fleshler, S.

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a calorimeter with a sensitivity of better than 1 mW/m for measuring AC losses in HTS multi-strand conductors for superconducting power transmission lines over a temperature range of 64 K to 80 K. By choosing a temperature difference technique we eliminate the need for corrections due to heating at the cable end connections. Use of a three-phase configuration allows measurement of single-phase, three-phase, and coupling losses. The 60 Hz calorimeter power supply has a capacity of 2500 A rms.

  8. Single-phase AC losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Maley, M. P.; Boenig, H. J.; Willis, J. O.; Coulter, J. Y.; Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G.

    1998-12-01

    We report single-phase AC loss measurements on 8-, 4-, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. We use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in 1-m long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8- and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher - probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

  9. Fermi Nesting between Atomic Wires with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegenkamp, C.; Lükermann, D.; Pfnür, H.; Slomski, B.; Landolt, G.; Dil, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The mutual interplay between superlattice structures, band filling factors, and spin-orbit coupling results in a highly correlated electronic spin and charge state found for an array of atomic Pb wires grown on Si(557). By means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the spin texture close to the Fermi surface was found to be alternating and equidistant; thus, Fermi nesting occurs in between bands with the same spin helicity, giving rise to spin-polarized charge-density waves in the direction across the wires. An out-of-phase superposition of both Rashba channels is manifested by an extraordinary large Rashba splitting of Δk0=0.2Å-1=g/2, where g is a reciprocal lattice vector defined by the interwire distance and fits into the model of spin-density waves in antiferromagnetically ordered chain structures. The implications towards spin-polarized transport along the wires will be discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  11. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  12. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  13. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  14. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and presents critiques of a utopian…

  15. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of...

  17. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  18. Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. C.; Gradin, H.; Schröder, S.; Braun, S.; Stemme, G.; van der Wijngaart, W.; Niklaus, F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports on a novel technique for the integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and other non-bondable wire materials into silicon-based microelectromechanical system structures using a standard wire-bonding tool. The efficient placement and alignment functions of the wire-bonding tool are used to mechanically attach the wire to deep-etched silicon anchoring and clamping structures. This approach enables a reliable and accurate integration of wire materials that cannot be wire bonded by traditional means.

  19. Effects of spaceflight on rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Recktenwald, M. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Roy, R. R.; Riazanski, S.; McCall, G. E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Washburn, D. A.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Effects of spaceflight on Rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G. Locomotor performance, activation patterns of the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) and MG tendon force during quadrupedal stepping were studied in adult Rhesus before and after 14 days of either spaceflight (n = 2) or flight simulation at 1G (n = 3). Flight simulation involved duplication of the spaceflight conditions and experimental protocol in a 1G environment. Postflight, but not postsimulation, electromyographic (EMG) recordings revealed clonus-like activity in all muscles. Compared with preflight, the cycle period and burst durations of the primary extensors (Sol, MG, and VL) tended to decrease postflight. These decreases were associated with shorter steps. The flexor (TA) EMG burst duration postflight was similar to preflight, whereas the burst amplitude was elevated. Consequently, the Sol:TA and MG:TA EMG amplitude ratios were lower following flight, reflecting a "flexor bias." Together, these alterations in mean EMG amplitudes reflect differential adaptations in motor-unit recruitment patterns of flexors and extensors as well as fast and slow motor pools. Shorter cycle period and burst durations persisted throughout the 20-day postflight testing period, whereas mean EMG returned to preflight levels by 17 days postflight. Compared with presimulation, the simulation group showed slight increases in the cycle period and burst durations of all muscles. Mean EMG amplitude decreased in the Sol, increased in the MG and VL, and was unchanged in the TA. Thus adaptations observed postsimulation were different from those observed postflight, indicating that there was a response unique to the microgravity environment, i.e., the modulations in the nervous system controlling locomotion cannot merely be attributed to restriction of movement but appear to be the result of changes in the interpretation of load-related proprioceptive feedback to the nervous system. Peak MG tendon force amplitudes were approximately two times greater post- compared with preflight or presimulation. Adaptations in tendon force and EMG amplitude ratios indicate that the nervous system undergoes a reorganization of the recruitment patterns biased toward an increased recruitment of fast versus slow motor units and flexor versus extensor muscles. Combined, these data indicate that some details of the control of motor pools during locomotion are dependent on the persistence of Earth's gravitational environment.

  20. Protective relay system for the first demonstration of the HTS cable and the SFCL in live grid in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Ryul; Yoon, Jaeyoung; Yang, Byeong-mo; Lee, Byongjun

    2013-11-01

    This study proposed a novel power protection system for the application of 22.9 kV HTS cable and SFCL systems to the Icheon substation in South Korea, and studied the protective coordination of the proposed system using a transient simulation program, PSCAD/EMTDC. Korea Electric Power Cooperation (KEPCO) designed and reconstructed the protection system of the Icheon substation based on the results of this study. The 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable and 22.9 kV, 630 A hybrid SFCL systems have been successfully operated in the live power grid of the Icheon substation since August, 2011.

  1. Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

  2. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  3. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Five New F-bearing Basalt Reference Materials (Fba Glasses): Quantifying the Fluorine Content of the Basaltic Glass Standards BCR-2G, BHVO-2G. GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, ML3B-G, KL2-G, and ALV-519-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fluorine is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts have been detected in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace to minor F with high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, F contents of low-silica, basaltic glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories are not well known. In this study, we synthesized five basalt glasses doped with variable amounts of fluorine (Fba glasses) to serve as new glass standards for the analysis of F in low-silica, iron-rich geological materials, and we used the new Fba glasses to determine the F content of nine commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic composition. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2 to create five glasses with the following F content (wt.% ± 1σ): Fba-1 (0.13 ± 0.05); Fba-2 (0.53 ± 0.11); Fba-3 (0.87 ± 0.10); Fba-4 (1.41 ± 0.11); Fba-5 (2.24 ± 0.12). The mixtures were heated in a 1 atm furnace to 1470 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). EPMA used Biotite-3 (Bt-3: 3.3 wt.% F) and synthetic fluorphlogopite (F-phlog: 9.02 wt.% F) as F calibration standards. Wavelength scans of the F Kα line on Bt-3 and F-phlog showed asymmetric peaks, necessitating the use of peak-integration analysis of the Kα signal. EPMA was conducted on a Cameca SX100 with a 15 μm diameter defocused electron beam, 15 kV accelerating voltage, 20 nA primary current, TAP crystal for detecting F Kα X-rays, and five iterations in peak-integration mode. Results showed < 6% difference in the F content of the Fba glasses between the Bt-3 and F-phlog standards, implying the peak-integration method is standard-independent. SIMS analysis was conducted on a Cameca ims 6f with a primary beam of 16O-, detection of low-energy negative secondary ions (-5 kV), and a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Homogeneity of the Fba glasses was established by both SIMS and EPMA. Glasses labeled Fba-2, -3. -4, and -5 pass statistical tests for homogeneity and may be used as EPMA or SIMS standards. SIMS calibration curves were constructed using the Fba glasses and other F standards of varying silica, iron, and sodium content, including Bt-3, F-phlog, NIST 610, KE-12, and UTR-2. The calibration curves revealed large matrix effects for the analysis of F by SIMS (~ 50%) between an Fba:Bt-3 curve and a high-silica glass:F-phlog curve. The Fba:Bt-3 calibration curve was used to determine the F contents (ppm ± 1 σ) of the following nine commonly used basaltic glass standards: BCR-2G (321 ± 15), BHVO-2G (297 ± 14), GSA-1G (7 ± 0.1), GSC-1G (9 ± 0.5), GSD-1G (18 ± 1), GSE-1G (154 ± 7), ML3B-G (47 ± 2), KL2-G (82 ± 4), ALV-519-4 (76 ± 4).

  5. Identification of compounds that modulate retinol signaling using a cell-based qHTS assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanling; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Reese, David H; Xia, Menghang

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway (RSP) controls the biosynthesis and catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates transcription of genes essential for embryonic development. Chemicals that interfere with the RSP to cause abnormal intracellular levels of atRA are potential developmental toxicants. To assess chemicals for the ability to interfere with retinol signaling, we have developed a cell-based RARE (Retinoic Acid Response Element) reporter gene assay to identify RSP disruptors. To validate this assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) in both agonist and antagonist modes. The screens detected known RSP agonists, demonstrating assay reliability, and also identified novel RSP agonists including kenpaullone, niclosamide, PD98059 and SU4312, and RSP antagonists including Bay 11-7085, LY294002, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene, and topoisomerase inhibitors (camptothecin, topotecan, amsacrine hydrochloride, and idarubicin). When evaluated in the P19 pluripotent cell, these compounds were found to affect the expression of the Hoxa1 gene that is essential for embryo body patterning. These results show that the RARE assay is an effective qHTS approach for screening large compound libraries to identify chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect embryonic development through interference with retinol signaling. PMID:26820057

  6. Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James, David Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Rey, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

  7. Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Build Up Tank for HTS Power Cable Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyunman; Kim, Yanghun

    HTS power cables are cooled by the forced circulation of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen to remove heat loss and maintain a cryogenic temperature. The refrigeration systems used consist of cryocoolers, a pressure build-up tank, heat exchangers, and circulation pumps. Liquid nitrogen expands or shrinks according to the temperature variation inside the fixed volume of the refrigeration system and the cable cryostat. The system pressure also changes depending on the volume change of the liquid nitrogen. The pressure of the liquid nitrogen should be kept above a certain level to ensure its dielectric strength. In addition, the pressure should be kept below the allowable pressure level considering the mechanical strength of the refrigeration system. To enhance the pressure controllability, external heating and cooling should be possible in the pressure build-up tank. For the precise modeling of the pressure build-up tank, thermal stratification and axial thermal conduction are considered. An analysis of such a refrigeration system is performed using the commercial code 'Sinda/fluint', a comprehensive finite-difference, one-dimensional, lumped parameter tool. This paper presents the transient thermo-hydraulic characteristics and the design directions of an HTS cable refrigeration system according to a variable heat load including pressure build-up tank.

  8. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  9. Statistical Evaluation of HTS Assays for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of ?-Keto Esters.

    PubMed

    Bu, O; Jager, S; Dold, S-M; Zimmermann, S; Hamacher, K; Schmitz, K; Rudat, J

    2016-01-01

    ?-keto esters are used as precursors for the synthesis of ?-amino acids, which are building blocks for some classes of pharmaceuticals. Here we describe the comparison of screening procedures for hydrolases to be used for the hydrolysis of ?-keto esters, the first step in the preparation of ?-amino acids. Two of the tested high throughput screening (HTS) assays depend on coupled enzymatic reactions which detect the alcohol released during ester hydrolysis by luminescence or absorption. The third assay detects the pH shift due to acid formation using an indicator dye. To choose the most efficient approach for screening, we assessed these assays with different statistical methods-namely, the classical Z'-factor, standardized mean difference (SSMD), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test, and t-statistics. This revealed that all three assays are suitable for HTS, the pH assay performing best. Based on our data we discuss the explanatory power of different statistical measures. Finally, we successfully employed the pH assay to identify a very fast hydrolase in an enzyme-substrate screening. PMID:26730596

  10. Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Sugisaki, M.; Arai, E.; Tanabe, K.

    2013-11-01

    For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic field, we utilized a SQUID magnetometer containing ramp-edge junctions with La0.1Er0.95Ba1.95Cu3Oy and SmBa2Cu3Oy electrode layers, which was fabricated by using an HTS multi-layer fabrication technique. To operate the magnetometer stably in a rapidly changing magnetic field, we chose the proper materials for the RF shield of liquid nitrogen (LN2) glass Dewar and cables. The white noise level and the slew rate of the system were measured to be 30 fT Hz-1/2 and 10.5 mT s-1, respectively. The resultant signal-to-noise ratio was higher than that of the previous system and improved the exploration depth, which was successfully demonstrated in field tests. The weight of the Dewar, which retains the LN2 for 17 h, is 2.5 kg. The total weight of our system including the LN2 Dewar, a probe with a flux-locked loop (FLL) circuit, a battery, a receiver, and a 30 m-long cable between the FLL and the receiver is as low as 25.6 kg.

  11. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. J.; Choi, S.; Na, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Chang, K. S.; Bae, D. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN 2).

  12. Remagnetization effects due to lateral displacement above a PMG on bulk HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Ren, J. F.; Li, L. L.; Yang, X. F.; Ye, C. Q.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-12-01

    For a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system with large force requirements, the use of magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnets (MBSCMs) is a good candidate because of its strong flux pinning ability and corresponding high trapped flux. Different from the rare-earth permanent magnet (PM), the trapped flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the supercurrent produced by a magnetizing process, so the trapped flux is sensitive to variations of the supercurrent. The lateral displacement of a MBSCM above a PM guideway (PMG) will provide disturbance of the applied field and then alter the supercurrent as a process of remagnetization. Different magnetization histories will bring different remagnetization characteristics and consequently diverse levitation performances for a MBSCM during the lateral displacements. When the MBSCMs are applied into the HTS maglev system, the influence of lateral displacements on levitation performance should be taken into consideration. This article investigates the remagnetization characteristics of a MBSCM when it is subject to the lateral displacements above a PMG with different trapped magnetic flux and opposite magnetization polarities. Relevant analyses about the internal supercurrent configuration based on the critical state model are also included to better understand the remagnetization characteristic of a MBSCM.

  13. WITHDRAWN: Complex Study of Transport AC Loss in Various 2G HTS Racetrack Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim

    2013-06-01

    HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  14. Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim

    2013-04-01

    HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  15. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  16. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

  17. Thermal and mechanical properties of advanced impregnation materials for HTS cables and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrets, N.; Otten, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Kario, A.; Goldacker, W.

    2015-12-01

    In the growing field of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) applications, finding an appropriate impregnation material for cables and coils remains a challenging task. In HTS cables and coils, tapes have to be able to withstand mechanical loads during operation. Impregnation is playing a role as mechanical stabilization. However, material properties usually change significantly when going to low temperatures which can decrease performance of superconducting devices. For example, a large mismatch in thermal expansion between a conductor and impregnation material at low temperatures can lead to delamination and to degradation of the critical current. Impregnation materials can insulate tapes thermally which can lead to damage of the superconducting device in case of quench. Thus, thermal conductivity is an important property which is responsible for the temperature distribution in a superconducting cable or in a coil. Due to Lorentz forces acting on structural materials in a superconducting device, the mechanical properties of these materials should be investigated at operating temperatures of this device. Therefore, it is important to identify an advanced impregnation material meeting all specific requirements. In this paper, thermal and mechanical properties of impregnation material candidates with added fillers are presented in a temperature range from 300 K to 4 K.

  18. Design and fabrication of 5 GHz band pass filter using circle-type HTS bulk resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Teshima, H.; Ono, S.; Hirano, H.; Hirano, S.; Ohshima, S.

    2007-10-01

    We designed and fabricated a transmit band pass filter (BPF) using circle-type high temperature superconductor (HTS) bulk resonators. A Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk was fabricated using a modified quench and melt growth (QMG) process and cut into specimens of 8.40 and 8.44 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick for use as the HTS bulk resonators. A three-pole stripline (SL) BPF was designed based on a Chebyshev function and the frequency response and electromagnetic field of the filter were simulated using a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator. From the results of the simulation, the center frequency, bandwidth, insertion loss, and ripple of the designed filter were 4.97 GHz, 100 MHz, 0.03 dB, and 0.048 dB, respectively. In the experimental results on the actual fabricated filter, the filtering response was clearly observed; however, the center frequency of 5.46 GHz was higher than that of the simulation. The simulated maximum surface current in the resonators of the SL filter was approximately 86% smaller than that of a conventional hairpin filter. Furthermore, the measured response of the Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk filter at an input power of 20 dBm was almost the same as that at 0 dBm. These results mean that an SL filter using a Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk resonator may be practicable as a high-power transmit BPF.

  19. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  20. A Cool-down and Fault Study of a Long Length HTS Power Transmission Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Maguire, J.; Allais, A.; Schmidt, F.

    2006-04-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) power transmission cables offer significant advantages in power density over conventional copper-based cables. Currently the US Department of Energy is funding the design, development, and demonstration of the first long length, transmission level voltage, cold dielectric, underground high temperature superconductor power cable. The cable is 620 meters long and is designed for permanent installation in the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The cable is specified to carry 574 MVA at a voltage of 138 kV and is designed to withstand a 69 kA fault current for a duration of 200ms. The superconducting state of the cable conductors is maintained by circulating sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, which flows through one phase conductor of the cable and returns through the other two. As HTS cables develop and lengths increase to what may be considered commercial, it is critical to study the cable thermal behavior during cool-down process and fault condition to avoid any possible damage to the cable core due to the thermal stress, over heating or bubble formation. This paper reviews the efforts that have been made to study the cool-down process and fault condition. Descriptions of the transient thermal and fluid model are provided. A discussion of the simulation results is also included.

  1. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  2. Statistical Evaluation of HTS Assays for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of β-Keto Esters

    PubMed Central

    Dold, S. -M.; Zimmermann, S.; Hamacher, K.; Schmitz, K.; Rudat, J.

    2016-01-01

    β-keto esters are used as precursors for the synthesis of β-amino acids, which are building blocks for some classes of pharmaceuticals. Here we describe the comparison of screening procedures for hydrolases to be used for the hydrolysis of β-keto esters, the first step in the preparation of β-amino acids. Two of the tested high throughput screening (HTS) assays depend on coupled enzymatic reactions which detect the alcohol released during ester hydrolysis by luminescence or absorption. The third assay detects the pH shift due to acid formation using an indicator dye. To choose the most efficient approach for screening, we assessed these assays with different statistical methods—namely, the classical Z’-factor, standardized mean difference (SSMD), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test, and t-statistics. This revealed that all three assays are suitable for HTS, the pH assay performing best. Based on our data we discuss the explanatory power of different statistical measures. Finally, we successfully employed the pH assay to identify a very fast hydrolase in an enzyme-substrate screening. PMID:26730596

  3. Development of 22 T VSM System using Novel Improvements in HTS Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Jeremy; Bracanovic, Darko

    Current research has identified a need for greater magnetising fields during vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements and other measurement options. We present here the methodology involved in our development of a VSM system with 22 T superconducting magnet, a unique system and the highest field combined with a VSM anywhere in the world. Recent developments in HTS conductors have allowed greater reliability than previous coils made from YBCO and BISCO and thus facilitate the consistent achievement of higher magnetising fields at the sample with operation at 4.2 K rather than 2.2 K. Cryogenic Ltd wind HTS coils in both solenoid and pancake forms with an emphasis on solenoids, since they have been found to give a more reliable performance with less thermal transfer to the surrounding liquid helium. The 22T VSM system has been developed using 2G YBCO coated and BSSCO tape which exhibit critical currents up to 5 times greater than those seen in YBCO and BISCO at 4.2 K.

  4. Miniaturized HTS linear phase filter based on neighboring CQ units sharing resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Hai; Zhou, Liguo; Jiang, Mingyan; Dang, Wei; Ren, Xiangyang; Hou, Fangyan

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method for using neighboring cascaded quadruplet (CQ) units sharing resonators to decrease the order of filter so as to reduce the size of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear phase filter. The main advantage is that it will not reduce the number of the filter’s transmission zeros, and will not increase the difficulty of circuit design and tuning. Based on this method, this paper presents a 10-order HTS linear phase filter with two pairs of transmission zeros on double-sided YBCO/LaAlO3/YBCO films with a size of 20.3 mm × 20.92 mm, a thickness of 0.5 mm and a dielectric constant of 24.04. At 77 K, the filter’s measured center frequency is 830.03 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 MHz, an edge out-of-band rejection greater than 30 dB MHz-1, and a group delay variation of less than ±10 ns over 60% of the filter bandwidth.

  5. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  6. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  7. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  8. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  9. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  10. Printed wiring board process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Gentry, F. L.

    1985-07-01

    This project investigated ways of improving printed wiring board (PWB) fabrication at BKCD. The primary objective of the mechaning portion was to determine the best manufacturing techniques for rigid double-sided and multilayer printed wiring products, and to identify the process changes required to implement those techniques. Another objective was to improve solder thickness and shelf life by using the hot air leveling process. All process variables were identified and a suitable manufacturing process was established. Copper plating of PWBs presently used a solution of copper pyrophosphate that has several disadvantages. The properties of the copper deposit from an acid copper sulfate process and relative ease of chemical control offer advantages over the pyrophosphate process and are being evaluated for use.

  11. Parallel wire cable static load testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gil, Isabella C.

    This report is the result of two evaluations for the analysis of parallel wire cables. The purpose of the first assessment was to evaluate the stiffness and strength of parallel wire cables. For the methodology, three test setups were executed utilizing single wires, seven wire parallel cables, and 100 wire parallel cables as specimens. The parallel wire cables were connected with molted zinc to their sockets. The cables were manufactured by Wilolamb Construction. The results indicate that the single, seven, and 100 wire specimens had similar performance in yield stress, yield strain, modulus, and ultimate strain. However, the amount of strain decreased as the number of wires increased. Because the mechanical properties of the multi wires specimens had not significant difference, it is suggested that the zinc sockets had insignificant impact on their performance. Comparing these results to a previous test executed for parallel wire cables, there were significant differences on the ultimate capacity. It is assumed that the fabrication method of the cables were different. The second evaluation had two purposes. First, it was intended to compare the results of the single wire test from OSU to the single wire test results from Sherry Laboratories. From the analysis, it was found that the ultimate and yield loads were similar between both laboratories procedures, but their strength capacity and ultimate strain were different. It was observed that the Sherry Lab used a different method to compute the mechanical properties of the wire and that the measurement of the elongation was different to the procedures from OSU. Second, the secondary analysis was to evaluate if there is any significant difference between wires sanded at the mid-length of the specimen and wires that were not sanded. From this analysis it was observed that there was no difference between the sanded and non-sanded wires, which indicated that cross-section reduction should not be necessary for the evaluation of multi wire cables. The results from this work were expected and agree with basic engineering principles, and that parallel wire cables are capable of performing as a group of wires with no significant losses.

  12. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  13. Microglia and motor neurons during disease progression in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: changes in arginase1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor system. Although the etiology of the disease is not fully understood, microglial activation and neuroinflammation are thought to play a role in disease progression. Methods We examined the immunohistochemical expression of two markers of microglial phenotype, the arginine-metabolizing enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase1 (Arg1), in the spinal cord of a mouse model carrying an ALS-linked mutant human superoxide dismutase transgene (SOD1G93A) and in non-transgenic wild-type (WT) mice. Immunolabeling for iNOS and Arg1 was evaluated throughout disease progression (6 to 25weeks), and correlated with body weight, stride pattern, wire hang duration and ubiquitin pathology. For microglia and motor neuron counts at each time point, SOD1G93A and WT animals were compared using an independent samples t-test. A Welch t-test correction was applied if Levenes test showed that the variance in WT and SOD1G93A measurements was substantially different. Results Disease onset, measured as the earliest change in functional parameters compared to non-transgenic WT mice, occurred at 14weeks of age in SOD1G93A mice. The ventral horn of the SOD1G93A spinal cord contained more microglia than WT from 14weeks onwards. In SOD1G93A mice, Arg1-positive and iNOS-positive microglia increased 18-fold and 7-fold, respectively, between 10 and 25weeks of age (endpoint) in the lumbar spinal cord, while no increase was observed in WT mice. An increasing trend of Arg1- and iNOS-expressing microglia was observed in the cervical spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Additionally, Arg1-negative motor neurons appeared to selectively decline in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A mice, suggesting that Arg1 may have a neuroprotective function. Conclusions This study suggests that the increase in spinal cord microglia occurs around and after disease onset and is preceded by cellular pathology. The results show that Arg1 and iNOS, thought to have opposing inflammatory properties, are upregulated in microglia during disease progression and that Arg1 in motor neurons may confer protection from disease processes. Further understanding of the neuroinflammatory response, and the Arg1/iNOS balance in motor neurons, may provide suitable therapeutic targets for ALS. PMID:24655927

  14. Profiling Environmental Chemicals in the Antioxidant Response Element Pathway using Quantitative High Throughput Screening (qHTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an important role in the amelioration of oxidative stress, which can contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. We screened 1408 NTP-provided substances in 1536-well qHTS format at concentrations ranging fr...

  15. The fundamental study to control the magnetic field for MDDS using shielding currents of HTS tapes and bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Eritate, I.; Abe, T.; Shima, S.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications, and the magnetic force control is a very important issue in MDDS. In general, the high magnetic field along the axial direction and high magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction are very useful for MDDS. So, we proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of superconducting magnet, high temperature superconductors (HTS) bulks or tapes and ferromagnetic substances. In this new system, the shielding currents in HTS bulks and tapes due to diamagnetism of the superconductor generate the magnetic field with same direction of external magnetic field, and we can control the magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction by the arrangement of the HTS bulks, tapes and ferromagnetic substances. In this study, the stacked GdBCO tapes without stabilizer were used in experiments and electromagnetic analysis based on finite element method (FEM) was carried out to optimize the arrangement of the superconductors and the irons. It was confirmed that the control of magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction was possible by arranging the HTS bulks, tapes and irons on the superconducting magnet and then it was possible to obtain a magnetic field higher than the external field.

  16. Experimental Study of Counterflow Cooling Using a Test Loop to Simulate the Thermal Characteristics of a HTS Cable System

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    The counterflow cooling configuration is a compact, efficient, and relatively low cost thermal management approach for long-length HTS cable systems. In the counter-flow cooling configuration the coolant flow, typically liquid nitrogen, is initially supplied through the center of the cable turning around at the far end of the cable and returning through the annular space between the cable and the inner cryostat wall, using a single cryostat. The temperature distributions along the cable and the nitrogen flow streams are extremely difficult to measure in an operating HTS cable because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test loop has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated metal tube to simulate the cable. The test loop contains calibrated thermometers to measure the temperature distribution along the tube and the return liquid nitrogen stream. Measured temperature distributions in the return flow stream and along the tube wall for varying flow rates and heating conditions to simulate a HTS cable are presented and discussed.

  17. Surface characterization through shape oscillations of drops in microgravity and 1-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Holt, R. Glynn; Tian, Yuren; Shi, Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Yu

    1994-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to determine the rheological properties of liquid drops of single or multiple components in the presence or absence of surface active materials by exciting drops into their quadrupole resonance and observing their free decay. The resulting data coupled with appropriate theory should give a better description of the physics of the underlying phenomena, providing a better foundation than earlier empirical results could. The space environment makes an idealized geometry available (spherical drops) so that theory and experiment can be properly compared, and allows a 'clean' environment, by which is meant an environment in which no solid surfaces come in contact with the drops during the test period. Moreover, by considering the oscillations of intentionally deformed drops in microgravity, a baseline is established for interpreting surface characterization experiments done on the ground by other groups and ours. Experiments performed on the United States Microgravity Laboratory Laboratory (USML-1) demonstrated that shape oscillation experiments could be performed over a wide parameter range, and with a variety of surfactant materials. Results, however, were compromised by an unexpected, slow drop tumbling, some problems with droplet injection, and the presence of bubbles in the drop samples. Nevertheless, initial data suggests that the space environment will be useful in providing baseline data that can serve to validate theory and permit quantitative materials characterization at 1-g.

  18. Fish otolith growth in 1g and 3g depends on the gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Werner, K; Breuer, J; Rahmann, H

    2000-01-01

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) as well as calcium (Ca) content of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were determined after a long-term stay at hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge). Both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g-control specimens and the absolute amount of otolith-Ca was diminished. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was markedly decreased. In the course of another experiment larvae were raised in aquarium hatch baskets, from which one was placed directly above aeration equipment which resulted in random water circulation shifting the fish around ("shifted" specimens). The lapillar asymmetry of the "stationary" specimens showed a highly significant increase during early development when larvae were forced to lay on their sides due to their prominent yolk-sacs. In later developmental stages, when they began to swim freely, a dramatic decrease in lapillar asymmetry was apparent. Taken together with own previous findings according to which otolith growth stops after vestibular nerve transaction, the results presented here suggest that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector, obviously involving a feedback loop between the brain and the inner ear. PMID:11542852

  19. Fish Otolith Growth in 1g and 3g Depends on the Gravity Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R. H.; Werner, K.; Breuer, J.; Rahmann, H.

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) as well as calcium (Ca) content of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were determined after a long-term stay at hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge). Both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g-control specimens and the absolute amount of otolith-Ca was diminished. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was markedly decreased. In the course of another experiment, larvae were raised in aquarium hatch baskets, from which one was placed directly above aeration equipment, which resulted in random water circulation shifting the fish around (``shifted'' specimens). The lapillar asymmetry of the ``stationary'' specimens showed a highly significant increase during early development when larvae were forced to lay on their sides due to their prominent yolk-sacs. In later developmental stages, when they began to swim freely, a dramatic decrease in lapillar asymmetry was apparent. Taken together with own previous findings according to which otolith growth stops after vestibular nerve transection, the results presented here suggest that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector, obviously involving a feedback loop between the brain and the inner ear

  20. Evaluation of IDH1G105 polymorphism as prognostic marker in intermediate-risk AML.

    PubMed

    Fasan, Annette; Haferlach, Claudia; Eder, Christiane; Alpermann, Tamara; Quante, Anne; Peters, Annette; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Schnittger, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Germline polymorphisms in genes mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may have prognostic impact. Therefore, the relevance of the polymorphism IDH1G105 (IDH1105(GGT) minor allele) was evaluated in the context of concomitant molecular mutations in a cohort of 507 AML cases with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In addition, a cohort of 475 healthy controls was analyzed for this polymorphism. IDH1105(GGT) minor allele was found in 10 % of AML patients and 9 % of healthy controls. While no differences were seen with regard to cytomorphology or cytogenetics, immunophenotyping revealed significantly reduced expression of the progenitor marker CD34 in AML cases harboring IDH1105(GGT) minor allele. Cases with IDH1105(GGT) minor allele as compared to those with the IDH1105(GGC) major allele had significantly longer event-free survival (EFS) (median 16 vs 11 months, p = 0.013) which was most pronounced in the age group >60 years (median 14 vs 9 months, p = 0.007) and in the NPM1 mutated/FLT3-ITD/FLT3wt ratio <0.5 group (median 61 vs 13 months, p = 0.012). However, this association is not independent of other prognostic parameters, and we conclude that IDH1105(GGT) minor allele has to be considered in the context of the genetic background of the individual AML analyzed. PMID:26351014

  1. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  2. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  3. Liver-specific expression of carboxylesterase 1g/esterase-x reduces hepatic steatosis, counteracts dyslipidemia and improves insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Bahitham, Wesam; Watts, Russell; Nelson, Randal; Lian, Jihong; Lehner, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Ces1g/Es-x deficiency in mice results in weight gain, insulin resistance, fatty liver and hyperlipidemia through upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and oversecretion of triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Here, we show that restoration of Ces1g/Es-x expression only in the liver significantly reduced hepatic TG concentration accompanied by decreased size of lipid droplets, reduced secretion of very low-density lipoproteins and improved insulin-mediated signal transduction in the liver. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hepatic Ces1g/Es-x plays a critical role in limiting hepatic steatosis, very low-density lipoprotein assembly and in augmenting insulin sensitivity. PMID:26976727

  4. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Ravula, Jeswanth; Thadela, S.; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2015-12-01

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (TC + 10 K) and pressure (PC + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables.

  5. Evaluation of High-resolution Geomagnetic Field Observation System Using HTS-SQUID Magnetometer and its Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously (1964 Stacey, 1994 Johnston et al.). Our research group also reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes due to piezomagnetic effects caused by earthquake rupturing in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake of M7.2 (2011 Okubo et al.) using optoelectronic observation system with flux-gate magnetometers. This is an important finding; the electromagnetic fields originating from such sources satisfy the Maxwell equations and hence they propagate from the sources to the observation site at a speed of light in the crustal materials. Further efforts could lead us to a new system for super-early warning of destructive earthquakes with the magnetic measurements. On the other hand, the observed result in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake was suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small; therefore development of a high-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. To solve this problem, we introduce long-term precise geomagnetic observations using high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device (HTS-SQUID) magnetometer system. That is, our research group developed the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012, we have observed the geomagnetic field using a HTS-SQUID magnetometer at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. The sampling interval of the magnetometer is 0.04 sec. The observation clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. An accelerometer is also installed at observation point. Additionally, in the next stage, we develop the HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). In the present study, we show the results observed by our HTS-SQUID magnetometer system and make an evaluation of our geomagnetic field observation system.

  6. The HTS barcode checker pipeline, a tool for automated detection of illegally traded species from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixtures of internationally traded organic substances can contain parts of species protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). These mixtures often raise the suspicion of border control and customs offices, which can lead to confiscation, for example in the case of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). High-throughput sequencing of DNA barcoding markers obtained from such samples provides insight into species constituents of mixtures, but manual cross-referencing of results against the CITES appendices is labor intensive. Matching DNA barcodes against NCBI GenBank using BLAST may yield misleading results both as false positives, due to incorrectly annotated sequences, and false negatives, due to spurious taxonomic re-assignment. Incongruence between the taxonomies of CITES and NCBI GenBank can result in erroneous estimates of illegal trade. Results The HTS barcode checker pipeline is an application for automated processing of sets of 'next generation’ barcode sequences to determine whether these contain DNA barcodes obtained from species listed on the CITES appendices. This analytical pipeline builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for BLAST matching against the NCBI GenBank reference database and for taxonomic name reconciliation. In a single operation, reads are converted into taxonomic identifications matched with names on the CITES appendices. By inclusion of a blacklist and additional names databases, the HTS barcode checker pipeline prevents false positives and resolves taxonomic heterogeneity. Conclusions The HTS barcode checker pipeline can detect and correctly identify DNA barcodes of CITES-protected species from reads obtained from TCM samples in just a few minutes. The pipeline facilitates and improves molecular monitoring of trade in endangered species, and can aid in safeguarding these species from extinction in the wild. The HTS barcode checker pipeline is available at https://github.com/naturalis/HTS-barcode-checker. PMID:24502833

  7. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method of choice. We then give an overview of the measurement system showing how the vibrating wire is positioned onto the quadrupole axis, how the wire position detectors locate the wire relative to tooling balls without touching the wire, and how the tooling ball positions are all measured. The novel feature of this system is the vibrating wire which we discuss in depth. We analyze the wire dynamics and calculate the expected sensitivity of the system. The note should be an aid in debugging the system by providing calculations to compare measurements to.

  8. Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma.

  9. Spectroscopic research of underwater electrical wire explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Efimov, S.; Bazilitski, G.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-08-15

    Results of spectroscopic research in the visible range of light of the radiation generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWE) are presented. A pulsed generator with an output voltage of {approx}110 kV, current of {approx}70 kA, and rise time of {approx}60 ns was used for electrical explosion of Cu wires 0.1 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length. It was shown that UEWE is not governed by the 'polarity' effect, which plays an important role in electrical wire explosions in vacuum. The results of detailed space- and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements show that the radiation spectrum differs significantly of the spectrum expected from the exploding wire. A model is suggested based on the formation of a few {mu}m 'water' plasma layer in the vicinity of the exploding wire plasma which efficiently absorbs the radiation of the exploding wire.

  10. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    PubMed

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords. PMID:17812747

  11. Reduced folate carrier-1 G80a gene polymorphism is associated with neuroblastoma's development.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Dyego O; Barros, Jemima E X S; Vieira, Maria Madalena S; Lima, Elker L S; Moraes, Vera L L; da Silva, Helker A; Garcia, Helder L B O; Lima, Cássia A; Gomes, Adriana V; Santos, Neide; Muniz, Maria T C

    2014-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor of neural crest cells that give rise to the sympathetic nervous system, responsible for 10-70% of all cases of childhood cancer. Because of its early appearance, it has been suggested that risk factors active in the prenatal can be associated with the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G, TYMS 2R/3R and SLC19A1 G80A, involved in folate metabolism, increase the risk of neuroblastoma in Brazilian children. This study comprised 31 Brazilian children (0-14 years old) diagnosed with neuroblastoma compared with 92 controls. Investigation of polymorphisms MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G and SLC19A1 A80G was performed using PCR-RFLP, the TYMS 2R/3R using PCR and MTHFR A1298C using AS-PCR. The SLC19A1 A80A genotype was significantly associated with the development of neuroblastoma, compared with the control group (Williams G-Test = 0.0286; OR = 5.1667; 95% CI = 1.4481-18.4338; p = 0.0175). When analyzed together, the 80AG+AA genotypes showed a trend toward association (OR = 3.3033; 95% CI = 1.0586-10.3080; p = 0.0563). Our results suggest that individuals carriers of genotype AA for the SLC19A1 gene present risk for the development of neuroblastoma and possibly have difficulty in absorption of folic acid by the cells, and this may adversely affect the metabolism of folate causing genomic instability and promoting the development of cancer. This is the first retrospective/prospective study to examine the relationship between polymorphisms of folate pathway genes and risk of neuroblastoma. PMID:24771227

  12. Tay-Sachs disease in Brazilian patients: prevalence of the IVS7+1g>c mutation.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, R; Martins, A M; Micheletti, C; Mustacchi, Z; Pereira, L V

    2004-01-01

    Seven Brazilian Tay-Sachs disease cases were screened for the most frequent causative mutations. They all presented at least one copy of the IVS7+1g>c mutation. Three patients were homozygotes, three were compound heterozygotes, and in one case only the mother was tested and shown to carry the IVS7+1g>c mutation. In the second allele the compound heterozygotes presented: R178H (the DN allele), InsTATC1278 and an unidentified mutation. The IVS7+1g>c mutation has already been described in three Portuguese patients. In this study, all families were unaware of any Portuguese ancestry. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony, the mutation most probably came from ancient common ancestry. The initial molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease patients in Brazil indicated a prevalence of the IVS7+1g>c mutation, possibly as a result of genetic drift. PMID:15065574

  13. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  14. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  15. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  16. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS.

    PubMed

    Majdalany, Bill S; Elliott, Eric D; Michaels, Anthony J; Hanje, A James; Saad, Wael E A

    2016-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application. PMID:26902703

  19. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  20. Study on nondestructive inspection using HTS-SQUID for friction stir welding between dissimilar metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Yasui, T.; Tsubaki, M.; Fukumono, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2007-10-01

    We have developed an SQUID-NDI technique for evaluation of friction stir welding (FSW) between aluminum alloy A6063 and stainless steel SUS304 from the electric conductivities in board specimens bonded by FSW. A SQUID-NDI system employing an HTS-SQUID gradiometer was constructed to measure current distribution in the FSW specimens by applying voltage to the specimen. By measuring field gradients dBz/dy and dBz/dx above the FSW specimens made with various FSW conditions and then converting them to current vector Jx and Jy, conductivities of FSW areas were estimated. Due to the difference in the FSW conditions, the conductivity distributions varied dramatically. From these results, it was suggested that the conductivities in FSW areas should be varied due to the temperature heated by the friction between the milling tool and the materials.

  1. Superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) using High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) in three geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, S.M.; Bieri, R.L.; Bickel, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    Utility and industry interest in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power quality and end-use applications is growing. Although today`s costs are high, recent studies have shown potential cost savings in the refrigeration system if high temperature superconductors (HTS) could be used. A potential obstacle to widespread use of small SMES systems is the magnetic field produced by a solenoid coil. A toroidal coil has almost no external field, but is generally more expensive than a solenoid. A system of two coils with opposite currents (a shielded solenoid) limits the extent of the external field, but also has a cost penalty. In this paper the authors present results of a configuration and cost analysis of SMES in solenoidal, toroidal, and shielded solenoidal configurations over the energy range of 1 to 10 MJ.

  2. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  3. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Anne M.; Belfield, Eric J.; Vlad, Daniela; Irani, Niloufer; Moore, Ian; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12–13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol. PMID:26485022

  4. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  5. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  6. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  7. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

  8. Adjustable Bracket For Entry Of Welding Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wire-entry bracket on welding torch in robotic welding system provides for adjustment of angle of entry of welding wire over range of plus or minus 30 degrees from nominal entry angle. Wire positioned so it does not hide weld joint in view of through-the-torch computer-vision system part of robot-controlling and -monitoring system. Swiveling bracket also used on nonvision torch on which wire-feed-through tube interferes with workpiece. Angle simply changed to one giving sufficient clearance.

  9. Effect of an Axial Wire on Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Presura, R.; Martinez, D.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a wire on the axis of wire arrays significantly affects the x-ray emission of the conical arrays, and much less that of the cylindrical ones. The radiation of the conical wire arrays increases with the thickness of the central wire, surpassing that of the equivalent cylindrical arrays. Significant energy is emitted early on, around the time of the conical shock formation, before the pinch stagnation.

  10. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  11. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  12. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  13. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  14. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  15. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  16. The Eulerian buckling test for orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    De Santis, R; Dolci, F; Laino, A; Martina, R; Ambrosio, L; Nicolais, L

    2008-04-01

    Orthodontic treatment is mainly dependent on the loads developed by metal wires. The load developed by a buckled orthodontic wire is of great concern for molar distalization and cannot be simply derived from mechanical properties measured through classical tests (i.e. tensile, torsion, and bending). A novel testing method, based on the Eulerian approach of a simple supported beam, has been developed in order to measure the load due to buckling of orthodontic wires. Elastic titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA; SDS Ormco) and superelastic Nitinol (3M Unitek) and copper nickel-titanium (NiTi; SDS Ormco) wires, each having a rectangular cross section of 0.016 x 0.022 square inches (0.41 x 0.56 mm(2)), were used. The wires were activated and deactivated by loading and unloading. In order to analyse thermo-mechanical properties in buckling, mechanical tests were assisted by calorimetric measurements through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Statistical analysis to determine differences between the samples was undertaken using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test, and one-way ANOVA to assess differences between the tested wires under similar conditions and different materials. The results suggest that the load due to buckling depends on material composition, wire length, the amount of activation, temperature, and deformation rate. The results can be considered as the lower bound for the loads experienced by teeth as far as a buckled wire is concerned. At a temperature higher than the austenite finish transition temperature, superelastic wires were strongly dependent on temperature and deformation rate. The effect due to an increase of deformation rate was similar to that of a decrease of temperature. Load variations due to temperature of a superelastic wire with a length of 20 mm were estimated to be approximately 4 g/degrees C. The high performance of an applied superelastic wire may be related to the high dynamics of the load in relation to temperature. PMID:18263890

  17. The direct relationship between output power and current carrying capability of rotor bars in HTS induction/synchronous motor with the use of DI-BSCCO tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nagao, K.; Nishimura, T.; Ogama, Y.; Kawamoto, M.; Okazaki, T.; Ayai, N.; Oyama, H.

    2008-08-01

    We report on the direct relationship between output power and the current carrying capability of a squirrel-cage HTS induction/synchronous motor based on experiment. The secondary windings are fabricated by use of so-called DI-BSCCO tapes, and the conventional (normal conducting) stator, three-phase and four-pole, is utilized. The tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen for two kinds of HTS windings, in which the number of HTS rotor bars is varied. It is directly shown that the output power is proportional to the rotor bars' critical current at 77 K. In other words, the torque can be enlarged by increasing the critical current of the HTS rotor bars.

  18. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  19. Abstract Sculptures: Wire and Plaster Cloth Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-dimensional art project for middle-school students in which they create sculptures of plaster cloth and wire. The introduction explains that they learn about Alexander Calder, a master of using wire in art. Discusses how to make the sculptures. (CMK)

  20. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....