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1

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16-17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy's Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: (1) Wire characterization: issues and needs; (2) technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; (3) manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and (4) physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

1994-07-01

2

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

3

The Development of Second Generation HTS Wire at American Superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the second generation (2G) YBCO high temperature superconducting wire has progressed rapidly and its performance is approaching, and in some areas exceeding, that of first generation (1G) HTS wire. American Superconductor's approach to the low-cost manufacturing of 2G wire is based on a wide-strip (4 cm) process using a metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer

M. W. Rupich; U. Schoop; D. T. Verebelyi; C. L. H. Thieme; D. Buczek; X. Li; W. Zhang; T. Kodenkandath; Y. Huang; E. Siegal; W. Carter; N. Nguyen; J. Schreiber; M. Prasova; J. Lynch; D. Tucker; R. Harnois; C. King; D. Aized

2007-01-01

4

Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire  

SciTech Connect

While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

2009-09-13

5

Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC’s manufacturing approach is based on RABiTSTM\\/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template.

W. Zhang; M. W. Rupich; U. Schoop; D. T. Verebelyi; C. L. H. Thieme; X. Li; T. Kodenkandath; Y. Huang; E. Siegal; D. Buczek; W. Carter; N. Nguyen; J. Schreiber; M. Prasova; J. Lynch; D. Tucker; S. Fleshler

2007-01-01

6

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 × the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC’s first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC’s second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

Masur, L. J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J.

7

Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC’s manufacturing approach is based on RABiTS TM/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template. In this paper, we review the status of the 2G manufacturing scale up at AMSC and describe the properties and architecture of the 2G wire being manufactured and developed for various applications.

Zhang, W.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Huang, Y.; Siegal, E.; Buczek, D.; Carter, W.; Nguyen, N.; Schreiber, J.; Prasova, M.; Lynch, J.; Tucker, D.; Fleshler, S.

2007-10-01

8

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140× the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial

L. J. Masur; D. Buczek; E. Harley; T. Kodenkandath; X. Li; J. Lynch; N. Nguyen; M. Rupich; U. Schoop; J. Scudiere; E. Siegal; C. Thieme; D. Verebelyi; W. Zhang; J. Kellers

2003-01-01

9

Normal zone propagation characteristics of the HTS wires by heat energy applied  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful commercialization of Bi-2223 powder-in-tube wire, various attempts in the R&D of the high- Tc superconducting (HTS) magnets for high magnetic field applications are being implemented actively. Operating temperature of HTS magnet has to be maintained at the designed level but the magnetic energy and mechanical disturbance can cause unstable operational temperature of HTS magnet. Especially, the generated heat energy of inner HTS winding is apt to be accumulated, so the normal region appears in HTS winding. This paper deals with the quenching characteristics of three kinds of selected Bi-2223 wires: the high current density wire (HC-A) and the high strength wire (HS-A) made by AMSC and HTS wire (HW-I) made by Innost. The Innost wire has the highest minimum quench energy (MQE). The high current density wire has the highest normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV).

Bae, Duck Kweon; Kang, Hyoungku; Ahn, Min Cheol; Sim, Kideok; Kim, Yeong Sik; Yoon, Yong Soo; Ko, Tae Kuk

2006-05-01

10

Thermal conductivity of 2G HTS wires for current lead applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the thermal conductivity of several 2G HTS coated conductor wires produced by AMSC's RABiTSTM/MOD processes. The measurements employed a non-steady state method in which the sample is connected to a cold head on one end and a copper block on the other end. The heat capacity of the copper block is used to determine heat flow through the sample as the cold head slowly warms up. Measurements were done at temperatures ranging from 10 K to 130 K on 2G wires made with a Ni 5at%W substrate and different lamination architectures. The focus of the investigation was on the effects of lamina material type, thickness of the silver layer and alloyed silver. The data show that 2G wires can be 3 times less thermally conductive when compared to 1G BSCCO wires with a Ag-Au matrix, making them excellent candidates for use in current lead applications.

Hoffmann, C.; Strickland, N.; Pooke, D.; Gannon, J.; Carter, B.; Otto, A.

2010-06-01

11

SuperPower's YBCO Coated High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Wire and Magnet Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in second-generation (2G) HTS wire and coil technology are presented highlighting the ability of 2G HTS wire to function under demanding operating conditions associated with many applications including linear motors for transportation. The challenges of use in various coil constructions and applications are discussed. The 2G wire architecture of a structural substrate, buffer stack, HTS layer, and stabilization

D. W. Hazelton; V. Selvamanickam

2009-01-01

12

Normal zone propagation characteristics of the HTS wires by heat energy applied  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the successful commercialization of Bi-2223 powder-in-tube wire, various attempts in the R&D of the high-Tc superconducting (HTS) magnets for high magnetic field applications are being implemented actively. Operating temperature of HTS magnet has to be maintained at the designed level but the magnetic energy and mechanical disturbance can cause unstable operational temperature of HTS magnet. Especially, the generated heat

Duck Kweon Bae; Hyoungku Kang; Min Cheol Ahn; Kideok Sim; Yeong Sik Kim; Yong Soo Yoon; Tae Kuk Ko

2006-01-01

13

Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

14

The Development of Second Generation HTS Wire at American Superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) YBCO high temperature superconductor wire, based on the RABiTS\\/MOD process, is now being produced in continuous lengths at American superconductor (AMSC) using a full-scale, reel-to-reel manufacturing line. AMSC's approach for manufacturing 2G wire is designed around a low-cost, wide-strip technology, in which a 4-cm wide strip is slit into multiple narrower wires, then laminated to metallic stabilizers

Xiaoping Li; Martin W. Rupich; Cornelis L. H. Thieme; M. Teplitsky; Srivatsan Sathyamurthy; E. Thompson; D. Buczek; J. Schreiber; K. Demoranville; J. Lynch; J. Inch; D. Tucker; R. Savoy; S. Fleshler

2009-01-01

15

Thermal conductivity of 2G HTS wires for current lead applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the thermal conductivity of several 2G HTS coated conductor wires produced by AMSC's RABiTSTM\\/MOD processes. The measurements employed a non-steady state method in which the sample is connected to a cold head on one end and a copper block on the other end. The heat capacity of the copper block is used to determine heat flow through

C. Hoffmann; N. Strickland; D. Pooke; J. Gannon; B. Carter; A. Otto

2010-01-01

16

Design and evaluation of 66 kV-class HTS power cable using REBCO wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sumitomo Electric (SEI) has been involved in the development of 66kV-class HTS cables using REBCO wires. One of the technical targets in this project is to reduce the AC loss to less than 2W\\/m\\/phase at 5kA. SEI has developed a clad-type of textured metal substrate with lower magnetization loss compared with a conventional NiW substrate. In addition, 30mm-wide REBCO tapes

M. Ohya; H. Yumura; T. Masuda; N. Amemiya; A. Ishiyama; T. Ohkuma

2011-01-01

17

Use of Second Generation HTS Wire in Filter Inductor Coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMSC's process for manufacturing Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire provides the flexibility to engineer practical 2G conductors with various architectures. For applications with high frequency ac components, a stainless steel stabilizer is used to minimize eddy current losses. An example of such an application is the so-called Buck Inductor, a filter inductor carrying a DC current onto

Cornelis L. H. Thieme; John P. Voccio; Kevin J. Gagnon; John H. Claassen

2009-01-01

18

Hysteresis Loss in Power Cables Made of 2G HTS Wires With NiW Alloy Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

G HTS wires produced with the MOD\\/RABiTS process with NiW substrates have weak magnetism and therefore extra losses in a substrate. The goal of this paper is to find out the model that could describe losses just in a substrate only. Two and three dimensional numerical electromagnetic field analysis has been developed for two-layer cables made of 2G HTS conductors

Vasily V. Zubko; Alexander A. Nosov; Nelly V. Polyakova; Sergey S. Fetisov; Vitaly V. Vysotsky

2011-01-01

19

Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

Kennth Marken

2006-08-11

20

Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

2010-04-01

21

AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD\\/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were

V. S. Vysotsky; K. A. Shutov; A. A. Nosov; N. V. Polyakova; S. S. Fetisov; V. V. Zubko; V. E. Sytnikov; W. L. Carter; S. Fleshler; A. P. Malozemoff; G. Snitchler

2010-01-01

22

AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were oriented to face radially inward and radially outward for the inner and outer layers of the cable, respectively, to minimize the spacing between the HTS layers and any effects of the weak substrate magnetism. To verify the calculations and design principles, the model cable was instrumented with potential taps and sensors, including Rogowski coils and Hall probes, to measure the current distribution among layers, voltage - current characteristics and other parameters. AC losses in this cable model have been measured and analyzed by use of digital measurements of current and voltage. At low to intermediate currents, they are in the range of a few tenths of a watt per meter, consistent with the ferromagnetic loss of the substrate. Analysis of the individual contributions of the Ni-W substrate and the superconductor hysteresis loss is given.

Vysotsky, V. S.; Shutov, K. A.; Nosov, A. A.; Polyakova, N. V.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zubko, V. V.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Carter, W. L.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Snitchler, G.

2010-06-01

23

V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.  

SciTech Connect

For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

GHOSH,A.K.

2003-05-25

24

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet

M. Ogata; Y. Miyazaki; H. Hasegawa; T. Sasakawa; K. Nagashima

2010-01-01

25

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting

Masafumi Ogata; Yoshiki Miyazaki; Hitoshi Hasegawa; Takashi Sasakawa; Ken Nagashima

2010-01-01

26

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

2010-06-01

27

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

2010-11-01

28

Mine countermeasures HTS magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor has designed, manufactured, and tested a model high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet system for airborne mine countermeasures (MCM) for the Office of Naval Research. The magnet has a magnetic moment of 80 kA-m2, or about one-fourth that of the full-scale magnet. The magnet is a solenoid consisting of 16 layers of laminated Bi-2223 HTS wire. The coil was manufactured

Segun O. Ige; Dawood Aized; Andy Curda; Rick Medeiros; Chris Prum; Peter Hwang; Gregory Naumovich; E. Michael Golda

2003-01-01

29

HTS fault current limiter concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault current limiter (FCL) concepts based on non-inductive high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils were studied. The coils employed second generation (2G) HTS wire based on YBCO coated conductor currently under development at American superconductor corporation (AMSC) and other places. Two FCL concepts were studied: a) series and b) shunt. The series limiter employs a coil in series with the load

S. S. Kalsi; A. Malozemoff

2004-01-01

30

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of and AC Loss for Bent 2G HTS Wires Used in an Electric Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of the second generation High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) YBCO tapes has been increasingly popular since the low-cost superconducting materials were discovered. This paper mainly presents the properties of two types of 2G YBCO tapes from American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) and SuperPower, Inc, respectively. All superconducting materials are cooled by liquid nitrogen (77 K). At first, we will introduce the

Ruilin Pei; Anton Velichko; Zhiyong Hong; Yudong Jiang; Weijia Yuan; A. M. Campbell; Tim A. Coombs

2009-01-01

31

Magnetic Field and Critical Current of a BSCCO HTS Magnet at Various Aspect Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the length of wire used to make an HTS magnet is fixed, the magnetic properties of the HTS magnet including the central magnetic field and stored energy mostly depend on the as- pect ratio of the HTS magnet. This paper presents calculations of the magnetic properties of a BSCCO HTS magnet at various as- pect ratios. The HTS magnet

Myunghun Kang; Youngmin Kim; Heejoon Lee; Gueesoo Cha; Kyungwoo Ryu

2011-01-01

32

Prospects for HTS applications  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed.

Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1996-07-01

33

HTS motors in aircraft propulsion: design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires exhibit high current densities enabling their use in electrical rotating machinery. The possibility of designing high power density superconducting motors operating at reasonable temperatures allows for new applications in mobile systems in which size and weight represent key design parameters. Thus, all-electric aircrafts represent a promising application for HTS motors. The design of such

Philippe J. Masson; Danielle S. Soban; Eric Upton; Jules E. Pienkos; Cesar A. Luongo

2005-01-01

34

HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system  

SciTech Connect

We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

1996-09-01

35

Cooling Configuration Design Considerations for Long-Length HTS Cables  

SciTech Connect

Recent successes in demonstrating high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems hundreds of meters in length have inspired even longer length projects. A compact and energy efficient cooling configuration can be achieved using a counterflow-cooling arrangement. This is particularly attractive when all three phases are contained in a single cryostat because of the elimination of the space and thermal requirements of a separate liquid nitrogen return line. Future cable projects will utilize second generation (2G) wire which is expected to become lower in cost but may have different thermal requirements than first generation (1G) BSCCO wire due to the lower critical temperature and to a lesser extent, the lower thermal conductivity of the wire. HTS cable configurations will be studied with a numerical model to assess thermal hydraulic performance with AC and thermal losses; a summary of the results from the analysis will be presented. An analysis of the cable thermal- hydraulic response to over-current faults will be presented.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL

2009-01-01

36

1998 wire development workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

NONE

1998-04-01

37

Usage of Bi-HTS in high field magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, superconducting high field magnets built up of metallic low temperature superconductors (LTS) like NbTi and ternary\\/quaternary Nb3Sn is near to the upper limit of achievable field strength. Fields above approx. 23 T seem to be only reachable with LTS-HTS hybrid configurations consisting of an outer LTS section and a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert. Commercially available Bi-HTS wires

F. Hornung; M. Klaser; T. Schneider

2004-01-01

38

Industrial HTS Conductors: Status And Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

First generation (1G) multifilamentary composite wire made from the high temperature superconductor BSCCO-2223, manufactured commercially by American Superconductor (AMSC), is able to carry more than 140-times the electrical current of copper wire of the same cross section, and is robust enough to meet commercial requirements. 1G wire has matured into distinct products which can now be tailored to meet the

L. J. Masur; J. Kellers; S. Kalsi; C. Thieme; E. Harley

39

Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems  

SciTech Connect

The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

Knoll, David

2012-12-31

40

Amphitheater Washington Hts.  

E-print Network

#12;School Girls'Glen Laurel R idge Amphitheater Wetland Boardwalk 8 Washington Hts. Forest Hill Rail Road Gallup Park Trail Washington Hts. Entrance 1610 Washington Hts. Urban Environmental Education Washington Heights Ann Arbor MI 48104 Nichols Arboretum May 2007, J. Senko #12;

Shyy, Wei

41

Iterative EM Design of an MRI Magnet Using HTS Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional superconducting MRI magnet electromagnetic (EM) design involves the critical parameters of the magnet field and dimensional requirements, plus the low temperature superconductor (LTS) wire properties. When using HTS material for an MRI magnet, in addition to the conventional characteristics of a superconductor, the wire and the joint resistance need also to be considered. This is mainly due to the

Minfeng Xu; Michele Ogle; Xianrui Huang; Kathleen Amm; Evangelos T. Laskaris

2007-01-01

42

DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

Goyal, A.; Rupich, M. (American Superconductor Corp.)

2012-10-23

43

Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

2006-10-01

44

Magnetic Field Measurements of an HTS Retrofit Synchrotron Dipole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A copper coil dipole magnet from the National Syn- chrotronLightSource(NSLS)atBrookhavenNationalLaboratory (BNL) has been retrofitted by HTS-110 Ltd with coils made from Bi-2223 wire and a self-contained cryogenic cooling system, while keeping the magnet's original iron yoke. This modified bending dipole, which is the first such known retrofit HTS-based acceler- ator magnet, provides the benefits of a compact coil design to

J. Muratore; J. Escallier; G. Ganetis; A. K. Ghosh; R. C. Gupta; P. He; A. Jain; P. Joshi; P. Wanderer; M. Fee; M. Christian

2011-01-01

45

HTS ship propulsion motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many modern ships, propulsion systems are so large and heavy that they force the rest of the ship to be constructed around them. Large ship propulsion motors could be made more compact and lighter by application of high temperature superconductor (HTS) technology, thus providing relief from this constraint. HTS ship propulsion motors are more compact, lighter weight, more efficient,

S. S. Kalsi

2004-01-01

46

Review of activities in USA on HTS materials  

SciTech Connect

Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

Peterson, D.E.

1995-02-01

47

An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascunan, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2010-01-01

48

Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award  

E-print Network

Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award HTS Wires Enabled via 3D Self. · Awarded the Nano 50TM Award from Nanotech Briefs® Magazine for technology. Developers: · A. Goyal S. Kang

49

Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

Rey, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL] [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

50

Commercialization of ceramic superconductor composite wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the development of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) composite wires demonstrate an increasingly realistic potential for commercial applications, such as power transmission cables, motors, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Successful commercialization requires the development of manufacturing technologies that can produce high-performance, low-cost HTS wires. The achievement of this goal has been occurring through an understanding of the

G. N. Riley; W. L. Carter

1993-01-01

51

Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer’s thermal stability are discussed.

Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

2010-11-01

52

Quench protection technique for HTS coils with electronic workbench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability and the protection of superconducting applications are very important issues. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is stable than low temperature superconductor (LTS). However, due to the high stability of HTS, HTS coils have complicate behaviors of normal transition - such as a recovery into the superconducting state or thermal runaway - which is determined by the magnitude of disturbance, coil size, the structure of winding wire and cooling condition. In this paper, we propose the quench protection system based on the active power method which can detect the quench by measuring the generating instantaneous active power in HTS coils. And the quench detection circuit adopted a software circuit by LabVIEW which was added a new quench protection technique to the circuit in order to improve its detection performance. Furthermore, it can monitor interior states of HTS coils with acquiring the only coil voltages in real time. To confirm the validity of the suggested technique, the experiments were performed with the hardware circuit for quench detection simultaneously. The experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

Joo, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kadota, T.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Kim, H. M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Jo, Y. S.

2010-11-01

53

Fabrication and test results of 2 T conduction cooled HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-scale conduction cooled high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet is fabricated and tested. This HTS magnet was designed in order to generate 2 T at center of room bore in operating current 120 A. It consists of eight double-pancake sub-coils, two HTS current leads, a GM cryocooler and a cryostat without a radiation shield vessel. Sub-coils were wound with 1G HTS tapes of Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. using wet winding method. Assembled magnet was impregnated with epoxy resin in vacuum. Room bore diameter of this magnet was 70 mm. Each bobbin of double-pancake coils was of GFRP and aluminum alloy. Upper and lower supporting plates of coils is made by aluminum alloy in order to improve thermal conduction. In this paper, fabrication and test results of HTS magnet including magnetic field and temperature variation are reported.

Kim, S.; Sohn, M. H.; Sim, K.; Kim, H. M.; Seong, K. C.; Kwon, Y. K.; Park, H. Y.; Eom, B. Y.

2009-10-01

54

Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the impact of connecting the HTS cable to the existing conventional facilities in Yokohama. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Corporation provides a cooling system. One of the technical targets in the project is to reduce the AC loss of superconducting cable. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO, which is a production name of BSCCO wires made by SEI, with twisted superconducting filaments is planed to be applied in the cable. A short cable core using the new wires shows less AC loss than 1 W/m/ph at 2 kA rms. Another important point is to design a cable system to withstand a large over current at a short circuit failure. At a preliminary test with a short cable, it was recognized that the cable had no degradation of conductor I c after applying the fault current of 31.5 kA for 2 s, which are required for 66 kV line. This report shows details of these experiment results and design of the cable.

Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kito, Y.

2009-10-01

55

Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

None

2007-06-07

56

Progress in high temperature superconductor coated conductors and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires are based on a coated conductor technology. They follow on from a first generation (1G) HTS wire consisting of a composite multifilamentary wire architecture. During the last couple of years, rapid progress has been made in the development of 2G HTS wire, which is now displacing 1G HTS wire for most if

A. P. Malozemoff; S. Fleshler; M. Rupich; C. Thieme; X. Li; W. Zhang; A. Otto; J. Maguire; D. Folts; J. Yuan; H.-P. Kraemer; W. Schmidt; M. Wohlfart; H.-W. Neumueller

2008-01-01

57

Design research on the conductor of 10 kA class HTS DC power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable shows a wide application prospect in the field of power transmission for its nearly lossless and rather high capacity. A 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable system, which connects the rectifier output of a substation with the bus bar of an electrolytic aluminium cell, will be put into operation at Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. As one of the items in this project, a 5 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable was developed, which is used to investigate the conductor design, fabrication, current-carrying capacity and stability of the 360 m/10 kA HTS power cable. The HTS DC power cable core consists of five conductor layers wound with spliced Bi-2223 wires with the length of 600 m. The cable core has five layers and 23 conductors in each layer with the outer diameter of 45.42 mm. The superconducting power cable is fabricated and tested. The critical current is about 14.3 kA at 77 K. The superconducting power cable is charged to 10 kA with rate of 10 A/s and operates at steady-state for 30 min. In this paper, the 10 kA HTS DC power cable design, fabrication and test are presented. The experimental research of the performance of spliced superconducting wire and charging, steady-state operating performance of the cable was carried out.

Zhang, Dong; Dai, Shaotao; Zhang, Fengyuan; Huang, Tianbin; Wang, Yinshun; Lin, Yubao; Teng, Yuping; Zhang, Guomin; Xiao, Liye; Lin, Liangzhen

2012-12-01

58

HTS and NMR/MRI magnets: Unique features, opportunities, and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique features of HTS offer opportunities and challenges to a number of applications. In this paper we focus on NMR and MRI magnets and present a brief description of some of the NMR/MRI magnet programs at FBML that are currently on-going and expected to begin in the near future, specifically a 1 GHz NMR magnet comprising an LTS magnet and an HTS insert wound with BSCCO-2223 tape, an NMR magnet assembled from YBCO annuli, and an MRI “demonstration” magnet wound with MgB 2 wire. Two conclusions are presented for HTS as applied to NMR/MRI magnets: (1) impact of HTS on NMR/MRI magnet technology is great, because HTS offers many opportunities and challenges, some of which are described here; and (2) impact of NMR/MRI magnets on HTS manufacturers is mixed-for high-field NMR magnet, it is small because the required amount of HTS in these magnets is negligible compared with that in electric power applications; for “low-field” NMR magnets, it may be potentially large if MgB 2 replaces Nb-Ti and Nb 3Sn; and for MRI magnets, it is potentially huge if MgB 2 replaces Nb-Ti and Nb 3Sn.

Iwasa, Yukikazu

2006-10-01

59

Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems  

SciTech Connect

Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Hassenzahl, William V [ORNL

2011-01-01

60

Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

2014-05-01

61

Development of new HTS-SQUID and HTS current sensor for HTS-SQUID beam current monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years ago, a prototype of a highly sensitive beam current monitor with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, that is, an HTS-SQUID monitor, was installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC). As a result, the beam intensity of a sub-?A beam was successfully measured by the

T Watanabe; Y Sasaki; M Kase; S Watanabe; T Ikeda; T Kawaguchi; Y Yano

2008-01-01

62

Development of new HTS-SQUID and HTS current sensor for HTS-SQUID beam current monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two years ago, a prototype of a highly sensitive beam current monitor with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, that is, an HTS-SQUID monitor, was installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC). As a result, the beam intensity of a sub-?A beam was successfully measured by the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. In fact, the intensity of a sub-?A 40Ar15+ (63 MeV/u) beam was successfully measured with a 500 nA resolution. However, the current resolution of the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor is not sufficient to measure the current of a uranium beam, which is accelerated in a new radioactive isotope (RI) beam facility called "RI Beam Factory" (RIBF). A minimum current resolution of 1 nA is required for the measurement of the uranium beam. Therefore, we are developing a new HTS-SQUID monitor so as to improve the current resolution. This new monitor consists of three parts, the HTS SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, and these parts have been separately developed this year. The high-permeability core that is installed in the two input coils of the HTS-SQUID is an extremely important part in this new HTS-SQUID monitor. A 50-fold improvement in gain was successfully realized using the high-permeability core compared with that obtained without the high-permeability core. Another key factor is the substrate of the HTS current sensor. A MgO ceramic tube was used for the substrate of the HTS current sensor in the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. However, it was difficult to form the bridge circuit using the MgO ceramic substrate in the new HTS-SQUID monitor, because the bridge circuit that magnetically connects the HTS current sensor and the HTS-SQUID has to be three-dimensional. To solve this problem, silver (Ag) of 99.9% purity was adopted for the substrates of the HTS current sensor in the new HTS-SQUID monitor. Then the surfaces of the substrates were coated by a thin layer (70?m) of Bi2-Sr2-Ca1-Cu2-Ox (Bi 2212), which is an HTS material. We report the results of this development.

Watanabe, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Kase, M.; Watanabe, S.; Ikeda, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Yano, Y.

2008-02-01

63

Encapsulated HTS bearings: technical and cost considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal encapsulation of HTS is one way to fabricate high-efficient HTS magnetic bearings for flywheels, motors and generators. We have been designed, manufactured and tested 200 mm axial and radial bearings for loads close to 300 kg. The maximum load to bearing weight is in the 10 to 1 ratio. At 77 K, a vacuum cryostat around the HTS reduces

F. N. Werfel; U. Floegel-Delor; T. Riedel; R. Rothfeld; D. Wippich; B. Goebel

2005-01-01

64

Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh\\/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM -

F N Werfel; U Floegel-Delor; T Riedel; R Rothfeld; D Wippich; B Goebel

2006-01-01

65

Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

2010-11-01

66

A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB2 wires and YBCO coated

Z Hong; L Ye; Y Jiang; R Pei; A M Campbell; T A Coombs

2008-01-01

67

Study on stabilization and quench protection of coils wound of HTS coated conductors considering quench origins - Proposal of criteria for stabilization and quench protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been considered that HTS coils are hard to be quenched because of high quench energy due to high critical temperature and high specific heat of HTS wires. Therefore, attention to quench protection was not much paid. However, HTS coils still have possibility to be quenched during operation by mainly the following two origins, (a) presence of non-recoverable local defects in the conductors and (b) temperature rise of long part of the conductor. Actually, severe quench accidents, such as burning coils, are occurring in various places as scales of HTS increased. Purposes of this paper are to study on behaviors of normal zone and hot spot temperature of wires during quench detect/energy dump sequence and to find criteria for the stability and quench protection. In the paper, criteria are proposed for stability and quench protection of HTS coils. A criterion for the stability is that a coil can be operated stably without a quench against defects in coil windings and that for quench protection is that a coil can be safely protected from damages caused by a quench due to temperature rise of long part of coil wires. The criteria are used as design rules for HTS coils.

Tsukamoto, Osami; Fujimoto, Yasutaka; Takao, Tomoaki

2014-09-01

68

Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi2223 tapes, coils and test magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and

P. Haldar; J. G. Jr. Hoehn; L. R. Motowidlo; U. Balachandran; Y. Iwasa; M. Yunus

1993-01-01

69

HTS Magnet for Maglev Applications (1)— Coil Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an HTS coil for maglev applications. The magnet consists of four persistent current HTS coils and is operated at a rated temperature of 20 K and a rated magnetomotive force of 750 kA for each coil. This paper describes the fabrication and test results of each persistent current HTS coil. The HTS coil consists of 12 single-pancake coils

Kenji Tasaki; Kotaro Marukawa; Satoshi Hanai; Taizo Tosaka; Toru Kuriyama; Tomohisa Yamashita; Yasuto Yanase; Mutsuhiko Yamaji; Hiroyuki Nakao; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Satoshi Hirano; Katsuyuki Kuwano; Takeshi Okutomi; Motoaki Terai

2006-01-01

70

Basic Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

71

Performance Analysis of an HTS Magnetic Suspension and Propulsion System With a Double-Sided HTS Linear Synchronous Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel HTS magnetic suspension and propulsion system driven by a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) has been developed, which is suspended by an HTS magnetic suspension subsystem located on the bottom of the HTSLSM secondary mover. The structural design of the suspension and propulsion system is introduced, and then the magnetization characteristics of the HTS bulk magnets for

Luhai Zheng; Jianxun Jin; Yuoguang Guo; Wei Xu; Jianguo Zhu

2012-01-01

72

Next generation of HTS magnetic application: HTS bulk and coil interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) will operate at magnetic field excitation higher than permanent magnets (> 1.0 T). The new bearing type is capable to support heavy -load rotors of more than one ton mass. Using FEM we calculate the interaction of HTS bulk and 2G coil to achieve higher magnetic flux excitation and flux gradients of HTS bearings at temperatures of 50 - 60 K. The new total HTS bearing type multiplies the present 10 -15 N/cm2 force density obtained with PM's by a factor of 5 and passes the force properties of active magnetic bearings (AMB). HTS coil excitation is capable to increases the levitation forces to more than the present 10 kN level and reduces relative cooling and material effort per load. We design a magnetic bearing for HTS bulk -coil excitation.

Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.; Koenig, R.

2014-05-01

73

The study on improving the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the insulation and lamination of the various metal tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicated quench behaviors. Because of these reasons, it is difficult to expect the self-protection. In this paper, two methods are suggested to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. One is to remove the insulation between turn-turn winding in HTS coils to enhance the thermal and electrical contacts along transverse direction and to increase the whole thermal stability of them. The other is Cu or Brass tapes are wound with HTS tape wire instead of the insulation to improve the thermal, electrical and mechanical stability of the HTS coils. To clarify the quench behaviors of the suggested coils, the normal zone propagation properties of the fabricated non-insulated HTS pancake coils were shown by measured voltage and temperature traces during the quench as a function of the operating temperature. And the characteristics of the normal transition and amount of the shared current to adjacent layers were quantitatively measured by a Hall sensor located at the center of HTS coils to measure the change of the self-magnetic field by operating current. The current sharing behaviors in the non-insulated HTS coil and the coil with Cu tape inserted were observed. The minimum quench energy (MQE) of the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted was the largest in the tested coils. It means that the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted had the highest transient stability against the thermal disturbances among the tested coils and the improvement of self protection abilities was proved.

Kim, S. B.; Kaneko, T.; Saito, A.; Kajikawa, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

2013-01-01

74

Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils  

E-print Network

This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) ...

Iwasa, Yukikazu

75

Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

2014-05-01

76

HTS Magnetic Bearings in Prototype Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATZ Company has successfully developed high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic bearings for power energy application and high-speed machinery. Journal-type design and improved HTS magnetic properties increasingly fulfill industrial prototype requirements. Maximum load up to 1.1 ton, stiffnesses in 3-4 kN\\/mm level, simultaneous self-stabilization in axial and radial directions, largegap operation of 5-6 mm and reliable machine cooling in the 50-60

Frank N. Werfel; Uta Floegel-Delor; Thomas Riedel; Rolf Rothfeld; Dieter Wippich; Bernd Goebel

2010-01-01

77

Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for the HTS layer. AMSC’s wide strip process is a low cost manufacturing technology since multiple wires are produced in a single manufacturing pass by slitting the wide strip to narrower width in the last stage of the manufacturing process. Industry standard 4.4 mm wide wires are produced by laminating metallic foils, such as copper, stainless steel or any other material, to the HTS insert wire, and are chosen to tailor the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the wire for specific applications. The laminated, 4.4 mm wide wires are known as “344 superconductors.” In this paper, we summarize the status of AMSC’s manufacturing capability, the performance of the wire presently being produced, as well as the cost and technical advantages of AMSC’s manufacturing approach. In addition, future direction for research and development to improve electrical performance is presented.

Fleshler, S.; Buczek, D.; Carter, B.; Cedrone, P.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J.; Inch, J.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Otto, A.; Podtburg, E.; Roy, D.; Rupich, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Schreiber, J.; Thieme, C.; Thompson, E.; Tucker, D.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.

2009-10-01

78

Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for

S. Fleshler; D. Buczek; B. Carter; P. Cedrone; K. Demoranville; J. Gannon; J. Inch; X. Li; J. Lynch; A. Otto; E. Podtburg; D. Roy; M. Rupich; S. Sathyamurthy; J. Schreiber; C. Thieme; E. Thompson; D. Tucker; K. Nagashima; M. Ogata

2009-01-01

79

Transport Jc Measurements of HTS Conductors under High Magnetic Field at LNCMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNCMI, the national French high magnetic field facility, provides high fields generated mainly by resistive magnets. Because of the forecast increasing price of electricity, LNCMI has a strong incentive to participate to the development and characterizations of HTS conductors in view of their use for the generation of strong field. Latest YBCO coated conductors have improved properties showing a great potential with that respect, without excluding Bi2212 and MgB2 for particular cases. We present the existing set-up to measure short straight or VAMAS type coil samples at variable temperature and high field up to 30 T, and some measurements obtained on different HTS conductors, Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductors. We also report on the first results obtained at 18 T with a pancake coil made of commercial YBCO coated conductor tapes on a newly developed solenoid test bench.

Chaud, Xavier; Debray, François; Mossang, Eric; Tixador, Pascal; Rey, Jean-Michel; Lecrevisse, Thibault; Bruzek, Christian-Eric

80

A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0 deg. to 10 deg., in steps of 1 deg.. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

Piekarz, H; Blowers, J; Shiltsev, V

2012-01-01

81

Tevatron HTS power lead test  

SciTech Connect

Two pairs of ASC 6 kA power leads developed for the Tevatron were successfully tested at Fermilab at over-current conditions. Stable operation was achieved while operating at a current of 9.56 kA for five hours and while continuously ramping between 0-9.56 kA at a ramp rate of 200 A/s for one hour. The minimum required liquid nitrogen flow rate was measured to be 1.5 g/s at 10 kA. After ramping up to 10 kA at 200A/s, it took only 15 minutes to stabilize the upper copper section of the lead with a flow of 1.8 g/s of liquid nitrogen vapor. Testing under extreme operating conditions--270-370 kPa liquid nitrogen vapor pressure and over 0.1 T external magnetic field--demonstrated that the HTS part of the lead can safely operate in the current sharing mode and that this design has large operating margin.

Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2004-10-01

82

Alternative Design Concepts for Multi-Circuit HTS Link Systems  

E-print Network

Superconducting cables for power transmission usually contain two conductors for DC application, or three conductors for AC, with high voltage insulation. In contrast, for some applications related to accelerators it is convenient to transfer high currents via superconducting links feeding a number of circuits at relatively low voltage, of the order of a kilovolt, over distances of up to a few hundred meters. For power transmission applications based on cooling via sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, suitable HTS conductors are only available in the form of tape, and a multi-layer variant can be envisaged for the multi-circuit links. However, where cooling to temperatures of the order of 20 K is feasible, MgB2 conductor, available in the form of both tape and wire, can also be envisaged and in the latter case used to assemble round cables. There are, therefore, two distinct topologies - based on the use of wires or tapes - that can be envisaged for use in applications to multi-circuit link systems. In this paper the ...

Ballarino, A

2011-01-01

83

Harmonic Balance Algorithms for the Nonlinear Simulation of HTS Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of Harmonic Balance algorithms to predict nonlinear effects in planar High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) microwave circuits. The resulting algorithms are fast and efficient and can be used both for the characterization of the nonlinearities in the HTS material, and for the prediction of the behavior of an HTS circuit given the parameters of these nonlinearities

C. Collado; J. Mateu; J. Parrón; J. Pons; J. M. O'Callaghan; J. M. Rius

2001-01-01

84

Harmonic Balance Algorithms for the Nonlinear Simulation of HTS Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of Harmonic Balance algorithms to predict nonlinear effects in planar High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) microwave circuits. The resulting algorithms are fast and efficient and can be used both for the characterization of the nonlin- earities in the HTS material, and for the prediction of the behavior of an HTS circuit given the parameters of these

C. Collado; J. Mateu; J. Parr; J. Pons; J. M. O'Callaghan; J. M. Rius

2001-01-01

85

Recent UpScaling in HTS Magnetic Device Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) interac- tion shows a great potential in rotational bearing and linear Ma- glev technology. Besides the superconductor each application sets additional specific technical requirements. The challenges of use the various constructions and applications in the combination of the cold HTS material and the required technical periphery are discussed. ATZ's 0.5-ton HTS production per annum has enabled

Frank N. Werfel; Uta Floegel-Delor; Rolf Rothfeld; Thomas Riedel; Bernd Goebel; Dieter Wippich; P. Schirrmeister

2011-01-01

86

US effort on HTS power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert’s ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year’s program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

Mehta, S.

2011-11-01

87

A HTS dipole insert coil constructed  

E-print Network

This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

2013-01-01

88

HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

2013-11-01

89

Wire chamber  

DOEpatents

A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

1989-01-01

90

Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils  

PubMed Central

This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) operation of a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700) consisting of a 600 MHz LTS NMR magnet (L600) equipped with superconducting shim coils and a 100 MHz DP-assembled HTS insert (H100) and; 2) an experiment with a room-temperature (RT) Z1 shim coil coupled to a 50 MHz DP-as-sembled HTS insert (H50). A field mapping theory with a harmonic analysis is applied to interpret both results. Based on experimental results and analyses, we conclude that the screening-current-induced field (SCF) generated by a DP-assembled HTS insert is primarily responsible for the nonlinear behavior, including strength degradation, of a shim coil. PMID:20383282

Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bascunan, Juan; Yao, Weijun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2010-01-01

91

Modular Test Facility for HTS Insert Coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed to investigate very high fields using double pancake coils made of commercially available 2G HTS materials. The conductor performance is presented, together with magnetic calculations and

V. Lombardo; A. Bartalesi; E. Barzi; M. Lamm; D. Turrioni; A. V. Zlobin

2010-01-01

92

SUMMARY OF HTS WORK AT TD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment, which is in the works at FNAL to confirm that ionization cooling is an efficient way to shrink the size of a muon beam, would pave the way for Muon Collider machines, which require in their last stages of cooling and of acceleration very high field (> 25 T) solenoids. Two kinds of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS)

E. Barzi; D. Turrioni; V. Lombardo; A. Kikuchi; M. Lamm; R. Yamada; A. Zlobin

93

From BCS to Hts and Rts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great progress has been made in high temperature superconductivity (HTS) science, material and technology in the 20 years since its discovery. The next grand challenge will be room temperature superconductivity (RTS). Room temperature superconductivity, if achieved, can change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only "at an astronomical temperature and at an astronomical distance". With the advent of HTS in 1987, the outlook for RTS has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why room temperature superconductivity should be impossible. BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but, since its inception, it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at higher temperatures. To date, empiricism remains the most effective way to discover superconductors with high transition temperatures. In this paper based on the talk given at the Professor Yang's 85th birthday celebration on October 31, 2007 in Singapore, I shall summarize the search for superconductors of higher Tc prior to and after the discovery of HTS, list the common features of HTS and describe some approaches toward RTS that we are currently pursuing.

Chu, C. W.

2008-12-01

94

Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS\\/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) operation of a 700 MHz LTS\\/HTS NMR magnet (LH700) consisting of a 600 MHz LTS NMR magnet (L600) equipped with superconducting shim coils and a 100

Seung-Yong Hahn; Min Cheol Ahn; Juan Bascunan; Weijun Yao; Yukikazu Iwasa

2009-01-01

95

Wire Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

Swanquist, Barry

1998-01-01

96

Stretching Wires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

Urbana-Champaign, University O.

2013-01-04

97

Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

2005-10-01

98

Persistent current HTS magnet cooled by cryocooler (1)-project overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project overview for a persistent current HTS magnet, which has been in development for Maglev trains since 1999. The HTS magnet operates with a very small current decay rate of 0.44%\\/day and can be cooled by a cryocooler below 20 K. The HTS coil consists of 12 single-pancake coils, which were wound with 4 parallel Ag-sheathed

Motohiro Igarashi; Hiroyuki Nakao; Motoaki Terai; Toru Kuriyama; Satoshi Hanai; Tomohisa Yamashita; Mutsuhiko Yamaji

2005-01-01

99

Laser scanning microscopy of HTS films and devices (Review Article)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) as a spatially-resolved method of testing high-Tc superconductivity (HTS) materials and devices are described. The earlier results obtained by the authors are briefly reviewed. Some novel applications of LSM are illustrated, including imaging the HTS responses in rf mode, probing the superconducting properties of HTS single crystals, and development of two-beam laser scanning

A. P. Zhuravel; A. G. Sivakov; O. G. Turutanov; A. N. Omelyanchouk; Steven M. Anlage; A. Lukashenko; A. V. Ustinov; D. Abraimov

2006-01-01

100

Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Goodall, R.M. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering] [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

1996-07-01

101

Cold storage characteristics of mobile HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold storage system specialized in mobile high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets (e.g. for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles) has been proposed. In this system, a cooling source is detachable and a HTS coil is capable of maintaining superconducting state with its heat capacity. This system allows a considerably lightweight HTS magnet. An apparatus was constructed to evaluate the possibility of using cold storage systems in maglev vehicles. The thermal characteristic of this apparatus was based on a magnet for previous maglev test vehicles [1]. The operational temperature range of the magnet was assumed from 20 K to 50 K. Some experiments indicated that heat conduction by residual gas was not negligible. Especially over 30 K, gas conduction took a large part of heat input. This phenomenon is attributable to reduction of cryopumping effect. However, activated carbon in the apparatus compensates cryopumping effect. A unique heat capacitor was also used to enhance the cold storage effect. Water ice was chosen as a heat capacitor because water ice has a higher heat capacity than metallic materials at cryogenic temperatures. A small amount of water ice also prolonged cryogenic temperature condition. These results indicate 1 day of cold storage is probable in a magnet for maglev vehicles.

Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Ken; Kawano, Asumi; Okamura, Tetsuji

2011-06-01

102

AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables  

SciTech Connect

Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

1998-09-13

103

Superconducting wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T sub c superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is

M. T. Lanagan; R. B. Poeppel; J. P. Singh; D. I. Dossantos; J. K. Lumpp; J. T. Dusek; K. C. Goretta

1988-01-01

104

Development of HTS motor for industrial applications at KERI & DOOSAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is development of HTS motor at DOOSAN heavy industry with Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute in Korea. This project is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments.

Y. K. Kwon; M. H. Sohn; S. K. Baik; E. Y. Lee; J. D. Lee; J. M. Kim; T. S. Moon; H. J. Park; Y. C. Kim; J. P. Hong; Y. S. Jo; K. S. Ryu

2006-01-01

105

Quench Characteristics of HTS Conductors at Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not withstanding their high stability at liquid nitrogen temperatures, quench propagation due local disturbances remains a crucial issue for high temperature superconductors (HTS) operating at low temperatures as high field insert coils and cryogen-free magnets. In contrast to low temperature superconductors (LTS), normal zone in HTS at low temperatures must develop over a much extended temperature range for current sharing

Taotao Huang; Elena Martinez; Chris Friend; Yifeng Yang

2008-01-01

106

Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

2008-09-01

107

Flat Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The N.Y. State Urban Development Corp., Amp Inc., and Western Electric Corp. are working with NASA to produce flat conductor electrical cable. Flat conductor electrical cable originally designed for spacecraft by the Marshall Space Flight Center, has been installed in a housing project. Because it is very thin the wire can be mounted on surfaces of walls and floors instead of inside of them. Installation costs reduced significantly due to single installation time.

1976-01-01

108

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

109

Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States); Motowidlo, L.R. [IGC Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States); Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

1993-10-01

110

Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements  

DOEpatents

A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM); Overmyer, Donald L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

111

A prototype of a highly sensitive cryogenic current comparator with a HTS SQUID and HTS magnetic shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly sensitive cryogenic current comparator (CCC) for the measurement of the intensity of faint beams, such as a radioisotope beam, was developed for the RIKEN RI beam factory project. This monitor is composed of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic shield and an HTS current sensor including an HTS superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which are cooled by a low-vibration pulse-tube refrigerator. Both the HTS magnetic shield and the HTS current sensor based on Bi2-Sr2-Ca2-Cu3-Ox (Bi-2223) were fabricated by dip-coating on a 99.9% MgO ceramic substrate. Recently, a prototype of the HTS SQUID CCC system was completed and we carried out the first measurements using DC ion beams in the current range of 0.5-20 µA, which were produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source in the CNS experimental hall. After the measurement was successfully carried out in the CNS, we installed the system into the beam transport line of the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron (RRC) to measure the current of the high-energy heavy-ion beam which has a bunched microstructure. In this paper, we describe the performance and the present status of the prototype of the HTS SQUID CCC system and the results of the ion beam measurement.

Watanabe, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ikeda, T.; Kase, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Katayama, T.

2004-05-01

112

Performance of HTS SQUID using resonant coupling of cooled Cu pickup coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and tested an HTS SQUID magnetometer using resonant coupling of a copper pickup coil cooled at T = 77 K. The pickup coil was made of a twisted multi-filamentary wire, the so-called Litz wire, to prevent the increase in coil resistance at high frequencies. First, we measured the coil characteristics in the frequency range from DC to 100 kHz when the diameter d f of the elementary filament of the Litz wire was varied between 0.04 and 0.2 mm. We showed that the coil characteristics at high frequencies can be improved when the diameter d f is reduced. Next, we constructed a magnetometer using a pickup coil with an average diameter D = 45 mm and number of turns N = 150. The measured magnetic field noise of the magnetometer was 3.3 fT/Hz 1/2 at a resonant frequency of f r = 10.15 kHz. The Q value of the resonant circuit was Q = 153. The experimental results agreed well with the designed value. The obtained high sensitivity of the magnetometer is expected to be useful for its application to low-field NMR.

Enpuku, K.; Hirakawa, S.; Momotomi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, T.

2011-11-01

113

Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet  

E-print Network

This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) ...

Ahn, Min Cheol

114

HTS magnet for 7.3 kJ SMES system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising power applications of high - Tc superconductors are Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems for storing and instantaneous discharging large quantities of power. The SMES system stores energy in the magnetic field generated by the flow of DC current in a coil of superconducting material that has been cryogenically cooled. This paper describes design of a 7.3 kJ conduction - cooled, high - Tc superconducting (HTS) magnet for experimental SMES system. This magnet consists of 14 single pancake - coils wound with Bi-2223 High Strength Wire with critical current of 115 A at 77 K. The operating current of the magnet is 135 A at 35 K. The described magnet is cooled in high vacuum cryostat using two-stage G-M cryocooler SRDK-408.

Wojtasiewicz, G.; Janowski, T.; Kozak, S.; Kondratowicz-Kucewicz, B.; Kozak, J.; Surdacki, P.; Glowacki, B. A.

2006-06-01

115

HTS coil development and fabrication. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this subtask (Task 2C) was to develop high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil technology aimed specifically at superconducting generator applications. Bi-2223 tape produced in a separate subtask (Task 2A) was first wound and tested in a small circular coil. This small coil winding experience led the authors to develop a tape strengthening method using a lamination process and to develop a turn insulation method using a paper wrap process. A prototype racetrack coil was wound using 2500 feet of the laminated and insulated Bi-2223 tapes. The racetrack coil was cooled to 20K in a vacuum dewar using a unique closed-cycle helium gas refrigeration system.

Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Ranze, R. [and others

1996-10-01

116

Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS\\/HTS NMR Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-\\/high-temperature superconductor (LTS\\/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS

Min Cheol Ahn; Tsuyoshi Yagai; Seungyong Hahn; Ryuya Ando; Juan Bascunan; Yukikazu Iwasa

2009-01-01

117

Recent advances of HTS power application research at IEE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances of high temperature superconductors (HTS) for power applications in the Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE), Chinese academy of Sciences are presented. A 75 meter, 10.5 kV/1.5 kA three phase HTS transmission cable has been successfully demonstrated in a live distribution grid in northwest China. A 10.5 kV/200A bridge-type fault current limiter (FCL) prototype based on Bi-2223 tapes is being tested in a Hunan power plant since August 2005. A 400V/16V/26 kVA three phase HTS transformer was designed, built and tested, and the on site system installation of a 10.5 kV/400V/630 kVA HTS transformer will be finished at Tebian Electric Ltd. soon. In addition, the progress of design and test of SMES is also given.

Ma, Yanwei; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

2006-06-01

118

Inductance and Current Distribution Analysis of a Prototype HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is partly supported by NSFC Grant 51207146, RAEng Research Exchange scheme of UK and EPSRC EP/K01496X/1. Superconducting cable is an emerging technology for electricity power transmission. Since the high power capacity HTS transmission cables are manufactured using a multi-layer conductor structure, the current distribution among the multilayer structure would be nonuniform without proper optimization and hence lead to large transmission losses. Therefore a novel optimization method has been developed to achieve evenly distributed current among different layers considering the HTS cable structure parameters: radius, pitch angle and winding direction which determine the self and mutual inductance. A prototype HTS cable has been built using BSCCO tape and tested to validate the design the optimal design method. A superconductor characterization system has been developed using the Labview and NI data acquisition system. It can be used to measure the AC loss and current distribution of short HTS cables.

Zhu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Ming; Yuan, Weijia

2014-05-01

119

Places Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you curious to learn more about cities? You'd do well to make a beeline for the Places Wire site, which offers a cornucopia of material on urban parks, public policy, architecture, planning, and other topics. In sum total, the site is a "curated feed of news and commentary on architecture, landscape and urbanism." The site has partnered with 20 different organizations to provide new content on a daily basis. Some of the recent articles that have found their way to the site include "9 Suggestions for Changing DC's Height Limit" and "The Demise of the Public Hearing." Visitors can also use the drop-down View tab to scroll through the last few hours or days, as the content is quite dynamic. One gem that should not be missed is the archived appearance of Frank Lloyd Wright as a guest on the 1950s television program "What's My Line?"

120

Resistance in a Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the physics of resistance in a wire. Change its resistivity, length, and area to see how they affect the wire's resistance. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change along with the diagram of a wire.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Adams, Wendy; Gratny, Mindy

2004-06-01

121

FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM (FESS) WITH HTS MAGNETIC BEARINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the progress of heavy-load HTS bearings the technical concept and recent development results of a new high- efficient compact 5 kWh\\/250 kW FESS for uninterruptible power system (UPS) and power quality function is reported. In a first step we have been designed, constructed and tested a new compact HTS magnetic bearing capable to stabilize a 400 kg flywheel

F. N. WERFEL; U. FLOEGEL; R. ROTHFELD; T. RIEDEL; D. WIPPICH; B. GOEBEL

122

New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the

S. Yoshida; H. Hirai; A. Takaike; M. Hirokawa; Y. Aizawa; Y. Kamioka; H. Okamoto; H. Hayashi; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01

123

Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

2013-06-01

124

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material

Ya E. Krasik; A. Fedotov; D. Sheftman; S. Efimov; A. Sayapin; V. Tz Gurovich; D. Veksler; G. Bazalitski; S. Gleizer; A. Grinenko; V. I. Oreshkin

2010-01-01

125

Windows: Life after Wire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

Razwick, Jerry

2003-01-01

126

Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process  

PubMed Central

Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5??m thick SmBa2Cu3O7 ? ? (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000?A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500?A/cm-width for a short 12?cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

2014-01-01

127

Behavior of exploding wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Exploding wire is performed by rapidly heating the wire to vaporization temperature with a high current pulse flowing through the wire. Exploding wires have found many applications among which are the opening switches named fuses in the circuits for inductive energy storage, the discharge loads of X-pinch or Z-pinches, namely wire array Z-pinches, and the production

Z. G. Mao; X. B. Zou; X. X. Wang; W. H. Jiang

2009-01-01

128

Stretched Wire Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

2005-09-06

129

Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS  

SciTech Connect

Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Knoll, David [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture] [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture

2010-01-01

130

Thermodynamic optimization of conduction-cooled HTS current leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical optimization is performed for the conduction-cooling method of high Tc superconductor (HTS) current leads, which can be applied to the superconducting systems cooled directly by cryogenic refrigerators without liquid helium. The current lead is a series combination of a normal metal conductor at the warmer part and a HTS at the colder part, and is cooled by a contact with distributed or staged refrigerators instead of boil-off helium gas. An analytical method is developed to derive a mathematical expression for the required refrigerator power. By incorporating the critical characteristics of the HTS, it is demonstrated that there exist unique optimal values for the current density of HTS and the joint temperature of the two parts to minimize the total refrigerator power per unit current, for a given length of the HTS. As results of the study, the absolute minimum in the refrigerator power per unit current is presented as a thermodynamic limit and the leads cooled by a two-stage refrigerator are theoretically optimized. Some aspects in practical design are also discussed with a new and useful graphical method.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Van Sciver, Steven W.

131

Development of round multifilament Bi2212\\/Ag wires for high field magnet applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-2212\\/Ag conductor is one of the most promising materials for expanding superconducting magnet applications to higher fields and\\/or temperatures than present LTS systems. From the view point of practical application, Bi-2212 round wires have significant advantages over more typical HTS tape conductors, such as no anisotropy, ease of handling and simpler coil winding, allowing considerable flexibility in the magnet design.

Hanping Miao; Kenneth R. Marken; Maarten Meinesz; Boleslaw Czabaj; Seung Hong

2005-01-01

132

Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

1992-01-01

133

Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

1992-08-01

134

Operational Experience of the World's First Transmission Level Voltage Hts Power Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cables have attracted extensive interest in recent years due to their potential for high power density. With funding support from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the world's first transmission voltage level HTS power cable has been designed, fabricated and permanently installed in Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The HTS cable was

J. F. Maguire; J. Yuan; F. Schmidt; R. Soika; S. Bratt; C. King; J. McNamara; T. E. Welsh

2010-01-01

135

Design of Damper to Protect the Field Coil of an HTS Synchronous Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors consist mainly of rotational (HTS coil) and stationery (copper coil) parts. The HTS coil running at a synchronous speed is not influenced by the magnetic field generated by the stator coil but is affected considerably at the initial or transient operation. Therefore, computational analysis to determine the optimal design of the damper is an

H. M. Kim; Y. S. Yoon; Y. K. Kwon; Y. C. Kim; S. H. Lee; J. P. Hong; J. B. Song; H. G. Lee

2009-01-01

136

Numerical and experimental comparison of electromechanical properties and efficiency of HTS and ferromagnetic hysteresis motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hysteresis motors are very attractive in a wide range of fractional power applications, due to its torque-speed characteristics and simplicity of construction. This motor's performance is expected to improve when HTS rotors are used, and in fact, hysteresis motors have shown to be probably the most viable electrical machines using HTS materials. While these motors, either conventional or HTS, are

D Inácio; S Inácio; J Pina; A Gonçalves; M Ventim Neves; A Leão Rodrigues

2008-01-01

137

AC Application of HTS Conductors in Highly Dynamic Electric Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on recent investigations we design highly dynamic electric motors up to 400 kW and linear motors up to 120 kN linear force using HTS bulk material and HTS tapes. The introduction of HTS tapes into AC applications in electric motors needs fundamental studies on double pancake coils under transversal magnetic fields. First theoretical and experimental results on AC field distributions in double-pancake-coils and corresponding AC losses will be presented. Based on these results the simulation of the motor performance confirms extremely high power density and efficiency of both types of electric motors. Improved characteristics of rare earth permanent magnets used in our motors at low temperatures give an additional technological benefit.

Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Setzer, M.; Duffner, E.; Soell, M.; Gawalek, W.; Kovalev, L. K.

2006-06-01

138

HTS SQUIDs for the nondestructive evaluation of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While LTS and HTS SQUIDs have successfully been applied in the detection of flaws in aircraft grade aluminium structures for well over a decade, interest has recently spread to a type of new material, namely composites. One example, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), is increasingly being favoured by the aircraft industry because of its strength to weight ratio and the fact that it is corrosion-resistant. Material and defect characterization using SQUIDs is still at an early stage, but due to expected rapid expansion in the use of such materials, there is ample scope for the application of HTS SQUIDs. Here we have applied HTS SQUID single-layer gradiometers to investigate artificially created defects in CFRP samples.

Carr, Chris; Graham, David; Macfarlane, John C.; Donaldson, Gordon B.

2003-12-01

139

Angular Measurements of Hts Critical Current for High Field Solenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment is in the works at Fermilab to confirm that ionization cooling is an efficient way to shrink the size of a muon beam. This would pave the way for Muon Collider machines, which however require in their last stages of acceleration very high field solenoids. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these magnets using Helium or higher temperature refrigeration. A sample holder was designed to perform critical current (Ic) measurements of HTS conductors under externally applied magnetic fields varying from zero to 90 degree with respect to the c-axis. This was performed in an ample range of temperatures and magnetic field values. A description of the test setup and results for (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO-2223) tapes, and Second Generation HTS in the form of 348 superconductor are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Lombardo, V.; Thieme, C.; Zlobin, A. V.

2008-03-01

140

ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS OF HTS CRITICAL CURRENT FOR HIGH FIELD SOLENOIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is in the works at Fermilab to confirm that ionization cooling is an efficient way to shrink the size of a muon beam. This would pave the way for Muon Collider machines, which however require in their last stages of acceleration very high field solenoids. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these magnets using Helium or higher temperature refrigeration. A sample holder was designed to perform critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors under externally applied magnetic fields varying from zero to 90 degree with respect to the c-axis. This was performed in an ample range of temperatures and magnetic field values. A description of the test setup and results for (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO-2223) tapes, and Second Generation HTS in the form of 348 superconductor are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Lombardo, V.; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States); Thieme, C. [American Superconductor (AMSC) Westborough, MA, 01581 (United States)

2008-03-03

141

HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

2005-08-01

142

Wire Test Grip Fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

Burke, Christopher S.

2011-01-01

143

Optimizing wire parameters in exploding wire arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploding wire arrays as fast switches are of interest for explosive pulsed power applications utilizing magnetic flux compression. This type of opening switch has proven effective in producing pulses of several hundred kilovolts into vacuum diode loads. The research presented here discusses an exploding wire array capable of producing single digit kilo- joules, 100 nanosecond pulses when driven by a

C. Davis; A. Neuber; J. Stephens; A. Young; J. Dickens; M. Kristiansen

2010-01-01

144

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

145

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

146

Wire harness twisting aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

1980-01-01

147

A Cryogenic Dc-Dc Power Converter for a 100 kW Synchronous HTS Generator at Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dc-dc converter has been developed for retrofitting inside the vacuum space of the HTS rotor of a synchronous generator. The heavy copper sections of the current leads used for energising the HTS field winding were replaced by cryogenic power electronics; consisting of the converter and a rotor control unit. The converter board was designed using an H-bridge configuration with two 5A rated wires connecting the cryogenic boards to the stator control board located on the outside of the generator and drawing power from a (5A, 50 V) dc power source. The robustness of converter board was well demonstrated when it was powered up from a cold start at 82K. When charging the field winding with moderate currents (30A), the heat in-leak to the ‘cold’ rotor core was only 2W. It continued to function down to 74K, surviving several quenches. However, the quench protection function failed when injecting 75A into the field winding, resulting in the burn out of one of the DC-link capacitors. The magnitudes of the critical currents measured with the original current leads were compared to the quench currents, which was defined as the current which triggered quench protection protocol. The difference between the two currents was rather large, (?20A). However, additional measurements using a single HTS coil in liquid nitrogen found that this reduction should not be so dramatic and in the region of 4A. Our conclusions identified the converter's switching voltage and its operating frequency as two parameters, which could have contributed to lowering the quench current. Magnetic fields and eddy currents are expected to be more prominent the field winding and its impact on the converter also need further investigation.

Bailey, Wendell; Wen, Hauming; Yang, Yifeng; Forsyth, Andrew; Jia, Chungjiang

148

Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S. A.; Gunther, D.

2005-01-01

149

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

150

Wire-Identification Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument automatically tests each wire in multiwire cable and identifies specified wire to be segregated or labeled and locates wire connected to specified connector pin. Instrument made with readily available CMOS integrated circuits. More efficient and reliable than conventional continuity testers and less expensive than computer controlled units.

Lonborg, J. O.

1985-01-01

151

A study on the surface flashover characteristics for a HTS cable termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terminal technology is important component to a HTS cable as well as a conventional cable. HTS cable terminations are required when the insulated shield HTS cables connect with other conductors such as a bus or a overhead lines. HTS cable terminations must span a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K. The termination is insulated with insulating oil or air, cryogenic gaseous nitrogen and liquid nitrogen. Particularly, difficult conditions for high voltage insulation had to be overcome with HTS cable. And, several environments can substantially raise the flashover possibility at the HTS cable termination. Therefore, in order to insulating design of HTS cable termination, this paper will report on experimental investigations of the surface flashover characteristics under various surface length and GFRP thickness in the atmospheric air, transformer oil, LN 2 at atmospheric pressure and complex condition.

Baek, Seung-Myeong; Ryoo, Hee-Seok; Kim, Sang-Hyun

2005-01-01

152

HTS power leads for the BTEV interaction region  

SciTech Connect

A new Interaction Region (IR) for the BTEV experiment was planned to be built at Fermilab. This IR would have required new superconducting quadrupole magnets and many additional power circuits for their operation. The new ''low beta'' quadrupole magnet design was based upon the Fermilab LHC quadrupole design, and would have operated at 9.56 kA in 4.5 K liquid helium. The use of conventional power leads for these circuits would have required substantially more helium for cooling than is available from the cryogenic plant, which is already operating close to its limit. To decrease the heat load and helium cooling demands, the use of HTS power leads was necessary. In developing specifications for HTS leads for the BTEV interaction region, several 6 kA HTS leads produced by American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) have been tested at over-current conditions. Final design requirements were to be based on these test results. This paper summarizes the test results and describes the design requirements for the 9.65 kA HTS power leads.

Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

153

Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs.

Bishop, A.R.

1989-01-01

154

Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

2013-01-01

155

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

156

HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

2014-05-01

157

HTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability,  

E-print Network

for the economic argument for HTS AC applications like cables and transformers. · Conductor design is important;6 To study the quench behavior, an over-current pulse was applied to create a normal zone · The transient pulse energy was varied by changing the magnitude, Ip or the duration of the pulse. · The figures show

158

HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-gated ion channels are emerging as a target class of increasing importance to the pharmaceutical industry because of their relevance to a wide variety of diseases in the cardiovascular, CNS and metabolic areas. In the quest to identify novel lead molecules against these targets, drug discovery programmes are increasingly making use of HTS approaches. The authors describe the current technologies

Jane Denyer; Jennings Worley; Brian Cox; Gary Allenby; Martyn Banks

1998-01-01

159

Improved reproducible fabrication process of HTS-SQUIDs with ramp-edge Josephson junctions and multilayer structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the fabrication process for high- Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (HTS-SQUIDs) containing ramp-edge-type Josephson junctions and multilayer superconducting wiring. 5-Channel gradiometer arrays for non-destructive evaluation of striated coated conductors were fabricated. Our previous process contained some problems which often brought about property spreads of the gradiometers and/or degradation in superconducting electrodes. We attempted to improve homogeneity of substrate temperature during barrier preparation. The thickness of a black-colored Pr 1.4Ba 1.6Cu 2.6Ga 0.4O y embedded at the lowest in the multilayer was increased. The substrate on which bare ramp-surfaces were arranged was heated from the rear side by thermal radiation. A sapphire plate as a temperature homogenizer was inserted between the substrate and the heater. At the final procedure of the process, careful oxygenation containing surface cleaning by dry etching prior to heat-treatment was carried out. By employing them, five HTS-SQUIDs exhibiting the peak-to-peak modulation voltage over 50 ?V were successfully fabricated within 6 × 6-mm 2 area in a chip. Their noise levels at 1 kHz and 77 K were as low as 4 ?? 0/Hz 1/2.

Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tsukamoto, A.; Ishimaru, Y.; Hato, T.; Kawano, J.; Tanabe, K.

2010-11-01

160

Axial Ligand Replacement Mechanism in Heme Transfer from Streptococcal Heme-Binding Protein Shp to HtsA of the HtsABC Transporter  

PubMed Central

The heme-binding protein Shp of Group A Streptococcus rapidly transfers its heme to HtsA, the lipoprotein component of the HtsABC transporter, in a concerted two-step process with one kinetic phase. Heme axial residue-to-alanine replacement mutant proteins of Shp and HtsA (ShpM66A, ShpM153A, HtsAM79A, and HtsAH229A) were used to probe the axial displacement mechanism of this heme transfer reaction. Ferric ShpM66A at high pH and ShpM153A have a pentacoordinate heme iron complex with a methionine axial ligand. ApoHtsAM79A efficiently acquires heme from ferric Shp but alters the reaction mechanism to two kinetic phases from a single phase in the wild-type protein reactions. In contrast, apoHtsAH229A cannot assimilate heme from ferric Shp. The conversion of pentacoordinate holoShpM66A into pentacoordinate holoHtsAH229A involves an intermediate, whereas holoHtsAH229A is directly formed from pentacoordinate holoShpM153A. Conversely, apoHtsAM79A reacts with holoShpM66A and holoShpM153A in the mechanisms with one and two kinetic phases, respectively. These results imply that the Met79 and His229 residues of HtsA displace the Met66 and Met153 residues of Shp, respectively. Structural docking analysis supports this mechanism of the specific axial residue displacement. Furthermore, the rates of the cleavage of the axial bond in Shp in the presence of a replacing HtsA axial residue are greater than that in the absence of a replacing HtsA axial residue. These findings reveal a novel heme transfer mechanism of the specific displacement of the Shp axial residues with the HtsA axial residues and the involvement of the HtsA axial residues in the displacement. PMID:23980583

Ran, Yanchao; Malmirchegini, G. Reza; Clubb, Robert T.; Lei, Benfang

2013-01-01

161

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material of up to 200 eV/atom was achieved. In microsecond time scale wire explosion, a good agreement was attained between the wire resistance calculated using the equation of state (EOS) and that obtained experimentally. Conversely, in nanosecond time scale wire explosion, the wire resistance of EOS was modified in order to fit experimental data. Analysis of the emitted radiation showed that black body approximation cannot be used to characterize exploding wire radiation. It was found that <=24% of the deposited energy is transferred into the water flow's mechanical energy. Also, it was shown that converging SWs formed by the explosion of cylindrical wire arrays can be used to achieve a pressure up to 250 kbar at the axis of implosion. Hydrodynamic simulations showed that with the use of relatively moderate pulsed power generators with stored energy of several hundred kilojoules, a pressure of several megabar can be achieved at the axis of implosion.

Krasik, Ya E.; Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Efimov, S.; Sayapin, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz; Veksler, D.; Bazalitski, G.; Gleizer, S.; Grinenko, A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

2010-06-01

162

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2012-07-01

163

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2013-07-01

164

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2010-07-01

165

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2011-07-01

166

Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet  

PubMed Central

This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascunan, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2010-01-01

167

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

168

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

169

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

170

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

171

Conceptual design of contactless power transfer into HTS receiver coil using normal conducting resonance antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contactless power transfer (CPT) technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators has been recently explored to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire across a large air gap. As the CPT technology makes possible the process of connector-free charging, it has been studied for practical applications to a variety of power applications. In the superconducting magnet system, a widespread method of electric energy supply is realized by the current lead which is one of indispensable subsystems in the power transfer equipment; however, it causes energy losses. To overcome such a problem, the combination CPT technology with HTS receiver coils has been proposed. It is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Such a technique has been expected a reasonable approach to provide a safe and convenient way of charging or storage without connecting joints in the superconducting applications. In this study, we presented the feasibility and various effects of transmission property from room temperature to very low temperature vessel within 40 cm under different material’s cooling vessels using radio frequency (RF) generator is 370 KHz.

Kang, Hyoung Ku; Chung, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo

2014-09-01

172

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

173

Weld Wire Investigation Summary  

SciTech Connect

After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

Cunningham, M.A.

1999-03-22

174

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

175

Development and characteristics of persistent mode in HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet with a persistent current switch (PCS) and evaluated the decay characteristics of persistent mode and joint resistance at 77 K. To make the HTS magnet, BSCCO(2223) tapes were wound into a double-pancake coil and connected to the PCS by soldering. Field decay behavior was remarkably dependent on operating current. At an operating current of 50% of the critical current ( Ic), decay behavior showed two distinct regimes: initial fast decay and subsequent linear decay. By contrast, there was a linear decay regime of only 13% of Ic. Total circuit resistance was approximately 2.0 × 10 -8 ? at an operating current of 6 A. Measured decay behavior was closely consistent with the calculated decay behavior obtained from both the index resistance and joint resistance components.

Kim, Jung Ho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Se-Hee; Nah, Wansoo; Kang, Hyoungku; Ko, Tae Kuk

2004-10-01

176

High voltage insulation of bushing for HTS power equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments, it is necessary to develop insulating materials and high voltage (HV) insulation technology at cryogenic temperature of bushing. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an attractive dielectric liquid. Also, the polymer insulating materials are expected to be used as solid materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), Silicon (Si) rubber, aromatic polyamide (Nomex), EPDM/Silicon alloy compound (EPDM/Si). In this paper, the surface flashover characteristics of various insulating materials in LN2 are studied. These results are studied at both AC and impulse voltage under a non-uniform field. The use of GFRP and Teflon as insulation body for HTS bushing should be much desirable. Especially, GFRP is excellent material not only surface flashover characteristics but also mechanical characteristics at cryogenic temperature. The surface flashover is most serious problem for the shed design in LN2 and operation of superconducting equipments.

Kim, Woo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

2012-12-01

177

Development of Westinghouse HTS vapor-cooled current leads  

SciTech Connect

Application of ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTSC) to cryogenic current leads has successfully demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the refrigeration requirements associated with current leads. Westinghouse Science & Technology Center has participated in this technology development from the very beginning and has now brought this technology into commercialization with a line of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) vapor-cooled current lead products. In the process of developing this technology, Westinghouse has performed design analysis; tested prospective HTSC of various composition and geometry from half a dozen vendors; developed designs of low resistance, high current capacity HTSC/copper contact joints; fabricated and extensively tested several current lead test models and prototypes; and performed application and cost/benefits analyses. These efforts, together with HTS current lead design parameters and performance data are discussed.

Wu, J.L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-06-01

178

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

179

Flux dynamic behavior inside HTS bulks under rotating magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt texturing large-grain HTS materials has evolved in the last few years into a technology capable of producing large quantities of high-performance superconducting bulk materials. Such materials are used for developing novel engineering devices, such as high-speed bearing, flywheel system and motor. In these systems, however, it is very possible to generate rotating magnetic fields with the frequency higher than

M. Qiu; L. Z. Lin; G. M. Zhang; Y. S. Wang; L. Y. Xiao

2002-01-01

180

HTS coils for the Navy's superconducting homopolar motor\\/generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the development of HTS coils at Intermagnetics for the Navy's homopolar motor\\/generator program. Two coil sizes were used. A series of small test coils (14.0 cm i.d.×15.0 cm o.d.×1.4 cm long) were employed to evaluate various conductor winding, insulation and epoxy impregnation issues. Based upon the results of these test coils, the larger coil modules (19.37

D. W. Hazelton; M. T. Gardner; J. A. Rice; M. S. Walker; C. M. Trautwein; P. Haldar; D. U. Gubser; M. Superczynski; D. Waltman

1997-01-01

181

Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American electric power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 138\\/13.2 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype

Jonathan A Demko; I. Sauers; D. R. James; M. J. Gouge; D. Lindsay; M. Roden; J. Tolbert; D. Willen; C. Traeholt; C. T. Nielsen

2007-01-01

182

Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS

Chen Gu; Menglin Liu; Huawei Xing; Tong Zhou; Wensheng Yin; Jun Zong; Zhenghe Han

2005-01-01

183

HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler is discussed. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application, the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Woloshun, K. A.

184

Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

185

HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Woloshun, K.A.

1995-12-31

186

Development of Substrate for RABiTS-based HTS Conductors  

SciTech Connect

During its fifteen years of life, this CRADA has evolved in both scope and purpose. Early efforts to develop high performance bismuth-based powder-in-tube first generation high temperature superconductors (HTS) have shifted toward efforts to understand and develop technologies required to fabricate second generation HTS coated conductors. Since the two original longstanding principal investigators from UT-Battelle and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) are not presently employed by their respective organizations, this final report shall focus primarily on results of the more recent past involving research and development of the deformation and annealing processes required to fabricate metallic substrates for RABiTS-based second generation coated conductors. The specific objectives of this recent work involve the development of OST Ni/3%W tape for HTS coated conductors and include: (a) to improve uniformity of cube texture through control of deformation and annealing parameters, (b) to minimize delamination and other buffer deposition problems through understanding and control of key parameters related to the metal substrate, (c) to ensure that the textured metal substrate allows well textured buffers with no delamination, and (d) to prepared a final report.

None

2009-06-05

187

Wire Array Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

Turner-Evans, Dan

188

Mechanisms of plant resistance to 1 g gravity and hypergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance to the gravitational force is one of two major graviresponses in plants, comparable to gravitropism. We have examined mechanisms of gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. Under hypergravity conditions, the expression of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, was up-regulated in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the level of membrane sterols was kept higher, without influencing the level or composition of other membrane components. Out of sterols, the levels of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides were greatly increased, suggesting the stimulation of sterol raft formation under hypergravity conditions. On the other hand, the expression of the majority of alphaand beta-tubulin genes was up-regulated and the percentage of cells with longitudinal cortical microtubules was increased by hypergravity. Hypergravity also increased the expression of genes encoding gamma-tubulin complex and katanin transiently, whereas it decreased that encoding various microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP65. The role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance was confirmed using Arabidopsis mutants. The analysis with mutants has also revealed that the signal transduction process via sterol rafts is distinct from that via cortical microtubules. These results indicate that membrane sterol rafts and cortical microtubules are deeply and independently involved in maintenance of normal growth capacity against the gravitational force. To confirm that the hypothesis is applicable to plant resistance to 1 g gravity, we will carry out the space experiment. This experiment, termed Resist Wall, is to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the Resist Wall experiment, Arabidopsis mutant strains will be cultivated under microgravity and at 1 g conditions on the ISS up to reproductive stage and phenotypes on growth and development will be compared using video images. Also, we will analyze the levels of gene expression and the cell wall properties of the mutants as well as the wild type, using materials fixed on orbit and collected to earth. The results obtained in this space experiment will also be presented.

Hoson, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sakaki, Takeshi

189

WIRE Mishap Investigation Board Report  

E-print Network

Volume 1 WIRE Mishap Investigation Board Report June 8, 1999 #12;2 Table of Contents WIRE MISHAP........................................................................... 10 � WIRE Mishap Electronics Analysis: Failure Mechanism Determination.................... 17 � Summary of the Mishap

Rhoads, James

190

International space station wire program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

May, Todd

1995-01-01

191

Thermal and electrical stabilities of solid nitrogen (SN2) cooled YBCO coated conductors for HTS magnet applications  

E-print Network

Recently, a cooling system using a solid cryogen such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was introduced for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet applications. In order to apply the SN2 cooling system successfully to HTS ...

Song, J. B.

192

Towards plant wires  

E-print Network

In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2014-01-01

193

RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

2008-09-01

194

Characteristic test of HTS pancake coil modules for small-sized SMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, 16 HTS pancake coil modules made with 32 double pancake coils were designed, analyzed, built, assembled, and tested to show feasibility of small sized HTS SMES (?-SMES). Rated current is 200 A and operating temperature is 20 ? 30 K. Evolution strategy was used for coil optimization and FEM was used for magnetic field calculation. After building

Ji Hoon Kim; Woo-Seok Kim; Song-Yop Hahn; Jae Moon Lee; Myung Hwan Rue; Bo Hyung Cho; Chang Hwan Im; Hyun Kyo Jung

2005-01-01

195

Design optimization of a HTS current lead with large current capacity for fusion application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design study of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) current lead having a large current transportation capacity has been performed for thermonuclear fusion application on the basis of a 60 kA HTS current lead developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The lead consists of copper and HTS parts, and the conductors of the parts are a forced flow cooled bundle and conduction cooled cylindrically arrayed stacks of silver-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes for the copper and the HTS parts, respectively. The objective of the design study is to reduce cost for fabrication and operation of the HTS current lead by computing the optimum HTS operating temperature, where the total amount, including increase of fabrication cost and decrease of operating cost by adoption of HTS lead, is minimized. Results of the study show that HTS operating temperature of 75 K is optimum for 10,000 h operation and reduction by 1/5 of electric power consumption for a conventional lead can be achieved at the temperature.

Isono, T.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.

2006-09-01

196

Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current leads using high-TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion.

R. Endoh; H. Kato; T. Izumi; Y. Shiohara

2003-01-01

197

Extending the Use of HTS to Feeders in Superconducting Magnet Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the successful adoption of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in over a thousand current leads that will feed 3 MA from warm to cold in the large hadron collider (LHC), the use of HTS has been generally accepted as suitable technology for the design of efficient leads feeding cryo-magnets. We now consider the extension of the technology to the interconnection

Amalia Ballarino; K. H. Mess; Thomas Taylor

2008-01-01

198

A SFCL modeling and application with real HTS material connecting to real time simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a real time simulation method for the SFCL (superconducting fault current limiter) modeling and application with the real HTS (high temperature superconducting) material by using RTDS (real time digital simulator), and the transient phenomenon of SFCL system was analyzed in the simulated utility power network. SFCL components were modeled with the test sample of Bi-2223 and YBCO HTS

J. H. Kim; M. H. Ali; A. R. Kim; S. R. Lee; J. Y. Yoon; J. Cho; K. D. Sim; S. H. Kim; I. K. Yu

2008-01-01

199

Performance Advances of HTS Maglev Vehicle System in Three Essential Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to put the practice of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle technology into people's life, the interaction between high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and permanent magnet guideway (PMG) as the basic model of HTS Maglev vehicle was carefully investigated and enhanced from three essential aspects, i.e., bulk HTSC material, PMG field and bulk HTSC magnetization. The maglev experiments were

Zigang Deng; Jiasu Wang; Jun Zheng; Hua Jing; Jing Li; Wei Liu; Ya Zhang; Suyu Wang

2009-01-01

200

Hardware-in-the-Loop Investigation of Rotor Heating in a 5 MW HTS Propulsion Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of particular concern to designers of HTS machines are potential heating effects in the superconducting windings due to AC losses caused by load fluctuations encountered in real-life operating conditions. A 5 MW HTS synchronous prototype ship propulsion motor has been tested extensively under steady-state and dynamic load conditions in the advanced test facility of the Center for Advanced Power Systems

M. Steurer; S. Woodruff; T. Baldwin; H. Boenig; F. Bogdan; T. Fikse; M. Sloderbeck; G. Snitchler

2007-01-01

201

THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

202

Development of Robust HTS-SQUID for Non-destructive Inspection System in Unshielded Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-shaped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film was overlapped on directly-coupled multi-pickup-coil HTS-dc-SQUID magnetometer in flip-chip configuration as a superconducting shield, and the characterestics of the SQUID were examined in DC and AC magnetic fields. We created slots in the YBCO film and pickup-coil of HTS-SQUID magnetometer for suppression of flux trapping. In low magnetic field environment, we measured the characteristics of the SQUID without and with HTS film. The most of the parameters were same with and without the HTS films, while S1/2phi with the HTS film was a bit smaller than that of the bare SQUID. In the DC field, Ic of the HTS-SQUID covered with the HTS film did not change until a DC field over 140 ?T was applied to the SQUID, while the bare SQUID's Ic decreased with the increase of the applied DC field. In the AC fields at 10 MHz, the SQUID with the HTS film showed degradation of the parameters such as Vpp and S12phi at lower field amplitude than the bare SQUID.

Yoshida, K.; Kage, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hatsukade, Y.; Tanaka, S.

2014-05-01

203

Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

204

Experimental Investigation of Loss Characteristics With AC and DC Offset Transport Current in HTS Double Pancake Coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers report the AC transport current loss characteristics in HTS coils, which occur because the HTS tapes in the coil transport a current in a magnetic field generated by the currents in adjacent tapes. We previously reported our experimental results on the loss from HTS tape in an AC and DC mixed electro-magnetic condition which consists of the DC

Jun Ogawa; Satoshi Fukui; Tetsuo Oka; Takao Sato; Makoto Shibayama; Masayasu Egawa; Ayumi Sato

2012-01-01

205

Abstract--This paper presents the goal and status of the high field High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) solenoid program  

E-print Network

is to build HTS coils that are capable of producing fields greater than 20 T when tested alone and approaching 40 T when tested in a background field magnet. The solenoid will be made with second generation (2G) high engineering current density HTS tape. To date, 17 HTS pancake coils have been built and tested

Gupta, Ramesh

206

Development of a PSCAD\\/EMTDC Model Component for AC Loss Characteristic Analysis of HTS Power Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Electromagnetic power transient analysis software (PSCAD\\/EMTDC) is one of the useful simulation tools, it does not provide a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) power cable component, which has the same impedance characteristic of a real HTS power cable. The authors have already proposed a model component of the HTS power cable under the fault condition and simulated power system including

Jin Geun Kim; A.-Rong Kim; Daewon Kim; In-Keun Yu; Jeonwook Cho; Ki-Deok Sim; Seokho Kim; Jun Kyoung Lee; Young-Jin Won

2010-01-01

207

An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets  

E-print Network

This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances ...

Iwasa, Yukikazu

208

A Possible Path from BCS through HTS to VHTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years after celebrating the 50th anniversary of the BCS theory and the 20th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTS), it appears to be most fitting for us to contemplate the possibility of very high temperature superconductivity (VHTS). VHTS, preferably at room temperature, if achieved, could change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only ``at an astronomical distance and under an astronomical pressure.'' With the advent of liquid nitrogen superconductivity in 1987, the outlook has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why VHTS would be impossible, in spite of the 2006 prediction of the death of HTS by 2010-2015 through the so-called scientometric analysis of the publication record of the previous 20 years. The recent discovery of the new class of Fe-pnictide HTSs fuels more cautious optimism. Since its inception, BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at a higher temperature. This may be attributed to the small energy scale of superconductivity in comparison with those of other excitations in the solids. After examining existing data, we believe that a holistic multidisciplinary enlightened empirical approach appears to be the most effective way to discover novel superconductors with higher transition temperatures. In this talk, I shall present several possible approaches toward VHTS that we are currently pursuing, after briefly summarizing what has happened in the long search for HTS and VHTS.

Chu, C. W.

2010-03-01

209

Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

Peterson, R. V.

1994-01-01

210

Hot wire anemometer  

SciTech Connect

An electronic anemometer is described for measuring air mass flow in a conduit, comprising: a length of temperature-dependent resistive wire; a circuit board for holding at least a portion of the anemometer electronic circuitry; a rigid support member, the circuit board being attached to the member; and a pair of electrically conductive, resilient posts capable of withstanding the elevated operating temperatures encountered when the anemometer is operating, each of the posts having a wire-supporting end portion fixedly connected to the wire. The end portions are spaced apart and positionable in the conduit, and biased away from each other to hold the wire under tension, each of the posts further having a remote end portion fixedly held by the support member. The remote end portions are electrically connected to the electronic circuitry.

Watkins, D.W.

1986-08-12

211

Optimal design of thrust force in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed the vertical-type linear reluctance motor (LRM) with HTS bulks cooled in zero-field. The double-sided HTS bulk LRM is propelled contactlessly only by electromagnetic repulsive force from both sides of a double-sided armature guideway. This paper presents optimal thrust force design based on the dependence of thrust on the size of HTS bulk attached to the cage in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM. The thrust force is calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM), taking into account the E-J characteristic. Improved HTS bulk LRM which is 1.5 times heavier than the previous cage can be propelled contactlessly in propulsion and guidance simulation.

Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Eguchi, M.

2005-10-01

212

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-01-01

213

The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-01-01

214

Towards large scale HTS Josephson detector arrays for THz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and implementation of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction detector array for terahertz (THz) imaging. The array device is made of ten YBa2Cu3Ox-7 (YBCO) step-edge junctions coupled to gold thin-film ring-slot antennas on a MgO substrate. The design and characterization of the detector array in response to a 0.6 THz signal are presented. The development of multi-channel biasing and read-out electronics and the system integration with a commercial cryocooler are also described.

Du, J.; Hellicar, A. D.; Leslie, K. E.; Nikolic, N.; Hanham, S. M.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Foley, C. P.

2013-11-01

215

Observation of the y1? g- c4' 1? +u and k1? g- c4' 1? +u systems of N 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the ?-doublet of both parity components of the (1, 0) band of the y 1?g- c 4' 1?+u and k 1?g- c 4' 1?+u systems of molecular nitrogen in an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) + infrared (IR) double resonance experiment. The ( e) components as well as the ( f) components are observed up to J=21 in the case of the y state and up to J=17 in the case of the k state. Apart from mutual interaction between y 1?g and k 1?g, the ( e) components undergo additional perturbations giving rise to predissociation.

de Lange, Arno; Ubachs, Wim

1999-09-01

216

The discovery of two new infrared electronic transitions of C2: B1?g-A1?u and B'1?g+-A1?u  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new infrared electronic transitions of C2, B1?g-A1?u and B'1?g+-A1?u, were observed by Fourier transform emission spectroscopy of hydrocarbon discharges. A set of spectroscopic constants were derived for each vibrational level and then reduced to equilibrium constants, including Te (cm-1)?e (cm-1)re (Å) B1?g12 082.3360(40)1407.4653(13)1.38548 B'1?g+15 409.1390(39)1424.11891.37735 RKR curves and Franck-Condon factors were calculated from the equilibrium constants. Alfred P. Sloan Fellow; Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar.

Douay, M.; Nietmann, R.; Bernath, P. F.

1988-10-01

217

Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

Ciana, J. J.

1984-01-01

218

Design and fabrication of double pancake coil using 2G wire for conduction cooled superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large bore double pancake coil(DPC) was designed and tested with 2G HTS wire to develop the conduction cooled superconducting magnet with central field intensity of 3 T at 20 K operating temperature and clear bore of 100 mm at room temperature. The effect of insulation between turns of double pancake coils was tested. Two double pancake coils with and without turn to turn insulation were wound using 4 mm wide 2G conductor. A temporary result suggests that the coil wound without electrical insulation can be protected from higher over current and shows improved stability.

Yoon, S. W.; Lee, H. J.; Moon, S. H.; Park, S. H.; Han, J.; Choi, K.; Hong, G. W.

219

Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

1990-01-01

220

HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

1999-07-12

221

Investigation of Current Distribution in Multi-Tape HTS Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems in multi-element superconductors is to ensure the current distribution between several elements in accordance with their individual critical currents. The experimental investigation of self-field current redistribution between several HTS tapes was performed in order to support the design of a resistive type SFCL. The critical currents at 1 ?V/cm of 12 mm wide tapes SF12100 produced by Super Power were in the range 210-300A at 78 K temperature. The rated rms current of SFCL project is 900 A. The samples were wound onto about 200 mm diameter bobbin and consisted of one or two layers of 3 or 6 connected in parallel HTS tapes. The multi-tape conductor turns were at first charged with DC or AC (50 Hz) individually. Then they were mounted coaxially and connected in opposite in order to reduce self-field and inductance values. The dynamic behavior of currents in the tapes was reconstructed from simultaneously measured data of 7 Hall probes and V-A curves of several tapes. In spite the critical currents of individual tapes were far from being equal the total critical current of the samples was close to the sum of tapes critical currents (about 750 A for 3 tapes and 1350 A for 6 tapes). Some recommendations for the improvement of current distribution uniformity are given for the case of SFCL.

Novikov, M. S.; Keilin, V. E.; Lobyntsev, V. V.; Novikov, S. I.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

222

New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted, but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo-compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also, a heat-exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K, and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Takaike, A.; Hirokawa, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2010-04-01

223

5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

2014-05-01

224

Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

2014-09-01

225

Wire-reinforced superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems and progress encountered in developing refractory-wire-reinforced superalloys for turbojet-engine applications at operating temperature within 1000-1200 C are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the problem of the compatibility of the fiber-reinforcement wire and the superalloy matrix and to the means of improving composite properties. Fiber development is described, since fibers with better properties would result in better composite properties. Matrix composition is discussed in terms of its functions, namely to enhance compatibility and provide strength, oxidation protection, and ductility. Advantages and shortcomings of different fabrication techniques are revealed, and the current state of development of wire-reinforced composites is outlined by indicating the properties achieved. Requirements for further development of the material and for application to engineering components are set forth.

Signorelli, R. A.

1974-01-01

226

Wire core reactor for NTP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

Harty, R. B.

1991-01-01

227

The electrical characteristics of solid insulators for 154 kV class HTS transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS transformer, without any loss of insulation lifetime due to the reduction in terms of size and weight, can increase the overload capacity, and have some benefits such as the improvement in efficiency, minimization of environmental pollution, and convenient spatial arrangement, which contribute a lot to electric power system operation. However, for practical insulation design of the HTS transformer, it is necessary to establish the research on electrical properties LN 2 as well as solid insulators. These solid insulators have been used as main insulations for HTS transformer. In this paper, we discussed breakdown and V- t characteristics of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and pressboard in LN 2.

Cheon, H. G.; Choi, J. H.; Pang, M. S.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. H.

2011-11-01

228

Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

2011-03-28

229

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

230

OrchidWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by orchid enthusiasts Wendell and Theresa Kozak of Vancouver Island, Canada, OrchidWire website is a great resource for anyone interested in orchids. This site is an online orchid resource directory with links to 3911 images and 1184 sites in 51 countries. Site visitors can peruse orchid resources by using an alphabetical appendix or by selecting from different categories like Wild, Culture, Geographic, Genera, and many more. Specific orchid listings or images can be located by using the site search engine. Site users can also submit suggestions for addition to the OrchidWire database.

Kozak, Theresa; Kozak, Wendell

231

Bi-2223 HTS winding in toroidal configuration for SMES coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy can be stored in the magnetic field of a coil. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is very promising as a power storage system for load levelling or power stabilizer. However, the strong electromagnetic force caused by high magnetic field and large coil current is a problem in SMES systems. A toroidal configuration would have a much less extensive external magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in winding. The paper describes the design of HTS winding for SMES coil in modular toroid configuration consist of seven Bi-2223 double-pancakes as well as numerical analysis of SMES magnet model using FLUX 3D package. As the results of analysis the paper presents the optimal coil configuration and the parameters such as radius of toroidal magnet, energy stored in magnet and magnetic field distribution.

Kondratowicz-Kucewicz, B.; Janowski, T.; Kozak, S.; Kozak, J.; Wojtasiewicz, G.; Majka, M.

2010-06-01

232

Study of Hts Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (Ic) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

Lombardo, V.; Barzi, E.; Norcia, G.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Van Raes, T.; Zlobin, A. V.

2010-04-01

233

Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

234

Design of HTS transmit filter using step impedance resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmit filter with step impedance resonators (SIRs). A transmit filter using half-wavelength straight-line resonators requires substantial spacing between adjacent resonators. This means that the filter needs a large substrate and that the number of poles is limited. Using SIRs overcomes this problem because SIRs are compact and have weak coupling. An electromagnetic simulator based on the moment method was used to design the SIR filter, which has a center frequency of 5 GHz and a bandwidth of 120 MHz. Simulation showed that it is approximately 19% smaller than a conventional half-wavelength straight-line resonator filter. Additionally, the maximum surface current is approximately 17% less than that of the conventional filter.

Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ohshima, S.

2010-11-01

235

SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE  

E-print Network

TERRORWARS SPACEDAILY TERRADAILY MARSDAILY SPACE TRAVEL SPACEMART SPACE DATABASE Endangered Species WeCHANNELS SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE UAV NEWS MILITARY COMMS CYBERWARS MISSILE NEWS RAYGUNS against Kashmiri militants SPACEDAILY NEWS Jan 29, 2004 NASA chief defends Bush's space plans Japan

236

NewsWire, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

2002-01-01

237

Debate: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

2000-01-01

238

Basic Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

239

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

240

SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE  

E-print Network

CHANNELS SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE UAV NEWS MILITARY COMMS CYBERWARS MISSILE NEWS RAYGUNS nephew exempted from Israeli military service Four die, 15 hurt as Indian airforce MiG-21 crashes Wins Ground Based Missile Defense Canister Contract Military Rot Spreads To Russia's Nuclear Forces

241

Improved wire chamber  

DOEpatents

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12

242

Wired To Flex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and…

Fickes, Michael

2000-01-01

243

Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

244

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2012-10-01

245

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2013-10-01

246

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2011-10-01

247

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2010-10-01

248

Easily-wired toggle switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

1979-01-01

249

Design of an HTS Levitated Double-Sided HTSLSM for Maglev  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous propulsion system composed of a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in the middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been proposed for a middle-low-speed maglev. Three carriages has been made up for the proposed maglev, and each carriage consists of four HTSLSM modules. The HTSLSM has been designed to reach a speed of 69 km/h and a maximum thrust of 48.9 kN for each motor. The finite element analysis has been used for the theoretical verification. The results obtained show that the HTS linear propulsion system satisfies the principal requirements for the maglev.

Zheng, Luhai; Jin, Jianxun; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

250

Evaluation of magnetic shielding characteristics of bulk HTS including weak links with FEM analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are inhomogeneous due to weak links. Thus, we have measured distributions of the magnetic flux density on the HTSs surface using a Hall element, and evaluated its magnetic characteristics with a magnetic field visualization technique. However, the evaluation of the magnetic flux density at the actual surface layer of the HTS was difficult in the measurement using the Hall element. In this research, we examined the quantitative evaluation for the magnetic characteristics of the HTS including weak links with a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis in static magnetic fields. The distribution of the magnetic flux density at the actual surface layer of the HTS specimen and the diffusion of the magnetic flux in the space above the HTS surface were evaluated with FEM analysis. The validity of the proposed analytical method was confirmed by comparison with the experimental results and the verification of the analysis accuracy.

Fukuoka, K.; Hashimoto, M.

2008-09-01

251

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries  

E-print Network

Available online 3 December 2012 Keywords: Soluble epoxide hydrolase HTS assay Phosphatase Ebselen a b s t r and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N

Hammock, Bruce D.

252

1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

NONE

1997-04-01

253

49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring...

2010-10-01

254

The R&D Project of HTS Magnets for the Superconducting Maglev  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes landmarks in the R&D project and the progress of persistent current HTS magnets, which has been in development for the Superconducting Maglev trains since 1999. The first trial HTS magnet is operated with a very small current decay rate of 0.44%\\/day and can be cooled by a cryocooler below 20 K, using a conduction cooling method. The

Motoaki Terai; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Toru Kuriyama; Satoshi Hanai; Tomohisa Yamashita; Hiroyuki Nakao

2006-01-01

255

Bi2212 HTS bulk tubes prepared by the diffusion process for current lead application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi2212 HTS tubular bulk conductors have been prepared by the diffusion process for current lead application. The Bi2212 HTS layers are synthesized through the diffusion reaction between a Sr–Ca–Cu oxide substrate and a Bi–Cu oxide coating with Ag addition. Two different shaped substrates were prepared. The former substrates are formed into the cylindrical tubes 30mm in outside diameter and 200mm

J. Ohkubo; Y. Yamada; K. Tachikawa; H. Tamura; T. Mito

2006-01-01

256

Development of a 100 hp synchronous motor with HTS field coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-phase, 100 hp, 4 pole, 1800 rpm superconducting synchronous motor built and tested in Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute(KERI). This machine consists of HTS rotor and air-core stator. The HTS field windings are composed of the double-pancake coils wound with AMSC's stainless steel-reinforced Bi-2223 tape conductor. These were assembled on the support structure and fixed by a bandage of glass-fiber

Y. K. Kwon; M. H. Sohn; S. K. Baik; E. Y. Lee; J. M. Kim; T. S. Moon; H. J. Park; Y. C. Kim; K. S. Ryu

2005-01-01

257

Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.

2010-06-01

258

Numerical and experimental comparison of electromechanical properties and efficiency of HTS and ferromagnetic hysteresis motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis motors are very attractive in a wide range of fractional power applications, due to its torque-speed characteristics and simplicity of construction. This motor's performance is expected to improve when HTS rotors are used, and in fact, hysteresis motors have shown to be probably the most viable electrical machines using HTS materials. While these motors, either conventional or HTS, are both hysteresis motors, they base their operation on different physical phenomena: hysteretic behaviour in conventional ferromagnetic materials is due to the material's non-linear magnetic properties, while in HTS materials the hysteresis has an ohmic nature and is related with vortices' dynamics. In this paper, theoretical aspects of both conventional and HTS hysteresis motors are discussed, its operation principles are highlighted, and the characteristics of both motors are presented. The characteristics, obtained both by experimental tests and numerical simulation (made with commercial software), are compared, in order to evaluate not only the motor's electromechanical performances but also the overall systems efficiency, including cryogenics for the HTS device.

Inácio, D.; Inácio, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Leão Rodrigues, A.

2008-02-01

259

Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

2009-10-01

260

Wire insulation defect detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

261

Wiring for aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

1992-01-01

262

Understanding Guitar Wiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

2012-08-13

263

Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils  

SciTech Connect

Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

Peter K. F. Hwang

2007-10-22

264

Identification and Characterization of HtsA, a Second Heme-Binding Protein Made by Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococci (GAS) can use heme and hemoproteins as sources of iron. However, the machinery for heme acquisition in GAS has not been firmly revealed. Recently, we identified a novel heme-associated cell surface protein (Shp) made by GAS. The shp gene is cotranscribed with eight downstream genes, including spy1795, spy1794, and spy1793 encoding a putative ABC transporter (designated HtsABC). In this study, spy1795 (designated htsA) was cloned from a serotype M1 strain, and recombinant HtsA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. HtsA binds 1 heme molecule per molecule of protein. HtsA was produced in vitro and localized to the bacterial cell surface. GAS up-regulated transcription of htsA in human blood compared with that in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract. The level of the htsA transcript dramatically increased under metal cation-restricted conditions compared with that under metal cation-replete conditions. The cation content, cell surface location, and gene transcription of HtsA were also compared with those of MtsA and Spy0385, the lipoprotein components of two other putative iron acquisition ABC transporters of GAS. Our results suggest that HtsABC is an ABC transporter that may participate in heme acquisition in GAS. PMID:14500516

Lei, Benfang; Liu, Mengyao; Voyich, Jovanka M.; Prater, Christopher I.; Kala, Subbarao V.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Musser, James M.

2003-01-01

265

The Effect of Magnetic Field on HTS Leads What Happens when thePower Fails at RAL?  

SciTech Connect

The key to being able to operate the MICE superconducting solenoids on small coolers is the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads between the first stage of the cooler and the magnet, which operates at around 4.2 K. Because MICE magnets are not shielded, all of the MICE magnets have a stray magnetic field in the region where the coolers and the HTS leads are located. The behavior of the HTS leads in a magnetic field depends strongly on the HTS material used for the leads and the temperature of the cooler first stage temperature. The HTS leads can be specified to operate at the maximum current for the magnet. This report shows how the HTS leads can be specified for use the MICE magnets. MICE magnets take from 1.3 hours (the tracker solenoids) to 3.7 hours (the coupling magnet) to charge to the highest projected operating currents. If the power fails, the cooler and the upper ends of the HTS leads warm up. The question is how one can discharge the magnet to protect the HTS leads without quenching the MICE magnets. This report describes a method that one can use to protect the HTS leads in the event of a power failure at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

Green, Michael A.

2007-02-14

266

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

267

Nuclear phosphatase PPM1G in cellular survival and neural development  

PubMed Central

Background PPM1G is a nuclear localized serine/threonine phosphatase implicated to be a regulator of chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing and DNA damage. However, its in vivo function is unknown. Results Here we show that ppm1g expression is highly enriched in the central nervous system during mouse and zebrafish development. ppm1g?/? mice were embryonic lethal with incomplete penetrance after E12.5. Rostral defects, including neural tube and craniofacial defects were observed in ppm1g?/? embryos associated with increased cell death in the neural epithelium. In zebrafish, loss of ppm1g also led to neural defects with aberrant neural marker gene expression. Primary fibroblasts from ppm1g?/? embryos failed to grow without immortalization while immortalized ppm1g?/? fibroblasts had increased cell death upon oxidative and genotoxic stress when compared to wild type fibroblasts. Conclusion Our in vivo and in vitro studies revealed a critical role for PPM1G in normal development and cell survival. PMID:23723158

Foster, William H.; Langenbacher, Adam; Gao, Chen; Chen, Jaunian; Wang, Yibin

2014-01-01

268

WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

269

Dual wire welding torch and method  

SciTech Connect

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

270

Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

2012-11-01

271

Deposition and characterization of thin HTS and magnetic perovskite films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-situ growth and physical properties were investigated of thin films and bilayers of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (FM) manganites La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) with thicknesses of several tens of nm obtained by magnetron sputtering. Similar twin structures were observed by an optical microscope in areas on the LaAlO3 substrate surface void of films, in areas containing YBCO, in LSMO films, and in YBCO/LCMO bilayers, although the main spatial period of the twin structure seemed to be slightly different in the areas containing the LSMO film. The resistance (and its temperature dependence) of the LCMO films strongly depends on the annealing conditions. The resistance of the LSMO and LCMO films grown on Al2O3 substrates decreased as the temperature (T) was increased in the lower and higher temperature ranges, and increased as T was increased at medium temperatures.

Blagoev, B. S.; Gostev, I. G.; Nurgaliev, T. K.; Strbik, V.; Bineva, I. E.; Uspenskaya, L.; Mateev, E. S.; Neshkov, L.; Dobro?ka, E.; Chromik, Š.

2014-05-01

272

Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

273

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. I. Isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), b(1)?(g)(+) states.  

PubMed

We have developed a simultaneous global fit to the MW, THz, infrared, visible, and UV transitions of all six oxygen isotopologues, (16)O(16)O, (16)O(17)O, (16)O(18)O, (17)O(17)O, (17)O(18)O, (18)O(18)O, with the objective of predicting all transitions below the O((3)P) + O((3)P) dissociation threshold as well as the B(3)?(u) (-) state from O((3)P)+O((1)D) within state-of-the-art experimental uncertainty. Here, we report an isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the lowest three electronic states, X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), and b(1)?(g)(+). Experimental transition frequencies involving these three states of all six O(2) isotopologues were critically reviewed and incorporated into the analysis. For the (16)O(16)O isotopologue, experimental data sample vibrational states v = 0-31 for X(3)?(g)(-), v = 0-10 for a(1)?(g), and v = 0-12 for b(1)?(g)(+). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis that simultaneously fits spectra from all six O(2) isotopologues. PMID:22803533

Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Drouin, Brian J; Müller, Holger S P

2012-07-14

274

Randomized comparative study of 0.5 and 1 g of cefodizime (HR 221) versus 1 g of cefotaxime for acute uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.  

PubMed

Uncomplicated urogenital and concomitant oropharyngeal gonorrhea in 424 male and female patients was treated in a randomized comparative study with 0.5 g of cefodizime (89 men and 54 women), 1 g of cefodizime (87 men and 52 women), or 1 g of cefotaxime (86 men and 56 women). The cure rates were 100% for men and women in the group given 0.5 g of cefodizime, 100% for men and women in the group given 1 g of cefodizime, and 99% for men and 100% for women in the group given 1 g of cefotaxime. The MICs of cefodizime and cefotaxime for the isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ranged from 0.004 to 0.06 micrograms/ml. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated before treatment in 15% and after treatment in 13% of all patients. Side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, genital candidiasis, and pain at the site of injection, developed in 4% of the patients given cefodizime. Side effects, such as vertigo, genital candidiasis, fatigability, and diarrhea, developed in 4% of the patients treated with cefotaxime. In both groups of patients, the side effects were mild and transient. Cefodizime and cefotaxime are safe and effective agents in the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea. PMID:3377456

van der Willigen, A H; Wagenvoort, J H; Schalla, W O; Knapp, J S; Boot, J M; Heeres-Weststrate, P L; Michel, M F; van Klingeren, B; Stolz, E

1988-04-01

275

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

276

Rapid electrothermal treatment of wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The RETT method can be used for treating low-carbon steels used in manufacturing round cable wire of moderate strength sb = 160–180 kgf\\/mm2, shaped cable wire of large size (Z6, Z5) with a strength of 120–130 kgf\\/mm2, and reinforcing bars sb = 100–110 kgf\\/mm2.2.The REP method can be used for manufacturing cable or spring wire of medium-carbon steels with a

Yu. Ya. Meshkov; N. F. Chernenko

1977-01-01

277

Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) suffic

Dr. Scott Campbell

2012-06-30

278

Stress Analysis of a High Temperature Superconductor Coil Wound With Bi-2223/Ag Tapes for High Field HTS/LTS NMR Magnet Application  

E-print Network

The electromagnetic stress distribution inside a HTS insert is one of the key issues for construction of a high field high/low temperature superconductor (HTS/LTS) magnet. The rmiddotJmiddotB formulae is widely used for ...

Kiyoshi, Tsukasa

279

Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

Longcai, Zhang

2014-07-01

280

Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for a 6 km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, potentially affecting public acceptance of the project. A way out would be to substantially reduce AC losses from 1 down to about 0.1 W/m per phase at rated current of 3 kArms, frequency of 50 Hz and temperature of 77 K. In this paper we discuss a strategy towards this ambitious goal, a concept design of the single phase cable 3 kA conductor made of YBCO tapes and present corresponding experimental and simulation data supporting the developed approach leading directly to this goal. HTS cable model was made that show a drastically reduced AC loss. The low loss was achieved by using appropriate pitch angles for two-layer cable conductor of relatively large diameter, by minimizing the gaps between the HTS tapes, and by using narrow HTS tapes that conform well to the roundness of the underlying former. AC loss of 0.12 W/m at 3 kArms was measured at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a temperature of 77 K.

Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Traeholt, Chresten; Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex

281

Progress of 275 kV-3 kA YBCO HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 275 kV-3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. AC loss reduction of a two-layer HTS conductor was undertaken by removing the edges of YBCO tapes with low critical current density. The HTS conductor using these tapes was fabricated, and low loss of 0.235 W/m at 3 kA rms was achieved. The 275 kV-3 kA cable was designed, and the 2 m model cables were fabricated. This cable had 325 mm 2 copper stranded former inside the HTS conductor and a 310 mm 2 copper shield layer on the HTS shield layer for over-current protection. These cables withstood an over-current of 63.0 kA for 0.6 s, which is the worst situation for 275 kV systems. The partial discharge (PD) and V- t characteristics of a liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system have been integrated into the design of the insulation for the 275 kV cable. The results revealed that the PD inception stress (PDIE) did not depend on the insulation thickness, and that lifetime indices of V- t characteristics at PD inception were as high as about 80-100.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Wang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Saito, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

2011-11-01

282

Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

2014-05-01

283

Experimental and numerical investigations on permanent magnet method for measuring critical current density in HTS films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permanent magnet method measuring a critical current density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films was experimentally and numerically investigated. The permanent magnet method was a contactless and nondestructive method for measuring a critical current density of HTS films. A permanent magnet was brought closer to an HTS thin film. A load sensor measured the electromagnetic force acting on an HTS thin film. As the results, it was found that the maximum repulsive force was approximately proportional to the critical current density. The electromagnetic behavior of the shielding current density in an HTS was formulated by the time-dependent integro-differential equations. The element-free Galerkin method and the completely implicit method were adopted for the system discretization. By using the numerical code, the permanent magnet method was reproduced numerically. Results of the computations showed that the critical current density was approximately proportional to the maximum repulsive force and that the evaluated location of the critical current density by the permanent magnet method was obtained by the numerical code. In addition, the permanent magnet method system was improved for measuring the spatial distribution of critical current densities of HTSs.

Ikuno, S.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Umetsu, K.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

2009-10-01

284

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF are three planned NASA missions for infrared astronomy. Each will make significant contributions to the study of exo-zodiacal dust, planetary debris disks, and/or the zodiacal material within our own solar system. These missions and their measurement and scientific capabilities are synopsized. The principal contribution of these missions to this field of study will be to establish and strengthen its intellectual foundations rather than to pinpoint specific targets for planetary searches. This is consistent with their relatively near-term availability. Moreover, this intellectual understanding can assure that subsequent missions approach this subject from a sound scientific perspective which will yield valuable results independent of the success of a particular planet finding strategy. Each of these missions - most urgently WIRE with its Fall, 1998 launch date - would make good use of a list of candidate target stars for exo-zodiacal/planet-finding studies. The preparation of such a list was one of the recommendations of the exo-zodiacal workshop.

Werner, Michael

1998-01-01

285

Improved superconducting magnet wire  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1983-08-16

286

Progress in high temperature superconductor coated conductors and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires are based on a coated conductor technology. They follow on from a first generation (1G) HTS wire consisting of a composite multifilamentary wire architecture. During the last couple of years, rapid progress has been made in the development of 2G HTS wire, which is now displacing 1G HTS wire for most if not all applications. The engineering critical current density of these wires matches or exceeds that of 1G wire, and the mechanical properties are also superior. Scale-up of manufacturing is proceeding rapidly, with several companies already supplying the order of 10 km annually for test and demonstration. Coils of increasing sophistication are being demonstrated. One especially attractive application, that relies on the specific properties of 2G HTS wire, is fault current limitation. By incorporating a high resistivity stabilizer in the coated conductor, one can achieve high resistance in a quenched state during a fault event and at the same time provide significant heat capacity to limit the temperature rise. A test of a 2.25 MVA single phase system at 7.5 kV employing such wire by the Siemens/AMSC team has demonstrated all the key features required for a cost-effective commercial system. A novel approach to providing fault current limiting functionality in HTS cables has also been introduced.

Malozemoff, A. P.; Fleshler, S.; Rupich, M.; Thieme, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, W.; Otto, A.; Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Kraemer, H.-P.; Schmidt, W.; Wohlfart, M.; Neumueller, H.-W.

2008-03-01

287

Process for making composite ceramic superconducting wires  

SciTech Connect

A method for making a superconducting wire is described comprising the steps of: oxidizing a yttrium wire to create an oxidized yttrium wire; melting a barium-copper-oxide mixture to create a melted barium-copper-oxide mixture; coating the oxidized yttrium wire with the melted barium-copper oxide mixture; and annealing a resultant coated yttrium wire.

Hermann, A.M.; Zhengzhi Sheng; Shams, Q.A.

1993-06-08

288

Characteristics of lift and restoring force in HTS bulk-Application to two-dimensional maglev transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the advantages of magnetic levitation using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk is that stable levitation can be achieved without any control systems. The authors have been investigating the electromagnetic behaviors of an HTS bulk to realize a two-dimensional magnetic levitating transporter without any fixed guides. The characteristics of lift and stability are key parameters to design and optimize

Y. Sanagawa; H. Ueda; M. Tsuda; A. Ishiyama; S. Kohayashi; S. Haseyama

2001-01-01

289

MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006  

E-print Network

MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006 Lawrence Bush 2006 January 24 Semi-Automated Cueing of Predator UAV Operators from RADAR Moving Target (MTI) Data MIT Lincoln and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. #12;MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

290

Speaker-Independent HMM-based Speech Synthesis System --HTS-2007 System for the Blizzard Challenge 2007  

E-print Network

Speaker-Independent HMM-based Speech Synthesis System -- HTS-2007 System for the Blizzard Challenge system developed by the HTS working group for the Blizzard Chal- lenge 2007. To further explore and shown their performance in the past Blizzard challenges [2, 3]. In addition to the speaker

Edinburgh, University of

291

Progress on high temperature superconductor propulsion motors and direct drive wind generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is a revolutionary technology that enables the development of high power and high torque rotating machines with broad applications. The development of synchronous motors with first generation (1G) HTS field windings for ship propulsion applications has progressed to the point where full scale motors have been fabricated and full load tested. Additionally,

Gregory Snitchler

2010-01-01

292

Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ? 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

293

The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan  

PubMed Central

High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

2014-01-01

294

Low Temperature Performance of a Boost Converter with MPP and HTS Inductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low temperature performance of a 150 W, 50 kHz, 24/48 V boost PWM dc-to-dc converter is reported. The efficiency of the converter using a molypermalloy powder (MPP) core based inductor went up from 94% at room temperature (23 C) to 95.9% at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 C). A BSCCO based high temperature superconducting (HTS) inductor with a transition temperature of approximately -158 C was compared to a MPP core based inductor in terms of the power converter performance at liquid nitrogen temperature. The use of the HTS inductor in the converter tested yielded no significant performance improvement over the same converter with the MPP inductor. The experimental results are discussed along with the HTS inductor characteristics.

Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Dickman, John E.

1996-01-01

295

A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet–A Progress Report  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

2011-01-01

296

Optimised conversion efficiency of a HTS MMIC Josephson down-converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-Tc superconducting (HTS) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) Josephson down-converter that approaches zero conversion loss is reported. The all-HTS YBa2Cu3O7-x thin-film circuit consists of a step-edge Josephson junction mixer, a 10-12 GHz bandpass filter for the RF input, a lowpass filter for the IF output and a resonant strip line for local oscillator isolation; all are integrated on a single 10 mm × 20 mm MgO substrate. The DC characteristics of the junction and its mixing properties have been experimentally studied and compared to the results of (a) a single Josephson mixer without the on-chip HTS filters, and (b) our previously reported MMIC down-converter which had very different junction characteristics. The Josephson junction parameters are analysed to give insight into their effect on the mixer performance.

Du, J.; Bai, D. D.; Zhang, T.; Guo, Y. Jay; He, Y. S.; Pegrum, C. M.

2014-10-01

297

R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HTS current leads of superconducting magnets for large scale fusion devices and high energy particle colliders can reduce the power consumption for cooling by 2/3 compared with conventional leads. The resistive sections of high-rated current leads are usually made of a heat exchanger cooled by gas flow. The supply of the cooling mass flow incurs more than 90% of the cooling cost for the HTS leads. The mass flow rate requirement depends not only on the length and material of the resistive heat exchanger, but also on the heat transfer coefficient and HEX surface, the joint resistance at the cold end and its cooling approach. The design and operation of a sheet-stack HEX with a larger specific surface and a much smaller hydraulic diameter are presented in the paper. The test results of an HTS lead optimized for 8 kA show that a 98.4% efficiency can be achieved.

Bi, Yanfang

2011-12-01

298

Optimization of operating temperature in cryocooled HTS magnets for compactness and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept of thermal design to optimize the operating temperature of high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets is presented, aiming simultaneously at small size and low energy consumption. The magnet systems considered here are refrigerated by a closed-cycle cryocooler, and liquid cryogens may or may not be used as a cooling medium. For a specific magnet application, the size of required HTS windings could be smaller at a lower temperature, by taking advantage of a greater critical current density of HTS. As the temperature decreases, however, the power input to the cryocooler increases dramatically because of the heavy cooling load and the poor refrigeration performance. Through a rigorous modeling and analysis incorporating the effect of magnet size into the load calculation, it is demonstrated that there exists an optimum for the operating temperature to minimize the power required. The optimal temperature is strongly dependent upon the magnitude of AC loss in the magnets and the assistance of heat interception.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Choi, Yeon Suk; Van Sciver, Steven W.

2002-12-01

299

Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales K. R. Elder,1,* G. Rossi,2  

E-print Network

Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales K. R. Elder,1,* G. Rossi,2 P dimension- ality of the surface is the only driving force leading to surface reconstruction. More often

Elder, Ken

300

Measurement of the radiative lifetime of O 2( a 1? g) using cavity ring down spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavity ring down spectroscopy has been used to detect the weak a1?g?X3?g? electronic transition in oxygen and to obtain a measurement of the radiative lifetime of the a1?g state. (0,0) band transitions near 1274 nm were scanned using the frequency-doubled output of a tunable OPO system. Pressure-broadened linewidths were measured, and a FWHM-broadening coefficient of 5.5(5) MHz\\/Torr was obtained. Analysis

H. C. Miller; J. E. McCord; J. Choy; G. D. Hager

2001-01-01

301

Icosahedral T1u+T1g Jahn-Teller problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The T1u+T1g multimode Jahn-Teller problem in icosahedral symmetry is investigated. It is found that the pseudo-Jahn-Teller interaction between T1u and T1g can give rise to an increase of symmetry through the development of additional troughs in the space of ungerade modes. This result is related to a continuous group invariance of the Hamiltonian. The possible relevance to the Jahn-Teller instability of negatively charged fullerides is discussed.

Ceulemans, A.; Chibotaru, L. F.

1996-02-01

302

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-11-01

303

Aircraft wiring program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR\\/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Rex Beach

1995-01-01

304

Pin Wire Coating Trip Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and

Spellman

2004-01-01

305

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-01-01

306

Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Rabinowitz, Sandy

2009-01-01

307

Oxygen consumption during cold exposure at 2.1 G in rats adapted to hypergravic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermoregulation ability of rats exposed to various gravitational fields is examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 22 C and 1 G, and 9 C and 2.1 G in experiment one, 1 G, 2.4 G, 5.8 G and 22 + or - 1.5 C in experiment two, and 1 G, 19-22 C, and 5 C in experiment three. It is observed that the core temperature in the control rats was 36.8 + or 0.4 C at 22C and 30.8 + or - 0.6 C at 9 C, and oxygen consumption dropped from 37 + or - 0.3 C core temperature at 22 C, 36.4 + or - 0.3 C at 9 C, 0.4 oxygen consumption was 8.18 + or - 0.9 ml/min at 22 C, and 14.2 + or - 0.4 ml/min at 9 C. The data from experiment two reveal that tail temperature in the control rats peaked at 2.4 G and at 5.8 G for the acclimated rats, and in experiment three a greater decrease in core temperature is detected in the 2.1-G rats. It is noted that prior acclimation to 2.1 G enhances the thermoregulation ability when exposed to the cold.

Horowitz, J.; Patterson, S.; Monson, C.

1985-01-01

308

B1 ?u+ and EF1 ?g+ level energies of D2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate absolute level energies of the B1 ?u+, v = 0-8, N and EF1 ?g+, v = 0-21, N rovibrational quantum states of molecular deuterium are derived by combining results from a Doppler-free two-photon laser excitation study on several lines in the EF1 ?g+ - X1 ?g+ (0, 0) band, with results from a Fourier-transform spectroscopic emission study on a low-pressure hydrogen discharge. Level energy uncertainties as low as 0.0005 cm-1 are obtained for some low-lying E1 ?g+ inner-well rovibrational levels, while uncertainties for higher-lying rovibrational levels and those of the F1 ?g+ outer-well states are nominally 0.005 cm-1. Level energies of B1 ?u+ rovibrational levels, for v ? 8 and N ? 10 are determined at an accuracy of 0.001 cm-1. Computed wavelengths of D2 Lyman transitions in the B1 ?u+- X1 ?g+ (v, 0) bands are also tabulated for future applications.

Salumbides, E. J.; Bailly, D.; Vervloet, M.; Ubachs, W.

2014-11-01

309

Welding wire pressure sensor assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

Morris, Timothy B. (inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (inventor); White, J. Kevin (inventor)

1994-01-01

310

NASA SpaceWire Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three projects are developing SpaceWire upper layer protocols: JWST, LRO, GOES-R. JWST protocol development was complete before Protocol ID field was introduced to the standard. Commanding is done by using CCD5 packets tunneled through SpaceWire. Science Data packet is optimized for implementation specific requirements. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRD) investigated using the SnP Rmap protocol but chose to use CCSDS tunneled through SpaceWire. GOES-R is using CCDS tunneled through SpaceWire with project developed Reliable Delivery protocol. Reliable Delivery protocol may be used to replace MIL-STD-1553 for other mission. CCDS is the native format for the software bus for many NASA GSFC missions and therefore it is a natural packet format to tunnel through SpaceWire.

Rakow, Glenn Parker

2005-01-01

311

Wavepacket Evolution in Quantum Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lattice method for computing the time-dependent wavepacket of an electron confined to a quantum (nanometer--size) wire in the presence of an ionic impurity will be presented. The method allows us to determine the electron's energy spectrum as a function of wire radius and of impurity position relative to the wire axis. The approach requires very little input to achieve convergence, is basis set independent, and seems to exhibit improved stability over other methods. ( L. Zhang, J. M. Feagin, V. Engel and A. Nakano, Phys. Rev. A49), 3457 (1994). We have begun to investigate the wire's conductivity and impedance and have found that the inherent, usually extreme, spreading of the wavepacket raises basic questions regarding the electron's arrival and departure in the wire.

Stevens, R. E.; Silva, E. R.; Feagin, J. M.

1998-05-01

312

Nano-storage wires.  

PubMed

We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

2013-08-27

313

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall...

2010-07-01

314

Study on ac losses of HTS coil carrying ac transport current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ac loss has an important influence on the thermal performances of HTS coil. It is necessary to quantify ac loss to ascertain its impact on coil stability and for sizing the coil refrigeration system. In this paper, we analyzed in detail the ac loss components, hysteresis loss, eddy loss and flux flow loss in the pancake HTS coil carrying ac transport current by finite element method. We also investigated the distribution of the ac losses in the coil to study the effects of magnetic field distribution on ac losses.

Dai, Taozhen; Tang, Yuejin; Li, Jingdong; Zhou, Yusheng; Cheng, Shijie; Pan, Yuan

2005-10-01

315

Bi2212 double pancakes for HTS critical current measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progresses in Bi2212 wires have proved its suitability for high field magnet development. Using the volume of the VAMAS sample CEA Saclay has developed a small double pancake sample for Bi2212 ribbon testing. This sample allows testing up to 6 meters of superconducting ribbon using a react and wind technique, the reaction being done on a provisional reaction mandrel. The manufacturing technique of this sample is presented as well as the results of the critical current measurement. These results are compared with results measured on conventional VAMAS samples and with resistive transition laws previously published.

Rey, Jean-Michel; Fazilleau, Philippe; Gheller, Jean-Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Quettier, Lionel; Tordera, Daniel

2010-06-01

316

Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

1986-01-01

317

Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires  

PubMed Central

We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1–4?vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1–4?vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000?A cm?1 at 77?K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455?A cm?1 at 65?K and 3?T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

2013-01-01

318

Test of a 2 MVA medium voltage HTS fault current limiter module made of YBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fault current limiter module for medium voltage applications has been built and tested successfully. The module corresponds to one phase of a 3-phase limiter for the 13 kV-class distribution voltage level. The resistive type limiter consists of 15 bifilar coils wound from a total of 15 × 50 m of AMSC's 344S superconductors, a commercially available second generation YBCO tape stabilized by stainless steel laminates. The module has a rated current of 300 Arms and a rated voltage of 7.5 kV corresponding to a nominal apparent power of 2.25 MVA. The cryostat is equipped with commercial current feed-throughs and the module is operated in liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. For long term operation as a closed system a commercial cryogenic refrigerator coldhead is installed. Power tests and dielectric tests of the module have been performed at the IPH Berlin (Institut "Prüffeld für elektrische Hochleistungstechnik") up to prospective currents of 28 kA. In standard power tests at voltages up to 7.8 kV and fault hold times of about 50 ms an excellent limiting performance was observed both at various prospective fault currents and at different fault starting phase angles. Within a second experimental series, an appropriate shunt reactor was connected in parallel to the limiter. The benefit of this method is that the limited current can be adjusted to the customers needs and the required amount of HTS-wire can be also appreciably reduced. The setup of the module and the test results are reported.

Kraemer, H.-P.; Schmidt, W.; Wohlfart, M.; Neumueller, H.-W.; Otto, A.; Verebelyi, D.; Schoop, U.; Malozemoff, A. P.

2008-02-01

319

MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the potential of promoter methylation of two tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 189 subjects were included in this retrospective cohort, which contained 121 HCC patients without any history of curative treatment, 37 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 31 normal controls (NCs). DNA samples were extracted from 400 ?L of serum of each subject and then modified using bisulfite treatment. Methylation of the promoters of the TSGs (metallothionein 1M, MT1M; and metallothionein 1G, MT1G) was determined using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of combined MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the methylation status of serum MT1M (48.8%, 59/121) and MT1G (70.2%, 85/121) promoters in the HCC group was significantly higher than that in the CHB group (MT1M 5.4%, 2/37, P < 0.001; MT1G 16.2%, 6/37, P < 0.001) and NC group (MT1M 6.5%, 2/31, P < 0.001; MT1G 12.9%, 4/27, P < 0.001). Aberrant serum MT1M promoter methylation gave higher specificity to discriminate HCC from CHB (94.6%) and NCs (93.5%), whereas combined methylation of serum MT1M and MT1G promoters showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (90.9%), suggesting that they are potential markers for noninvasive detection of HCC. Furthermore, MT1M promoter methylation was positively correlated with tumor size (rs = 0.321, P < 0.001), and HCC patients with both MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation tended to show a higher incidence of vascular invasion or metastasis (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation may be used as serum biomarkers for noninvasive detection of HCC. PMID:24782625

Ji, Xiang-Fen; Fan, Yu-Chen; Gao, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kai

2014-01-01

320

Requirements for printed wiring boards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

1984-01-01

321

Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

322

Calculated EI characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil

Y Adanny; Y Wolfus; A Friedman; F Kopansky; Y Yeshurun; Z Bar-Haim; Z Ron; N Pundak

2006-01-01

323

Thermal Analysis of PCS for an HTS Pancake Coil in Persistent Current Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that high temperature superconductors (HTS) are promising for a magnet application, but it has been almost impossible so far to apply them to the magnet in persistent current mode because of poor qualities of their superconducting joint at higher current as well as lower index values. In this paper, in order to get rid of the

Woo-Seok Kim; Yungil Kim; Sang-Ho Park; Seyeon Lee; Ji-Kwang Lee; Chan Park; Bang-Wook Lee; Kyoung-Jun Kim; Haigun Lee; Hee-Gyoun Lee; Gye-Won Hong; Kyeongdal Choi

2010-01-01

324

Experimental study of a large-current-capacity magnet composed of HTS pancake coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been investigating a superconducting fault current limiter (FCL) by series–parallel resonance LC circuit. Decreasing AC loss requires a superconducting reactor. There are two methods to increase the current capacity of a superconducting reactor that is composed of HTS pancake coils. One method involves the use of a toroidal magnet with symmetrically located pancake coils, and the other method

Hideki Tanaka; Mitsuho Furuse; Junji Kondou; Masaichi Umeda

2004-01-01

325

On some consequences of an external magnetic field applied to HTS coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational model which enables to evaluate the distribution of the critical currents, electric fields and the voltage in the winding of a solenoidal high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets subjected to an external magnetic field parallel with the magnet axis, was developed. The model comes out from the well-known power law between the electric field and the transport current of

Jozef Pitel; Pavol Ková?

2011-01-01

326

Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

2012-06-01

327

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-print Network

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

328

Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

329

Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPA?s ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

330

Investigation of Thermal Quench Characteristic in the HTS Bi2223 Racetrack Coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability and quench propagations are one of the most fundamental issues for the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coil. Superconductivity is confined within the phase surface bounded by magnetic field, temperature, and current. Of these three parameters, the temperature is neither completely controllable, nor predictable, because the energy stored in the magnet, can easily be converted into heat up

Jaedeuk Lee; Ho Min Kim; Seung Kyu Baik; Eon-Yong Lee; Young Kil Kwon; In Keun Yu; Young-Sik Jo

2008-01-01

331

Design of a Very Large Pulse Tube Cryocooler for HTS Cable Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs for large cooling powers are more and more increasing together with the increase of superconductor capabilities. Within the framework of an High Voltage HTS cable project (LIPA project funded by the DOE with American Superconductor AMSC, Nexans, LIPA and Air Liquide as consortium partners), the Technologies & Innovation Department of Air Liquide with the partnership of the CEA\\/SBT

J. Tanchon; E. Ercolani; T. Trollier; A. Ravex; J. M. Poncet

2006-01-01

332

Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

333

Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

2014-05-01

334

Monitoring of HTS compound library quality via a high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument.  

PubMed

This report presents the high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument for compound management applications (HIAPI-CM). The HIAPI-CM combines imaging spectroscopy and machine-vision analysis to perform rapid assessment of high-throughput screening (HTS) compound library quality. It has been customized to detect and classify typical artifacts found in HTS compound library microtiter plates (MTPs). These artifacts include (1) insufficient volume of liquid compound sample, (2) compound precipitation, and (3) colored compounds that interfere with HTS assay detection format readout. The HIAPI-CM is also configured to automatically query and compare its analysis results to data stored in a LIMS or corporate database, aiding in the detection of compound registration errors. To demonstrate its capabilities, several compound plates (n=5760 wells total) containing different artifacts were measured via automated HIAPI-CM analysis, and results compared with those obtained by manual (visual) inspection. In all cases, the instrument demonstrated high fidelity (99.8% empty wells; 100.1% filled wells; 94.4% for partially filled wells; 94.0% for wells containing colored compounds), and in the case of precipitate detection, the HIAPI-CM results significantly exceeded the fidelity of visual observations (220.0%). As described, the HIAPI-CM allows for noninvasive, nondestructive MTP assessment with a diagnostic throughput of about 1min per plate, reducing analytical expenses and improving the quality and stewardship of HTS compound libraries. PMID:21609702

Baillargeon, Pierre; Scampavia, Louis; Einsteder, Ross; Hodder, Peter

2011-06-01

335

HTS in the new millennium: the role of pharmacology and flexibility.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, high throughput screening (HTS) has become the focal point for discovery programs within the pharmaceutical industry. The role of this discipline has been and remains the rapid and efficient identification of lead chemical matter within chemical libraries for therapeutics development. Recent advances in molecular and computational biology, i.e., genomic sequencing and bioinformatics, have resulted in the announcement of publication of the first draft of the human genome. While much work remains before a complete and accurate genomic map will be available, there can be no doubt that the number of potential therapeutic intervention points will increase dramatically, thereby increasing the workload of early discovery groups. One current drug discovery paradigm integrates genomics, protein biosciences and HTS in establishing what the authors refer to as the "gene-to-screen" process. Adoption of the "gene-to-screen" paradigm results in a dramatic increase in the efficiency of the process of converting a novel gene coding for a putative enzymatic or receptor function into a robust and pharmacologically relevant high throughput screen. This article details aspects of the identification of lead chemical matter from HTS. Topics discussed include portfolio composition (molecular targets amenable to small molecule drug discovery), screening file content, assay formats and plating densities, and the impact of instrumentation on the ability of HTS to identify lead chemical matter. PMID:11274895

Landro, J A; Taylor, I C; Stirtan, W G; Osterman, D G; Kristie, J; Hunnicutt, E J; Rae, P M; Sweetnam, P M

2000-01-01

336

Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast? Bioactivity Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA ToxCast? research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

337

sHTS : A Streaming Architecture for Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis Maria Astrinaki1  

E-print Network

provides high flexibility as a speech production model, with a small database footprint. In this work we using speech databases, and generate speech from the trained models. A prominent method in this approachsHTS : A Streaming Architecture for Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis Maria Astrinaki1 , Onur

Dupont, Stéphane

338

Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

Doernbach, Jay

1990-01-01

339

CIIA prevents SOD1(G93A)-induced cytotoxicity by blocking ASK1-mediated signaling  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease with higher selectivity in degeneration of motor neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which the ALS-linked mutants of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene induce neurotoxicity remains obscure yet. Here, we show that depletion of CIIA expression by RNA interference (RNAi) promoted cytotoxicity caused by ALS-linked G93A mutant of the SOD1 gene. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of CIIA also enhanced the SOD1(G93A)-induced interaction between ASK1 and TRAF2 as well as ASK1 activity. Furthermore, endogenous silencing of CIIA by RNAi augmented the effects of SOD1(G93A) on reduction of mitochondria membrane potential (??m), release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and caspase activation. Together, our results suggest that CIIA negatively modulates ASK1-mediated cytotoxic signaling processes in a SOD1(G93A)-expressing cellular model of ALS. PMID:25018698

Lee, Jae Keun; Hwang, Sang Gil; Shin, Jin Hee; Shim, Jaekyung; Choi, Eui-Ju

2014-01-01

340

O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) charge exchange with simple ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X^3? -_g and a1?g states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O2(a1?g) and the cations O+, CO+, Ar+, and N_2^+, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O2 reacting with the atomic ions Ar+, Kr+, Xe+, Cl+, and Br+. The T-shaped orientation of the (X - O2)+ potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b^1? ^+_g. The calculated rate constants for both O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O2, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O2(a1?g) are similar to those for O_2(X^3? -_g) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O2(a1?g) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O2 have about the same attractive interactions with ions.

Zió?kowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak

2014-06-01

341

Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

2014-09-01

342

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

343

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

344

Asteroseismology with the WIRE satellite  

E-print Network

I give a summary of results from the WIRE satellite, which has been used to observe bright stars from 1999-2000 and 2003-2006. The WIRE targets are monitored for up to five weeks with a duty cycle of 30-40%. The aim has been to characterize the flux variation of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. I present an overview of the results for solar-like stars, delta Scuti stars, giant stars, and eclipsing binaries.

H. Bruntt

2007-02-01

345

Synthesis of Magnesium Diboride Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium diboride, MgB2, has been of great interest recently due to its high superconducting transition temperature for a material which exhibits properties similar to classical (BCS) superconductors. It has been found that wire segments of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing commercial boron coated filaments to magnesium vapor. This research has shown that the critical current of such wires is

Paul Canfield; Sergei Bud'Ko; Douglas Finnemore Anderson Jr.

2002-01-01

346

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

ScienceCinema

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-04-09

347

An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

1995-01-01

348

Unstable Behavior in Exploding Wire Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. In this paper, the unstable behavior of a wire array is investigated. The instability occurs by the deviation from the homogeneous current flow through many wires. The

Naoyuki Shimomura; Masayoshi Nagata; Yusuke Teramoto; Hidenori Akiyama

2000-01-01

349

Spring control of wire harness loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

Curcio, P. J.

1979-01-01

350

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 ...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with...

2012-10-01

351

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 ...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with...

2010-10-01

352

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 ...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with...

2013-10-01

353

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 ...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with...

2011-10-01

354

1 mil gold bond wire study.  

SciTech Connect

In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

2013-05-01

355

Interstitial Fluid Concentrations of Ceftriaxone (1 g i.v.) in the Subperitoneal Space after Hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of an antibiotic to penetrate into the extravascular site of infection is particularly important for a successful perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative therapy of bacterial infection. We, therefore, measured interstitial fluid concentrations of ceftriaxone in the subperitoneal space following hysterectomy using Rubinstein’s disc method after intravenous administration of 1 g of ceftriaxone preoperatively. After removal of the uterus,

G. J. Gerstner; W. Kronich; D. Adam

1990-01-01

356

Portable calibration systems for robots1 G.D. van Albada,  

E-print Network

range of distances. One such technique is based on the use of beams of light and position sensitive a clear indication of relative sensitivity to the various types of errors in the robot pose. It can alsoPortable calibration systems for robots1 G.D. van Albada, J.M. Lagerberg, Z. Zhong Wei, Department

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

357

Origin of a1g and eg' orderings in NaxCoO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has often been suggested that correlation effects suppress the small eg' Fermi-surface pockets of NaxCoO2 that are predicted by LDA, but absent in ARPES measurements. It appears that within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) the ARPES results can be reproduced only if the on-site energy of the eg' complex is lower than that of the a1g complex at the one-electron level, prior to the addition of local correlation effects. Current estimates regarding the order of the two orbital complexes range from -200 to 315 meV in terms of the energy difference. In this work, we perform density-functional theory calculations of this one-electron splitting ?=?a1g-?eg' for the full two-layer compound, accounting for the effects of Na ordering, interplanar interactions and octahedral distortion. We find that ?a1g-?eg' is negative for all Na fillings and that this is primarily due to the strongly positive Coulomb field created by Na+ ions in the intercalant plane that disproportionately affects the extended a1g orbital. We discuss also the effects of octahedral compression and multiorbital filling on the value of ? as a function of Na content. Our results indicate that if the eg' pockets are indeed suppressed, that can only be due to nonlocal correlation effects beyond the standard DMFT.

Pillay, D.; Johannes, M. D.; Mazin, I. I.; Andersen, O. K.

2008-07-01

358

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

359

REL3.1 G4TskinOnly LW 3HRLY MONTHLY  

... REL3.1 G4TskinOnly LW 3HRLY MONTHLY Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 3.1 GEWEX Longwave GOES-4_Tskin-only 3 hourly ... SRB Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) ...

2014-09-29

360

Singlet oxygen (1?g)-mediated oxidation of cellular and subcellular components: ESR and AFM assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a comprehensive in vitro study of the photo-oxidative stress on different biomolecular and cellular targets generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n, a novel, fullerene-based and water-soluble sensitizer of singlet oxygen (1?g). The photodynamic efficiency of fullerol C60(OH)n was checked by using a singlet oxygen scavenger, TMP-OH, and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, which was capable of detecting the resulting paramagnetic product, TEMPOL. ESR was also used to monitor the conformation changes occurring in the spin-labelled protein, T4L lysozyme, which was exposed to the photo-oxidative stress in solutions containing fullerol C60(OH)n. Finally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to monitor changes in the local elastic properties of living and glutaraldehyde-fixed cells (neurons) exposed to the toxic action of 1?g generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n. Remarkably, the Young's modulus values measured for both living and fixed neurons revealed a pronounced drop as a function of exposure to the toxic action of 1?g. Thus, our ESR and AFM results bring evidence that the multi-hydroxylated fullerene is an efficient 1?g-generator in aqueous media and might be implemented as a photosensitizer for performing oxidations in biological systems.

Vileno, Bertrand; Lekka, Malgorzata; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Marcoux, Pierre; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Kasas, Sandor; Catsicas, Stefan; Graczyk, Alfreda; Forró, László

2005-05-01

361

Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

1989-01-01

362

Wire chambers revisited.  

PubMed

Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative ejection fraction information of the highest quality. The detection of higher energy gamma rays has proved more problematical, needing a solid photon-electron convertor to be incorporated into the chamber. Several groups have been working on this problem with modest success so far. The only clinical detectors have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now in routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8491229

Ott, R J

1993-04-01

363

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2012-07-01

364

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2013-07-01

365

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2011-07-01

366

Reproducibility of HTS-SQUID magnetocardiography in an unshielded clinical environment.  

PubMed

A new technology has been developed which measures the magnetic field of the human heart (magnetocardiogram, MCG) by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) sensors. These sensors can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen without electromagnetic shielding. We tested the reproducibility of HTS-MCG measurements in healthy volunteers. Unshielded HTS-MCG measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers in left precordial position in two separate sessions in a clinical environment. The heart cycles of 10 min were averaged, smoothed, the baselines were adjusted, and the data were standardized to the respective areas under the curves (AUC) of the absolute values of the QRST amplitudes. The QRS complexes and the ST-T intervals were used to assess the reproducibility of the two measurements. Ratios (R(QRS), R(STT)) were calculated by dividing the AUC of the first measurement by the ones of the second measurement. The linear correlation coefficients (CORR(QRS), CORR(STT)) of the time intervals of the two measurements were calculated, too. The HTS-MCG signal was completely concealed by the high noise level in the raw data. The averaging and smoothing algorithms unmasked the QRS complex and the ST segment. A high reproducibility was found for the QRS complex (R(QRS)=1.2+/-0.3, CORR(QRS)=0.96+/-0.06). Similarly to the shape of the ECG it was characterized by three bends, the Q, R, and S waves. In the ST-T interval, the reproducibility was considerably lower (R(STT)=0.9+/-0.2, CORR(STT)=0.66+/-0.28). In contrast to the shape of the ECG, a baseline deflection after the T wave which may belong to U wave activity was found in a number of volunteers. HTS-MCG devices can be operated in a clinical environment without shielding. Whereas the reproducibility was found to be high for the depolarization interval, it was considerably lower for the ST segment and for the T wave. Therefore, before clinically applying HTS-MCG systems to the detection of repolarization abnormalities in acute coronary syndromes, further technical development of the systems is necessary to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:11461747

Leder, U; Schrey, F; Haueisen, J; Dörrer, L; Schreiber, J; Liehr, M; Schwarz, G; Solbrig, O; Figulla, H R; Seidel, P

2001-07-01

367

Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed  

DOEpatents

A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

368

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. II. Rotational spectra of a1?g O2 isotopologues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a comprehensive review on molecular oxygen spectroscopy, we have measured rotational spectra of isotopic forms of molecular oxygen in its a1?g electronic state with high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy. The data are recorded in close proximity to predicted positions. Due to the high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio, the fundamental hyperfine parameters eQq and CI are determinable for 17O-substituted species for the first time. A refined nuclear spin orbit coupling constant, a = -211.9328(283) MHz, was determined, and is roughly two orders of magnitude more precise than values determined from near infrared spectroscopy or electron spin resonance studies. Vibrationally excited oxygen in the a1?g electronic state was also observable with small signal levels for many of the rotational transitions.

Drouin, Brian J.; Gupta, Harshal; Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E.; Müller, Holger S. P.

2012-07-01

369

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. II. Rotational spectra of a(1)?(g)? O2 isotopologues.  

PubMed

As part of a comprehensive review on molecular oxygen spectroscopy, we have measured rotational spectra of isotopic forms of molecular oxygen in its a(1)?(g) electronic state with high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy. The data are recorded in close proximity to predicted positions. Due to the high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio, the fundamental hyperfine parameters eQq and C(I) are determinable for (17)O-substituted species for the first time. A refined nuclear spin orbit coupling constant, a = -211.9328(283) MHz, was determined, and is roughly two orders of magnitude more precise than values determined from near infrared spectroscopy or electron spin resonance studies. Vibrationally excited oxygen in the a(1)?(g) electronic state was also observable with small signal levels for many of the rotational transitions. PMID:22803534

Drouin, Brian J; Gupta, Harshal; Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Müller, Holger S P

2012-07-14

370

Wire Development Group (WDG) Understanding and Engineering  

E-print Network

ANL CRADA DOE $ 250 K AMSC AMSC $ 1200 K · Proprietary Information Agreement protects confidential, round robins ­ Over 150 samples exchanged and studied in FY2006 · AMSC invested over $3.4 M in 2G R&D in FY2006 ­ Strong commitment to 2G HTS technology · WDG research support AMSC's development of a low

371

REOVIRUS INFECTION IN THE PIGEON H. VINDEVOGEL1 G. MEULEMANS P.-P. PASTORET3  

E-print Network

REOVIRUS INFECTION IN THE PIGEON H. VINDEVOGEL1 G. MEULEMANS P.-P. PASTORET3 Anne SCHWERS Claire PIGEON. - Le pigeon est réceptif à l'infection par Reovirus puisqu'une souche a pu être isolée d'un pigeon malade et que 8 p. cent de pigeons pris au hasard possèdent des anticorps spécifiques. La souche

Boyer, Edmond

372

Some Important Aspects of Physical Modelling of Liquefaction in 1-g Shaking Table  

SciTech Connect

Physical modeling of liquefaction in 1-g shaking table and dynamic centrifuge test become very popular to simulate the ground behavior during earthquake motion. 1-g shaking table tests require scaled down model ground which can be prepared in three methods; water sedimentation, moist tamping and dry deposition method. Moist tamping and dry deposition method need saturation of model ground which is expensive and very difficult to achieve. Some model tests were performed in 1-g shaking table to see the influence of preparation method of model ground. Wet tamping and water sedimentation method of ground preparation were compared in these tests. Behavior of level ground and slope were also examined. Slope and level ground model test increased the understanding of excess pore pressure generation in both cases. Wet tamping method has a possibility of not being fully saturated. Pore pressure transducers should be fixed vertically so that it can not settle down during shaking but can move with ground. There was insignificant difference in acceleration and excess pore pressure responses between wet tamping and water sedimentation method in case of level ground. Spiky accelerations were prominent in slope prepared by water sedimentation method. Spiky accelerations were the result of lateral displacement induced dilatancy of soil.

Alam, Md. Jahangir [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Towhata, Ikuo [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

2008-07-08

373

Peculiarities of Wire Array Implosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experiments on Z-pinch produced from wire arrays performed on the facility Angara-5-1 are presented. The models of liner implosion, i.e. prolonged plasma production have found their confirmation. Estimation based on our experimental data show that W wire cores are heterogeneous. The velocity of core expansion is determined by energy deposited at the first nanoseconds after current start. The effect of the inner array on the current distribution in the region between the arrays has been revealed. The ?lost mass ? was measured at initial radius of array at the moment of X-ray pulse maximum.

Aleksandrov, V.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovski, E.V.; Zaitsev, V.I.; Zukakishvili, G.G.; Medovschikov, S.F.; Mitrofanov, K.N.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Porofeev, I.Yu.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Frolov, I.N.; Fedulov, M. V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Reg., 142190 (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, 142190 (Russian Federation)

2006-01-05

374

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

2002-01-01

375

Influence of Off-Centre Operation on the Performance of HTS Maglev  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to instinctive self-stable levitation characteristics, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev using bulk high-temperature superconductors attracts more and more attention from scientists and engineers around the world. In this paper, the levitation force relaxation and guidance force characteristics of a Y-Ba-Cu-O levitation unit with different eccentric distances (EDs) off the center of the permanent magnet guideway were experimentally investigated under field-cooling (FC) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the levitation force slightly increases at small EDs firstly, but degrades with further increasing of EDs. However, the maximum guidance force and its stiffness exhibit enhancement in moderate ED range. The results demonstrate that a properly designed initial FC eccentric distance is important for the practical applications of HTS maglev according to specific requirements like running in curve lines.

Gou, Y.; He, D.; Zheng, J.; Ye, C.; Xu, Y.; Sun, R.; Che, T.; Deng, Z.

2014-03-01

376

Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, You-He

2010-03-01

377

A compact HTS bandpass microstrip filter with novel coupling structure for on-chip integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact low-complexity high-selectivity high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip bandpass filter is presented in this paper, which consists of only three half-wavelength resonators. A novel coupling scheme is used to provide a pair of transmission zeros outside the passband, so that the selectivity of the filter is improved. The filter is fabricated on an MgO substrate with YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coating. Measurement result shows an in-band insertion loss at 0.5 dB, a sharp slope, and a stopband rejection better than 20 dB. The compactness and high-selectivity features make the filter suitable for on-chip integration of HTS receiver front-ends.

Zhang, Ting; Du, Jia; Guo, Yingjie Jay; Sun, Xiaowei

2013-12-01

378

Fabrication of PDA/HTS prototype components. [graphite composites for space shuttle and YF-12 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process was developed for autoclave molding structural poly-(Diels-Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin/HTS graphite composites for short-term 600 F service. The autoclave molding process used to fabricate these composites required a maximum cure temperature of 427 K (400 F) and a maximum molding pressure of 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psig). This process then was adapted to the fabrication of co-cured polyimide sandwich panels consisting of PDA/HTS skins, PDA syntactic foam and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by manufacturing five three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels using the PDA resin. It was concluded from successful evaluation of these prototype units that the PDA resin is suitable for fabrication of components using commercial equipment.

Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

1976-01-01

379

On some consequences of an external magnetic field applied to HTS coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational model which enables to evaluate the distribution of the critical currents, electric fields and the voltage in the winding of a solenoidal high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets subjected to an external magnetic field parallel with the magnet axis, was developed. The model comes out from the well-known power law between the electric field and the transport current of the HTS tape short sample. It allows to predict the voltage-current V( I) characteristics of both the pancake coils and the complete magnet. The model was applied to the magnet system consisting of 22 pancake coils made of multifilamentary Bi(2223)/Ag tape at 20 K, which is subjected to an external uniform magnetic field parallel with the coil axis. A rather unexpected behavior of the magnet at different operating conditions (operating current and external magnetic field strength) is predicted, analyzed and reported together with a theoretical explanation. On one hand, the external uniform magnetic field parallel with the coil axis increases the resulting magnetic field strength, however, on the other hand it simultaneously decreases the angle between the resulting magnetic field and the tape surface. Thus, the effect of higher magnetic loading caused by the presence of an external magnetic field strength which is acting on individual turns located close to the coil’s flanges is compensated by more favorable orientation of the tape with respect to the resulting magnetic field. As a result, increase in the critical currents of these turns is expected. Further, the results indicate, that in case of the high field HTS insert coils the anisotropy in the I c( B) characteristic does not play a substantial role. As a consequence, the technology of the production of the tapes for high field insert HTS coils should concentrate rather on the tapes having the current carrying capacity as high as possible, than on the attempt how to decrease the anisotropy in the I c( B) by changing the architecture of the filaments in the tape.

Pitel, Jozef; Ková?, Pavol

2011-12-01

380

Superconducting Winding for Inductive Type SFCL Made of HTS Tape With Increased Resistivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently produced and available HTS tapes with increased resistivity, like 2nd generation YBCO 344S tape made by American Superconductors, have enough parameters, e.g., resistivity, critical current density, to build inductive type current limiters to limit faults in medium-voltage power grid. The paper describes the assumption for 6,9 kV\\/1.15 kA superconducting fault current limiter with superconducting secondary winding made of high

Tadeusz Janowski; Grzegorz Wojtasiewicz; Beata Kondratowicz-Kucewicz; Slawomir Kozak; Janusz Kozak; Michal Majka

2009-01-01

381

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Electrothermal and Mechanical Phenomena in HTS Tube of Inductive SFCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) can be successfully used to limit the short-circuit current level in electrical networks to 5 (or less) times of rated current level. The inductive SFCL works like transformer with shorted secondary winding in a shape of HTS tube. The SFCL 625-A consists of superconducting Bi-2223 tube (critical current=625 A at 77 K), iron core

S. Kozak; T. Janowski; G. Wojtasiewicz; J. Kozak; B. A. Glowacki

2006-01-01

382

Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of HTS conductor and its application to the operation of SFCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proper description of the nonlinear voltage-current relation of the superconductor is necessary for accurate analysis of the superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL). Discrepancies between the experimental results and the prediction of Bean's critical state model were observed. Using a recently found unified nonlinear response function of type-II superconductors, the authors derive the current-voltage characteristic of metal-sheathed HTS conductor and

Yu Wang; Zhi Qi; Wei Wang; Chuanyi Li; Daole Yin; Liangzhen Lin; Liye Xiao; Naihao Song

2001-01-01

383

250 kW flywheel with HTS magnetic bearing for industrial use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 250 kW \\/ 5 kWh engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed, fabricated and component tested by Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ) and L-3 Communications Magnet - Motor GmbH (MM). A heavy - load vertical 0.6 ton rotor is suspended totally magnetically by an HTS radial-passive bearing on the top together with a PM bearing at the bottom.

F N Werfel; U Floegel-Delor; T Riedel; R Rothfeld; D Wippich; B Goebel; G Reiner; N Wehlau

2008-01-01

384

Magnetic Field Distribution of Permanent Magnet Magnetized by Static Magnetic Field Generated by HTS Bulk Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demagnetized rare earth magnets (Nd-Fe-B) can be fully magnetized by scanning them in the intense static fields over 3 T of a HTS bulk magnet which was cooled to the temperature range lower than 77K with use of cryo-coolers and activated by the field of 5 T. We precisely examined the magnetic field distributions of magnetized permanent magnets. The magnetic

Tetsuo Oka; Nobutaka Kawasaki; Satoshi Fukui; Jun Ogawa; Takao Sato; Toshihisa Terasawa; Yoshitaka Itoh; Ryohei Yabuno

2012-01-01

385

Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

2010-06-01

386

Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

Yeom, H. K.; Koh, D. Y.; Ko, J. S.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.; Seong, K. C.

2011-11-01

387

Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ˜1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

2010-04-01

388

Development of a HTS SQUID module for use with an external pickup coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed HTS SQUID modules applicable to various systems, such as nondestructive evaluation and low-field NMR/MRI systems. The SQUID module consists of a directly coupled HTS planar gradiometer and a HTS multi-turn input coil, which are fabricated on separate substrates and stacked with a flip-chip configuration. Two types of input coils, 26-turns and 59-turns, are fabricated. The SQUID module is mounted on a printed circuit board with large electrodes for soldering to the external pickup coil. The mutual inductances between the input coil and SQUID varied from 0.5 to 2.3 nH, depending on the number of turns of the input coil and the inductance of the SQUID. The SQUID modules with an external pickup coil made of normal metal showed a lower cut-off frequency of 45 Hz and a field noise as low as 35 fT Hz-1/2 (>4 kHz).

Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Enpuku, K.

2013-01-01

389

Operational Experience of the World's First Transmission Level Voltage Hts Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cables have attracted extensive interest in recent years due to their potential for high power density. With funding support from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the world's first transmission voltage level HTS power cable has been designed, fabricated and permanently installed in Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The HTS cable was successfully commissioned on April 22, 2008 and has been in operation since then. The three phase cable is 600 meter long and was designed to carry 574 MVA at a voltage of 138 kV. The project is being led by American Superconductor (AMSC). The team is comprised of Nexans, Air Liquide and LIPA. This paper describes the operational experience of the cable and refrigeration system since energization. A detailed description of various events and lessons learned over the course of operation is presented. The cable system performance is compared before and after more than one year of in-grid operation. In addition, the status and progress of the recently awarded LIPA II project is included.

Maguire, J. F.; Yuan, J.; Schmidt, F.; Soika, R.; Bratt, S.; King, C.; McNamara, J.; Welsh, T. E.

2010-04-01

390

Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS  

SciTech Connect

The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to a type of the micro-forming in macro-scale processing. There are two main characteristics founded: (a) contact and friction between silver and BSCCO surfaces, (b) interface between two materials. A series of micro-tensile experiments of silver foil with thicknesses of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 mm are designed to investigate the behaviors of silver with various scale of sizes. And the surface topography measurements have been carried out to analyze the changes in surface topography. Based upon experiments, some topics are researched which are referred to inhomogeneous, local effect, size effect, grain and micro-structure affecting, surface roughness, long-distance sausage phenomenon. Further the local breakdown of silver by Bi-HTS powder during process is analyzed through failure criterion. The results of this work will bring out an important exploration value to the theory and computation of micro-forming.

Zeng Pan; Lu Yongjin; Lei Liping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-06-15

391

The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

2012-12-01

392

Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

2010-06-01

393

Non-destructive inspection using HTS SQUID on aluminum liner covered by CFRP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eddy-current-based SQUID non-destructive inspection (NDI) system to detect deep-lying cracks in multi-layer composite-Al vessels was developed taking advantage of the uncontested sensitivity of HTS-SQUID in low-frequency range. An HTS-SQUID gradiometer was mounted in a pulse tube cryocooler. A pair of differential coils with C-shaped ferrite cores was employed to induce an enhanced eddy current in an Al vessel wrapped in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover. Ellipsoidal dome-shaped Al liners containing through cracks, which were made by pressure cycle tests, in the CFRP covers with total thickness of 6 mm (CFPR 3 mm, and Al 3 mm) were inspected by the system. While inducing eddy currents in the vessels with excitation fields at 100 Hz or 7 kHz, the vessels were rotated under the HTS-SQUID. Above the cracks, anomalous signals due to the cracks were clearly detected at both frequencies. These results suggested the SQUID-NDI technique would be a possible candidate for inspection of high-pressure multi-layer composite-Al vessels.

Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

2007-10-01

394

Movement of Telegraph-Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE frequently noticed the peculiar movement of telegraph wires noticed by your correspondent. For some time I took it to be an ordinary case of vibration, but it presented so many peculiar features that I was induced to examine it more closely. It frequently happens that when the temperature and dew-point of the air are at or about the

R. Mountford Deeley

1886-01-01

395

Breakdown testing of wiring insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric strength of potential wiring insulation, recommended by NASA Lewis Research Center to replace existing M81381 (polyimide), was evaluated at high temperature. Results, given in view-graph format, show that their is no dependence of breakdown strength on temperature for the constructions tested and that their was little effect of frequency on the breakdown characteristics.

Laghari, Javaid R.

1994-01-01

396

Wire-Wrap Chatter Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring circuit responds to changes in resistance as little as 0.1 ohm. Has been used to detect defective wire-wrap connections during thermal and vibration tests. Defect is indicated to operator by light-emitting diode and by increase in count on a two-digit display.

Fisch, G. Z.; Borden, T. J.

1982-01-01

397

Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

Usoro, Hogan

398

Wire mesh isolator protects sensitive electronic components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitive electronic components are enclosed in wire mesh for protection. The wire mesh isolates the component from shock and vibration. It acts as a heat sink and as a screen against RF interference.

Kerley, J. J., Jr.

1965-01-01

399

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2013-07-01

400

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled “Safety Rules for the Installation and...

2014-07-01

401

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled “Safety Rules for the Installation and...

2014-07-01

402

Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

1967-01-01

403

Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

Babb, B. D.

1967-01-01

404

46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire....

2011-10-01

405

46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire....

2012-10-01

406

46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire....

2010-10-01

407

New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

Slenski, George

1994-01-01

408

Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

2014-01-01

409

Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

Slenski, George

1995-01-01

410

Signal shapes in a TPC wire chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study signal shapes in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and the influence of the electron distribution around the wire on the ion tail characteristics. Simulations of the ion tail for two different geometries, different voltages and therefore gas gains were performed. These simulations are compared to measurements carried out with the ALICE TPC wire chambers for a Ne/CO 2/N 2 gas mixture, which allows to extract the avalanche spread around the anode wires of the MWPC.

Rossegger, S.; Riegler, W.

2010-11-01

411

NEMA wire and cable standards development programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

Baird, Robert W.

1994-01-01

412

Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Olivan, Sara; Munoz, Maria J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vazquez, Pilar; Esteban-Perez, Jesus; Garcia-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

2012-01-01

413

Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H Irradiation Report  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. These experiments are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 20 atom % burnup. Results of the evaluations show that AFC-1D will remain in the ATR for approximately 100 additional effective full power days (EFPDs), and AFC-1G and AFC-1H for approximately 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports.

Debra J. Utterbeck; Gray Chang

2005-09-01

414

web cellHTS2: A web-application for the analysis of high-throughput screening data  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of high-throughput screening data sets is an expanding field in bioinformatics. High-throughput screens by RNAi generate large primary data sets which need to be analyzed and annotated to identify relevant phenotypic hits. Large-scale RNAi screens are frequently used to identify novel factors that influence a broad range of cellular processes, including signaling pathway activity, cell proliferation, and host cell infection. Here, we present a web-based application utility for the end-to-end analysis of large cell-based screening experiments by cellHTS2. Results The software guides the user through the configuration steps that are required for the analysis of single or multi-channel experiments. The web-application provides options for various standardization and normalization methods, annotation of data sets and a comprehensive HTML report of the screening data analysis, including a ranked hit list. Sessions can be saved and restored for later re-analysis. The web frontend for the cellHTS2 R/Bioconductor package interacts with it through an R-server implementation that enables highly parallel analysis of screening data sets. web cellHTS2 further provides a file import and configuration module for common file formats. Conclusions The implemented web-application facilitates the analysis of high-throughput data sets and provides a user-friendly interface. web cellHTS2 is accessible online at http://web-cellHTS2.dkfz.de. A standalone version as a virtual appliance and source code for platforms supporting Java 1.5.0 can be downloaded from the web cellHTS2 page. web cellHTS2 is freely distributed under GPL. PMID:20385013

2010-01-01

415

The relationship between exploding wire expansion rates and wire material properties near the boiling temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy deposited by a submicrosecond, ?1-kA current pulse in a 25-?m diameter metal wire prior to its explosion, correlates directly with the expansion rate of the wire after the explosion. Energy deposition by resistive heating is terminated by the formation of plasma around the wire and a collapse of the voltage along the wire, and is evidently facilitated by

K. M. Chandler; D. A. Hammer; D. B. Sinars; S. A. Pikuz; T. A. Shelkovenko

2002-01-01

416

Unstable behavior in wire array discharges and effect of wire shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z pinches using wire arrays have been investigated to achieve nuclear fusion. Suppression of instabilities in Z-pinch plasma is one of extremely important tasks. The explosions of the wires in an array do not simultaneously proceed and the currents through wires do not balance, and then an unstable behavior of current glows in wire explosion. As a result, nonuniform distribution

N. Shimomura; Y. Tanaka; Y. Yushita; M. Nagata; Y. Teramoto; S. Katsuki; H. Akiyama

2001-01-01

417

New observations of the A1?u-X1?g+ transition (Phillips system) of C2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reanalyzed the infrared part of the A1?u-X1?g+ (Phillips system) of C2. Improved molecular constants were derived and the v'' = 5 and v'' = 6 vibrational levels of the X1?g+ state were observed for the first time. RKR curves and A1?u-X1?g+ Franck-Condon factors were calculated from the equilibrium molecular constants. Alfred P. Sloan Fellow; Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar.

Douay, M.; Nietmann, R.; Bernath, P. F.

1988-10-01

418

Last Progress in Underwater Electrical Wire Explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the investigation of the underwater electrical wire explosions using a high power nanosecond timescale generator are reported. The spectroscopic analysis of the emitted radiation has unveiled no evidence for the formation of shunting plasma channel. The latter appears in vacuum and gas wire explosions and causes to the seizure of energy deposition into an exploding wire material.

Alon Grinenko; Arkady Sayapin; Sergey Efimov; Alexander Fedotov; Yakov E. Krasik

2008-01-01

419

Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object of the invention is the production of superconducting wire or tape with improved strain characteristics. A second object is the production of superconducting wire or tape in which the strain produced by the bending of the wire or the application of a tensile force in normal use increases the effective range of critical current carrying capacity. The addition

Luhman; C. J. T. Klamut; M. Suenaga; D. Welch

1978-01-01

420

Efficiency of cable lightning protection by wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

An existing method of calculation of protective wires shielding factor is not accurate, as it takes into account only inductance of cable and protective wires without of active resistance. In fact at the front of wave the current of a lightning is allocated between a cable and a protective wire mainly in inverse proportion to inductive resistance, on decay of

I. V. Glushkov

2006-01-01

421

Phosphorylation of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS controls Magi2-mediated endocytosis.  

PubMed

The human Usher syndrome (USH) is a complex ciliopathy with at least 12 chromosomal loci assigned to three clinical subtypes, USH1-3. The heterogeneous USH proteins are organized into protein networks. Here, we identified Magi2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2) as a new component of the USH protein interactome, binding to the multifunctional scaffold protein SANS (USH1G). We showed that the SANS-Magi2 complex assembly is regulated by the phosphorylation of an internal PDZ-binding motif in the sterile alpha motif domain of SANS by the protein kinase CK2. We affirmed Magi2's role in receptor-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis and showed that phosphorylated SANS tightly regulates Magi2-mediated endocytosis. Specific depletions by RNAi revealed that SANS and Magi2-mediated endocytosis regulates aspects of ciliogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the localization of the SANS-Magi2 complex in the periciliary membrane complex facing the ciliary pocket of retinal photoreceptor cells in situ. Our data suggest that endocytotic processes may not only contribute to photoreceptor cell homeostasis but also counterbalance the periciliary membrane delivery accompanying the exocytosis processes for the cargo vesicle delivery. In USH1G patients, mutations in SANS eliminate Magi2 binding and thereby deregulate endocytosis, lead to defective ciliary transport modules and ultimately disrupt photoreceptor cell function inducing retinal degeneration. PMID:24608321

Bauß, Katharina; Knapp, Barbara; Jores, Pia; Roepman, Ronald; Kremer, Hannie; Wijk, Erwin V; Märker, Tina; Wolfrum, Uwe

2014-08-01

422

Molecular Evolutionary and Epidemiological Dynamics of Genotypes 1G and 2B of Rubella Virus  

PubMed Central

Rubella Virus (RV), which causes measles-like rashes in children, puts millions of infants at risk of congenital defects across the globe. Employing phylogenetic approaches to the whole genome sequence data and E1 glycoprotein sequence data, the present study reports the substitution rates and dates of emergence of all thirteen previously described rubella genotypes, and gains important insights into the epidemiological dynamics of two geographically widely distributed genotypes 1G and 2B. The overall nucleotide substitution rate of this non-vector-borne RV is in the order of 10?3 substitutions/site/year, which is considerably higher than the substitution rates previously reported for the vector-borne alphaviruses within the same family. Currently circulating strains of RV share a common ancestor that existed within the last 150 years, with 95% Highest Posterior Density values ranging from 1868 to 1926 AD. Viral strains within the respective genotypes began diverging between the year 1930 s and 1980 s. Both genotype 1G and 2B have shown a decline in effective number of infections since 1990 s, a period during which mass immunization programs against RV were adapted across the globe. Although both genotypes showed some extent of spatial genetic structuring, the analyses also depicted an inter-continental viral dispersal. Such a viral dispersal pattern could be related to the migration of infected individuals across the regions coupled with a low coverage of MMR vaccination. PMID:25329480

Padhi, Abinash; Ma, Li

2014-01-01

423

Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

2003-01-01

424

Frequency response in short thermocouple wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

1992-01-01

425

Measurements and simulations of the ablation stage of wire arrays with different initial wire sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of 20mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays with different initial wire sizes were made on the 20MA Sandia Z facility. Radiographic measurements of each wire array, taken at the same point in the current during the wire ablation stage, show systematic differences. A detailed comparison of the radiography and self-emission data with simulations and analytic models suggests that a variation in the mass ablation rate with wire size may be responsible.

Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Yu, E. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Cochrane, K. R.; Jones, B.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Wenger, D. F.

2006-04-01

426

Measurements and simulations of the ablation stage of wire arrays with different initial wire sizes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of 20 mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays with different initial wire sizes were made on the 20 MA Sandia Z facility. Radiographic measurements of each wire array, taken at the same point in the current during the wire ablation stage, show systematic differences. A detailed comparison of the radiography and self-emission data with simulations and analytic models suggests that a variation in the mass ablation rate with wire size may be responsible.

Sinars, D.B.; Cuneo, M.E.; Yu, E.P.; Jones, B.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Porter, J.L.; Wenger, D.F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Lebedev, S.V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Cochrane, K.R. [Ktech Corporation, 1300 Eubank Boulevard SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); MacFarlane, J.J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)

2006-04-15

427

High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. IV. Energy levels, partition sums, band constants, RKR potentials, Franck-Condon factors involving the X3? -g, a1?g and b1? +g states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have updated the isotopically invariant Dunham fit of O2 with newly reported literature transitions to derive (1) the energy levels, partition sums, band-by-band molecular constants, and RKR potentials for the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states of the six O2 isotopologues: 16O16O, 16O17O, 16O18O, 17O17O, 17O18O, and 18O18O; (2) Franck-Condon factors for their a1? g-X3? -g, b1? +g-X3? -g, and a1? g-b1? +g band systems. This new spectroscopic parameterization characterizes all known transitions within and between the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states within experimental uncertainty and can be used for accurate predictions of as yet unmeasured transitions. All of these results are necessary to provide a consistent linelist of all transitions which will be reported in a followup paper.

Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Miller, Charles E.

2014-11-01

428

SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

2007-08-01

429

Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches  

SciTech Connect

Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches is modeled using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. Modified Thomas-Fermi equations of state and dense plasma transport coefficients allow the phase transitions from solid to plasma to be approximated. Results indicate the persistence of a two-component structure with a cold, dense core embedded within a much hotter, low density, m=0 unstable corona. Extensive benchmark testing against data from a number of single-wire experiments is presented. Artificial laser schlieren and x-ray back-lighting images generated from the code data are compared directly to experimental results. The results were found to be insensitive to inaccuracies in the equations of state and transport coefficients. Simulations of individual wires in a wire array show different behavior to that observed experimentally due to the absence of three-dimensional effects. Simulations with similar conditions to wires in an array show a general trend in the plasma structure at start of implosion from discrete wires with large m=0 perturbation amplitudes to partially merged wires with smaller perturbation amplitudes as the number of wires is increased. Results for a wire number scan with aluminum wire arrays on the SATURN generator suggest that the observed sharp transition to high x-ray power at around 40 wires corresponds to a sharp decrease in m=0 perturbation amplitude and hence a sharp decrease in the seed perturbation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Chittenden, J. P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Camacho, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Beg, F. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Bland, S. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Jennings, C. A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Haines, M. G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, (United Kingdom); Pikuz, S. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 121433, Russia (Russian Federation)] [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 121433, Russia (Russian Federation); Shelkovenko, T. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 121433, Russia (Russian Federation)] [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 121433, Russia (Russian Federation)

2000-04-01

430

Composite wire plasma formation and evolution  

SciTech Connect

The detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of plasma from rapidly heated metallic wires is a long-standing challenge in the field of plasma physics and in exploding wire engineering. This physical process is made even more complicated if the wire material is composed of a number of individual layers. The authors have successfully developed both optical and x-ray backlighting diagnostics. In particular, the x-ray backlighting technique has demonstrated the capability for quantitative determination of the plasma density over a wide range of densities. This diagnostic capability shows that the process of plasma formation is composed of two separate phases: first, current is passed through a cold wire and the wire is heated ohmically, and, second, the heated wire evolves gases that break down and forms a low-density plasma surrounding the wire.

Spielman, R.B.

2000-01-01

431

Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

432

Phase conjugating wire FSS lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a microwave lens formed using a pair of frequency selective surfaces comprised of back-to-back double-periodic wire arrays interconnected through phase-conjugating microwave circuitry is given in this paper. It is shown that such a structure when illuminated with a plane wave generates a phase-conjugated forward-transmitted plane wave which experiences negative refraction. Negative refraction makes it possible to produce focusing

Oleksandr Malyuskin; Vincent Fusco; Alexander G. Schuchinsky

2006-01-01

433

Pin Wire Coating Trip Report  

SciTech Connect

A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

Spellman, G P

2004-03-18

434

Concept of porous wire anemometer  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a new scheme of the anemometer sensing element for the gas mean and fluctuation velocity measurement. The sensing element is a porous tube with gas suction through porous tube wall. The outside surface of the porous tube is at the gas temperature. The analysis, based on the heat balance at steady and unsteady state is performed in order to define the sensitivity and time constant of the porous sensing element. Two cases are considered, namely, the constant current and constant temperature anemometer. Comparison is made with the solid wire anemometer and shown that the proposed porous sensing element can have sensitivity four times higher than the standard hot wire anemometer with the same geometrical dimensions. With the respective selection of the physical properties of the sensing element, it could be possible to obtain higher frequency range of the measurement. Particular attention is devoted to the low gas velocity measurement. It is recognized that the minimum gas velocity to be measured with the solid hot wire anemometer is determined by the local heat transfer coefficient. For the low gas velocity, it was proved that the minimum is around .20 cm/sec. The proposed concept of the sensing element can be used for the very low velocity measurement due to the higher sensitivity obtained by the porous sensing element.

Afgan, N.H.; Pereira, J.C. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)] [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I.; Puzach, S.V. [Moscow Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)] [Moscow Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

1997-05-01

435

Parallel wire cable static load testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is the result of two evaluations for the analysis of parallel wire cables. The purpose of the first assessment was to evaluate the stiffness and strength of parallel wire cables. For the methodology, three test setups were executed utilizing single wires, seven wire parallel cables, and 100 wire parallel cables as specimens. The parallel wire cables were connected with molted zinc to their sockets. The cables were manufactured by Wilolamb Construction. The results indicate that the single, seven, and 100 wire specimens had similar performance in yield stress, yield strain, modulus, and ultimate strain. However, the amount of strain decreased as the number of wires increased. Because the mechanical properties of the multi wires specimens had not significant difference, it is suggested that the zinc sockets had insignificant impact on their performance. Comparing these results to a previous test executed for parallel wire cables, there were significant differences on the ultimate capacity. It is assumed that the fabrication method of the cables were different. The second evaluation had two purposes. First, it was intended to compare the results of the single wire test from OSU to the single wire test results from Sherry Laboratories. From the analysis, it was found that the ultimate and yield loads were similar between both laboratories procedures, but their strength capacity and ultimate strain were different. It was observed that the Sherry Lab used a different method to compute the mechanical properties of the wire and that the measurement of the elongation was different to the procedures from OSU. Second, the secondary analysis was to evaluate if there is any significant difference between wires sanded at the mid-length of the specimen and wires that were not sanded. From this analysis it was observed that there was no difference between the sanded and non-sanded wires, which indicated that cross-section reduction should not be necessary for the evaluation of multi wire cables. The results from this work were expected and agree with basic engineering principles, and that parallel wire cables are capable of performing as a group of wires with no significant losses.

Velasco Gil, Isabella C.

436

Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset motor neuron disorder, remain limited. Emerging evidence from clinical studies and transgenic mouse models of ALS suggests that cannabinoids, the bioactive ingredients of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) might have some therapeutic benefit in this disease. However, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the predominant cannabinoid in marijuana, induces mind-altering effects and is partially addictive, compromising its clinical usefulness. We therefore tested whether cannabinol (CBN), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, influences disease progression and survival in the SOD1 (G93A) mouse model of ALS. CBN was delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps (5 mg/kg/day) over a period of up to 12 weeks. We found that this treatment significantly delays disease onset by more than two weeks while survival was not affected. Further research is necessary to determine whether non-psychotropic cannabinoids might be useful in ameliorating symptoms in ALS. PMID:16183560

Weydt, Patrick; Hong, Soyon; Witting, Anke; Möller, Thomas; Stella, Nephi; Kliot, Michel

2005-09-01

437

Measurement of electronic transport through 1G0 gold contacts under laser irradiation.  

PubMed

Metal quantum point contacts (MQPCs) with dimensions comparable to the de Broglie wavelength of conducting electrons reveal ballistic transport of electrons and quantized conductance in units of G(0) = 2e(2)/h. We measure the transport properties of 1G(0) Au contacts under laser irradiation. The observed enhancement of conductance appears to be wavelength-dependent, while thermal effects on conductance are determined to be negligible. For wavelengths that are not absorbed by Au, the results are consistent with a photoassisted transport mechanism in which conductance depends both on the electronic structure of the leads and on the interaction of the transporting electrons with oscillating electric fields originating from excitation of local plasmons. For wavelengths absorbed by Au, photoinduced mechanism is suggested to be the dominant transport mechanism. The results demonstrate optical control of ballistic transport in MQPCs and are also important for future interpretation of light effects on the conductance of single-molecule junctions. PMID:19317478

Ittah, Naomi; Noy, Gilad; Yutsis, Ilan; Selzer, Yoram

2009-04-01

438

Synthesis and Characterization of Five New F-bearing Basalt Reference Materials (Fba Glasses): Quantifying the Fluorine Content of the Basaltic Glass Standards BCR-2G, BHVO-2G. GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, ML3B-G, KL2-G, and ALV-519-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts have been detected in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace to minor F with high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, F contents of low-silica, basaltic glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories are not well known. In this study, we synthesized five basalt glasses doped with variable amounts of fluorine (Fba glasses) to serve as new glass standards for the analysis of F in low-silica, iron-rich geological materials, and we used the new Fba glasses to determine the F content of nine commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic composition. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2 to create five glasses with the following F content (wt.% ± 1?): Fba-1 (0.13 ± 0.05); Fba-2 (0.53 ± 0.11); Fba-3 (0.87 ± 0.10); Fba-4 (1.41 ± 0.11); Fba-5 (2.24 ± 0.12). The mixtures were heated in a 1 atm furnace to 1470 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). EPMA used Biotite-3 (Bt-3: 3.3 wt.% F) and synthetic fluorphlogopite (F-phlog: 9.02 wt.% F) as F calibration standards. Wavelength scans of the F K? line on Bt-3 and F-phlog showed asymmetric peaks, necessitating the use of peak-integration analysis of the K? signal. EPMA was conducted on a Cameca SX100 with a 15 ?m diameter defocused electron beam, 15 kV accelerating voltage, 20 nA primary current, TAP crystal for detecting F K? X-rays, and five iterations in peak-integration mode. Results showed < 6% difference in the F content of the Fba glasses between the Bt-3 and F-phlog standards, implying the peak-integration method is standard-independent. SIMS analysis was conducted on a Cameca ims 6f with a primary beam of 16O-, detection of low-energy negative secondary ions (-5 kV), and a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Homogeneity of the Fba glasses was established by both SIMS and EPMA. Glasses labeled Fba-2, -3. -4, and -5 pass statistical tests for homogeneity and may be used as EPMA or SIMS standards. SIMS calibration curves were constructed using the Fba glasses and other F standards of varying silica, iron, and sodium content, including Bt-3, F-phlog, NIST 610, KE-12, and UTR-2. The calibration curves revealed large matrix effects for the analysis of F by SIMS (~ 50%) between an Fba:Bt-3 curve and a high-silica glass:F-phlog curve. The Fba:Bt-3 calibration curve was used to determine the F contents (ppm ± 1 ?) of the following nine commonly used basaltic glass standards: BCR-2G (321 ± 15), BHVO-2G (297 ± 14), GSA-1G (7 ± 0.1), GSC-1G (9 ± 0.5), GSD-1G (18 ± 1), GSE-1G (154 ± 7), ML3B-G (47 ± 2), KL2-G (82 ± 4), ALV-519-4 (76 ± 4).

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2011-12-01

439

Observation of multimode vibronic interference effects in 2E1g benzene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first experimental demonstration of multimode vibronic interference effects arising from the interaction of topologically inequivalent vibrational modes with a two-level electronic degeneracy. The system is that of the E1g molecular ion core of benzene Rydberg states. The interacting modes are the Jahn-Teller active e2g, ring bend, ?6, and the Renner, out-of-plane e2u ring bend, ?16. The nature of the interaction is seen as a coupling of the angular momenta of the two modes individually to the electronic angular momentum, producing new quantization conditions, within which interference interactions can be approximated perturbatively. Such a treatment explains qualitatively all splitting patterns observed in experimental spectra. Small quantitative deviations point the way to higher order couplings.

Whetten, Robert L.; Grant, Edward R.

1986-01-01

440

Serine phosphorylation of Fc?RI cytoplasmic domain directs lipid raft localization and interaction with protein 4.1G  

PubMed Central

The high-affinity IgG receptor (CD64, Fc?RI) has several special capacities, including the receptor-stimulated cleavage of the cell surface B cell-activating factor of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF13B). With the use of the yeast two-hybrid system, we and others have shown that Fc?RI interacts with protein 4.1G (EPB41L2). Our mutational analyses identified two required 4.1G-interacting regions in the Fc?RI CY and one Fc?RI-interacting site in the C-terminus of protein 4.1G. Herein, we explore mechanism(s) that may regulate the interaction between protein 4.1G and Fc?RI CY and influence Fc?RI membrane mobility and function. We show that Fc?RI CY interacts with protein 4.1G in vitro and that Fc?RI coimmunoprecipitates protein 4.1G in freshly isolated human PBMC. With the use of immunostaining, we show that Fc?RI colocalizes with protein 4.1G in unstimulated U937 cells, in which the Fc?RI CY is constitutively serine-phosphorylated, but significant uncoupling occurs following Fc?RI cross-linking, suggesting phosphoserine-regulated interaction. In vitro, protein 4.1G interacted preferentially with CK2-phosphorylated Fc?RI CY, and compared with WT Fc?RI, a nonphosphorylatable Fc?RI mutant receptor was excluded from lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for protein 4.1G in targeting phosphorylated Fc?RI to rafts. These data are consistent with a phosphoserine-dependent tethering role for protein 4.1G in maintaining Fc?RI in lipid rafts and provide insight into the unique phosphoserine-based regulation of receptor signaling by Fc?RI CY. PMID:22003208

Gibson, Andrew W.; Li, Xinrui; Wu, Jianming; Baskin, Julie G.; Raman, Chander; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.

2012-01-01

441

A Miniaturized Glucocorticoid Receptor Translocation Assay using Enzymatic Fragment Complementation Evaluated with qHTS  

PubMed Central

Nuclear translocation is an important step in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling and assays that measure this process allow the identification of nuclear receptor ligands independent of subsequent functional effects. To facilitate the identification of GR-translocation agonists, an enzyme fragment complementation (EFC) cell-based assay was scaled to a 1536-well plate format to evaluate 9,920 compounds using a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) strategy where compounds are assayed at multiple concentrations. In contrast to conventional assays of nuclear translocation the qHTS assay described here was enabled on a standard luminescence microplate reader precluding the requirement for imaging methods. The assay uses beta-galactosidase alpha complementation to indirectly detect GR-translocation in CHO-K1 cells [Fung, P., et al. Assay Drug Devel. Technol. 2006, 4(3): 263–272]. 1536-well assay miniaturization included the elimination of a media aspiration step, and the optimized assay displayed a Z? of 0.55. qHTS yielded EC50 values for all 9,920 compounds and allowed us to retrospectively examine the dataset as a single concentration-based screen to estimate the number of false positives and negatives at typical activity thresholds. For example, at a 9 ?M screening concentration the assay showed an accuracy that is comparable to typical cell-based assays as judged by the occurrence of false positives that we determined to be 1.3% or 0.3%, for a 3? or 6? threshold, respectively. This corresponds to a confirmation rate of ~30% or ~50%, respectively. The assay was consistent with glucocorticoid pharmacology as scaffolds with close similarity to dexamethasone were identified as active, while, for example, steroids that act as ligands to other nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor were found to be inactive. PMID:18694391

Zhu, Ping Jun; Zheng, Wei; Auld, Douglas S.; Jadhav, Ajit; MacArthur, Ryan; Olson, Keith R.; Peng, Kun; Dotimas, Hyna; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James

2009-01-01

442

CRITICAL CURRENT AND JUNCTION BETWEEN PANCAKE STUDIES FOR HTS COIL DESIGN  

E-print Network

YBCO Coated Conductor (CC) are very attractive for very high magnetic field coil with lower cryogenics need. We study two major aspects of HTS coil building. First the results of critical current measurements on YBCO tape provided by SuperPower are presented for a large temperature range and in parallel magnetic field configuration. A model is also proposed to extrapolate those measurements at other temperatures and fields. Then we focus on the critical aspect of junctions between pancakes. Junctions in cylindrical configuration are studied using three different soldering materials. The results are promising for further coil building.

Le?crevisse, Y; Louchart, O; Rey, J-M; Tixador, P

2011-01-01

443

Critical Current and Junction Between Pancake Studies for HTS Coil Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YBCO Coated Conductor (CC) are very attractive for very high magnetic field coil with lower cryogenics need. We study two major aspects of HTS coil building. First the results of critical current measurements on YBCO tape provided by SuperPower are presented for a large temperature range and in parallel magnetic field configuration. A model is also proposed to extrapolate those measurements at other temperatures and fields. Then we focus on the critical aspect of junctions between pancakes. Junctions in cylindrical configuration are studied using three different soldering materials. The results are promising for further coil building.

Lécrevisse, T.; Gheller, J. M.; Louchart, O.; Rey, J. M.; Tixador, P.

444

Single-phase ac losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The authors report single-phase ac loss measurements on 8, 4, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. They use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in one-meter long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8 and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher--probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

Daney, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boenig, H.J.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G. [Pirelli Cavi SpA (Italy)

1998-12-01

445

Two Methods for a First Order Hardware Gradiometer Using Two HTS SQUID's  

SciTech Connect

Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. ''Analog'' gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Matlachov, A.

1998-09-15

446

Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

1998-12-31

447

Critical current density enhancement in rolled multifilament Bi-2223 HTS composites  

SciTech Connect

At 77 K and self-field, we report transport critical density (J{sub c}) of 58 kA/cm{sup 2} in rolled 19 and 85 filament Bi-2223 HTS tapes. For an 85-filament tape with transport J{sub c} of 50 kA/cm{sup 2}, transport J{sub c} of greater than 80 kA/cm{sup 2} electrical performance, increasing the number of the strong links between the 2223 colonies is believed to be the most important factor. Microstructure studies on these samples suggest that there is still great potential for further J{sub c} enhancement.

Li, Q.; Riley, G.N. Jr.; Parrella, R.D. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

448

Calculation of Heat Loads and Temperature Distribution for HTS Termination Current Lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current lead of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) cable termination has been designed based on simplified boundary conditions such as fixed temperature at both end and adiabatic/convection at the sidewall. However, in the real situation the current lead is enclosed with insulators and exposed to insulation oil and LN2. Therefore it is necessary to consider them for proper current lead design. In this paper, several important design parameters were chosen and their effects on the temperature distribution and heat loads on the current lead have been investigated.

Cho, S.; Sa, J. W.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, S. H.; Yang, H. S.

2004-06-01

449

Identification of a positively charged platform in Staphylococcus aureus HtsA that is essential for ferric staphyloferrin A transport.  

PubMed

In response to iron starvation, Staphylococcus aureus secretes both staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B, which are high-affinity iron-chelating molecules. The structures of both HtsA and SirA, the ferric-staphyloferrin A [Fe(III)-SA] and ferric-staphyloferrin B [Fe(III)-SB] receptors, respectively, have recently been determined. The structure of HtsA identifies a novel form of ligand entrapment composed of many positively charged residues. Through ionic interactions, the binding pocket appears highly adapted for the binding of the highly anionic siderophore SA. However, biological validation of the importance of the nine SA-interacting residues (six arginines, one tyrosine, one histidine, and one lysine) has not been previously performed. Here, we mutated each of the Fe(III)-SA-interacting residues in HtsA and found that substitutions R104A, R126A, H209A, R306A, and R306K resulted in a reduction of binding affinity of HtsA for Fe(III)-SA. While mutation of almost all proposed ligand-interacting residues decreased the ability of S. aureus cells to transport (55)Fe(III)-SA, S. aureus expressing HtsA R104A, R126A, R306A, and R306K showed the greatest transport defects and were incapable of growth in iron-restricted growth media in a SA-dependent manner. These three residues cluster together and, relative to other residues in the binding pocket, move very little between the apo and closed holo structures. Their essentiality for receptor function, together with structural information, suggests that they form a positively charged platform that is required for initial contact with the terminal carboxyl groups of the two citrates in the Fe(III)-SA complex. This is a likely mechanism by which HtsA discerns iron-bound SA from iron-free SA. PMID:25050909

Cooper, John D; Hannauer, Mélissa; Marolda, Cristina L; Briere, Lee-Ann K; Heinrichs, David E

2014-08-12

450

Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

1980-11-04

451

A Novel Electrical Insulating Material for 275 kV High-Voltage HTS Cable with Low Dielectric Loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables at high voltage operation, the electrical insulation technique in consideration of the dielectric loss reduction becomes crucial. In this paper, we focused on a Tyvek/polyethylene (PE) sheet, instead of the conventional polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). We obtained the dielectric characteristics (epsilonr, tan?) and partial discharge inception strength (PDIE) of PPLP, Tyvek and Tyvek/PE. We pointed out that the dielectric loss of 275 kV HTS cable with Tyvek/PE insulation will be reduced to 21 % of that with PPLP, and the total electrical loss including the AC loss will be reduced to 41 %.

Hayakawa, N.; Nishimachi, S.; Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Liu, J.; Yagi, M.

2014-05-01

452

A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization  

SciTech Connect

A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method of choice. We then give an overview of the measurement system showing how the vibrating wire is positioned onto the quadrupole axis, how the wire position detectors locate the wire relative to tooling balls without touching the wire, and how the tooling ball positions are all measured. The novel feature of this system is the vibrating wire which we discuss in depth. We analyze the wire dynamics and calculate the expected sensitivity of the system. The note should be an aid in debugging the system by providing calculations to compare measurements to.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

453

Wired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

Conklin, Aaron R.

1998-01-01

454

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

455

Effluent Based Characterization of Aerospace Wiring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a wire insulation characterization method under development, which identifies the relative molecular weight and binding energy of effluents given off during wire heating and is aimed at nondestructively assessing wire insulation degradation. An overview of how this technique can be used to monitor wire insulation emissions is presented. A series of measurements made on wire specimens (MIL-W-22759/11-20) with polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®) insulation is presented. A change of up to 55% in the emission concentration of a particular effluent was observed by repeated heating the wire specimens. Temperature measurements of the conductor and insulation were correlated to effluent emission concentrations. A basis for the changes in effluent concentration is also presented and leads to a determination of binding energies and associated time constants.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.

2004-02-01

456

Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

McDaniels, Steven J.

2005-01-01

457

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

2004-01-01

458

Early expansion in exploding multiple wire arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model is developed for the initial stage (blow-off and the onset of pinching) of a multiple exploded wire array. With obvious modifications the model can also be applied to single wires or other self-pinched plasma columns. Each wire in the array is modeled as a plasma cylinder undergoing self-similar radial motion, and the whole array is coupled self-consistently

H. W. Bloomberg; M. Lampe; D. G. Colombant

1980-01-01

459

Exploiting level sensitive latches in wire pipelining  

E-print Network

equally divided between the repeater and the wire. However, the wire delay degradation in a buffered interconnect, whose dimensions are shrunk every next technology node, during process scaling has led to shrinking of the optimal interval... interconnect delay allowed between two flip-flops is T -Tsetup - Tprop -Tskew. Hence, the minimal latency uv for flip-flop based pipelined wire (u,v) is give by: 1 -= skewpropsetup uv uv TTTT tl (1) When latches...

Seth, Vikram

2005-02-17

460

Quantifying Biomechanical Characteristics of Jumping Exercises in 1G and in Simulated and True Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise in microgravity is one of the most promising countermeasures to the dual problems of space flight-induced bone loss and muscle atrophy. Although exercise in microgravity has been studied extensively from a metabolic standpoint, little research has focused on the efficacy of different forms of exercise for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity. Exercise protocols have not been effective in preventing muscle atrophy and bone loss during space flight, especially in the lower extremities. In 1-G, however, animal experiments have clearly indicated that: (1) certain bone strains and strain rates do stimulate bone deposition, and (2) repetitive loading of the lower extremity can increase osteonal bone formation even as proximally as the vertebral column. Such studies have also indicated that a relatively small number of appropriate loading cycles may lead to bone deposition. This suggests that an optimal exercise regimen might be able to maintain bone and muscle integrity during space flight. Since there is evidence that the bones and muscles of the lower limbs are particularly affected by space flight, the present study addressed two major aims: (1) quantify externally applied impact loads and rates of loading under the feet during tethered jumping exercises, and (2) determine the amount of eccentric and concentric whole-muscle activity during these jumping exercises in true and in simulated zero-gravity.

Davis, B. L.; DAndrea, S. E.; Perusek, G.; Orlando, T.

1999-01-01

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