Sample records for 1g hts wire

  1. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  2. Reliable commercial HTS wire for power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellers, Jürgen; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2002-08-01

    The production of HTS wire for power applications is increasingly maturing into industrial dimensions. The most widely considered manufacturing method for this conductor is the BSCCO-2223-OPIT route, used internationally by many organizations, including American Superconductor. Significant advances in HTS wire technology have been made in the past years, with currently a guaranteed minimum critical current performance of 115 A at 77 K over commercial long length. For the HTS wire itself this is equivalent to an engineering current density of 13.5 kA/cm 2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity in its Westborough operations from 250 to 500 km/year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstration purposes. While this level of quality and quantity is sufficient to demonstrate technical feasibility and reliability of prototype power applications, it cannot satisfy fully commercial requirements for economic viability. To address broader markets with a commercially viable product, a price level of $50/(kA m) is possible with BSCCO-2223-OPIT when manufactured in much larger quantities. Therefore, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated solely to the manufacturing of BSCCO-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km/year. Key initial applications for this wire are power transmission cables, industrial motors and electrical generators. This paper will report on the performance and reliability testing of BSCCO-2223 wires. We will discuss the electrical, bending, tensile, and fatigue testing results of wires manufactured for applications such as American Superconductor's 5000 hp ultra-compact motor. Due to their compactness, these motors will be less expensive to manufacture compared with conventional motors and will be more energy efficient. We will also review the stringent electrical, mechanical, and environmental testing developed jointly by American Superconductor and Pirelli Cables and Systems for simulating the behavior of HTS wires under the actual operating conditions for an underground power cable. Also, we will give an update of the status of our new manufacturing plant which is planned to be operational in 2002.

  3. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  4. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  5. MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Fabricate Low-Cost Second Generation HTS Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA

    2007-01-01

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) of buffer layers on RABiTS substrates is considered a potential, low-cost approach to manufacturing high performance Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The typical architecture used by American Superconductor in their 2G HTS wire consists of a Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a reactively sputtered Y2O3 seed layer, YSZ barrier layer and a CeO2 cap layer. This architecture supports critical currents of over 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) with 0.8 mum YBCO films deposited by the TFA-MOD process. The main challenge in the development of the MOD buffers is to match or exceed the performance of the standard vacuum deposited buffer architecture. We have recently shown that the texture and properties of MOD - La2Zr2Ogamma (LZO) barrier layers can be improved by inserting a thin sputtered Y2O3 seed layer and prepared MOD deposited LZO layers followed by MOD or RF sputtered CeO2 cap layers that support MOD-YBCO films with Ic's of 200 and 255 A/cm-width, respectively. Detailed X-ray and microstructural characterizations indicated that MOD - CeO2 cap reacted completely with MOD YBCO to form BaCeOs. However, sputtered CeO2 cap/MOD YBCO interface remains clean. By further optimizing the coating conditions and reducing the heat-treatment temperatures, we have demonstrated an Ic of 336 A/cm with improved LZO layers and sputtered CeO2 cap and exceeded the performance of that of standard vacuum deposited buffers.

  6. V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.

    2003-05-25

    For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

  7. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Daugherty; J. Y. Coulter; W. L. Hults

    1996-01-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver\\/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold

  8. HTS high gradient magnetic separation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Daugherty; J. Y. Coulter; W. L. Hults; D. E. Daney; D. D. Hill; D. E. McMurry; M. C. Martinez; L. G. Phillips; J. O. Willis; H. J. Boenig; F. C. Prenger; A. J. Rodenbush; S. Young

    1997-01-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver\\/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold

  9. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

    1996-09-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

  10. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  11. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  12. Design of HTS Magnets for a 600 kJ SMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Seok Kim; Sang-Yeop Kwak; Ji-Kwang Lee; Kyeong-Dal Choi; Hyun-Kyo Jung; Ki-Chul Seong; Song-yop Hahn

    2006-01-01

    Development of a 600 kJ Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system is in progress by Korean Electric Research Institute (KERI). High-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are going to be used for the winding of the system. The design of the HTS windings for the system is presented in this paper. We considered BSCCO-2223 wire for the HTS windings. The operating temperature

  13. Design and PHILS-based Transient Analysis of a Tri-axial HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chang-Soon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Dinh, Minh-Chau; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin; Sim, Kideok

    Tri-axial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables are very efficient compared with other HTS power cables due to their reduced use of HTS wires and cryogenic surface area, resulting from the mutually layered structure of the three phases. However, the operating characteristics of tri-axial HTS power cables differ from other cables in a transient-state condition. In order to install HTS power cables in a real grid, feasibility verification through simulation or experimentation is required in advance. Thus, the authors design a tri-axial HTS power cable and implement a power hardware-in-the-loop simulation that consists of a real time digital simulator-based simulation model and hardware devices including a power supply and a 1 m-long tri-axial HTS model cable. Simulation results show the stability verification under steady-state and transient-state conditions.

  14. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  15. Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award

    E-print Network

    . · Awarded the Nano 50TM Award from Nanotech Briefs® Magazine for technology. Developers: · A. Goyal S. KangSuperconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award HTS Wires Enabled via 3D Self . · The technology meets performance requirements for most large-scale applications of HTS, including underground

  16. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  17. A compact HTS filter subsystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Murayama; Y. Maeda; Y. Hiratsuka; F. Imai; K. Y. Kang

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We describe a compact, long-life High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) filter subsystem for mobile telecommunication base stations. This system consists mainly of a HTS filter and a low-noise amplifier (LNA), which are cooled by a Stirling pulse tube type cryocooler. The cooler is compact and has a service life of more than 5 years, theoretically, because

  18. Highly miniature HTS microwave filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hieng Tiong Su; Frederick Huang; Michael J. Lancaster

    2001-01-01

    Two 3rd order HTS quasi-lumped-element Chebyshev bandpass filters were fabricated. The first uses very compact resonators consisting of interdigital capacitors and straight inductors. Currents in the capacitor fingers were included in the inductance evaluation, In the second filter, a meander-line inductor achieves further miniaturisation. Experimental results agree well with full wave simulations. Quasi-elliptic and group delay compensated filters using similar

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Current status of high-Tc wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vase, Per; Flükiger, René; Leghissa, Martino; Glowacki, Bartek

    2000-07-01

    This paper is the result of the work of a SCENET (The European Network for Superconductivity) material working group's efforts on giving values for present and future expected performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires and tapes. The purpose of the work is to give input to the design of HTS applications like power cables, motors, current leads, magnets, transformers and generators. The current status performance values are supposed to be used in the design of today's prototypes and the future values for the design of fully commercial HTS applications of the future. We focus on what is expected to be the relevant parameters for HTS application design. The most successful technique by far for making HTS tapes has been on the (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) material by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique and this paper therefore focuses on giving the current status and expected future performance for Bi-2223 tapes.

  20. Recovery Under Load Performance of 2nd Generation HTS Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan-Carlos H. Llambes; Drew W. Hazelton; Charles S. Weber

    2009-01-01

    Development of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) has been pursued for decades and has been limited thermally and\\/or mechanically by the available superconducting materials performance characteristics . However, within the past few years a newer, more robust type of superconductor known as 2G HTS wire, has become available in sufficient quantity and lengths for developers to build prototype devices and

  1. HTS coplanar meander-line resonator filters with a suppressed slot-line mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiafeng Zhou; Michael J. Lancaster; Frederick Huang

    2004-01-01

    The design and experimental results of a four-pole coplanar waveguide (CPW) quasi-elliptic filter using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) films are presented. Quarter-wavelength meander-line resonators are used in the filter topology. Although the resonators are aligned in two lines, no bond-wire bridges are required to balance the ground planes in the design and measurement. The slot-line mode of the filter was shifted

  2. Next generation of HTS magnetic application: HTS bulk and coil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.; Koenig, R.

    2014-05-01

    The next generation of HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) will operate at magnetic field excitation higher than permanent magnets (> 1.0 T). The new bearing type is capable to support heavy -load rotors of more than one ton mass. Using FEM we calculate the interaction of HTS bulk and 2G coil to achieve higher magnetic flux excitation and flux gradients of HTS bearings at temperatures of 50 - 60 K. The new total HTS bearing type multiplies the present 10 -15 N/cm2 force density obtained with PM's by a factor of 5 and passes the force properties of active magnetic bearings (AMB). HTS coil excitation is capable to increases the levitation forces to more than the present 10 kN level and reduces relative cooling and material effort per load. We design a magnetic bearing for HTS bulk -coil excitation.

  3. Electrical and Mechanical Characterizations of Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Fabian, Paul E [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Hooker, M W [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Lizotte, M J [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As HTS wire technology continues to advance, a critical need has emerged for dielectric materials that can be used in superconducting components such as terminations, fault current limiters, transformers, and motors. To address this need, CTD is developing nanocomposite insulations based on epoxy and benzoxazine chemistries. Depending on part geometry, some processing methods are more efficient than others. For this reason, CTD is investigating both fiber-reinforced and filled resin systems for use in these applications. A thorough set of electrical testing including AC breakdown, breakdown as a function of thickness, and flashover shows promising performance characteristics. In addition, mechanical testing (short beam shear and compression) indicate that these new materials to have as good or better performance than G10.

  4. Wire Maze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach Office,

    Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

  5. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  6. Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Hooker, M W [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Lizotte, M J [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology is rapidly developing for use in the areas of power generation and distribution. While significant progress has been made thus far in developing this technology, further effort is needed to improve the efficiency and cost of dielectric materials for use in these systems. These materials must be compatible with cryogenic operation, exhibit excellent dielectric properties at cryogenic temperatures, and provide a high level of reliability when in service. Moreover, the dielectric materials must be able to be produced into complex forms using cost-effective, industrially scalable processes. To improve upon current fiber-reinforced-polymer composite dielectric materials, the present study investigates the advantages of including nanomaterial reinforcement within the polymer resins. It was found that the nanomaterial additions did not greatly impact the polymer viscosity or increase the cure rate, which enables the nanomaterial-enhanced polymer to be used in fabricating fiber-reinforced composite dielectric materials. The nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials demonstrated greater than 60% higher AC dielectric breakdown strengths and improved consistency of performance compared to the current standard, G10. Similarly, shear and compression strengths of nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials compared well with those of G10.

  7. Cryogen-free lkA-class Ic measurement system featuring an 8 T HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, N. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Wimbush, S. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Huang, T.; Lazic, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Talantsev, E. F.; Long, N. J.; Tallon, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a cryogen-free critical-current (Ic) measuring system comprising a conduction-cooled 8 T HTS magnet and convection-cooled sample, both cooled by commercial cryocoolers. The sample can be rotated and transport currents of up to 800 A delivered with less than 0.5 K temperature rise during the Ic measurement. The system is automated with respect to variations in temperature (30-90 K), field (0-8 T), and field angle (0-360°). We have used this system to measure HTS wire samples, concentrating on metal-organic deposited YBCO on RABiTS substrates. Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of Ic anisotropy with temperature, and the dangers of extrapolating from 77 K to 30 K.

  8. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  9. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  10. A Unified and Automatic Approach Of Mandarin HTS System 

    E-print Network

    Guan, Yong; Tian, Jilei; Wu, Yi-Jian; Yamagishi, Junichi; Nurminen, Jani

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on Mandarin HTS (HMM-based text-to-speech system) have taken the initial/final as the basic acoustic units. It is, however, challenging to develop a multilingual HTS in a uniformed and consistent way since ...

  11. Practical neutral-axis conductor geometries for coated conductor composite wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Verebelyi; E. Harley; J. Scudiere; A. Otto; U. Schoop; C. Thieme; M. Rupich; A. Malozemoff

    2003-01-01

    To optimize mechanical properties, particularly under bending deformation, a composite laminated architecture is proposed for second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wire in which the superconductor layer is located at or near the neutral mechanical axis. 'Neutral-axis' conductors, each approximately 7 cm long, were fabricated by solder-laminating copper strip onto silver-coated HTS coated conductor strands. 'Neutral-axis' and non-laminated

  12. Wire Maze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute

    2013-01-01

    Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

  13. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  14. Centrifuge advances using HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Flögel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Riedel, T.

    2001-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings are of increasing technical interest. We performed experiments with centrifugal rotors to analyze gyroscopic forces in terms imbalance, rotor elasticity and damping. Centrifuge rotors need to be operated soft and stable without whirling the sediments. In order to evaluate optimal parameters critical and resonance behaviors are investigated. Eccentricities up 2 mm are safely passed by accelerating test wheels. In a simple model we describe the effect of passing critical rotational speeds. Measurements of bearing properties and wheel performance are presented. We have constructed a first prototype centrifuge designed with a HTS double bearing which operates a titanium rotor safely up to 30 000 rpm. A 15 W Stirling cooler serves cryogenics of the YBCO stators. From the experiments design guidelines for centrifugal applications with HTS bearings are given.

  15. Hts tape-based multi-line current lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, Michael; Delmas, Jean; Webber, Robert

    2012-06-01

    We report on an alternative approach to the fabrication of low heat leak high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads designed to supply low currents to devices mounted on cryocoolers operating at a typical temperature of 4K. With the aim of reducing the parasitic wiring heat loads to the coldest stage of a cryocooler, we start with a commercially available YBCO coated conductor; the main task is to pattern the tape into long, narrow lines that show a low thermal conduction in the temperature range from 4K to 50 K. A dicing machine was used to cut the tape to the appropriate geometry. Since the tape is coated with silver, a process involving electro-etching had to be developed to remove the silver coat, to minimize the total thermal conductance. The obtained leads exhibited a critical current lower than suggested by the bulk critical current, but in most cases it was still high enough for our targeted application. Given the thermal properties of the materials used, we have demonstrated low current leads (I ? 100 mA) with a calculated heat load that is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of optimized normal metal leads.

  16. Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Mulcahy; John R. Hull; Kenneth L. Uherka; Ralph C. Niemann; Robert G. Abboud; John P. Juna; John A. Lockwood

    1999-01-01

    High-temperature-superconducting (HTS) bearings have the potential to reduce rotor idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration, Toward this goal, we have developed and tested a flywheel system with 5- to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rim speeds exceeded 400 m\\/s, and stored energies were >80 Wh. Test implementation required technological advances

  17. Modeling the Behavior of HTS Terahertz RSQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Pegrum; John C. Macfarlane; Jia Du

    2011-01-01

    In previous work we looked in detail at simulations of our HTS Resistive DC SQUIDs (RSQUIDs) using a lumped-com- ponentmodelandneglectingstep-edgejunctioncapacitance.These can nowbemade withjunctions that haveahigh product of critical current and normal resistance and so the Josephson fre- quency can be above 1 THz. This calls for a more refined model of the device, which we will present here. The RSQUID

  18. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ?8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ?30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ?0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  19. An Hts Filter Subsystem for 800MHz Mobile Communication System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yin; B. Wei; B. S. Cao; X. B. Guo; X. P. Zhang; W. J. He; S. He; L. M. Gao; M. H. Zhu; B. X. Gao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Filter subsystem, which consists of a 14-pole HTS filter, a low noise amplifier (LNA), a Stirling Cooler and an electronic control system. The HTS filter has a 2.1% fractional bandwidth at 814MHz. It was fabricated on MgO substrate which was double sides coated with YBCO thin films. The insertion loss

  20. Fault current tests of a 5-m HTS cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Lue; G. C. Barber; J. A. Demko; M. J. Gouge; J. P. Stovall; R. L. Hughey; U. K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The first industrial demonstration of a three-phase, HTS power transmission cable at the Southwire manufacturing complex is in progress. One crucial issue during operation of the 30-m HTS cables is whether they can survive the fault current (which can be over an order of magnitude higher than the operating current) in the event of a short circuit fault and how

  1. Development and testing of HTS cables and terminations at ORNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gouge; J. A. Demko; P. W. Fisher; C. A. Foster; J. W. Lue; J. P. Stovall; U. Sinha; J. Armstrong; R. L. Hughey; D. Lindsay; J. Tolbert

    2001-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Southwire Company have used the ORNL 5 m cable test facility to develop high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and terminations to support the first industrial demonstration of an HTS cable at the Southwire manufacturing complex. Two 5 m, cold dielectric cables have been tested for direct current (DC) voltage, alternating current (AC) losses,

  2. Design and performance of a small HTS bulk reluctance motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Qiu; Z. Xu; Z. H. Yao; D. Xia; L. Z. Lin; G. M. Zhang; L. Xiao; H. T. Ren; Y. L. Jiao; M. H. Zheng

    2005-01-01

    HTS bulks can be used as flux-focusing elements in reluctance motors. As parts of the primary study, a small prototype reluctance motor was designed and constructed by using HTS YBCO bulks. The performance was analyzed based on magnetic field calculation. An experimental investigation was carried out on the prototype motor. Computed parameters are compared with test measurements, showing good agreement.

  3. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  4. Overview of wire bonding using copper wire or insulated wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. W. Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Wire bonding using copper or insulated wire leads to many advantages and new challenges. Research is intensively performed worldwide, leading to many new findings and solutions. This article reviews recent advances in wire bonding using copper wire or insulated wire for advanced microelectronics packaging. Journal articles, conference articles and patents published or issued recently are reviewed. The benefits and problems\\/challenges

  5. Stretching Wires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

    2013-01-04

    In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

  6. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  7. Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

  8. Performance of a 1MVA HTS demonstration transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Schwenerly; B. W. McConnell; J. A. Demko; A. Fadnek; J. Hsu; F. A. List; M. S. Walker; D. W. Hazelton; F. S. Murray; J. A. Rice; C. M. Trautwein; X. Shi; R. A. Farrell; J. Bascuhan; R. E. Hintz; S. P. Mehta; N. Aversa; J. A. Ebert; B. A. Bednar; D. J. Neder; A. A. McIlheran; P. C. Michel; J. J. Nemce; E. F. Pleva; A. C. Swenton; W. Swets; R. C. Longsworth; R. C. Johsnon; R. H. Jones; J. K. Nelson; R. C. Degeneff; S. J. Salon

    1999-01-01

    We report on test results for a single phase, 60-Hz, 13.8 kV\\/6.9 kV, 1-MVA high temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer which was completed in February, 1998. This transformer models in many ways a full scale section of a 30-MVA HTS commercial transformer design. The transformer windings are cryocooled in the range of 25 K and are made with a low-cost, surface-coated

  9. Practical neutral-axis conductor geometries for coated conductor composite wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebelyi, D.; Harley, E.; Scudiere, J.; Otto, A.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Rupich, M.; Malozemoff, A.

    2003-10-01

    To optimize mechanical properties, particularly under bending deformation, a composite laminated architecture is proposed for second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wire in which the superconductor layer is located at or near the neutral mechanical axis. 'Neutral-axis' conductors, each approximately 7 cm long, were fabricated by solder-laminating copper strip onto silver-coated HTS coated conductor strands. 'Neutral-axis' and non-laminated samples were bend/reverse-bend tested on mandrels of successively smaller diameters while measuring critical current after each reduction in mandrel size. The 'neutral-axis' samples showed significantly improved Ic retention compared to the non-laminated strands.

  10. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  11. Effect of the axial stress and the magnetic field on the critical current and the electric resistance of the joints between HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Sarazin, M.; Granados, X.; Y Pastor, J.; Obradors, X.

    2015-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires require a detailed characterization of the possible degradation of their properties by handling at room temperature as well as during their service life, establishing the limits for associated functional devices and systems. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of spliced joints between commercial HTS coated conductors based on YBCO at room (300 K) and service temperatures (77 K). Single lap shear tests were performed and the evolution of the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were measured. The complete strain field for the tape and joints was also obtained by digital image correlation. In addition, tensile tests under an external magnetic field were performed, and the effect of the applied field on the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were studied. Finally, finite element simulations were employed to reproduce the distribution of the stress field developed in the spliced joint samples during axial loading.

  12. Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Knoll, David [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture] [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture

    2010-01-01

    Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

  13. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  14. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  15. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dr. Hosup [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute; Oh, Sang-Soo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute; Ha, HS [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute; Youm, D [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute; Moon, SH [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute; Kim, JH [University of Wollongong, Australia; Heo, YU [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Dou, SX [University of Wollongong, Australia; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 m thick SmBa2Cu3O7- (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1000 A/cm for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor.

  16. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 ?m thick SmBa2Cu3O7 - ? (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor.

  17. Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs.

  18. HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Carte; Chang-Diaz; J. P. F. R. Squire; S. W. Schwenterly

    1999-01-01

    Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable

  19. A fully portable, cryocooler-based HTS SQUID NDE instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Carr; J. C. Macfarlane; G. B. Donaldson

    2003-01-01

    We have recently introduced a novel cryocooler-based HTS SQUID NDE instrument. The system incorporates a closed-cycle cooler that is connected to the inner and outer copper thermal batteries which then allows simultaneous cooling of both masses. Once the inner has been cooled to a temperature of approximately 40 K and the outer to a slightly higher temperature of around 70

  20. Polycrystalline HTS material for bearings and electric power devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. Werfel; U. Flögel-Delor; R. Rothfeld; D. Wippich; T. Riedel

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the material strategies to fabricate bulk high temperature superconductors larger than 10 cm has a significant influence on the performance and reliability of HTS components. The paper considers the various techniques in which magnetic bearings and local current transport devices (current leads and fault current limiters) may be provided: improvement in materials and design. Among bulk growth

  1. Recent activities for applications to HTS transformers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, K.; Iwakuma, M.

    2000-01-01

    Domestic and international cooperative projects for applications of high-Tc superconducting (HTS) transformers have started in parallel over the world, taking into account the advantageous performances and merits. The applicability of high-Tc superconductors to ac uses in the region of liquid nitrogen temperature is considered in relation to the practical critical surface for temperature and magnetic field. Recent activities for the applications of HTS transformers in Japan are briefly summarized. The first topics are the developments of a 800 kV A laboratory-test device cooled by subcooled liquid nitrogen and the research and development of a high-voltage-type device to be tested in a power grid and the second topic is a conceptual design study of 20 MV A class practical devices in underground distribution substations. These activities in Japan are compared with other progressing plans in the world. Finally, it is pointed out that the projects to develop the prototypes of HTS transformers are relevant to economic strategy for prior investment in future worldwide HTS industries.

  2. Processing, fabrication, and demonstration of HTS integrated microwave circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Wagner

    1992-01-01

    These tasks are essentially complete as reported last time, but we are continuing to monitor the progress in other technologies and the evolving subsystems requirements as they relate to the HTS components development. The packaging and characterization work reported here is related to progress made in the parallel High-Temperature Superconducting Space Environment-2 (HTSSE-2) program. We have used the filters and

  3. Medicinal chemistry tools: making sense of HTS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgueni Kolossov; Andrew Lemon

    2006-01-01

    The main problem in QSAR modeling from the high throughput screening (HTS) data is that by definition, it produces only a small proportion of hits against a given assay. This leads to a very small statistical significance of the hits in comparison with the “noise”. Analysis based purely on the “hit” compounds removes useful information about the biological response of

  4. Enhanced HTS hit selection via a local hit rate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Posner; Hualin Xi; James E. J. Mills

    2009-01-01

    The postprocessing of high-throughput screening (HTS) results is complicated by the occurrence of false positives (inactive compounds misidentified as active by the primary screen) and false negatives (active compounds misidentified as inactive by the primary screen). An activity cutoff is frequently used to select \\

  5. The characteristics of trapped magnetic flux inside bulk HTS in the Mixed-? levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, M.; Ueno, T.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.; Higuchi, T.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we propose a new experimental method to investigate the principle of ‘Mixed-?’ levitation systems. To confirm our claim, we measured the attractive force and the variation of flux passing through both, the HTS sample and the face surface of iron yoke, when the yoke is approached/retreated to the surface of field-cooled HTS sample. It is revealed that when the diameter of the yoke is less than the diameter of the HTS, in the small gap by reducing the gap, the flux which passes through the face surface of the yoke and consequently the attractive force will decrease. Therefore, stable levitation is achievable. However, when the diameter of yoke is equal to the diameter of the HTS, the magnetic flux will not decrease for a reducing gap and stable levitation is unfeasible. Briefly, stable levitation is achievable when the yoke diameter is less than the HTS’s diameter. Additionally, as the yoke is approached to the HTS the flux variation of the HTS in 77 K is negligible compare to the flux variation of the HTS in the room temperature. Therefore, in superconductivity state the pinned fluxes in the HTS samples remain approximately constant and the HTS acts as a ‘magnetic isolator’. This specification can be used to simulate the behavior of field-cooled HTS by the FEM software.

  6. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  7. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  8. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  9. Characteristics of HTS tube depending on heat-treatment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Min; Jang, Gun-Eik

    2001-03-01

    Bi-2212 HTS tube was fabricated by centrifugal forming process (CFP). As a variation of melt casting process (MCP) or centrifugal casting technique, the CFP is a flexible method for manufacturing Bi-2212 bulk tubes and has been optimized to achieve smooth surface and uniform thickness. At this process, the slurry was prepared in the mixing ratio of 10:1 of Bi-2212 powder and binder. It was initially charged into the rotating mold at the speed of 300-450 rpm. Heat-treatment was performed at the temperature range 870-890°C in air for partial melting. The HTS tube fabricated by CFP at 890°C at the rotating speed of 450 rpm was highly densified and the plate-like grains with more than 20 ?m in diameter were well developed along the rotating axis. The measured Tc and Jc at 10 K were around 85 K and 3000 A/cm 2, respectively.

  10. New Hits as Antagonists of GPR103 Identified by HTS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical data indicate that GPR103 receptor and its endogenous neuropeptides QRFP26 and QRFP43 are involved in appetite regulation. A high throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule GPR103 antagonists was performed with the clinical goal to target weight management by modulation of appetite. A high hit rate from the HTS and initial low confirmation with respect to functional versus affinity data challenged us to revise the established screening cascade. To secure high quality data while increasing throughput, the binding assay was optimized on quality to run at single concentration. This strategy enabled evaluation of a larger fraction of chemical clusters and singletons delivering 17 new compound classes for GPR103 antagonism. Representative compounds from three clusters are presented. One of the identified clusters was further investigated, and an initial structure–activity relationship study is reported. The most potent compound identified had a pIC50 of 7.9 with an improved ligand lipophilic efficiency. PMID:24900874

  11. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avrin, W.F. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  12. High-power HTS microstrip filters for wireless communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Chun Liang; Dawei Zhang; Chien-Fu Shih; M. E. Johansson; R. S. Withers; D. E. Oates; A. C. Anderson; P. Polakos; P. Mankiewich; E. de Obaldia; R. E. Miller

    1995-01-01

    The performance of narrowband microstrip filters with low insertion loss and high power-handling capabilities made from YBa2 Cu3O7-? (YBCO) high-temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films is presented. Results are shown for two different designs that were chosen to optimize the power-handling capability. Both filters have a 2-GHz center frequency and 5 poles that incorporate coupled resonators with 10-? internal impedances. They

  13. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Chen, William T.; Du Yong [Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc., 1255 E Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

  14. Electromechanical characterization of superconducting wires and tapes at 77 K

    E-print Network

    Bjoerstad, Roger

    The strain dependency of the critical current in state-of-the-art cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has been characterized. A universal test machine (UTM) combined with a critical current measurement system has been used to characterize the mechanical and the superconducting properties of conductors immersed in an open liquid nitrogen dewar. A set-up has been developed in order to perform simultaneous measurements of the superconductor lattice parameter changes, critical current, as well as the stress and strain at 77 K in self-field in a high energy synchrotron beamline. The HTS tapes and wires studied were based on YBCO, Bi-2223 and Bi-2212. The YBCO tapes were produced by SuperPower and American Superconductors (AMSC). Two types of Bi-2223 tapes, HT and G, were produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). The Bi-2212 wires were produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) using Nexans granulate precursor, before undergoing a specialized over pressure (OP) processing and heat treatmen...

  15. HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

  16. Testing of an HTS Power Cable Made from YBCO Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed, built, and tested a 1.25-m-long, prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable made from second-generation YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO)-coated conductor tapes. Electrical tests of this cable were performed in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. DC testing of the HTS cable included determination of the V-I curve with a critical current of about 2100 A, which was consistent with the critical currents of the two layers of 4.4-mm wide YBCO tapes. AC testing of the cable was conducted at currents up to about 1500 Arms. The ac losses were determined calorimetrically by measuring the response of a calibrated temperature sensor placed on the former and electrically by use of a Rogowski coil with a lock-in amplifier. Over-current testing was conducted at peak current values up to 4.9 kA for pulse lengths of 0.3-0.5 s. Test results are compared to earlier data from a 1.25-m-long power cable made from 1-cm-wide YBCO tapes and also comparable BSCCO cables. This commercial-grade HTS cable demonstrated the feasibility of second-generation YBCO tapes in an ac cable application.

  17. Improvement of magnetic circuit in levitation system using HTS and soft magnetic material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Ghodsi; Toshiyuki Ueno; Toshiro Higuchi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents improvement of a novel levitation system in which soft magnetic material can be levitated by high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The levitation system consists of two permanent magnets, HTS samples of Dy1Ba2Cu3Oy (DBCO), and movable yoke with cylindrical parts to which trapped flux in the HTS is gathered and produces an attractive force. The attractive force generally increases with

  18. Safety Research of the 68 kA Trial-HTS Current Lead for ITER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ding; Y. Bi; J. Yu; T. Zhou; C. Liu; X. Lin; G. Shen; Y. Song

    2010-01-01

    A 68 kA trial-high temperature superconducting current lead for the ITER magnet coil had been developed and tested in parallel with a 52 kA HTS trial lead at ASIPP in Dec. 2008. In order to verify the safety and reliability of HTS section of HTS trial lead, three sub size samples cooled with a GM cooler have been fabricated and

  19. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  20. An LTS\\/HTS NMR Magnet Operated in the Range 600–700 MHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Bascunan; Wooseok Kim; Seungyong Hahn; Emanuel S. Bobrov; Haigun Lee; Yukikazu Iwasa

    2007-01-01

    As part of our 3-phase program to develop a high resolution 1 GHz LTS\\/HTS NMR magnet, a system composed of a 600 MHz LTS background NMR magnet and an HTS insert operating in the range 75 to 100 MHz has been built and tested. Operated at 4.2 K, immersed in a bath of liquid helium, the Phase 2 LTS\\/HTS magnet,

  1. First Experiment on Levitation and Plasma With HTS Magnet in the RT1 Plasma Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taizo Tosaka; Yasumi Ohtani; Michitaka Ono; Toru Kuriyama; Shoichi Mizumaki; Masanao Shibui; Kazunari Nakamoto; Nobuo Tachikawa; Junji Morikawa; Yuichi Ogawa; Zensho Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    The high temperature superconducting (HTS) floating magnet of the ring trap 1 (RT-1) reached the first experiment on levitation and plasma. The magnet using an HTS coil was levitated stably by levitation coil, and plasma was produced around the ring-shaped HTS magnet by electron cyclotron heating with 8.2 GHz microwave. This novel plasma device was constructed at the University of

  2. Present status and future trends of R&D for HTS rotational machines in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami

    2014-09-01

    Various HTS rotating machines, from multiple MW class to several 10 kW class, are being developed in Japan. R&D statuses of those machines are reviewed. Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators are also conducted in Japan and their merits and demerits are discussed. Based on the present R&D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed.

  3. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  4. The future of wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ho; K. W. Mai; M. A. Horowitz

    1991-01-01

    Concern about the performance of wires in scaled technologies has led to research exploring other communication methods. This paper examines wire and gate delays as technologies migrate from 0.18-m to 0.035-m feature sizes to better understand the magni-tude of the wiring problem. Wires that shorten in length as technolo-gies scale have delays that either track gate delays or grow slowly

  5. TEST RESULTS OF HTS COILS AND AN R AND D MAGNET FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA, R.; ANERELLA, M.; HARRISON, M.; SCHMALZLE, J.; SAMPSON, W.; ZELLER, A.

    2005-05-16

    This paper presents the successful construction and test results of a magnetic mirror model for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) that is based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition, the performance of thirteen coils (each made with {approx}220 meters of commercially available HTS tape) is also presented. The proposed HTS magnet is a crucial part of the R&D for the Fragment Separator region where the magnets are subjected to several orders of magnitude more radiation and energy deposition than typical beam line and accelerator magnets receive during their entire lifetime. A preliminary design of an HTS dipole magnet for the Fragment Separator region is also presented.

  6. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  7. Performance of hybrid HTS filter\\/GaAs low noise amplifier and microwave characterization of YBCO HTS resonators on R-plane sapphire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Toncich; F. A. Miranda; K. B. Bhasin; T. J. Kascak

    1993-01-01

    Research efforts are underway at NASA-Lewis in High-Transition-Temperature-Superconductor (HTS) system level design and development as well as in new materials. For the first time, YBa2Cu3O7-¿ (YBCO) and Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox (TBCCO) double-sided HTS filter\\/GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) hybrid circuits have been realized. The HTS\\/GaAs hybrid circuit exhibited higher gain and lower noise figures than gold filter\\/GaAs LNA circuits. X-band microstrip linear

  8. Numerical and experimental correlation of high temperature reliability of gold wire bonding to intermetallics (Au\\/Al) uniformity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueren Zhang; Tong Yan Tee

    2006-01-01

    A study of the Au\\/Al intermetallics compound (IMC) in gold wire bonds on aluminum pads is presented. A test vehicle has been deliberately built for high temperature storage (HTS) test. There are two kinds of samples, i.e., one is with uniform intermetallics in the ball bond at time zero, and another one is with non-uniform intermetallics. It is found that

  9. Thermal and electrical stabilities of solid nitrogen (SN2) cooled YBCO coated conductors for HTS magnet applications

    E-print Network

    Song, J. B.

    Recently, a cooling system using a solid cryogen such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was introduced for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet applications. In order to apply the SN2 cooling system successfully to HTS ...

  10. A novel real-time simulation method of the utility power network including the HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Kim, A. R.; Cho, J.; Sim, K. D.; Yu, I. K.

    2007-10-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable, characterized by its large transmission capacity in compact dimension, small transmission loss, no leakage of electro-magnetic field to the outside of the cable and small impedance. HTS technology can be useful to overcome this program. Recently, according to the advanced HTS technology, the power application is being researched well. However, several kinds of simulation, which analyze the transient phenomena of HTS power cable itself, are basically required before installation according as the impedance level of HTS power cable is dramatically changed in case of quench at fault condition. In this paper, the authors propose RTDS simulation method, which puts a real miniaturized HTS power cable into the imaginary utility power grid system simulated in RTDS. For the simulation analysis, the miniaturized HTS power cable was actually manufactured, and the transient phenomenon of the miniaturized HTS power cable model core was analyzed in the simulated utility power grid.

  11. Study of HTS Bulk Current Lead With Metal Alloy Impregnation Under Vacuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tsuzuki; D. Sugyo; Y. Kimura; M. Izumi; N. Sakai; M. Miki; H. Hayakawa

    2009-01-01

    The high-temperature superconductor (HTS) bulk current lead (BCL) is a crucial device for a large number of current applications such as the propulsion motor with HTS winding. The coexistence of low thermal conductivity and superconductivity enables us to shrink the dimension of the power system. To use the BCL effectively, we have to optimize the temperature gradient across the BCL

  12. Characteristic test of HTS pancake coil modules for small-sized SMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Hoon Kim; Woo-Seok Kim; Song-Yop Hahn; Jae Moon Lee; Myung Hwan Rue; Bo Hyung Cho; Chang Hwan Im; Hyun Kyo Jung

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 16 HTS pancake coil modules made with 32 double pancake coils were designed, analyzed, built, assembled, and tested to show feasibility of small sized HTS SMES (?-SMES). Rated current is 200 A and operating temperature is 20 ? 30 K. Evolution strategy was used for coil optimization and FEM was used for magnetic field calculation. After building

  13. Design and fabrication of an HTS magnet for the VASIMR experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Rey; F. R. Chang-Diaz; A. V. Ilin; A. J. Petro; D. S. Winter; H. Mukai; S. W. Schwenterly

    2002-01-01

    An International Team consisting of DuPont Superconductivity, Oak Ridge National Lab, the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has designed and fabricated a conduction-cooled High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coil for use in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The HTS coil will be installed and tested in the ongoing VASIMR experiment at the Advanced Space Propulsion

  14. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

  15. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  16. Restoration and testing of an HTS fault current controller

    SciTech Connect

    Waynert, J. A. (Joseph A.); Boenig, H. (Heinrich E.); Mielke, C. H. (Charles H.); Willis, J. O. (Jeffrey O.); Burley, B. L. (Burt L.)

    2002-01-01

    A three-phase, 1200 A, 12.5 kV fault current controller using three HTS 4 mH coils, was built by industry and tested in 1999 at the Center Substation of Southern California Edison in Norwalk, CA. During the testing, it appeared that each of the three single-phase units had experienced a voltage breakdown, one externally and two internally. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was asked by DOE to restore the operation of the fault current controller provided the HTS coils had not been damaged during the initial substation tests. When the internally-failed coil vacuum vessels were opened it became evident that in these two vessels, a flashover had occurred at the high voltage bus section leading to the terminals of the superconducting coil. An investigation into the failure mechanism resulted in six possible causes for the flashover. Based on these causes, the high voltage bus was completely redesigned. Single-phase tests were successfully performed on the modified unit at a 13.7 kV LANL substation. This paper presents the postulated voltage flashover failure mechanisms, the new high voltage bus design which mitigates the failure mechanisms, the sequence of tests used to validate the new design, and finally, the results of variable load and short-circuit tests with the single-phase unit operating on the LANL 13.7 kV substation.

  17. New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Takaike, A.; Hirokawa, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted, but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo-compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also, a heat-exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K, and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

  18. Comparative study of behavioural tests in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    OLIVÁN, Sara; CALVO, Ana Cristina; RANDO, Amaya; MUÑOZ, María Jesús; ZARAGOZA, Pilar; OSTA, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In preclinical trials, a sensitive functional test is required to detect changes in the motor behaviour of the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated changes in body weight and motor impairment in behavioural tests, such as the rotarod, the hanging-wire test and the treadmill, of transgenic and wild type mice. We found differences in detection of the onset of symptoms and progression of the disease between the different tests assessed. Moreover, the data showed significant gender differences in the motor behaviour of this mouse model. The rotarod and the hanging-wire test were more sensitive to detect early motor impairment. Moreover, the results suggested that the rotarod and hanging-wire became the most accurate tests rather than treadmill to characterise the ALS disease phenotype. PMID:25736480

  19. Novel concept for a space power distribution busbar using HTS materials and passive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimko, Martin A.; Crowley, Christopher J.; Wallis, Peter N.

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents the performance, defines the range of applications, and shows the feasibility of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials with passive heat rejection for space power transmission. A conceptual design for the busbar is presented, and mass and resistive energy losses are estimated for various missions, power levels, and current types (AC and DC). All applications display a large increase in power transmission efficiency, while mass comparisons show the passively cooled HTS busbar mass ranges from 12% of the mass of a copper busbar at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and beyond, to 38% at a 1000 km earth orbit (LEO). The design of the HTS conductor is novel, consisting of interleaved HTS strip conductors (HTS plus substrate) separated by dielectric insulating material. Appropriate HTS materials are presently available in long length (?100 m) with current densities (?1000 amp/cm2) and critical temperatures (95 K) which make the passively cooled busbar feasible. An original numerical model for the conductor/radiator assembly is described which includes the effects of solar insolation, reflected and IR thermal loads from the earth, and internally generated losses in the HTS. Completely passive operation at low earth orbits (LEO) of 1000 km is enabled by a novel asymmetric design for a directional radiator that includes a unique back-to-back busbar configuration that does not require active pointing. The design includes copper conductor downleads employing the same passive cooling scheme.

  20. Experimental Studies on Cryogenic System for 22.9 KV Hts Cable Sytem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Hwang, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    In terms of high transmission capacity with lower voltage, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system is a very attractive challenge for utilities. However, the concomitant cryogenic system for the HTS cable system is one of the tantalizing problems in the operation. The reliability and maintainability of cryogenic system are the key issues to apply it to the real electric power grid. Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is making an attempt to verify the applicability of the HTS cable system to improve the efficiency of electric power industry. Since May 2006, a 22.9-kV, 50-MVA, 3-phase, 100-m class HTS cable system with an open cooling system has been operated at the KEPCO Gochang test yard. Concurrently, another HTS cable verification test with the same electrical specification and an hybrid cooling system has been carried out by LS Cable (LSC) Ltd in close proximity to the KEPCO's HTS cable system within Gochang test yard. KEPCO conducts the operation of the open cooling system, and is evaluating the hybrid system of LSC with respect to facility performance and usability. This paper compares the cryogenic performance of both HTS cable systems and discusses cooling test results such as step response.

  1. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  2. PBGA wire bonding development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Shu

    1996-01-01

    In a PBGA package, the existence of a glass transition temperature of 170~215°C for PCB substrate puts an upper ceiling to the usable wire bond temperature. The low thermal conductivity of PCB substrate and the need for a thicker material make fine pad pitch wire bonding even more difficult to do. To compensate for the limitation in thermal energy, high

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  4. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  5. Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2011-03-28

    This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003 Mineral...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003 Mineral...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802 Mineral...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802 Mineral...

  10. Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

  11. Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

    2013-07-01

    Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

  12. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  13. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  14. Microstructural and superconducting properties of high current metal-organic chemical vapor deposition YBa2Cu3O7-delta coated conductor wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Holesinger; B. Maiorov; O. Ugurlu; L. Civale; Y. Chen; X. Xiong; Y. Xie; V. Selvamanickam

    2009-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on flexible, ion beam assisted deposition MgO templates has been used to produce high critical current density (Jc) (Y,Sm)1Ba2Cu3Oy (REBCO) films suitable for use in producing practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wires. Thick films on tape were produced with sequential additions of 0.7 µm of REBCO via a reel-to-reel progression through a custom-designed

  15. Investigation of DC current injection effect on the microwave characteristics of HTS YBCO microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Mateev, E.; Neshkov, L.; Strbik, V.; Uspenskaya, L.; Nedkov, I.; Chromik, Š.

    2014-03-01

    The DC current injection effect from a ferromagnetic (FM) La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin film was investigated by the microwave surface impedance measurements in a FM/HTS structure, formed as a microstrip resonator for improving the sensitivity of the experiments. The quality factor and the resonance frequency of this structure were found to strongly depend on the current strength, injected from the LSMO electrode into the HTS microstrip electrode. The magnetic penetration depth and the quasiparticle conductivity of the HTS component were determined to increase under DC current injection process, which in all probability stimulated breaking of Cooper pairs and led to a decrease of the superfluid concentration and an increase of the normal fluid concentration without significantly affecting the relaxation time of the quasiparticles.

  16. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  17. Advanced copper wire bonding technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Meng Ho

    2010-01-01

    Wire bonding is the most dominant form of first-level chip interconnects in microelectronics with gold wire bonding taking the lead for the past few decades. Today, it is evident that the shift from gold to copper wire bonding is genuinely picking up, due to both a surge in gold prices and recent developments in copper wire bonding technology. The course

  18. A Novel HTS PM Vernier Motor for Direct-Drive Propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangui Li; K. T. Chau

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel high-temperature supercon- ductor (HTS) permanent magnet (PM) vernier motor is proposed for direct-drive propulsion, which can directly offer the low-speed high-torque capability and the high-speed rotating field design to eliminate the gearing mechanism and maximize the power density, respectively. The key is to newly introduce HTS bulks to flux-modulation poles that can effectively modulate between

  19. A micro HTS renewable energy\\/attitude control system for micro\\/nano satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunjeong Lee

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an energy storage and attitude control system for micro-electromechanical systems in spacecraft using a high-temperature superconductor-magnet bearing system. This system consists of an HTS-magnet flywheel energy storage system and a brushless motor\\/generator. The HTS flywheel, which permits high angular momentum storage since its drag torque is nearly velocity-independent and extremely small, facilitates high-speed rotation. It can also

  20. Development of CAD tool for a design of microwave planar HTS filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina B. Vendik; Orest G. Vendik; Anatoli N. Deleniv; Vassili V. Kondratiev; Maria N. Goubina; Dmitri V. Kholodniak

    2000-01-01

    Accurate design of microwave planar high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters is obtained using a computer-aided design tool, which provides simulation of characteristics of the multicoupled transmission-line structures. The quasi-static spectral-domain method is applied. In order to achieve a good correspondence between measured and simulated filter performance, correct models of the microwave propagation characteristics of HTS planar transmission lines have to be

  1. Demonstration and verification tests of 500 m long HTS power cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takahashi; H. Suzuki; M. Ichikawa; T. Okamoto; S. Akita; S. Mukoyama; N. Ishii; A. Kimura; K. Yasuda

    2005-01-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable is considered as one of the next-generation power transmission technologies. The introduction of HTS cables into the actual power grid requires a long-distance cooling tube, due to the location of the cooling stations at intervals of several kilometers along the cable length. Therefore, it is essential to understand the flow property of the

  2. Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN 2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

  3. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  10. Pitfalls and solutions of replacing gold wire with palladium coated copper wire in IC wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei-Jun Tang; Hong-Meng Ho; Wei Koh; Yue-Jia Zhang; Kay-Soon Goh; Chun-Shu Huang; Yung-Tsan Yu

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in copper wire bonding for IC interconnection due to the cost savings and better material properties. Recently, palladium-coated copper (Pd-Cu) wire has emerged as the preferred choice over bare Cu wire in fine wire diameter applications, especially with BGA packages. The application of Pd-Cu wire is a solution to prevent copper oxidation during the bonding

  11. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  12. Dielectric coated wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Newman, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrically thin dielectric insulating shell on an antenna composed of electrically thin circular cylindrical wires is examined. A moment method solution is obtained, and the insulating shell is modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents. These polarization currents are related in a simple manner to the surface charge density on the wire antenna. In this way the insulating shell causes no new unknowns to be introduced, and the size of the impedance matrix is the same as for the uninsulated wires. The insulation is accounted for entirely through a modification of the symmetric impedance matrix. This modification influences the current distribution, impedance, efficiency, field patterns, and scattering properties. The theory is compared with measurement for dielectric coated antennas in air.

  13. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  14. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  15. Engineering Nanocolumnar Defect Configurations for Optimized Vortex Pinning in High Temperature Superconducting Nanocomposite Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Ahuja, Raj [Waukesha Electric Systems Inc.; Abiade, J. [North Carolina A& T State University

    2013-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS), coated conductor wires based on nanocomposite films containing self-assembled, insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumnar defects have previously been reported to exhibit enhanced vortex pinning. Here, we report on microstructural design via control of BZO nanocolumns density in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO)+BZO nancomposite films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc(H, ,T). X-ray diffraction and microstructural examination shows increasing number density of epitaxial BZO nanocolumns in the highly cube-textured YBCO matrix with increasing nominal BZO additions. Transport property measurement reveals that an increase in BZO content upto 4 vol% is required to sustain the highest pinning and Jc performance as the magnetic field increases. By growing thicker, single-layer nanocomposite films (~4 m) with controlled density of BZO columnar defects, the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A/cm at 77 K, self-field and the minimum Ic of 455 A/cm at 65 K and 3 T for all magnetic field orientations were obtained. This is the highest Ic reported to date for films on metallic templates which are the basis for the 2nd generation, coated conductor-based HTS wires.

  16. Wire bonding with Pd-coated copper wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Clauberg; Bob Chylak; Nelson Wong; Johnny Yeung; Eugen Milke

    2010-01-01

    The last three years have seen an aggressive implementation of fine-pitch copper wire bonding in face of ever-increasing gold prices. Numerous technical hurdles associated with copper wire bonding have mostly been overcome. However, achieving process robustness equivalent to gold wire bonding is still challenging and requires enhanced manufacturing control procedures. Although the 2nd bond in copper wire bonding is generally

  17. Severe migratory polyarthritis following in vivo CAMPATH-1G.

    PubMed

    Varadi, G; Or, R; Rund, D; Orbach, H; Slavin, S; Nagler, A

    1995-12-01

    CAMPATH-1G is an IgG2b rat antihuman (CDw52) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) which is currently being used for T cell depletion in the setting of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In addition it elicits substantial lymphoid depletion, an effect which is being explored for remission induction in patients with lymphoid malignancies and for treating patients with various autoimmune disorders, in particular rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, in vivo CAMPATH-1G has been introduced to achieve increased immunosuppression in the pretransplant conditioning, for prevention of graft rejection following T cell depleted BMT. Here we describe a patient with T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma who received in vivo CAMPATH-1G as part of the pretransplant conditioning regimen and who, 6 days after the first dose, developed severe migratory polyarthritis. This is the first report of severe migratory polyarthritis as a very unusual complication following CAMPATH-1G MoAb administration. PMID:8750280

  18. OrchidWire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kozak, Theresa

    Created by orchid enthusiasts Wendell and Theresa Kozak of Vancouver Island, Canada, OrchidWire website is a great resource for anyone interested in orchids. This site is an online orchid resource directory with links to 3911 images and 1184 sites in 51 countries. Site visitors can peruse orchid resources by using an alphabetical appendix or by selecting from different categories like Wild, Culture, Geographic, Genera, and many more. Specific orchid listings or images can be located by using the site search engine. Site users can also submit suggestions for addition to the OrchidWire database.

  19. HTS magnets: stability; protection; cryogenics; economics; current stability/protection activities at FBML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2003-03-01

    The unique features that distinguish a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet from a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet are: (1) operating temperature and (2) temperature span over which the magnet remains superconducting. Thus, for two magnets, one HTS and the other LTS, both satisfying the same set of field specifications, the operating temperature and the operating range of temperature of the HTS magnet are generally an order of magnitude greater than that of the LTS magnet. In this CHATS 2002 Workshop, four issues, i.e., stability, protection, cryogenics, and economic issues will be examined as they are impacted by the two unique features, first as a general introduction to this presentation, between HTS and LTS magnets. This is followed by discussion of economics of large-scale HTS devices, specifically of fusion; electric power devices; high-energy physics; research-purpose NMR; and high- B DC magnets. The paper concludes with a presentation of preliminary results of stability/protection research presently being performed at the FBML.

  20. Performance test of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Baik, S. K.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. P.; Jo, Y. S.; Ryu, K. S.

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with development activities of high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor at DOOSAN heavy industry and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) in Korea, and is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments. At present time, 1 MW HTS motor is developed for the purpose to fully represent the design and manufacturing issues for the larger capacity machine. The number of pole and rotating speed of machine are 2 pole and 3600 rpm. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of neon thermosyphon mechanism and the stator coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper describes status of 1 MW HTS motor development, such as design, fabrication and performance test results, which was conducted at steady state in generator mode and motor mode.

  1. Stress Analysis of a High Temperature Superconductor Coil Wound With Bi-2223/Ag Tapes for High Field HTS/LTS NMR Magnet Application

    E-print Network

    Kiyoshi, Tsukasa

    The electromagnetic stress distribution inside a HTS insert is one of the key issues for construction of a high field high/low temperature superconductor (HTS/LTS) magnet. The rmiddotJmiddotB formulae is widely used for ...

  2. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  3. BookWire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BookWire, "the first place to look for book information on the world wide web," offers many literary and publishing sites, including the Hungry Mind Review and the Boston Book Review, as well as links to publishers, authors, and booksellers.

  4. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  5. Wires by Patchy Particles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

  6. WIRE BOARD PROTOTYPING METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kussul

    2006-01-01

    The modern development of new electronic devices requires rapid manufacturing of their prototypes. Printed circuit boards (PCB) used for this purpose are expensive and, as a rule, time consuming. PCB milling machines are also expensive. Here we propose a wire board manufacturing method that could be used in any laboratory for rapid prototyping of electronic devices. This method allows us

  7. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  8. WiredSafety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

  9. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  10. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  11. Low temperature gold wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Cheung; S. W; S. Ching

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrated that the bonding of gold wires for COB application was feasible at temperatures ~100°C or below by using a wedge bonder with a high frequency ultrasonic transducer (~138 kHz). An automatic rotary bondhead wedge bonder equipped with the transducer was employed to perform wire bonding. Bonding of gold wires was conducted on the aluminum pads of a test

  12. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  13. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  14. MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006 Lawrence Bush 2006 January 24 Semi-Automated Cueing of Predator UAV Operators from RADAR Moving Target (MTI) Data MIT Lincoln and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. #12;MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment

  15. Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

    2001-04-01

    This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

  16. The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  17. The role of HTS in drug discovery at the University of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martha J; Larsen, Scott D; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Sun, Duxin; Sherman, David H

    2014-03-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  18. Set-up for calorimetric measurements of the AC losses in HTS tapes due to longitudinal magnetic fields and transport currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Magnusson; S. Borsos; S. Hörnfeldt

    2002-01-01

    For the design of power applications based on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes, knowledge of the AC losses is needed. In most such applications the HTS tape is exposed to a magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the current path. However, in certain applications, the HTS tape is exposed to a field oriented in parallel with the current path; a longitudinal magnetic

  19. Working Around HTS Thickness Limitations-towards 1000+A/cm-Class Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusseit, W.; Bauer, M.; Große, V.; Semerad, R.; Sigl, G.; Dürrschnabel, M.; Aabdin, Z.; Eibl, O.

    Increasing the HTS film thickness would be the straightforward route to enhance the current transport capacity of coated conductors. Usually, however, growth defects lead to a strong deterioration of the critical current density with thickness. The unique growth mode of HTS films on graded and tilted MgO buffer layers grown by inclined substrate deposition (ISD) paves the way to overcome this limit. This contribution presents micro-structural and performance data of coated conductors with monolithic REBCO-films up to 7.5 ?m thickness exhibiting perfect crystallinity and critical currents in excess of 1000 A/cm-width.

  20. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  1. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  2. Understanding Guitar Wiring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

  3. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  4. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  5. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  6. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  7. SELECTION PLATEAUX IN POULTRY (1) G. A. CLAYTON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SELECTION PLATEAUX IN POULTRY (1) G. A. CLAYTON Institute of animal Genetics, West Mains Road for the specific purpose of discussing selection plateaux in poultry is evidence that at least some poultry by poultry breeders, as should the fact the crossing of the small lines did not permit advances greater than

  8. Reduction in wire tension caused by wire clamping and wire tensioner removal: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2011-03-01

    The stability of an external ring fixator mainly depends on wire tension. Wire fixators should maintain the tension during both wire clamping to the ring and removal of the tensioner device. In the present study the loss in wire tension related to fixator clamping and wire tensioner removal using three different wire fixator designs was studied. The fixators were based on two different cannulated bolts and a washer. Effects from two different pretension levels in combination with three different bolt torque levels upon loss in wire tension were described. Emitted wire vibration frequency was used to assess the corresponding wire tension. Wire tension was determined after each wire fixator tightening and after the removal of the wire tensioner. Increased bolt torque led to a small decrease in tension for both pretension levels. A considerable higher tension loss was measured when removing the wire tensioner. In all cases, the combination of a new cannulated bolt and a washer maintained the highest tension. PMID:21485324

  9. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Campbell

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) suffic

  10. Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

    A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

  11. Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

    2012-06-01

    Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND APPLICATIONS Laser scanning microscopy of HTS films and devices ,,Review Article...

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND APPLICATIONS Laser scanning microscopy of HTS films and devices ,,Review obtained by the authors are briefly reviewed. Some novel applications of LSM are illustrated, including.1063/1.2215376 I. INTRODUCTION Several review papers dedicated to the applications of laser scanning microscopy LSM

  13. Experimental Study and Optimization of HTS Bulk Levitation Unit for Launch Assist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Qiu; W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; L. Z. Lin; G. H. Yang; Y. Liu

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and propulsion has been viewed as a safe, reliable, and inexpensive launch assist for sending small payloads into orbit. In order to investigate the feasibility of HTS bulk levitation system for the purpose, an experimental setup was designed and constructed to study the performance of the lifting body above permanent magnet (PM) guideway. The measurements of the levitation

  14. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast? Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast? research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  15. Industrial Fe-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tapes JL Soubeyroux1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Industrial Fe-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tapes JL Soubeyroux1 , P Chaudouet2 , A Girard1, 38042 Grenoble, France, 2 LMGP/ Minatec/ Grenoble, France, 3 Imphy Alloys, Imphy, France jean and stabilized between 1050°C to 1100°C, depending on the nickel content of the alloy, higher temperature

  16. Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

    2014-05-01

    The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

  17. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPA?s ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  18. Optimization of operating temperature in cryocooled HTS magnets for compactness and efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Myung Chang; Yeon Suk Choi; Steven W. Van Sciver

    2002-01-01

    A new concept of thermal design to optimize the operating temperature of high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets is presented, aiming simultaneously at small size and low energy consumption. The magnet systems considered here are refrigerated by a closed-cycle cryocooler, and liquid cryogens may or may not be used as a cooling medium. For a specific magnet application, the size of

  19. High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

  20. Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

  1. Non Destructive Evaluation of Advanced Composite Materials for Aerospace Application Using HTS SQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bonavolonta; M. Valentino; G. Peluso; A. Barone

    2007-01-01

    The main advantage of a HTS SQUID magnetometer in NDE applications is represented by its unrivalled magnetic flux sensitivity down to very low frequencies, which allows the detection of weak magnetic field variations due to defects also in materials characterized by a very low electrical conductivity. The imaging obtained by means of the magnetic flux variations can be an useful

  2. Design and testing of the HTS bearing for a 10 kWh flywheel system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A C Day; M Strasik; K E McCrary; P E Johnson; J W Gabrys; J R Schindler; R A Hawkins; D L Carlson; M D Higgins; J R Hull

    2002-01-01

    Flywheels are of interest for a wide range of energy storage applications, from support of renewable resources to distributed power applications and uninterruptible power systems (UPS) (Day et al 2000 Proc. EESAT 2000 (Orlando, FL, Sept. 2000)). The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings for such systems has significant advantages for applications requiring large amounts of energy to be stored

  3. Optimization of operating temperature in cryocooled HTS magnets for compactness and efficiency

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    . The magnet systems considered here are refrigerated by a closed-cycle cryocooler, and liquid cryogens may in numerous industrial areas, mainly because of the easy and economical cooling with liquid nitrogen at around be conveniently achieved by employing a closed- cycle cryocooler. Two typical configurations of the cryocooled HTS

  4. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  5. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  6. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  12. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  13. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  14. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  15. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  16. The challenges of copper wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T.-h. Lu

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of Cu wire bonding, such as less wire sweep, better performance for analog devices, are interpreted by its material properties. Alternative aspect from material properties on Cu wire bonding parameters is proposed to reflect the fact that Cu wire bonding may not necessarily damage the existing under-pad structure of integrated circuit designed for Au wire bonding. The challenge of

  17. Integrating UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) and HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) magnets for x-ray synchrotron based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazi?, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Pooke, D.; Valvidares, S. M.; Pellegrin, E.; Ferrer, S.; Granados, X.; Obradors, X.

    2013-03-01

    Integrating UHV (ultra high vacuum) and superconducting magnets poses special challenges to the magnet designer. A range of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) magnets have been developed for UHV synchrotron beamline applications providing users with compact powerful cryogen-free solutions. Recent examples include HTS magnets for LARIAT (Large Area Rapid Imaging Analytical Tool) [8.5 T with 110 mm warm bore], x-ray scattering experiments at BESSY and LNLS [5-6 T with 110 degrees scattering angle aperture], x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant scattering experiments at ALBA. This paper will focus on the in-UHV HTS magnet installed at ALBA.

  18. AFI Suppressing Effect of an HTS RF Receive Filter with High Selectivity for Base Stations of Digital Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Shigaki, Masafumi; Kurihara, Kazuaki; Akasegawa, Akihiko

    We report on suppressing adjacent-frequency interference (AFI) by using a RF receive bandpass-filter (BPF) with high-selectivity. By considering a high temperature superconducting (HTS) multi-pole BPF as a high selective BPF, the effect was estimated by numerical simulations. The simulations of the RF signals with an OFDM modulation transmitted to the demodulator via the BPF were carried out using the HTS BPF for 5GHz band. The results confirmed the improvement of the bit error rate (BER) characteristic with the assumed HTS BPF with the high multi-poles under a strong AFI.

  19. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  20. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  1. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  2. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  3. Wire Stripper Holds Insulation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Allen D.; Morris, Henry S.; Bauer, Laverne

    1994-01-01

    Attachment to standard wire-stripping tool catches bits of insulation as they are removed from electrical wire and retains them for proper disposal. Prevents insulation particles from falling at random, contaminating electronic equipment and soiling workspace. Commercial tool modified by attaching small collection box to one of the jaws.

  4. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  5. A wire bond reliability model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Heleine; R. M. Murcko; S.-C. Wang

    1991-01-01

    A defect modeling approach is developed which allows the determination of the true failure rate with a minimal sample size. A model was developed using the proposed approach to estimate the failure rate of an aluminium\\/1% silicon wire ultrasonically bonded to aluminum and to gold pads. For this reliability model the variable was wire-bond width. Dependent upon the width of

  6. Wire bonds over active circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Heinen; Roger J. Stierman; Darvin Edwards; L. Nye

    1994-01-01

    A reliable process-for wire bonding over active integrated circuits, which are subsequently assembled in plastic packages, has been developed. This technology accommodates reducing the silicon die area required for bond pads and for on-chip bussing. Further, it supports area array wire bonding by allowing larger bond pads with relaxed pitch without sacrificing silicon area. This is accomplished by processing an

  7. Failure Analysis of Wire Bonds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry A. Schafft

    1973-01-01

    Failure analysis of wire bonds has an important part to play in determining the causes of microelectronic device failure and ways for making and using devices to achieve greater reliability. Several tests and procedures used in the failure analysis of wire bonds are reviewed. Some of the inferences. about possible causes of permanent or intermittent failure that can be drawn

  8. Device to extrude indium wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ece; R. Devito; G. Vidali

    1986-01-01

    A homemade, versatile, low-cost device to extrude indium wire for vacuum seals is described. It has the advantage that no boule of indium has to be made in advance, thereby reducing the amount of poisonous indium vapors, and that wires of different sizes can be made.

  9. Device to extrude indium wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ece, M.; DeVito, R.; Vidali, G.

    1986-12-01

    A homemade, versatile, low-cost device to extrude indium wire for vacuum seals is described. It has the advantage that no boule of indium has to be made in advance, thereby reducing the amount of poisonous indium vapors, and that wires of different sizes can be made.

  10. Experimental study of the effects of alternating fields on HTS coils according to the winding insulation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. J.; Ahn, M. C.; Lee, T. S.; Lee, W. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the effects of alternating fields on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils according to the winding insulation condition. Alternating fields can occur in synchronous machines (armature reaction, faults) and other devices. In superconducting synchronous machines, alternating fields affect the operational characteristics of the machine and the superconducting field coil. Therefore, a method of reducing the effects of alternating fields is necessary in superconducting synchronous design. In this study, the effects of alternating fields on the HTS field coil according to the winding insulation condition were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that HTS coils made using the no-insulation technique can be a solution for reducing the effects of the alternating field. These results are expected to suggest useful data for applications of HTS field coils in superconducting synchronous machines.

  11. Spurious Suppression Effect by Transmit Bandpass Filters with HTS Dual-Mode Resonators for 5GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Kurihara, Kazuaki; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Ishii, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Teru

    We report on the spurious suppression effect in low-microwave power transmitters by high temperature superconducting (HTS) bandpass filters (BPFs) which are promising for devices requiring BPFs with high-frequency selectivity. Some of the major issues on the power BPFs with HTS planar circuits for wireless communication applications are reviewed. As a case study for the HTS filter and its spurious suppression effect, this paper describes an example of the measured power spectrum density (PSD) on the suppression effect by one of our developed power BPFs with YBCO films for the 5GHz band. It was designed with equivalent cascade resonators of 16 poles. We demonstrated the effect by HTS power filter in a power amplifier for the 5GHz band.

  12. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  13. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  14. Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1–4?vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1–4?vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000?A cm?1 at 77?K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455?A cm?1 at 65?K and 3?T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

  15. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

    2013-11-01

    We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  16. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

  17. HTS by NMR of Combinatorial Libraries: A Fragment-Based Approach to Ligand Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bainan; Zhang, Ziming; Noberini, Roberta; Barile, Elisa; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard A.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Fragment-based ligand design (FBLD) approaches have become more widely used in drug discovery projects from both academia and industry, and are even often preferred to traditional high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds (>105). A key advantage of FBLD approaches is that these often rely on robust biophysical methods such as NMR spectroscopy for detection of ligand binding, hence are less prone to artifacts that too often plague the results from HTS campaigns. In this article, we introduce a screening strategy that takes advantage of both the robustness of protein NMR spectroscopy as the detection method, and the basic principles of combinatorial chemistry to enable the screening of large libraries of fragments (>105 compounds) preassembled on a common backbone. We used the method to identify compounds that target protein-protein interactions. PMID:23352136

  18. A study on thickness effect of HTS cable for insulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, H. G.; Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2006-06-01

    The electrical insulating design is important to realize the HTS (high temperature superconducting) cable because this cable is operated under the high voltage environment. For the insulation design of HTS cable, it is necessary to investigate the PD (partial discharge) inception, ac and impulse breakdown strength of LN2 (liquid nitrogen)/LPP (laminated polypropylene) composite insulation system. However, the designed insulation thickness by ac and impulse could not be applied to cable fabrication process due to much low electrical breakdown strength. The effect of the multi-layered insulation paper was not considered on the previous insulation design and the insulation thickness by PD inception strength could be applied only. In this paper, the electrical breakdown characteristic, which considered the effect of multi-layered of LPP, was investigated to design the insulation thickness.

  19. A compact HTS bandpass microstrip filter with novel coupling structure for on-chip integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Jia; Guo, Yingjie Jay; Sun, Xiaowei

    2013-12-01

    A compact low-complexity high-selectivity high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip bandpass filter is presented in this paper, which consists of only three half-wavelength resonators. A novel coupling scheme is used to provide a pair of transmission zeros outside the passband, so that the selectivity of the filter is improved. The filter is fabricated on an MgO substrate with YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coating. Measurement result shows an in-band insertion loss at 0.5 dB, a sharp slope, and a stopband rejection better than 20 dB. The compactness and high-selectivity features make the filter suitable for on-chip integration of HTS receiver front-ends.

  20. 5 GHz HTS power filters with TM-mode microstrip-disk resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Ishii, M.; Akasegawa, A.; Nakanishi, T.; Baniecki, J. D.; Kurihara, K.

    2008-09-01

    For RF wireless applications, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave power filters are desired to satisfy the requirements of higher power handling capability, lower intermodulation distortion (IMD), and dimensions that are more compact. In this report, we propose a 5 GHz HTS band bandpass filter (BPF) that has 2 dual-mode resonators using TM 11-mode microstrip-disk (MD) resonators and waveguide line for electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the MDs. The BPF sample with YBCO films on both sides of an MgO (1 0 0) substrate was fabricated, and their RF characteristics of the S parameters, the power, and 3rd IMD (IMD3) were examined. The filter sample exhibited an IMD3 value less than -70 dBc at 10 W input power, and was estimated the half volume of a conventional 4-pole MD BPF.

  1. Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

  2. The Electromagnetic Analysis and Structural Design of a 1 MJ HTS Magnet for SMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingye Zhang; Shaotao Dai; Zikai Wang; Dong Zhang; Naihao Song; Zhiyuan Gao; Fengyuan Zhang; Xi Xu; Zhiqin Zhu; Guomin Zhang; Liangzhen Lin; Liye Xiao

    2011-01-01

    An HTS magnet was designed and fabricated for the 1 MJ\\/0.5 MVA SMES. It consists of 44 double pancakes with an inductance of 6.28 H, and the rated operating current is 565 A. In this paper, the electromagnetic analysis and the structural design of the magnet are presented. Because of the strong anisotropy of Bi2223\\/Ag tape, the field distribution can

  3. Design and implementation of a lumped-element multipole HTS filter at 15 MHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Xu; Erzhen Gao; S. Sahba; J. R. Miller; Q. Y. Ma; J. M. Pond

    1999-01-01

    We have designed a three-pole bandpass filter operating at 15 MHz. The parameters of the filter include high Q, narrow band, low insertion loss and a return loss of 20 dB. The filter was fabricated from double-sided YBCO thin film on a two inch LAO substrate. The design utilizes individual HTS lumped elements (interdigital capacitors and meander line inductors) to

  4. Characterization of HTS SFQ circuits using interface-engineered Josephson junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Saitoh; Y. Soutome; T. Fukazawa; Y. Tarutani; K. Takagi

    2001-01-01

    We fabricated and tested high-temperature superconducting (HTS) rapid-single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuits using interface-engineered Josephson junction (IEJ). The characteristics of high-speed operation were examined by voltage-divider operation based on the toggle-flip-flop circuit. An operation at 155 GHz was obtained at 15 K and the proper functioning of the voltage divider was observed up to 27 K. Temperature dependence of the maximum operation

  5. A Compact HTS 5 kWh\\/250 kW Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank N. Werfel; Uta Floegel-Delor; Thomas Riedel; Rolf Rothfeld; Dieter Wippich; Bernd Goebel; Gerhard Reiner; Niels Wehlau

    2007-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) are expected to contribute to uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and power quality tasks significantly. We present design and the component results of a compact 5 kWh\\/250 kW HTS flywheel whereby the rotor will be totally magnetically stabilized. The design is optimized for highly integrated functionality of rotor body, generator\\/motor and bearings. The heart of the

  6. Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, H. K.; Koh, D. Y.; Ko, J. S.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2011-11-01

    The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

  7. Non-destructive inspection using HTS SQUID on aluminum liner covered by CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2007-10-01

    An eddy-current-based SQUID non-destructive inspection (NDI) system to detect deep-lying cracks in multi-layer composite-Al vessels was developed taking advantage of the uncontested sensitivity of HTS-SQUID in low-frequency range. An HTS-SQUID gradiometer was mounted in a pulse tube cryocooler. A pair of differential coils with C-shaped ferrite cores was employed to induce an enhanced eddy current in an Al vessel wrapped in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover. Ellipsoidal dome-shaped Al liners containing through cracks, which were made by pressure cycle tests, in the CFRP covers with total thickness of 6 mm (CFPR 3 mm, and Al 3 mm) were inspected by the system. While inducing eddy currents in the vessels with excitation fields at 100 Hz or 7 kHz, the vessels were rotated under the HTS-SQUID. Above the cracks, anomalous signals due to the cracks were clearly detected at both frequencies. These results suggested the SQUID-NDI technique would be a possible candidate for inspection of high-pressure multi-layer composite-Al vessels.

  8. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  9. Development of a HTS SQUID module for use with an external pickup coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Enpuku, K.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed HTS SQUID modules applicable to various systems, such as nondestructive evaluation and low-field NMR/MRI systems. The SQUID module consists of a directly coupled HTS planar gradiometer and a HTS multi-turn input coil, which are fabricated on separate substrates and stacked with a flip-chip configuration. Two types of input coils, 26-turns and 59-turns, are fabricated. The SQUID module is mounted on a printed circuit board with large electrodes for soldering to the external pickup coil. The mutual inductances between the input coil and SQUID varied from 0.5 to 2.3 nH, depending on the number of turns of the input coil and the inductance of the SQUID. The SQUID modules with an external pickup coil made of normal metal showed a lower cut-off frequency of 45 Hz and a field noise as low as 35 fT Hz-1/2 (>4 kHz).

  10. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  11. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  12. Service life of corrosion-damaged wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Filip'ev

    1975-01-01

    obtained of the effect of corrosion damage on the fatigue life of wire and wire products, since in tests of this type the corrosion damage incurred before or in the first stages of service is usually neglected. The fatigue properties of the wire corroded under stress are usually also neglected. In our tests we used a high-strength steel wire [GOST

  13. Fine pitch copper wire bonding — Why now?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd K. Appelt; Andy Tseng; Yi-Shao Lai

    2009-01-01

    Fine pitch Cu wire bonding is at the cusp of becoming main stream. Many challenges had to be overcome when making the transition from fine pitch Au wire bonding to fine pitch Cu wire bonding in a high volume manufacturing environment. The challenges for Cu wire bonding arise from the inherent properties of Cu: propensity to oxidize, increased hardness, slow

  14. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

  16. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  17. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  18. Copper wire bond investigation on multiple surface finishes - enabling wire bond packages without gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Oezkoek; Nigel White; Horst Clauberg

    2011-01-01

    During the past two years, fine pitch copper wire bonding has finally entered high volume production. It is estimated that nearly 15% of all wire bonders used in production are now equipped for copper wire bonding. Most of these are used exclusively for copper wire bonding. In terms of pitch, copper wire is only barely lagging behind the most advanced

  19. web cellHTS2: A web-application for the analysis of high-throughput screening data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The analysis of high-throughput screening data sets is an expanding field in bioinformatics. High-throughput screens by RNAi generate large primary data sets which need to be analyzed and annotated to identify relevant phenotypic hits. Large-scale RNAi screens are frequently used to identify novel factors that influence a broad range of cellular processes, including signaling pathway activity, cell proliferation, and host cell infection. Here, we present a web-based application utility for the end-to-end analysis of large cell-based screening experiments by cellHTS2. Results The software guides the user through the configuration steps that are required for the analysis of single or multi-channel experiments. The web-application provides options for various standardization and normalization methods, annotation of data sets and a comprehensive HTML report of the screening data analysis, including a ranked hit list. Sessions can be saved and restored for later re-analysis. The web frontend for the cellHTS2 R/Bioconductor package interacts with it through an R-server implementation that enables highly parallel analysis of screening data sets. web cellHTS2 further provides a file import and configuration module for common file formats. Conclusions The implemented web-application facilitates the analysis of high-throughput data sets and provides a user-friendly interface. web cellHTS2 is accessible online at http://web-cellHTS2.dkfz.de. A standalone version as a virtual appliance and source code for platforms supporting Java 1.5.0 can be downloaded from the web cellHTS2 page. web cellHTS2 is freely distributed under GPL. PMID:20385013

  20. Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

  1. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  2. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  3. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  4. Electron transport in atomic and molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingqian

    Molecular electronics involves constructing atomic and molecular junctions in which an atomic chain or a single molecule or small number of molecules are bridged between two electrodes, measuring and understanding the current-voltage response of such junctions. Contacts between the atoms or molecules and the electrodes greatly affect the current-voltage characteristics. Other challenges include how to determine the conductance of single molecules. This dissertation presents a study of single atomic/molecular conductance with modified Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Firstly I describe an electron transport study of atomically-thin Au wires by (1) modulating the electrochemical potential and (2) anion adsorption onto the wire. The potential modulation induces a conductance change around 0.55G0 (G0 = 2e2/h) per V for a wire with conductance quantized near 1G0 in the absence of anion adsorption. However, in the presence of I- adsorption, the conductance changes as much as 1.5G0/V. Second, I present the work of determining single-molecule conductance of various molecules by repeatedly forming thousands of Au-molecule-Au junctions. The molecules tested have either S-atoms or N-atoms on both sides so that they can form Au-S or Au-N bonds chemically to ensure the good contacts. I have determined the tunneling decay constant (betaN) of the N-alkanedithiol molecules to be 1.0 +/- 0.1 per carbon atom and depends on the applied bias very weakly. The forces needed to break down the single N-alkanedithiol molecule junction and the 4,4' bipyridine molecule junction are 1.5 +/- 0.2nN and 0.8 +/- 0.2nN respectively, suggesting that the Au-Au bond broke in the alkanedithiol case while the Au-N bond broke in the 4,4' bipyridine case. I have determined the length and base-pair dependence of the DNA conductance. Electron transport through different base pair DNA molecules decreases exponentially with the number of "AT" base pairs inserted in the G-rich region but inversely proportional to the length of "GC" base pairs. A DNA molecule with mismatch was found to conduct less than its perfectly matched sequences.

  5. Practical design and operating characteristic analysis of a 10 kW HTS DC induction heating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Seokho; Sim, Kideok; Kim, Hae-jong

    2014-09-01

    Conventional induction heaters have been in operation in metal and related industries with poor energy efficiencies of only 50-60%. Also, the efficiency of atmosphere furnace, one of the various heating facilities for metal billets, is about 20%. Hence, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC induction heating machine to heat a rotating metal billet under uniform magnetic field generated by the 2G HTS magnet with about 80-90% of the system energy efficiency has been researched in this paper. We presented practical design specification, operational characteristics, and temperature distribution on a 10 kW class HTS DC induction heating machine which had been built and tested. The saturated temperature of an HTS no-insulated(NI) coil in the cryostat fabricated with 100 A of the operating current reached 45.9 K and the magnetic field at the centre point between two iron cores measured 0.2 T. The rotating machine for 4.1 kg of the aluminum billet was tested on 1760 rpm of the rated rotating speed. The final temperature of the aluminum billet has risen up to 500 °C for 480 s. The research outcomes are expected to be useful for the design of a large scale HTS DC induction heating machine in industries.

  6. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  7. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  8. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  9. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    PubMed

    Polireddy, Kishore; Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J; Haynes, Mark K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Tegos, George P; Sklar, Larry A; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  10. A Novel Flow Cytometric HTS Assay Reveals Functional Modulators of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J.; Haynes, Mark K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Tegos, George P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6’s ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  11. Testing of a 1.5-m single-phase short-sample cable made with copper laminated HTS tapes at ORNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Demko; J. W. Lue; R. C. Duckworth; M. A. Young; M. J. Gouge; D. Lindsay; J. Tolbert; M. Roden; D. Willen; C. Traeholt

    2005-01-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials for power transmission cable applications is being realized in several utility demonstration projects. Tape testing on short-sample cables is conducted to determine the suitability of HTS tapes for use in different cable designs. Testing includes determining the DC critical current, ac loss and overcurrent behavior in a wound cable configuration. The short-sample

  12. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    E-print Network

    Kirby, GA; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, JC; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Härö, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A

    2015-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  13. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    E-print Network

    Kirby, G; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J; DeRijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Haro, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A

    2014-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  14. Measurement of the magnetic moment in a cold worked 304 stainless steel using HTS SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, D. W.; Angani, C. S.; Timofeev, V. P.; Cheong, Y. M.

    The magnetic properties of stainless steel have been investigated using a radio frequency (RF) high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device)-based susceptometer. The nuclear grade 304 stainless steel is nonmagnetic at a normal condition but it changes to a partially ferromagnetic state associated with martensitic transformation under a plastic deformation. The magnetic moment of the 304 stainless steels was increased with an increasing cold work rate, and decreased with an increasing annealing temperature. The change of mechanical properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) are also analyzed in terms of deformation-induced martensitic transformation.

  15. Full Cryogenic Test of 600 A HTS Hybrid Current Leads for the LHC

    E-print Network

    Al-Mosawi, MK; Beduz, C; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2007-01-01

    For full cryogenic test of CERN 600 A High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads prior to integration into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a ded. facility has been designed, constructed and operated at the University of Southampton. The facility consists of purpose-built test cryostats, 20 K helium gas supply, helium gas flow and temperature control systems and quench protection system. Over 400 such leads have already been successfully tested and qualified for installation at CERN. This paper describes various design and operation aspects of the test facility and presents the detailed cryogenic test results of the CERN 600 A current leads, including steady state 20 K flow rates.

  16. The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

    2002-08-01

    With one firm offering to provide SMES with HTS current leads and several other entities developing flywheels with bearings that incorporate bulk ReBaCuO, the progress made toward meeting their technical goals appears promising. Another question needs attention from the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) community: 'Will technical success yield equipment that will sell?' Here, we recall what is being done and review issues touching on the specifications for equipment that customers might want. These specifications pose technical challenges that have received little attention from the community.

  17. Wires for Shape Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

  18. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  19. The decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk superconducting actuator by AC controlled magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Uwani, Y.; Joo, J. H.; Kawamoto, R.; Jo, Y. S.

    2011-11-01

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet, having stable levitation and suspension properties according to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulks to develop a non-contract transportation device which moves freely in space. It is certain for our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in a clean room where silicon wafers, which do not like mechanical contact and dust, are manufactured. The proposed actuator consists of the trapped HTS bulk as a mover and two-dimensionally arranged electromagnets as a stator. Up to now, the electromagnets consisted with iron core and copper coil were used as a stator, and each electromagnet was individually controlled using DC power supplies. In our previous work, the unstable movement characteristics of HTS bulk were observed under the DC operation, and the AC electromagnets driven with AC controlled current was proposed to solve these problems. In general, the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk was decayed by a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, it needs to optimize the shapes of AC electromagnets and operating patterns, the decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in the HTS bulk mover by the AC magnetic field should be cleared. In this paper, the influences of the frequency, the overall operating time, the strength of magnetization field and drive current against the decay of trapped magnetic field were experimentally studied using the fabricated AC electromagnets.

  20. TEST RESULTS OF HTS COILS AND AN R&D MAGNET FOR RIA* , M. Anerella, M. Harrison, J. Schmalzle, W. Sampson, BNL, UPTON, NY, 11973 U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Ramesh

    consisting of six HTS coils has been designed, built and tested [5]. HTS QUADRUPOLE DESIGN The first) contains 175 turns of 4.2 mm wide and 0.3 mm thick HTS tape. The design gradient is obtained at ~125 A and to save conductor cost in the R&D phase. The coil width is determined by the magnet design (iron pole

  1. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    E-print Network

    Leonardo Della Pietra; Simon Aigner; Christoph vom Hagen; Sönke Groth; Israel Bar-Joseph; Henri J. Lezec; Jörg Schmiedmayer

    2008-02-12

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore micro-design the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier and using a BEC as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a 1D magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  2. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

  3. The effect of the external magnetic field on the current-voltage characteristic of HTS Josephson junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuta, O. M.; Prokopenko, O. V.; Kishenko, Ya. I.; Raksha, V. M.; Klushin, A. M.

    2005-04-01

    The role of the external magnetic field in performance specialty of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction array (JJA): HTS YBa2Cu3O7-0.05 bicrystal JJA with 180 junctions, is considered. The junctions are created on the yttrium-stabilized zirconium (fianite) substrate with the bicrystal grain boundary. The experimental confirmation of the current density changes under the influence of the external DC magnetic field is obtained. The dependence of current density on the penetrated magnetic field is investigated. The optimal shielding factor needed to obtain high supercurrents in considered system is determined.

  4. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  5. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire....

  14. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  15. Illumination system for wire bonding inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Der-Baau; Chou, Cheng-Chuan; Lee, Shu-Ming

    2007-02-01

    A novel lighting system was devised for 3D defect inspection in the wire bonding process. Gold wires of 20 ?m in diameter were bonded to connect the integrated circuit (IC) chip with the substrate. Bonding wire defects can be classified as 2D type and 3D type. The 2D-type defects include missed, shifted, or shorted wires. These defects can be inspected from a 2D top-view image of the wire. The 3D-type bonding wire defects are sagging wires, and are difficult to inspect from a 2D top-view image. A structured lighting system was designed and developed to facilitate all 2D-type and 3D-type defect inspection. The devised lighting system can be programmed to turn the structured LEDs on or off independently. Experiments show that the devised illumination system is effective for wire bonding inspection and will be valuable for further applications.

  16. Wire mesh isolator protects sensitive electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Sensitive electronic components are enclosed in wire mesh for protection. The wire mesh isolates the component from shock and vibration. It acts as a heat sink and as a screen against RF interference.

  17. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  18. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053 Section 57.12053... § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053 Section 57.12053... § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to...

  1. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

  2. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  3. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  4. Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James, David Randy [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

  5. Technique for tuning center frequency of HTS microstrip filters without significantly changing bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a technique for tuning high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters in which additional electric pads are placed at the open ends of the resonators for tuning the center frequency. Pads are placed along one side of the open ends of the resonators to enable the effective lengths of the resonators to be adjusted, thereby shifting the center frequency. Pads are also placed around the I/O coupled-line elements to enable the coupling strength between the coupled-line and resonator to be adjusted, thereby reducing the insertion loss caused by tuning. The pads consist of line-and-space patterns. The former are electrically connected to the resonators, and the latter are electrically connected to the coupled-line elements. Simulated application of this technique to a 3-pole superconducting microstrip combline bandpass filter with half-wavelength resonators, a 5.0-GHz center frequency, and a 120-MHz 3-dB bandwidth shifted the bandwidth 500 MHz. However, the 3-dB bandwidth was reduced about 14 MHz. Use of a modified 3-pole microstrip interdigital bandpass filter mitigated the reduction to 2 MHz. Using this modified filter with additional electric pads is thus an effective way to tune the center frequency of HTS bandpass filters without significantly changing the bandwidth.

  6. HTS Flywheel from R&D to Pilot Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Rothfeld, R.

    2010-06-01

    A 5 kWh / 250 kW engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed and assembled in a joint project ATZ with L-3 Magnet- Motor Corp. The 0.6 t rotor is magnetically stabilized between a 1 ton magnetic HTS bearing on top and a new PM bearing. Based on the measured bearing load (max. 10000 N), Stiffness (3-4 kN/mm axial, 1.8 kN/mm radial) and rotor eigenfrequency (~ 6.5 Hz) optimum operating conditions are obtained. For industrial use the flywheel periphery is described and evaluated. A comparison and evaluation showed, both the composite rotor as well the HTS magnetic bearing are utilized more efficient in systems with larger energy storage capacity. This can provide UPS function as well as power quality (load levelling) economically and correspond to industrial requirements and demands. In a third phase starting in 2009 the parameters for larger energy storage capacity 25 - 50 kWh are calculated, investigated and the basic elements studied.

  7. Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Build Up Tank for HTS Power Cable Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyunman; Kim, Yanghun

    HTS power cables are cooled by the forced circulation of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen to remove heat loss and maintain a cryogenic temperature. The refrigeration systems used consist of cryocoolers, a pressure build-up tank, heat exchangers, and circulation pumps. Liquid nitrogen expands or shrinks according to the temperature variation inside the fixed volume of the refrigeration system and the cable cryostat. The system pressure also changes depending on the volume change of the liquid nitrogen. The pressure of the liquid nitrogen should be kept above a certain level to ensure its dielectric strength. In addition, the pressure should be kept below the allowable pressure level considering the mechanical strength of the refrigeration system. To enhance the pressure controllability, external heating and cooling should be possible in the pressure build-up tank. For the precise modeling of the pressure build-up tank, thermal stratification and axial thermal conduction are considered. An analysis of such a refrigeration system is performed using the commercial code 'Sinda/fluint', a comprehensive finite-difference, one-dimensional, lumped parameter tool. This paper presents the transient thermo-hydraulic characteristics and the design directions of an HTS cable refrigeration system according to a variable heat load including pressure build-up tank.

  8. Shape-Memory Wires Switch Rotary Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermomechanical rotary actuator based on shape-memory property of alloy composed of equal parts of titanium and nickel. If alloy stretched while below transition temperature, it reverts to original length when heated above transition temperature. Two capstans on same shaft wrapped with shape-memory wires. As one wire heated, it contracts and stretches opposite wire. Wires heated in alternation so they switch shaft between two extreme angular positions; "on" and "off" positions of rotary valve.

  9. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  10. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  11. Force on a Current Carrying Wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students use a simple set up consisting of a current carrying wire and a magnet to explore the forces which enable biomedical imaging. In doing so, students run a current through a wire and then hold magnets in various positions to establish and explore the magnetic force acting on the wire. They move the magnets and change the current in the wire to explore how the force changes.

  12. Moving Large Wiring-Harness Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Samuel D.; Gurman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    Carrier for wiring-harness fabrication boards enables lone operator to move board easily and safely. Holds harness while operator fabricating, while being stored, and being transported to equipment frame for mounting. When positioned for assembly of wiring harness, board and carrier give operator easy and convenient access to wires and cables, when positioned for transfer of wiring harness to or from storage area, carrier holds board securely while moved by one person.

  13. Evaluation of wire bonding performance, process conditions, and metallurgical integrity of chip on board wire bonds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Rooney; Deepak Nager; David Geiger; Dongkai Shanguan

    2005-01-01

    Chip on board wire bonding presents challenges to modern wire bonding technology which include smaller, closely spaced wire bond pads; bonding to soft substrates without special processing and pad construction; and diverse first bond and second bond metallurgies. These challenges are addressed by extensive bonding accuracy tests, a design of experiments approach for optimizing wire bond process parameters, reliability testing,

  14. Wire bonding of Cu and Pd coated Cu wire: Bondability, reliability, and IMC formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivy Qin; Hui Xu; Horst Clauberg; Ray Cathcart; Viola L. Acoff; Bob Chylak; Cuong Huynh

    2011-01-01

    Wire bonding with bare Cu and Pd coated Cu (PdCu) wire have been adopted quickly as a mainstream packaging technology for high pin count and fine pitch devices. The differences between Au and Cu wire bonding are well understood as a result of extensive research. However, the differences between Cu and PdCu wire have not been investigated in as much

  15. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  16. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  17. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  18. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  19. Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram

    Cancer.gov

    Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

  20. Failure mechanisms in wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Chaplin

    1995-01-01

    The inevitable attrition of wire rope in service is discussed with an overview of the consequences in terms of inspection and replacement criteria. Details are presented of specific degradation mechanisms observed in three different applications: a mine hoist rope operating on a drum winder, a mooring rope for an offshore structure and a spin-resistant single-fall offshore crane rope. In each

  1. Coulomb drag between quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesse, Rochus; Stern, Ady

    2000-12-01

    We study Coulomb drag in a pair of parallel one-dimensional electron systems within the framework of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model. We find that Coulomb coupling has a much stronger effect on one-dimensional wires than on two-dimensional layers: At zero temperature the transresistivity diverges, due to the formation of locked charge density waves. At temperature well above a crossover temperature T* the transresistivity follows a power law ?~Tx, where the interaction-strength dependent exponent x is determined by the Luttinger liquid parameter Kc- of the relative charge mode. At temperature below T* relative charge displacements are enabled by solitonic excitations, reflected by an exponential temperature dependence. The crossover temperature T* depends sensitively on the wire width, interwire distance, Fermi wavelength and the effective Bohr radius. For wire distances d¯>>k-1F it is exponentially suppressed with T*/EF~exp[-d¯kF/(1-Kc-)]. The behavior changes drastically if each of the two wires develop spin gaps. In this case we find that the transresistivity vanishes at zero temperature. We discuss our results in view of possible experimental realizations in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs semiconductor structures.

  2. Locating Hidden Hazards in Electrical Wiring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Kuhn

    2006-01-01

    Hazardous electrical wiring has been identified as an area of critical national and international concern. Faulty and improperly installed electrical wiring is a leading cause of fires in homes and commercial buildings. Wiring is also responsible for numerous problems in consumer product safety, vehicular safety\\/reliability, safety of nuclear facilities, reliability of power distribution systems, reliability of communication systems, and others.

  3. Dwell times of thin exploding wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonios E. Vlasto´s

    1973-01-01

    Equations describing the dependence of the dwell times on the applied voltage of thin exploding wires whose restrikes are initiated at the exterior or the interior of the exploded wire are derived, using the energy equation for the ionized gas surrounding the wire and the Paschen law for the sparking potential, respectively. A comparison of the computed and the experimentally

  4. Development of a robot car wiring system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyong-mo Koo; Xin Jiang; Kohei Kikuchi; A. Konno; M. Uchiyama

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a robot car wiring system is addressed. It is designed to be used for automatically assembling wire harness into a car body. This operation is among the most difficult tasks of vehicle assembly and is not yet automated. Based on an analysis of the requirements for a robot car wiring system, we propose a

  5. Industrial electromagnetic checkout of armored wiring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, J.

    1983-03-01

    A method for testing whether armored wiring can withstand EMP's caused by nuclear explosions is described. The wires are checked in their production cases, using a strip line antenna as pulse source. Only one measurement per connector is made, with the connector conductors in parallel. The method is quick, repeatable, and does not damage the wiring.

  6. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and presents critiques of a utopian…

  7. Thermosonic Gold Wire Bonding to Copper Conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERNON A. PITT; CHRISTOPHER R. S. NEEDES

    1982-01-01

    The use of thick film copper conductors in hybrid microcircuitry requires that wire bonding to their surfaces be demonstrated as a feasible and reliable interconnection technique. Previous work has shown that acceptable and reliable ultrasonic aluminum wire bonds can be made to copper. The conditions necessary to make successful thermosonic gold wire bonds to copper are described. Items covered are

  8. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  9. Lourie-Love No OIT Wiring

    E-print Network

    1942 1941 Lourie-Love 1922 1940 58 No OIT Wiring Building Wiring Type Category 3 or Mixed Category 5 Enhanced Category 5 Building Wiring Speed Not Gigabit Gigabit Gigabit & All 100Mb Connections Outdoor WiFi Area Full WiFi Coverage N (EduRoam Capable) Wireless Network Outdoor WiFi Area (Edu

  10. Development of copper wire bonding application technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENJI TOYOZAWA; KAZUYA FUJITA; SYOZO MINAMIDE; TAKAMICHI MAEDA

    1990-01-01

    The continuous forming of oxide-free, stable, spherical copper balls which has been realized by blowing a reducing gas over the copper wire during copper ball formation (sparkling) is described. The prevention of chip damage resulting from hard copper wire, including underpad cracking and silicon cratering, by the double-load wire bonding technology is discussed; this technology can minimize chip damage from

  11. Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. C.; Gradin, H.; Schröder, S.; Braun, S.; Stemme, G.; van der Wijngaart, W.; Niklaus, F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports on a novel technique for the integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and other non-bondable wire materials into silicon-based microelectromechanical system structures using a standard wire-bonding tool. The efficient placement and alignment functions of the wire-bonding tool are used to mechanically attach the wire to deep-etched silicon anchoring and clamping structures. This approach enables a reliable and accurate integration of wire materials that cannot be wire bonded by traditional means.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires §...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires §...

  14. Arc tracking properties of the aging wires in aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yongxing; Dong Enyuan; Cong Jiyuan; Zou Jiyan; Dieter Koenig

    2008-01-01

    A modern commercial aircraft contains hundreds of miles of wiring. This vastly increased use of wiring, in conjunction with decreased insulation thickness, has increased the incidence of wire-related aircraft safety problems. Due to thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical overstress, the aircraft wiring will be aged and the wire insulation will be decreased. Microscopic cracking occurs in wire insulation as the

  15. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-10-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  16. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  17. ENGINEERING DESIGN OF HTS QUADRUPOLE FOR FRIB* John P. Cozzolino, Michael Anerella, Arup K. Ghosh, Ramesh C. Gupta, William Sampson,

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Ramesh

    110 mm Design Gradient 15 T/m Magnetic Length 600 mm Coil Overall Length 680 mm Yoke Length 546 mmENGINEERING DESIGN OF HTS QUADRUPOLE FOR FRIB* John P. Cozzolino, Michael Anerella, Arup K. Ghosh, NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA Abstract The coils of the first quadrupole

  18. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  19. Evaluation of High-resolution Geomagnetic Field Observation System Using HTS-SQUID Magnetometer and its Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously (1964 Stacey, 1994 Johnston et al.). Our research group also reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes due to piezomagnetic effects caused by earthquake rupturing in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake of M7.2 (2011 Okubo et al.) using optoelectronic observation system with flux-gate magnetometers. This is an important finding; the electromagnetic fields originating from such sources satisfy the Maxwell equations and hence they propagate from the sources to the observation site at a speed of light in the crustal materials. Further efforts could lead us to a new system for super-early warning of destructive earthquakes with the magnetic measurements. On the other hand, the observed result in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake was suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small; therefore development of a high-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. To solve this problem, we introduce long-term precise geomagnetic observations using high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device (HTS-SQUID) magnetometer system. That is, our research group developed the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012, we have observed the geomagnetic field using a HTS-SQUID magnetometer at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. The sampling interval of the magnetometer is 0.04 sec. The observation clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. An accelerometer is also installed at observation point. Additionally, in the next stage, we develop the HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). In the present study, we show the results observed by our HTS-SQUID magnetometer system and make an evaluation of our geomagnetic field observation system.

  20. Wire diameter and length effects on wire sweep performance of multi-tier copper and gold wire bonding in plastic ball grid array packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serene Teh Seoh Hian; Foong Chee Seng; Teng Seng Kiong; Navas Khan Oratti Kalandar

    2011-01-01

    As the semiconductor packaging industry continues to lower its manufacturing costs, concerted efforts in the supply chain focusing on using copper (Cu) as wire bond interconnects has intensified to an unprecedented level. In our previous study we showed that Cu wire has significantly higher wire sweep compared to gold (Au) wire after molding. In this study, wire sweep performance was

  1. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  2. Materials basis for a six-level epitaxial HTS digital circuit process

    SciTech Connect

    Talvacchio, J.; Forrester, M.G.; Hunt, B.D. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a process for fabrication of HTS single-flux-quantum logic circuits based on edge SNS junctions which requires six epitaxial film layers and six mask levels. The process was successfully applied to fabrication of small-scale circuits ({le} 10 junctions). This paper examines the materials properties affecting the reproducibility of YBCO-based SNS junctions, the low inductance provided by an integrated YBCO ground plane, and electrical isolation by SrTiO{sub 3} or SrAlTaO{sub 6} ground-plane and junction insulator layers. Some of the critical processing parameters identified by electrical measurements, TEM, SEM, and AFM were control of second-phase precipitates in YBCO, oxygen diffusion, Ar ion milling parameters, and preparation of surfaces for subsequent high-temperature depositions.

  3. Development of HTS Assays and Pilot Screen for Inhibitors of Metalloproteases Meprin ? and ?

    PubMed Central

    Madoux, Franck; Tredup, Claudia; Spicer, Timothy P.; Scampavia, Louis; Chase, Peter S.; Hodder, Peter S.; Fields, Gregg B.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Minond, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Zinc metalloproteinases meprin ? and meprin ? are implicated in a variety of diseases, such as fibrosis, inflammation and neurodegeneration, however, there are no selective small molecule inhibitors that would allow to study their role in these processes. To address this lack of molecular tools we have developed high throughput screening (HTS) assays to enable discovery of inhibitors of both meprin ? and meprin ? and screened a collection of well characterized pharmaceutical agents (LOPAC, n = 1,280 compounds). Two compounds (PPNDS, NF449) confirmed their activity and selectivity for meprin ?. Kinetic studies revealed competitive (PPNDS) and mixed competitive/non-competitive (NF449) inhibition mechanisms suggesting that binding occurs in meprin ? active site. Both PPNDS and NF449 exhibited low nanomolar IC50 and Ki values making them the most potent and selective inhibitors of meprin ? reported to the date. These results demonstrate the ability of meprin ? and ? assays to identify selective compounds and discard artifacts of primary screening. PMID:25048711

  4. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  5. The development of a fully portable, cryocooled HTS SQUID NDE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, C.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Donaldson, G. B.

    2002-08-01

    Commercial realisation of the full potential of HTS SQUIDs in NDE will only come about with the development of fully portable systems that operate on a turn-key approach. Existing cryogenic solutions rely on invertible cryostats which can be both cumbersome and are typically custom-fabricated. With the use of cryocoolers becoming more widespread, there is a possibility to dispense with the need for a liquid cryogen. Here we report on progress towards such a system that will incorporate a cryocooler which can be disengaged from a copper thermal battery once the base temperature has been reached. The battery has been designed with a two-stage inner and outer core system to extend the SQUIDs operating time. The cool-down and warm-up rates for the system are presented along with a discussion of SQUID packaging.

  6. Wiring the new COMPASS Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlock, Lacey; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS, a fixed-target experiment at CERN, will examine the first ever polarized Drell-Yan events that may illuminate how the quark angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. A new drift chamber must be constructed to replace an older straw chamber that is currently in use. In order to construct the drift chamber 4616 gold-plated tungsten wires are used, half are 100 micron (field wires) which provide an electrical field and half are 20 micron (sense wires) which measure position. Because of the difference in wire width, two very different stringing techniques had to be developed. The 20 micron sense wire was too fragile and thin to be handled in the same manner as the 100 micron field wire, so different tools had to be used in order to ensure the stability and efficacy of the chamber. Additionally, different soldering techniques had to be used for the two different types of wires to guarantee both that the field wires did not slip out of their solder joints during the process of stringing the sense wires and that both types of wires had smooth, even solder joints that would not require repair. This poster will detail several aspects of wire stringing, including how to string different widths of wire and how to overcome difficulties arising from using two different types of wire during the stringing process. COMPASS, a fixed-target experiment at CERN, will examine the first ever polarized Drell-Yan events that may illuminate how the quark angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. A new drift chamber must be constructed to replace an older straw chamber that is currently in use. In order to construct the drift chamber 4616 gold-plated tungsten wires are used, half are 100 micron (field wires) which provide an electrical field and half are 20 micron (sense wires) which measure position. Because of the difference in wire width, two very different stringing techniques had to be developed. The 20 micron sense wire was too fragile and thin to be handled in the same manner as the 100 micron field wire, so different tools had to be used in order to ensure the stability and efficacy of the chamber. Additionally, different soldering techniques had to be used for the two different types of wires to guarantee both that the field wires did not slip out of their solder joints during the process of stringing the sense wires and that both types of wires had smooth, even solder joints that would not require repair. This poster will detail several aspects of wire stringing, including how to string different widths of wire and how to overcome difficulties arising from using two different types of wire during the stringing process. This research was supported in part by the DOE under Grant Number DE-FG03-94ER40860.

  7. Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1980-11-04

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  8. Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries.

    PubMed

    Esaulov, A A; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Velikovich, A L; Shrestha, I K; Williamson, K M; Osborne, G C

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma. PMID:23214697

  9. The direct relationship between output power and current carrying capability of rotor bars in HTS induction/synchronous motor with the use of DI-BSCCO tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nagao, K.; Nishimura, T.; Ogama, Y.; Kawamoto, M.; Okazaki, T.; Ayai, N.; Oyama, H.

    2008-08-01

    We report on the direct relationship between output power and the current carrying capability of a squirrel-cage HTS induction/synchronous motor based on experiment. The secondary windings are fabricated by use of so-called DI-BSCCO tapes, and the conventional (normal conducting) stator, three-phase and four-pole, is utilized. The tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen for two kinds of HTS windings, in which the number of HTS rotor bars is varied. It is directly shown that the output power is proportional to the rotor bars' critical current at 77 K. In other words, the torque can be enlarged by increasing the critical current of the HTS rotor bars.

  10. Signal propagation in long wire chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, P.; Engelfried, J.; Friedrich, T.; Heintze, J.; Lennert, P.; Russ, M.; Zimmer, M.

    2012-09-01

    The propagation of signals in long proportional counters or multi-wire tracking chambers is simulated, using numerical solutions of the multi-wire telegraph equations. The results are compared to experimental data, recorded with a proportional counter and a multi-wire test chamber. The signal shape, the charge division ratio and, in the case of the drift chamber, also the cross talk between the wires, are well reproduced. Similar shapes for signals and their cross talk can be obtained with a properly chosen electrical termination. It is shown how data from a multi-wire chamber can then be corrected for cross talk. The effects limiting the precision of position measurements along the wires with the charge division method are discussed. The simulation was applied to the reconstruction of tracks measured with the OPAL JET chamber.

  11. Bobbin stresses generated by wire winding

    SciTech Connect

    Metzinger, K.; Attaway, S.; Mello, F.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction of bobbin stresses generated by wire winding is now possible by combining a finite element structural code and a rigid body motion code. In this combination of computer codes, the bobbin and the individual wire wraps are considered to be axisymmetric. Each wire wrap is modeled with a single one-node element that has stiffness, mass and radius. The distributed radial load that a wire wrap exerts on the bobbin or other wires is calculated by using a relationship developed for a thin ring with a circular cross section. In this analysis, a layer of wire wraps with a specified tension is applied to a bobbin. The bobbin contracts radially until an equilibrium position is reached. When a second layer is added, the bobbin and each wire in the first layer reach a new equilibrium position. The tensions and the distributed radial loads associated with each displaced wire in the first layer change accordingly. As additional layers are added, the tensions and the distributed radial loads for all the previously applied wires are adjusted to reflect their new positions. The stresses in the bobbin can be determined for any number of wire layers. Bobbin fixturing during winding can be simulated by imposing suitable boundary conditions on the bobbin's finite element mesh. A simple test problem is presented, providing a comparison between the finite element results and a closed-form solution. Quantitative results for bobbin stresses and wire tensions and then presented for more realistic coils. The impact of bobbin fixturing and wire packing structure on the stresses in the bobbin are also discussed. 3 refs.

  12. Gold wire bonding onto flexible polymeric substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Hall; Alan M. Lyons; John D. Weld

    1995-01-01

    Copper clad polymeric materials were examined as potential substrates for wire bonded chip-on-flex circuits. New thermoplastic flex and a PTFE\\/woven glass substrate were evaluated along with polyimides using high temperature copper laminate adhesives and adhesiveless constructions. Initial wire bond pull tests indicated all the materials were suitable for high temperature gold wire bonding. Similarly, conventional glob top encapsulants were found

  13. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  15. Class 180°C polyurethane magnet wire insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Harber; R. J. Beeckman; D. F. Hobbs

    1997-01-01

    There has been increased customer interest in a Class 180°C magnet wire insulation which possesses the thermal wire properties of a Class 180°C solderable polyester-imide product (MW 77C), yet which has solderability characteristics of a conventional polyurethane insulation (MW 79, 80). A developed polymeric insulation fulfills this need for the fine wire market. The unique combination of properties of this

  16. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and...906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and...Provisions] Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain...circuit or other no less effective device approved by the Secretary...

  17. The thrombolytic action of a proteolytic fraction (P1G10) from Carica candamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Bilheiro, Rogério P; Braga, Ariadne D; Filho, Marcelo Limborço; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Agero, Ubirajara; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Sanchez, Eladio F; Salas, Carlos E; Lopes, Miriam T P

    2013-04-01

    A group of cysteine-proteolytic enzymes from C. candamarcensis latex, designated as P1G10 displays pharmacological properties in animal models following various types of lesions. This enzyme fraction expresses in vitro fibrinolytic effect without need for plasminogen activation. Based on this evidence, we assessed by intravital microscopy the effect of P1G10 on recanalization of microvessels after thrombus induction in the ear of hairless mice. Video playback of intravital microscopic images allowed measurement of blood flow velocity (mm/s) during the experimental procedure. Groups treated with 5 or 7.5mg/Kg P1G10 showed thrombolysis between 7-15min, without vessel obstruction. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated that platelet activation by ADP is impaired in a dose dependent manner following treatment with P1G10. The P1G10 action on plasma coagulation also showed that prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, ?g/uL) are increased in a dose dependent manner. In addition, P1G10 displayed fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities, both in a dose dependent manner. Each of these effects was suppressed by inhibition of the proteolytic activity of the fraction. The antithrombotic action of P1G10 can be explained by proteolytic cleavage of fibrinogen and fibrin, both key factors during formation of a stable thrombus. These results combined with prior evidence suggest that P1G10 has potential as thrombolytic agent. PMID:23473638

  18. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): Oceania Global Roads

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): Oceania Global Roads GDA 1994 Australia. 2013. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1). Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/groads-global-roads-open-access-v1

  19. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. Measuring the elastic properties of fine wire.

    PubMed

    Fallen, C T; Costello, J; Crawford, G; Schmidt, J A

    2001-01-01

    The elastic moduli of fine wires made from MP35N and 304SS used in implantable biomedical devices are assumed to be the same as those published in the literature. However, the cold working required to manufacture the wire significantly alters the elastic moduli of the material. We describe three experiments performed on fine wire made from MP35N and 304SS. The experimentally determined Young's and shear modulus of both wire types were significantly less than the moduli reported in the literature. Young's modulus differed by as much as 26%, and the shear modulus differed by as much as 14% from reported values. PMID:11745523

  1. Adjustable Bracket For Entry Of Welding Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wire-entry bracket on welding torch in robotic welding system provides for adjustment of angle of entry of welding wire over range of plus or minus 30 degrees from nominal entry angle. Wire positioned so it does not hide weld joint in view of through-the-torch computer-vision system part of robot-controlling and -monitoring system. Swiveling bracket also used on nonvision torch on which wire-feed-through tube interferes with workpiece. Angle simply changed to one giving sufficient clearance.

  2. Temperature measurement of fine wires by photothermal radiometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Borca-Tasciuc; G. Chen

    1997-01-01

    Wire drawing is a common industrial process and in situ temperature measurement techniques can be used for the quality control of the process. The temperature measurement of wire-type materials, however, is not easy because of ~1! the small diameter of the wire and ~2! the wire motion and vibration during the drawing process. Due to the motion of the wire,

  3. The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaochun Zhang; Caiwen Hu

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency

  4. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  5. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  6. Developments in fine pitch copper wire bonding production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Chylak

    2009-01-01

    Copper wire bonding has huge cost advantages over gold wire bonding. Wire bonding and materials companies have invested heavily in R&D in the last 2 or 3 years and are starting to see the fruits of their labor. Low pin count, heavy wire packages have already been converted to copper wire and many companies are in high volume production. An

  7. Quantitative Inspection of Broken Wire in Wire Ropes: Method and Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hongjian; Kechong; Shuzi

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a complete system for automatic inspecting broken wire in wire ropes. The development of this technique is reviewed. It is followed by a description of the hardware and software of the apparatus. The hardware uses magnetic concentrators and Hall effect sensors. Signal analysis is based on wavelet processing. Quantitative identification of broken wire in wire ropes is based on a pattern recognition approach of the neural network. PMID:10602576

  8. Vibronic coupling effects in the low-energy 1 2B1 g and 2 2B1 g states of the C 10H 8+ radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Pawlikowski, Marek

    1998-09-01

    The vibrational structure of the 1 2Au ( D0)?1 2B1 g ( D3) and 1 2Au ( D0)?2 2B1 g ( D4) bands in the absorption spectrum of the naphthalene cation is studied in terms of vibronic coupling theory. The model calculations supported by the FORS MCSCF type computations show that the vibrational structure of the 1 2Au ( D0)?1 2B1 g ( D3) band observed at ca. 21000 cm -1 is due to Franck-Condon and vibronic interactions introduced by the totally symmetric modes in the 1 2B1 g ( D3) and 2 2B1 g ( D4) states of the naphthalene cation. The strongest vibronic effect was found to arise in four modes with the ground state frequencies: ?1=514 cm -1 (CCC bending), ?2=725 cm -1 (skeletal breathing), ?5=1413 cm -1 (CC stretching) and ?7=1604 cm -1. On the other hand, the band-shape corresponding to the 1 2Au ( D0)?2 2B1 g ( D4) transition located at ca. 25000 cm -1 is very slightly affected by the vibronic coupling. For this transition the vibrational structure is predominately due to FC activity of ?1=514 cm -1, ?2=725 cm -1 and ?3=1037 cm -1 modes of the naphthalene cation. The estimates suggest that certain anomalies observed in the (weak) absorption bands of many cations and anions might be attributed to a competition between the vibronic coupling and Franck-Condon effects.

  9. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

  10. Fine structure of 6A 1g ? 4A 1g, 4E g ( 4G) absorption band in MnF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, S.; Al-Tel, S. Y.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Kitanah, R. M.-L.; Legrouze, A. A.; Saleh, A. M.

    2009-02-01

    Systematic spectroscopic measurements of the spectral lines in MnF 2 have been carried out in the temperature range 10-300 K. Observations of exciton and exciton-magnon sidebands in the fine structures of the 6A 1g ? 4A 1g, 4E g ( 4G) state of Mn +2 ions are reported at low temperatures for MnF 2. The fine structure of the C-band is mainly attributed to spin multiplicity in the ordered state. In addition, the pure exciton bands have been identified and the ratios for the separation energies between these lines are fitted with the ratios expected form Lande interval rule.

  11. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  12. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  13. Optimization of Stranded-Wire Windings and Comparison with Litz Wire on the Basis of Cost and Loss.

    E-print Network

    -evident that the individual copper strands that constitute litz wire should be insulated to prevent circulating currents and to effect the function of litz wire in reducing losses, stranded wire with uninsulated strands, which we of litz wire in [2]. Previous work on loss calculation in stranded wire is reviewed in Section I

  14. Simulation of Gradient-Coil-Induced Eddy Currents and Their Effects on a Head-Only HTS MRI Magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Poole; Hector Sanchez Lopez; Osamu Ozaki; Hitoshi Kitaguchi; Iwao Nakajima; Shin-ichi Urayama; Ken-ichi Sato; Hidenao Fukuyama; Stuart Crozier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the effects of eddy currents induced by switched gradient coils in the cylindrical cryostat structures of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic resonance imaging magnet. A novel network method was used with spectral decomposition of the current density in the ? -a nd z-directions to simulate the effects of X-gradient coils. Two types of active magnetic

  15. Fabrication of a high performance acoustic emission (AE) sensor to monitor and diagnose disturbances in HTS tapes and magnet systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Hyung Kim; Jung-Bin Song; Young Hun Jeong; Young-Jin Lee; Jong-Hoo Paik; Woo-Seok Kim; Haigun Lee

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) technique was introduced as a non-destructive method to monitor sudden deformation caused by local\\u000a heat concentrations and micro-cracks within superconductors and superconducting magnets. However, the detection of AE signals\\u000a in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape is not easy because of its low signal to noise ratio caused by the noise from\\u000a boiling liquid cryogen or

  16. Detection of early stage damage in carbon fiber reinforced polymers for aeronautical applications using an HTS SQUID magnetometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bonavolontà; G. Peluso; G. P. Pepe; M. Valentino

    2004-01-01

    .  We present an experimental characterization of \\u000amultidirectional fibre composites based on eddy current testing using HTS dc \\u000aSQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers. The \\u000acorrelation between the mechanical tolerance of CFRPs with different \\u000athickness and the phase gradient of the magnetic field generated by damage \\u000ais shown. The eddy current based SQUID NDE is used to detect damage not \\u000avisible

  17. a Compact Cooling System for Hts Power Cable Based on Thermal Siphon for Circulation of LN2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Sasaki, A.; Watanabe, H.; Kawahara, T.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the technologies of manufacturing of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes have achieved the critical current of 100 A. An era of industrial application of HTS power supply cables is coming. The liquid nitrogen (LN2) is usually used to keep the HTS cable at low temperature. LN2 must circulate inside the cryopipes, and the pump is used. However, the pump power is one of heat loads for the cryogenic system, and if it is high the effectiveness of the SC cable system decreases. In order to resolve this problem, a thermal siphon can be applied to circulate LN2. One of the possible system configurations have been analyzed recently by Radovinsky and Zhukovsky [1] along the basic idea proposed by S. Yamaguchi as collaboration between Chubu University and MIT. Here, we discuss the effectiveness of thermal siphon with a counter-flow circulation loop composed of a cryogen flow channel and an inner cable channel. Such configuration simplifies apparatus significantly, especially for short-distance applications.

  18. The Use of AlphaScreen Technology in HTS: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, Richard M; Reisine, Terry; Roby, Philippe; Rouleau, Nathalie; Illy, Chantal; Bossé, Roger; Bielefeld, Martina

    2008-01-01

    AlphaScreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen) is versatile assay technology developed to measuring analytes using a homogenous protocol. This technology is an example of a bead-based proximity assay and was developed from a diagnostic assay technology known as LOCI (Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Assay). Here, singlet oxygen molecules, generated by high energy irradiation of Donor beads, travel over a constrained distance (approx. 200 nm) to Acceptor beads. This results in excitation of a cascading series of chemical reactions, ultimately causing generation of a chemiluminescent signal. In the past decade, a wide variety of applications has been reported, ranging from detection of analytes involved in cell signaling, including protein:protein, protein:peptide, protein:small molecule or peptide:peptide interactions. Numerous homogeneous HTS-optimized assays have been reported using the approach, including generation of second messengers (such as accumulation of cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, inositol [1, 4, 5] trisphosphate or phosphorylated ERK) from liganded GPCRs or tyrosine kinase receptors, post-translational modification of proteins (such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, ubiquination and sumoylation) as well as protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Recently, the basic AlphaScreen technology was extended in that the chemistry of the Acceptor bead was modified such that emitted light is more intense and spectrally defined, thereby markedly reducing interference from biological fluid matrices (such as trace hemolysis in serum and plasma). In this format, referred to as AlphaLISA, it provides an alternative technology to classical ELISA assays and is suitable for high throughput automated fluid dispensing and detection systems. Collectively, AlphaScreen and AlphaLISA technologies provide a facile assay platform with which one can quantitate complex cellular processes using simple no-wash microtiter plate based assays. They provide the means by which large compound libraries can be screened in a high throughput fashion at a diverse range of therapeutically important targets, often not readily undertaken using other homogeneous assay technologies. This review assesses the current status of the technology in drug discovery, in general, and high throughput screening (HTS), in particular. PMID:20161822

  19. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...731-TA-1198 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations...injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in...antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

  3. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  4. Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

  5. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

  8. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.510 - Energized trolley wires; repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energized trolley wires; repair. 75.510 Section...Equipment-General § 75.510 Energized trolley wires; repair. [Statutory Provisions] Energized trolley wires may be repaired only by a...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12050 - Installation of trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of trolley wires. 56.12050 Section 56.12050 Mineral...MINES Electricity § 56.12050 Installation of trolley wires. Trolley wires shall be installed at least seven feet...

  12. 30 CFR 75.510 - Energized trolley wires; repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energized trolley wires; repair. 75.510 Section...Equipment-General § 75.510 Energized trolley wires; repair. [Statutory Provisions] Energized trolley wires may be repaired only by a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12050 - Installation of trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation of trolley wires. 57.12050 Section 57.12050 Mineral...and Underground § 57.12050 Installation of trolley wires. Trolley wires shall be installed at least seven feet...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57.12086 Mineral...Electricity Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12050 - Installation of trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation of trolley wires. 56.12050 Section 56.12050 Mineral...MINES Electricity § 56.12050 Installation of trolley wires. Trolley wires shall be installed at least seven feet...

  16. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. I. Isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), b(1)?(g)(+) states.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Drouin, Brian J; Müller, Holger S P

    2012-07-14

    We have developed a simultaneous global fit to the MW, THz, infrared, visible, and UV transitions of all six oxygen isotopologues, (16)O(16)O, (16)O(17)O, (16)O(18)O, (17)O(17)O, (17)O(18)O, (18)O(18)O, with the objective of predicting all transitions below the O((3)P) + O((3)P) dissociation threshold as well as the B(3)?(u) (-) state from O((3)P)+O((1)D) within state-of-the-art experimental uncertainty. Here, we report an isotopically invariant Dunham fit for the lowest three electronic states, X(3)?(g)(-), a(1)?(g), and b(1)?(g)(+). Experimental transition frequencies involving these three states of all six O(2) isotopologues were critically reviewed and incorporated into the analysis. For the (16)O(16)O isotopologue, experimental data sample vibrational states v = 0-31 for X(3)?(g)(-), v = 0-10 for a(1)?(g), and v = 0-12 for b(1)?(g)(+). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis that simultaneously fits spectra from all six O(2) isotopologues. PMID:22803533

  17. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  18. Ultrasonic aluminum wire bonding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    An aluminum wire bonding process was developed. Techniques were developed for bonding large diameter wire to a power transistor and evaporated gold. Bond schedules were made to be used in producing hybrid microcircuits. Calibration techniques utilizing an elctromagnetic transducer to measure tool movement proved successful. The magnetic transducer is best suited as a trouble-shooting tool.

  19. The Eulerian buckling test for orthodontic wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. De Santis; F. Dolci; A. Laino; R. Martina; L. Ambrosio; L. Nicolais

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Orthodontic treatment is mainly dependent on the loads developed by metal wires. The load developed by a buckled orthodontic wire is of great concern for molar distalization and cannot be simply derived from mechanical properties measured through classical tests (i.e. tensile, torsion, and bending). A novel testing method, based on the Eulerian approach of a simple supported beam, has

  20. The Compatible Technologies of Wire and Radio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Coggeshall

    1962-01-01

    During the 50-year history of the Institute of Radio Engineers the respective technologies of wire and submarine cable telegraphy and telephony, on the one hand, and mobile and point-to-point radio, broadcasting, and television, on the other, have been commingled in an ever increasing degree. Initial contributions leading to the mutuality of the wire and radio branches of applied science came

  1. Stimulated emission in semiconductor quantum wire heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kapon; D. M. Hwang; R. Bhat

    1989-01-01

    We report the first observation of stimulated emission in quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wires. Amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated emission spectra of the GaAs\\/AlGaAs quantum wires exhibit fine structure arising from transitions between lateral, one-dimensional electron and hole subbands. The observed subband separations, ~10 meV, are consistent with the calculated ones.

  2. Coaxial Wiring Structures in Printed Circuit Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Aoyagi; Katsuya Kikuchi; K. Shibata; H. Nakagawa; S. Imai; T. Wada; H. Fujita

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a printed circuit board (PCB) technology with coaxial wiring structures. The coaxial PCB was designed for a prototype model in order to verify the high frequency and high-speed signal transmission characteristics of the coaxial wiring, where high frequency low loss dielectric material was used as insulation layer. It was fabricated by buildup PCB process, additionally using NC

  3. Technology update I: Wiring prognostic tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Teal; W. Larsen

    2003-01-01

    Current wire system inspection processes do not compliment aircraft electrical and electronic systems technology nor do many proposed or existing systems. The volt\\/ohm meter, the meg\\/ohm meter, and visual techniques can represent the wire inspection tools in common use today. These two meters only measure conductivity, connectivity, and voltage breakdown strength of the insulation. Visual techniques (mirror and flashlight methods)

  4. Butt welder for fine gage wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabana, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    Device welds fine gage wire 0.001-in. in diameter. It permits welding of thermocouple junctions of the same size with straight sections adjacent to the junctions. Electrode arrangement provides constant pressure on the joint during welding while fully supporting the wires to prevent buckling or movement.

  5. Design Considerations for Wire Bonding Power Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Silverberg; Mike McKeown

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the package design issues that Engineers should consider when developing a large aluminum wire wedge bonding process for use in power hybrid packages. With electronic power packages getting denser and thermal management more critical, the interconnection aspects must be fully proven and have higher reliability characteristics than ever before. Wire bonding is one of the main

  6. Crack mechanism in wire bonding joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ramminger; P. Türkes; G. Wachutka

    1998-01-01

    High voltage and high current power modules are key components for traction applications. While the modules are exposed to harsh stress conditions all over their lifetime, high reliability is of decisive importance in this field of application. In power electronic packages wire bonding is used for the electrical interconnection from the chips to the output pins. Wire bond lift-off and

  7. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  8. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  9. Tagging Herring With Coded-wire Microtags

    E-print Network

    Tagging Herring With Coded-wire Microtags KENNETH J. KRIEGER Introduction An efficient method of marking large numbers of herring. Clupea harengus, has application in separating stocks. de- scribing) ABSTRACT- A coded-wire microtag sys- tem can be used to tag Pacific herring. C1upea harengus pallasi. Adult

  10. Motion control of the accumulator flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Q.

    1990-04-23

    Flying wire systems for the Fermilab Accumulator are being constructed in order to measure the transverse beam profiles during stacking. Each device passes a 25 micron carbon filament through the beam transversely at a constant velocity of 10 m/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary particle cascades, which in turn produce photons in a scintillator. A photomultiplier tube is used to measure the light intensity while the wire position is determined by an optical encoder. There are six Accumulator flying wire systems. Four of them are to be used in normal stacking operation: two horizontal and two vertical flying wires are in the AP40 high dispersion section, covering the core orbit and the extraction orbit respectively. The other two horizontal wires are for measuring the momentum distribution of the beam on the central orbit at the Accumulator transition energy. At the AP40 high dispersion region a wire covers the central orbit, the other is in the AP30 low dispersion section. The operation and control of the flying wire system is discussed in this paper. 11 figs.

  11. Motion control of the accumulator flying wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    Flying wire systems for the Fermilab Accumulator are being constructed in order to measure the transverse beam profiles during stacking. Each device passes a 25 micron carbon filament through the beam transversely at a constant velocity of 10 m\\/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary particle cascades, which in turn produce photons in a scintillator. A

  12. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  13. Wire-antenna designs using genetic algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward E. Altshuler; Derek S. Linden

    1997-01-01

    There is a large class of electromagnetic radiators designated as wire antennas. As a rule, an inductive process is used to design these antennas. Either an integral equation is formulated or a simulator is used that gives the current distributions on the wires of the antenna, from which the electromagnetic properties of the antenna can then be determined. Once the

  14. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  15. Cratering on thermosonic copper wire ball bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tan Chee; Daud, Abdul Razak

    2002-06-01

    Copper wire bonding offers several mechanical and electrical advantages as well as cost saving compared to its gold wire predecessor. Despite these benefits, silicon cratering, which completes the fracture and removal of bond pad underlayers, has been a major hurdle to overcome in copper wire bonding. Copper wire is harder than gold, and thus needs greater ultrasonic power and bond force to bond it onto metal pads such as aluminum. This paper reports a study on the influence of wire materials, bond pad hardness, and bonding-machine parameters (i.e., ultrasonic power and bond force) on silicon cratering phenomenon. Ultrasonic power and z-axis bond force were identified as the most critical bonding machine parameters in silicon cratering defects. A combination of greater bond force and lower ultrasonic power avoids silicon cratering and gives the desired effects. Results also show that a harder bond pad provides relatively good protection from silicon cratering.

  16. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  17. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section 234...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  19. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section 234...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  20. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section 234...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  2. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  4. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section 234...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section 234...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  6. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be...

  7. Overview of low-field NMR measurements using HTS rf-SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Qiu, L. Q.; Krause, H.-J.; Dong, H.; Braginski, A. I.; Tanaka, S.; Offenhaeusser, A.

    2009-10-01

    High-resolution low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) investigations of liquid samples, recorded using a HTS radio frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are overviewed in this paper. The measurements were performed either in a magnetically shielded room (MSR) or in the Earth’s Magnetic Field (EMF). In MSR, measurements with Larmor frequencies ( fL) ranging from 2 Hz to 40 kHz were demonstrated. The natural spectral linewidth of water and the scalar coupling spectra of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and of fluorobenzene were determined. An additional nitrogen-cooled resonant LC input circuit was also introduced in higher fL (>10 kHz) region to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio up to an order of magnitude. The influence of the speed of decay of the polarizing magnetic field ( BP) on the free-induction-decay (FID) signal was analyzed quantitatively. In EMF, NMR spectra of different liquid samples were recorded. To compensate the line broadening due to EMF fluctuations we used frequency-adjusted averaging.

  8. Recent Development Status of Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Nakano, K.; Kato, T.

    2014-05-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  9. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1?3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  10. Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries.

    PubMed

    Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D

    2013-03-01

    The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation, and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of an HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z'>0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (K(I)=550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

  11. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Mukoyama, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current ( Ic) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  12. Mechanical and electric characteristics of vacuum impregnated no-insulation HTS coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, A.-rong; Kim, Seokho; Park, Minwon; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Taejun

    2014-09-01

    For the conduction cooling application, epoxy impregnation is inevitable to enhance the thermal conduction. However, there have been several research results on the delamination problem with coated conductor and the main cause of the delamination is related with the different thermal contraction between epoxy, the insulation layer and the weak conductor. To avoid this problem, the amount of epoxy and insulation layer between conductors should be minimized or removed. Therefore, no insulation (NI) winding method and impregnation after dry winding can be considered to solve the problem. The NI coil winding method is very attractive due to high mechanical/thermal stability for the special purpose of DC magnets by removing the insulation layer. In this paper, the NI coil winding method and vacuum impregnation are applied to a HTS coil to avoid the delamination problem and enhance the mechanical/thermal stability for the conduction cooling application. Through the charging/discharging operation, electric/thermal characteristics are investigated at 77 K and 30 K.

  13. Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator with slit-type heat exchangers for HTS superconducting motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Taekyung; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2011-06-01

    A cryogenic refrigeration system is one of the indispensable components for cooling superconducting motor or generator. Among various configurations of cryogenic refrigeration system, the on-board refrigeration system is considered to be attractive for compactness and small heat leak. In order to turn this concept into reality, we focus on two essential points; development of the specific structure for on-board refrigeration and optimal design of the refrigerator. Since the on-board refrigeration system should not create unbalanced vibration, the inline Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is considered as a good candidate and more concrete and efficient structure is developed under the design constraints. The dynamic absorber is used to maintain the dynamic stability of the single acting linear compressor. To increase thermal Carnot efficiency with the on-board Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator, slit-type heat exchangers are implemented and flow straighteners are carefully designed by the three-dimensional CFD simulation. The overall configuration of the Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is designed and fabricated by the optimal process. The present on-board refrigerator has the cooling capacity of 7 W at 59.5 K with the Carnot efficiency of 10.9%. According to these experimental results, the pulse tube refrigerator as the on-board refrigeration system possesses a sufficient thermal efficiency despite the restricted design configuration. The on-board refrigeration is considered as a useful method for cooling HTS superconducting motor.

  14. Evaluation of joint interface of friction stir welding between dissimilar metals using HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashiko, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Yasui, T.; Takenaka, H.; Todaka, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated conductive properties of joint interfaces of friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar metals, stainless steel SUS304 and aluminum A6063, using a SQUID nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. With current injection method, the current maps above the FSW specimens jointed under various conditions were measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. The conductivities of the joint interfaces, which were estimated from the current maps, differed between the joint conditions. By destructive tests using optical microscope, large voids were observed on the joint interfaces with low welding speed that generated excess heating. In case of one specimen, which was welded with welding speed of 500 and 200 mm/min, the conductivity of the former was higher than that of the latter, although the inside voids in the respective regions were not much different. From these results, it is suggested that the current maps were influenced not only by the conductivity of the joint interface but also by inside voids. By hardness test on the SUS boards near the interfaces, only the SUS jointed with 200 mm/min was about half softer than its matrix.

  15. Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

  16. The Improvement of Sweep Stiffness and Thermomechanical Properties of Wire Bonds for Pure Gold Wire with Dopant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang-Kuang Kung; Hung-Shyong Chen; Jeng-Nan Lee; Yun-Ping Sun

    2007-01-01

    The materials used in this study were three types of gold wire: SR-Y, high-loop wire; FA type, middle-loop wire; and GL-2, low-loop wire. All of these wires are composed of high-purity gold with various dopants added to obtain greater strength and stiffness. The three types of gold wire are gold alloys of 99.99% purity with less than 100 ppm of

  17. Isotropic round-wire multifilament cuprate superconductor for generation of magnetic fields above 30 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, D. C.; Jiang, J.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Kametani, F.; Scheuerlein, C.; Dalban-Canassy, M.; Matras, M.; Chen, P.; Craig, N. C.; Lee, P. J.; Hellstrom, E. E.

    2014-04-01

    Magnets are the principal market for superconductors, but making attractive conductors out of the high-temperature cuprate superconductors (HTSs) has proved difficult because of the presence of high-angle grain boundaries that are generally believed to lower the critical current density, Jc. To minimize such grain boundary obstacles, HTS conductors such as REBa2Cu3O7-x and (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x are both made as tapes with a high aspect ratio and a large superconducting anisotropy. Here we report that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) can be made in the much more desirable isotropic, round-wire, multifilament form that can be wound or cabled into arbitrary geometries and will be especially valuable for high-field NMR magnets beyond the present 1 GHz proton resonance limit of Nb3Sn technology. An appealing attribute of this Bi-2212 conductor is that, being without macroscopic texture, it contains many high-angle grain boundaries but nevertheless attains a very high Jc of 2,500 A mm-2 at 20 T and 4.2 K. The large potential of the conductor has been demonstrated by building a small coil that generated almost 2.6 T in a 31 T background field. This demonstration that grain boundary limits to high Jc can be practically overcome underlines the value of a renewed focus on grain boundary properties in non-ideal geometries.

  18. Study of 6 mil Cu Wire Replacing 10–15 mil Al Wire for Maximizing Wire-Bonding Process on Power ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingwei Jiang; Ronglu Sun; Youmin Yu; Zhijie Wang

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) wire-bonding with its advantage in cost, mechanical enhanced characteristic, and better electrical performance is a developing alternative interconnection technology to replace gold (Au) and aluminum (Al) wires in IC packaging manufacturing. This paper discussed the experimental study of using 6-mil Cu wire on an ASM wire bonder to replace 10-15 mil Al wire in a power IC device.

  19. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  20. Majoranas in Noisy Kitaev Wires

    E-print Network

    Ying Hu; Zi Cai; Mikhail A. Baranov; Peter Zoller

    2015-06-23

    Robustness of edge states and non-Abelian excitations of topological states of matter promises quantum memory and quantum processing, which is naturally immune against microscopic imperfections such as static disorder. However, topological properties will not in general protect quantum system from time-dependent disorder or noise. Here we take the example of a network of Kitaev wires with Majorana edge modes storing qubits to investigate the effects of classical noise in the crossover from the quasi-static to the fast fluctuation regime. We present detailed results for the Majorana edge correlations, and fidelity of braiding operations for both global and local noise sources preserving parity symmetry, such as random chemical potentials and phase fluctuations. While in general noise will induce heating and dephasing, we identify examples of long-lived quantum correlations in presence of fast noise due to motional narrowing, where external noise drives the system rapidly between the topological and non-topological phases.

  1. Lack of Association of the APOL1 G3 Haplotype in African Americans with ESRD.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nicholette D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Lea, Janice P; Okusa, Mark D; Kimberly, Robert P; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I

    2015-05-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 variants are strongly associated with progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry. Selection for these variants occurred as a result of protection from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Resequencing of this region in 10 genetically and geographically distinct African populations residing in HAT endemic regions identified eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strong linkage disequilibrium and comprising a novel G3 haplotype. To determine whether the APOL1 G3 haplotype was associated with nephropathy, G1, G2, and G3 SNPs and 70 ancestry informative markers spanning the genome were genotyped in 937 African Americans with nondiabetic ESRD, 965 African Americans with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1029 non-nephropathy controls. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, APOL1 G1/G2 risk (recessive), and global African ancestry, the G3 haplotype was not significantly associated with ESRD (P=0.05 for nondiabetic ESRD, P=0.57 for diabetes-associated ESRD, and P=0.27 for all-cause ESRD). We conclude that variation in APOL1 G3 makes a nominal, if any, contribution to ESRD in African Americans; G1 and G2 variants explain the vast majority of nondiabetic nephropathy susceptibility. PMID:25249559

  2. Oxygen consumption during cold exposure at 2.1 G in rats adapted to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J.; Patterson, S.; Monson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The thermoregulation ability of rats exposed to various gravitational fields is examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 22 C and 1 G, and 9 C and 2.1 G in experiment one, 1 G, 2.4 G, 5.8 G and 22 + or - 1.5 C in experiment two, and 1 G, 19-22 C, and 5 C in experiment three. It is observed that the core temperature in the control rats was 36.8 + or 0.4 C at 22C and 30.8 + or - 0.6 C at 9 C, and oxygen consumption dropped from 37 + or - 0.3 C core temperature at 22 C, 36.4 + or - 0.3 C at 9 C, 0.4 oxygen consumption was 8.18 + or - 0.9 ml/min at 22 C, and 14.2 + or - 0.4 ml/min at 9 C. The data from experiment two reveal that tail temperature in the control rats peaked at 2.4 G and at 5.8 G for the acclimated rats, and in experiment three a greater decrease in core temperature is detected in the 2.1-G rats. It is noted that prior acclimation to 2.1 G enhances the thermoregulation ability when exposed to the cold.

  3. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  4. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  5. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires, shall be insulated adequately and fully...

  6. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires, shall be insulated adequately and fully...

  7. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  8. Total recall: an update on orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shantharaj, Ravi; Batra, Panchali; Subbiah, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bhagya; Kudagi, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure largely based on use of arch wires for storing and distributing biologically tolerable forces by means of which position of teeth is altered. Advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer arch wire materials, opening new vistas, in orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are in the market today and their usage has profound implications on appliance mechanics, and are very much different from stainless steel which is popular even today. The dentists who practise orthodontics have to therefore clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the arch wire most suited for attaining specific treatment goals. PMID:25745725

  9. Transport in partially equilibrated inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Levchenko, A.; Micklitz, T.; Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ. Berlin; Centre de Physique Theorique

    2010-01-01

    We study transport properties of weakly interacting one-dimensional electron systems including on an equal footing thermal equilibration due to three-particle collisions and the effects of large-scale inhomogeneities. We show that equilibration in an inhomogeneous quantum wire is characterized by the competition of interaction processes which reduce the electrons total momentum and such which change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. We find that the combined effect of interactions and inhomogeneities can dramatically increase the resistance of the wire. In addition, we find that the interactions strongly affect the thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous wires and calculate their thermal conductance, thermopower, and Peltier coefficient.

  10. Plastic Deformation of 2D Crumpled Wires

    E-print Network

    M A F Gomes; V P Brito; A S O Coelho; C C Donato

    2008-11-17

    When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected trough channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper it is investigated this packing process but using plastic wires which give origin to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, it is studied experimentally the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility, and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.

  11. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  12. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires, and connectors, Medelius devised the SWR. "It came down to what was affected when a wire is short circuited or opened," he says. "We worked out a few equations based on physical principles." The SWR proved very sensitive, and the technology was patented.

  13. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  14. Bright Core-Shell Semiconductor Quantum Wires

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Hoy, Jessica; Wayman, Virginia L.; Steinberg, Lindsey K.; Loomis, Richard A.; Buhro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum wires are reported having ensemble photoluminescence efficiencies as high as 25% under low excitation-power densities. High photoluminescence efficiencies are achieved by formation of a monolayer CdS shell on the CdTe quantum wires. Like other semiconductor nanowires, the CdTe quantum wires may contain frequent wurtzite–zinc-blende structural alternations along their lengths. The present results demonstrate that the optical properties, emission-peak shape and photoluminescence efficiencies, are independent of the presence or absence of such structural alternations. PMID:23095017

  15. A Novel Filter Construction Utilizing HTS Reaction-Type Filter to Improve Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio of Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futatsumori, Shunichi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Teru; Yamanaka, Kazunori

    We propose a new band selective stop filter construction to decrease the out of band intermodulation distortion (IMD) noise generated in the transmitting power amplifier. Suppression of IMD noise directly improves the adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR). A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) device with extremely high-Q performance with very small hybrid IC pattern would make it possible to implement the proposed filter construction as a practical device. To confirm the effectiveness of the HTS reaction-type filter (HTS-RTF) in improving ACLR, investigations based on both experiments and numerical analyses are carried out. The structure of a 5-GHz split open-ring resonator is investigated; its targets include high-unload Q-factor, low current densities, and low radiation. A designed 5-GHz HTS-RTF with 4MHz suppression bandwidth and more than 40dB MHz-1 sharp skirt is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The measured ACLR values are improved by a maximum of 12.8dB and are constant up to the passband signal power of 40dBm. In addition, to examine the power efficiency improvement offered by noise suppression of the HTS-RTF, numerical analyses based on measured results of gallium nitride HEMT power amplifier characteristics are conducted. The analyzed results shows the drain efficiency of the amplifier can be improved to 44.2% of the amplifier with the filter from the 15.7% of the without filter.

  16. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  17. Optimal Design of Shape Memory Alloy Wire Bundle Actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J. De Laurentis; Avi Fisch; Jason Nikitczuk; Constantinos Mavroidis

    2002-01-01

    This research studied the optimal design of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) muscle wire bundle actuators. Current literature describes the use of multiple muscle wires placed in parallel to increase the lifting capabilities of an SMA actuator, which however, is limited to wires of like -diameter. A constrained optimization problem was formulated, with constraints on the maximum number of wires, voltage

  18. What's in the Walls: Copper, Fiber, or Coaxial Wiring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents planning guidelines for wiring specifications for K-12 schools by reviewing advantages and disadvantages of using copper, fiber-optic, and coaxial wire. Addresses the future of network wiring and educational technology, and makes recommendations. A sidebar describes the physical appearance of different types of wire and a table compares…

  19. Copper wire bonding challenges and solutions of small outline packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Lin; C. E. Tan; Y. J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Moving towards next level of major cost saving in small outline packages, conversion from gold wire to copper wire became necessary action. With normal production expectations of fast bonding and good quality performance on flimsy leadframe, copper wire challenges of small outline packages were incredible. Furthermore, situation became worse when new copper wire process was found requiring additional bonding time

  20. Reliability of copper wire bonding in humidity environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Liu; Zhenqing Zhao; Qiang Chen; Jianwei Zhou; Maohua Du; Senyun Kim; Jonghyun Chae; Myungkee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Copper wire bonding is being developed rapidly in recent years to replace expensive gold wire for electronic packaging. However, one issue about reliability in humidity environment causes risk in its application. The copper wire-aluminum pad interface degradation usually leads to electrical open failure. Present paper studied all the 5 factors including pad finish of chip, molding compound, wire bonding parameters,

  1. Diamagnetism in wire medium metamaterials: theory and experiment

    E-print Network

    Yagupov, Ilya; Kosulnikov, Sergei; Hasan, Mehedi; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Strong diamagnetic response of wire medium with finite wire radius is reported. Contrary to the previous works where it was assumed that the wire medium exhibits only the electric response, we show that the non-zero magnetic susceptibility has to be taken into account for proper effective medium description of the wire medium. Analytical and numerical results are supported by the experimental measurements.

  2. Spectral Characteristics of Exploding Wires for Optical Maser Excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Stevenson; W. Reuter; N. Braslau; P. P. Sorokin; A. J. Landon

    1963-01-01

    As pulsed light sources, exploding wires can be used to provide intense narrow spectral lines as well as the characteristic continuum of very high temperature blackbodies. The surface brightness depends on the wire material and conditions under which the wire is exploded. Optimum conditions for 100–500-?sec long light pulses from wires exploded in air have been found for tungsten, tantalum,

  3. Optimization of copper wire bonding on Al-Cu metallization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luu T. Nguyen; David McDonald; Anselm R. Danker; Peter Ng

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the successful implementation of copper wire ball bonding for selected TO-220 devices on a high volume commercial scale. Since August 1992, copper wire bonding has been used in production at National Semiconductor Corp. The development of copper wire ball bonding involves a three-prong approach: optimum pad metal composition, modifications to the wire bonder and optimization of the

  4. Fine pitch Cu wire bonding — As good as gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd K. Appelt; William T. Chen; Andy Tseng; Yi-Shao Lai

    2010-01-01

    Fine pitch gold wire bonding is the pre-eminent technology for die interconnection and has been advanced to very fine wire diameters. Copper wire bonding has been used for many years as well but was relegated to large wire diameters in automotive and power applications. The surge in gold commodity prices to more than 1,000 USD has fueled great interest in

  5. Reliability of Cu Wire Bonding to Al Metallization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. England; T. Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The use of Cu wire for thermosonic ball bonding presents several advantages over Au wire. These advantages include significant cost savings due to cheaper raw material cost, higher electrical conductivity for faster die functionality, and much slower intermetallic compound (IMC) growth than Au wire. There are still some challenges that must be overcome, however, before Cu wire bonding can be

  6. Effects of plasma cleaning on the reliability of wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Nowful; S. C. Lok; S.-W. Ricky Lee

    2001-01-01

    The yield of wire bonding predominantly depends on the surface characteristics of wire bond pads. The contamination on bond pads may result in low ball shear\\/wire pull strength and poor strength uniformity. Therefore, it is essential to remove the contaminants from the bond pad surface prior to wire bonding. In the present study, the effects of plasma cleaning on the

  7. Effect of the Properties of Gold Wire on the Ability of Low-looped Wire Bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Lan Cheng; Yu-Cai Huang

    2006-01-01

    With the advents and applications of modern packages that employ very thin, die stacking or multi-tiered technologies, low-looped wire bonding with conventional gold wire attracted more attentions. The effect of the size and type of gold wire on the bonding quality, low-looped ability were studied and analyzed. After the serial experiments, such as ball pull test, ball shear test, HAZ

  8. Evaluation of Wiring Constructions for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Stavnes, Mark W.; Dickman, John E.; Burkhardt, Linda A.; Woodford, Lynn M.; Ide, James R.; Muegge, ED

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) program to develop lightweight, reliable, and safe wiring insulations for aerospace applications is being performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). As part of this effort, a new wiring construction utilizing high strength PTFE (poly tetrafluoroethylene) as the insulation has been tested and compared with the existing military standard polyimide-based MIL-W-81381 wire construction. Electrical properties which were investigated included ac corona inception and extinction voltages (sea level and 60,000 feet), time/current to smoke, and wire fusing time. The two constructions were also characterized in terms of their mechanical properties of flexural strength, abrasion resistance (23 C and 150 C), and dynamic cut-through (23 C and 200 C). The results obtained in this testing effort are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. An advanced arc track resistant airframe wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tensolite, a custom cable manufacturer specializing in high temperature materials as the dielectric medium, develops an advance arc track resistant airframe wire called Tufflite 2000. Tufflite 2000 has the following advantages over the other traditional wires: lighter weight and smaller in diameter; excellent wet and dry arc track resistance; superior dynamic cut-through performance even at elevated temperatures; flight proven performance on Boeing 737 and 757 airplanes; and true 260 C performance by utilizing Nickel plated copper conductors. This paper reports the different tests performed on Tufflite 2000: accelerated aging, arc resistance (wet and dry), dynamic cut through, humidity resistance, wire-to-wire abrasion, flammability, smoke, weight, notch sensitivity, flexibility, and markability. It particularly focuses on the BSI (British Standards Institute) dry arc resistance test and BSI wet arc tracking.

  10. Superconducting wire for NMR-tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Filkin, V.Y.; Plashkin, E.I.; Salunin, N.I.; Morozova, T.A.; Zelenskiy, G.K.; Vlasova, L.V.; Drobyshev, V.A.; Zinovev, V.G.; Yakovlev, B.V. (All-Union Scientific and Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, 123060 Moscow (SU))

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the fabrication of Nb-Ti base superconducting wires having the superconductor packing factor of 15-20% and superconducting filaments 70-80 {mu}m dia. Three methods of precursor fabrication were tried. The NbTi-50 alloy base superconducting wire was fabricated to be used for the magnet system of a NMR-tomograph; the wire diameter is 0.85 mm; the packing factor is 16%; the maximum length of a single piece is 29 km{sub 2}. The critical current density is 6.1 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} in the magnetic field of 1 T. The paper also presents the superconducting properties of similar wire on the NbTi-55 alloy base.

  11. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, T. R., E-mail: phystrzhan@gmail.com; Chui, S. T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  12. Frequency Responses Of Hot-Wire Anemometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes theoretical study of frequency response of constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer, with view toward increasing frequency response while maintaining stable operation in supersonic flow. Effects of various circuit parameters discussed.

  13. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  14. Side wire feed for welding apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Coaxial electrode arrangement has solid central electrode, insulated outer electrode, and transverse channel for feeding wire through tip of electrode assembly. Polymeric insulation is thrust aside by pressure, which is provided by separately operated mechanism acting through central electrode.

  15. Development of tunable terahertz wire lasers

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qing

    We report a novel tuning mechanism based on a “wire-laser” with subwavelength transverse dimensions(w??). By manipulating the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, frequency tuning of ?137GHz (3.6%) is demonstrated ...

  16. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, T. R.; Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  17. An advanced arc track resistant airframe wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J.

    1995-11-01

    Tensolite, a custom cable manufacturer specializing in high temperature materials as the dielectric medium, develops an advance arc track resistant airframe wire called Tufflite 2000. Tufflite 2000 has the following advantages over the other traditional wires: lighter weight and smaller in diameter; excellent wet and dry arc track resistance; superior dynamic cut-through performance even at elevated temperatures; flight proven performance on Boeing 737 and 757 airplanes; and true 260 C performance by utilizing Nickel plated copper conductors. This paper reports the different tests performed on Tufflite 2000: accelerated aging, arc resistance (wet and dry), dynamic cut through, humidity resistance, wire-to-wire abrasion, flammability, smoke, weight, notch sensitivity, flexibility, and markability. It particularly focuses on the BSI (British Standards Institute) dry arc resistance test and BSI wet arc tracking.

  18. Systems Analysis Teaching: The Kengor Wire Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, W. J., Jr.; Derrick, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a group of systems analysis courses which utilizes a computer model of a company which makes house wire to provide a realistic representation of the complexities involved in industrial management. (CP)

  19. Endstates in multichannel spinless p-wave superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, M.-T.; Kells, G.; Duckheim, M.; Meidan, D.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2012-09-01

    Multimode spinless p-wave superconducting wires with a width W much smaller than the superconducting coherence length ? are known to have multiple low-energy subgap states localized near the wire's ends. Here we compare the typical energies of such endstates for various terminations of the wire: A superconducting wire coupled to a normal-metal stub, a weakly disordered superconductor wire and a wire with smooth confinement. Depending on the termination, we find that the energies of the subgap states can be higher or lower than for the case of a rectangular wire with hard-wall boundaries.

  20. Air flow sensing using micro-wire-bonded hair-like hot-wire anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, M. M.; Peterson, R. L.; Najafi, K.

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a novel, low-cost and high-performance hot-wire air flow sensor which utilizes a bond-wire as the sensing element. Standard wire-bonding methods are used to form the hot-wire sensor, similar to those used in post-process integrated circuit (IC) packaging, so sensor fabrication is IC-compatible. The bond-wire extends above the surface of the substrate, saving the valuable chip area and allowing the formation of dense arrays of sensors for this and other applications such as inertial sensors. This hair-like hot-wire anemometer offers high accuracy, high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. Fabricated aluminum and platinum wire flow sensors have a measurement range from 1 cm s-1 to 17.5 m s-1, with an accuracy of 0.06% (platinum wire, 3.3 V) in the low flow regime (<50 cm s-1) and 2.5% (aluminum wire, 3.3 V) in the high flow regime (>2 m s-1).

  1. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongfeng; Shiwa, Mitsuharu

    2014-01-01

    Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/?Hz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor. PMID:24940865

  2. Image beam from a wire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, E. E.; Hovenier, J. N.; de Visser, P. J.; Gao, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the formation of a narrow beam from a long (L ?? ) laser with subwavelength transverse dimensions (wire laser) as an image of the subwavelength laser waveguide formed by a spherical lens. The beam is linearly diverging with the angle determined by the ratio of the wavelength to the lens radius, while the minimum beam spot size is the same as that of the image of a point source. We realize such a beam experimentally using a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser.

  3. Multiple crossovers in interacting quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindermann, M.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2006-09-01

    We study tunneling of electrons into and between interacting wires in the spin-incoherent regime subject to a magnetic field. The tunneling currents follow power laws of the applied voltage with exponents that depend on whether the electron spins at the relevant length scales are polarized or disordered. The crossover length (or energy) scale is exponential in the applied field. In a finite-size wire multiple crossovers can occur.

  4. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  5. Fabrication of terahertz wire-grid polarizers.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Anni; Väyrynen, Juha; Hassinen, Sami; Tuovinen, Hemmo; Mutanen, Jarkko; Itkonen, Tommi; Silfsten, Pertti; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Kuittinen, Markku; Mönkkönen, Kari; Venäläinen, Tapani

    2012-12-10

    Wire-grid polarizers for terahertz region were fabricated by manufacturing triangular grating using a ruling-based, ultraprecision diamond machining process and replicating the pattern into polymethylpentene (TPX) and cyklo-olefin copolymer (COC) sheets using hot embossing. On top of the imprinted structures, aluminum was evaporated in an oblique angle, forming an aluminum wire grid. The achieved extinction rate was over 150 for TPX polarizers and near 1000 for COC polarizers. PMID:23262530

  6. Free abrasive wire saw machining of ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Hsu; C. S. Chen; C. C. Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Currently, many kinds of ceramics are used in advanced industrial fields due to their superior mechanical properties, such\\u000a as thermal, wear, corrosion resistance, and lightweight features. Wire saw machining ceramic (Al2O3) was investigated by ultrasonic vibration in this study. Taguchi approach is a powerful design tool for high-quality systems.\\u000a Material removal rate, wafer surface roughness, steel wire wear, kerf width,

  7. Gold wire bonding onto flexible polymeric substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hall; A. M. Lyons; J. D. Weld

    1996-01-01

    As part of a program to develop very thin, low cost packages using available technology, copper clad polymeric materials were examined as potential substrates for high temperature wire bonded chip-on-flex circuits. New thermoplastic flex and a PTFE\\/woven glass substrate were evaluated along with polyimides using high temperature copper laminate adhesives and adhesiveless constructions. Initial wire bond pull tests indicated all

  8. Exploiting level sensitive latches in wire pipelining 

    E-print Network

    Seth, Vikram

    2005-02-17

    interconnect delay allowed between two flip-flops is T -Tsetup - Tprop -Tskew. Hence, the minimal latency uv for flip-flop based pipelined wire (u,v) is give by: 1 -= skewpropsetup uv uv TTTT tl (1) When latches... in one cycle. Then the only delay overhead in addition to the interconnect delay will be the propagation delay T?prop of a latch. Therefore, the minimal feasible latency ?uv for latched based pipelined wire (u,v) is: 7 1...

  9. Tracking with wire chambers at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Gundy, M.C.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-07-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tacking systems that meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 13 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Wireless Extensions of Wired Industrial Communications Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluca Cena; Adriano Valenzano; Stefano Vitturi

    2007-01-01

    Wireless (sub)networks are becoming appealing for their characteristics also for the industrial automation and manufacturing scenarios. Since they cannot be considered as a total replacement for more traditional wired communications, at least in the short\\/mid-term, it is worth focusing on their integration with popular industrial wired solutions in order to achieve efficiency and performance for the overall networked system. This

  11. Optical interconnect on printed wiring board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Karppinen; Jukka-Tapani Makinen; Kari Kataja; Antti Tanskanen; Teemu Alajoki; Pentti Karioja; Marika Immonen; Jorma Kivilahti

    2004-01-01

    Integration of high-speed parallel optical interconnects into printed wiring boards (PWB) is studied. The aim is a hybrid optical-electrical board including both electrical wiring and embedded polymer waveguides. Robust optical coupling between the waveguide and the emitter\\/detector should be achieved by the use of automated pick-and-place assembly. Different coupling schemes were analyzed by combining non-sequential ray tracing with Monte-Carlo tolerance

  12. Embedded optical interconnect on printed wiring board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Karppinen; Jukka-Tapani Makinen; Kari Kataja; Antti Tanskanen; Teemu Alajoki; Pentti Karioja; Marika Immonen; Jorma Kivilahti

    2004-01-01

    Integration of high-speed parallel optical interconnects into printed wiring boards (PWB) is studied. The aim is a hybrid optical-electrical board including both electrical wiring and embedded polymer waveguides. Robust optical coupling between the waveguide and the emitter\\/detector should be achieved by the use of automated pick-and-place assembly. Different coupling schemes were analyzed by combining non-sequential ray tracing with Monte-Carlo tolerance

  13. INCOMING WIRE/ACH University units expecting to receive funds via wire or ACH (Automated Clearing House) should inform the

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    INCOMING WIRE/ACH University units expecting to receive funds via wire or ACH (Automated Clearing form. The Bursar's Office cannot properly record there funds until University units provide deposit Transmittal and fax the completed form to 706-583-0832. OUTGOING WIRES University units needing to wire funds

  14. Discovery of Small Molecule Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Chemotypes through a HTS and Hit Refinement Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Herein we present the outcome of a high throughput screening (HTS) campaign-based strategy for the rapid identification and optimization of selective and general chemotypes for both kappa (?) opioid receptor (KOR) activation and inhibition. In this program, we have developed potent antagonists (IC50 < 120 nM) or agonists of high binding affinity (Ki < 3 nM). In contrast to many important KOR ligands, the compounds presented here are highly modular, readily synthesized, and, in most cases, achiral. The four new chemotypes hold promise for further development into chemical tools for studying the KOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:22737280

  15. Discovery of Small Molecule Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Chemotypes through a HTS and Hit Refinement Strategy.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kevin J; Hedrick, Michael P; Gosalia, Palak; Li, Kelin; Shi, Shenghua; Whipple, David; Ghosh, Partha; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Schoenen, Frank J; Su, Ying; Vasile, S; Sergienko, Eduard; Gray, Wilson; Hariharan, Santosh; Milan, Loribelle; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Vicchiarelli, Michael; Smith, Layton H; Streicher, John M; Caron, Marc G; Barak, Lawrence S; Bohn, Laura M; Chung, Thomas D Y; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-03-21

    Herein we present the outcome of a high throughput screening (HTS) campaign-based strategy for the rapid identification and optimization of selective and general chemotypes for both kappa (?) opioid receptor (KOR) activation and inhibition. In this program, we have developed potent antagonists (IC(50) < 120 nM) or agonists of high binding affinity (K(i) < 3 nM). In contrast to many important KOR ligands, the compounds presented here are highly modular, readily synthesized and, in most cases, achiral. The four new chemotypes hold promise for further development into chemical tools for studying the KOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:22737280

  16. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-16

    A needleless electrospinning setup named 'Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning' was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm(2) and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h(-1) and 1.40 g h(-1) were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. PMID:25513842

  17. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h?1 and 1.40 g h?1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  18. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  19. The Staphylococcus aureus Siderophore Receptor HtsA Undergoes Localized Conformational Changes to Enclose Staphyloferrin A in an Arginine-rich Binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, Jason C.; Cooper, John D.; Cheung, Johnson; Heinrichs, David E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses several efficient iron acquisition strategies to overcome iron limitation. Recently, the genetic locus encoding biosynthetic enzymes for the iron chelating molecule, staphyloferrin A (SA), was determined. S. aureus synthesizes and secretes SA into its environment to scavenge iron. The membrane-anchored ATP binding cassette-binding protein, HtsA, receives the ferric-chelate for import into the cell. Recently, we determined the apoHtsA crystal structure, the first siderophore receptor from Gram-positive bacteria to be structurally characterized. Herein we present the x-ray crystal structure of the HtsA-ferric-SA complex. HtsA adopts a class III binding protein fold composed of separate N- and C-terminal domains bridged by a single ?-helix. Recombinant HtsA can efficiently sequester ferric-SA from S. aureus culture supernatants where it is bound within the pocket formed between distinct N- and C-terminal domains. A basic patch composed mainly of six Arg residues contact the negatively charged siderophore, securing it within the pocket. The x-ray crystal structures from two different ligand-bound crystal forms were determined. The structures represent the first structural characterization of an endogenous ?-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore-receptor complex. One structure is in an open form similar to apoHtsA, whereas the other is in a more closed conformation. The conformational change is highlighted by isolated movement of three loops within the C-terminal domain, a domain movement unique to known class III binding protein structures. PMID:20147287

  20. Use of in Vitro HTS-Derived Concentration–Response Data as Biological Descriptors Improves the Accuracy of QSAR Models of in Vivo Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sedykh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Liying; Richard, Ann; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assays are increasingly being used to inform chemical hazard identification. Hundreds of chemicals have been tested in dozens of cell lines across extensive concentration ranges by the National Toxicology Program in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. Objectives Our goal was to test a hypothesis that dose–response data points of the qHTS assays can serve as biological descriptors of assayed chemicals and, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, improve the accuracy of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models applied to prediction of in vivo toxicity end points. Methods We obtained cell viability qHTS concentration–response data for 1,408 substances assayed in 13 cell lines from PubChem; for a subset of these compounds, rodent acute toxicity half-maximal lethal dose (LD50) data were also available. We used the k nearest neighbor classification and random forest QSAR methods to model LD50 data using chemical descriptors either alone (conventional models) or combined with biological descriptors derived from the concentration–response qHTS data (hybrid models). Critical to our approach was the use of a novel noise-filtering algorithm to treat qHTS data. Results Both the external classification accuracy and coverage (i.e., fraction of compounds in the external set that fall within the applicability domain) of the hybrid QSAR models were superior to conventional models. Conclusions Concentration–response qHTS data may serve as informative biological descriptors of molecules that, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, may considerably improve the accuracy and utility of computational approaches for predicting in vivo animal toxicity end points. PMID:20980217

  1. Double Resonance Excitation of the Rubidium Dimer : the 2 ^{1}?_g State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdova, Anastasia; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Wannous, Ghassan; Crozet, Patrick; Ross, Amanda J.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed a series of optical-optical double resonance experiments with one or two cw Ti:sapphire lasers, to excite the 2 ^{1}?_g state of Rb_2, recording infrared fluorescence from 2 ^{1}?_g on a Fourier transform spectrometer. Fluorescence from the lower vibrational levels of 2 ^{1}?_g (T_e = 22069.56 cm^{-1}) is dominated by transitions to the B ^{1}?_u state studied by Amiot and Vergès. Vibrational and rotational relaxation from laser-pumped levels v' < 15 now give a rather complete description around the potential minimum of the 2 ^{1}?_g state, completing the observations for 6 ? v ? 50 reported by Han et al last year. Fluorescence from v' > 35, occurs also to the 0^+ components of the A ^{1}?_u^+ ˜ b ^{3}?_u complex. Fitting all available 2 ^{1}?_g ? B ^{1}?_u data for ^{85}Rb_2 and ^{85}Rb^{87}Rb (several thousand transitions) has also given an improved description of the bottom of the B ^{1}?_u state potential well. The 2 ^{1}?_g state correlates at long-range with Rb 5s + Rb 4d ^2D_{3/2} atoms, giving a dissociation energy of 1279.6 cm^{-1}. Most new data lie below v = 45, 250 cm^{-1} below this dissociation threshold. Amiot and Vergès, {Chem. Phys. Lett.} {294} 91-98 (1997) X. Han et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. {538} 1-4 (2011) A.-R.Allouche, M. Aubert-Frécon, {J. Chem. Phys} {136} 37-41 (2012)

  2. Screening of the B1g Raman response in d-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manske, D.; Rieck, C. T.; Das Sharma, R.; Bock, A.; Fay, D.

    1997-08-01

    We have performed calculations of the response function for electronic Raman scattering in clean d-wave superconductors including vertex corrections in a conserving approximation and obtain contributions to the B1g Raman response that we believe have not been considered previously. These contributions remove the well-known singularity at the threshold energy 2?0 for a d-wave superconductor, yielding instead a peak at a slightly higher frequency with an intensity of the same order as the A1g response. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data on YBa2Cu3O7.

  3. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

    Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

  4. (2+1)REMPI on molecular nitrogen through the 1?g+ (II)-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bominaar, J.; Schoemaecker, C.; Dam, N.; Ter Meulen, J. J.; Groenenboom, G. C.

    2007-02-01

    The REMPI spectrum of molecular nitrogen, N 2, was examined by tuning a focused ArF excimer laser beam in the range of 51 600-51 800 cm -1 and collecting the fluorescence from the Hopfield lines (B?u+-X?g+ of N2+). The resulting spectrum was tentatively assigned at the two-photon level to rotational structure in the double a?1?g+-1?g+(II) potential energy well. To our knowledge this double well has not been seen experimentally before.

  5. Association between MMP-1 g.-1607dupG Polymorphism and Periodontitis Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lan; Wang, Meilin; Ma, Junqing; Zhang, Weibing; Pan, Yongchu; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) plays an important role during the destruction of periodontal tissue. Although multiple studies had focused on the association between MMP-1 g.-1607dupG and periodontitis susceptibility, the results remained inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore its role in the development of periodontitis. Methods Retrieved studies from Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline and Google Scholar Search regarding MMP-1 g.-1607dupG and periodontitis susceptibility were included into the final analysis with definite selection and exclusion criteria. Overall and stratified analyses based on disease type, severity, ethnicity and smoking status were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the association between MMP-1 g.-1607dupG and periodontitis susceptibility, while Q test and Egger’s test were adopted respectively to assess heterogeneity among studies and publication bias. Results A total of 1580 periodontitis cases and 1386 controls in 11 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed significant association between periodontitis susceptibility and MMP-1 g.-1607dupG polymorphism in homozygote (2G/2G versus 1G/1G, OR?=?1.50, 95% CI?=?1.02–2.20) and dominant model analysis (2G/2G+2G/1G versus 1G/1G, OR?=?1.28, 95% CI?=?1.04–1.57). For subgroups by type of periodontitis, increased risk of chronic periodontitis was observed on heterozygote (2G/1G versus 1G/1G, OR?=?2.01, 95% CI?=?1.58–2.56) and dominant model (OR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.03–1.57). Furthermore, similar association was also detected in severe chronic periodontitis (2G/2G versus 1G/1G, OR?=?2.15, 95% CI?=?1.35–3.43; 2G/2G+2G/1G versus 1G/1G, OR?=?1.64, 95% CI?=?1.12–2.39; 2G/2G versus 2G/1G+1G/1G, OR?=?1.86, 95% CI?=?1.31–2.64). Conclusions Our meta-analysis demonstrated that MMP-1 g.-1607dupG polymorphism was associated with chronic periodontitis, especially the severity of the disease condition. PMID:23527212

  6. Ensuring Wire Alignment for the New COMPASS Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromis, Megan; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 ?m] sense wires and 257 [100 ?m] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 ?m (sense wire) or 200 ?m (field wire) of the center of the solder pad to ensure the accuracy of the drift chamber. Problems that arose during stringing include initial alignment of the wire and efficient soldering techniques. Also, because the field wires charged at -1750 volts will be 4 mm from the sense wires, there should be no gaps or points in the solder to prevent arcing. This poster will discuss the alignment techniques, soldering methods, testing, and repair process for the wires. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 ?m] sense wires and 257 [100 ?m] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 ?m (sense wire) or 200 ?m (field wire) of the center of the solder pad to ensure the accuracy of the drift chamber. Problems that arose during stringing include initial alignment of the wire and efficient soldering techniques. Also, because the field wires charged at -1750 volts will be 4 mm from the sense wires, there should be no gaps or points in the solder to prevent arcing. This poster will discuss the alignment techniques, soldering methods, testing, and repair process for the wires. This research was supported in part by the DOE under Grant Number DE-FG03-94ER40860.

  7. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Circuits § 75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

  8. Investigation of Thermosonic Wire Bonding Resistance of Gold Wire Onto Copper Pad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeau-Ren Jeng; Sang-Mao Chiu; Pay-Yau Huang; Shiuh-Hwa Shyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the electric performance for thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads. Various methods normally used to improve bondability were investigated including the bare copper pads with argon shielding gas and the copper pads with cupric oxide film, cuprous oxide film, and silver film. The micro-contact theory was used to determine the effective contact area. The

  9. Cost comparison for flip chip, gold wire bond, and copper wire bond packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chet A. Palesko; E. Jan Vardaman

    2010-01-01

    When the cost of gold was $500 per ounce, the lowest cost packaging choice was clear-it was always gold wire bonding. However, with the cost of gold at more than $1,000 per ounce and significant cost decreases in flip chip package fabrication and assembly, the lowest cost packaging choice is no longer obvious. Gold wire bonding is one of the

  10. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeau-Ren Jeng; Jong-Hing Aoh; Chang-Ming Wang

    2001-01-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were

  11. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  12. Phenotypic screening with human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes: HTS-compatible assays for interrogating cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Coby; Koonce, Chad; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Einhorn, Shannon; Fiene, Steve; Thompson, Arne; Swanson, Brad; Anson, Blake; Kattman, Steven

    2013-12-01

    A major hurdle for cardiovascular disease researchers has been the lack of robust and physiologically relevant cell-based assays for drug discovery. Derivation of cardiomyocytes from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at high purity, quality, and quantity enables the development of relevant models of human cardiac disease with source material that meets the demands of high-throughput screening (HTS). Here we demonstrate the utility of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes as an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to endothelin 1 (ET-1) leads to reactivation of fetal genes, increased cell size, and robust expression of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Using this system, we developed a suite of assays focused on BNP detection, most notably a high-content imaging-based assay designed for phenotypic screening. Miniaturization of this assay to a 384-well format enabled the profiling of a small set of tool compounds known to modulate the hypertrophic response. The assays described here provide consistent and reliable results and have the potential to increase our understanding of the many mechanisms underlying this complex cardiac condition. Moreover, the HTS-compatible workflow allows for the incorporation of human biology into early phases of drug discovery and development. PMID:24071917

  13. Investigation of factors affecting the heater wire method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshock, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a transient method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples. The system consisted of a 10 mil diameter standard thermocouple (Pt, Pt-13% Rh) and an 0.8 mil diameter chromel-alumel thermocouple attached to a 20 mil diameter electrically heated platinum wire. The calibration procedure consisted of electrically heating the wire to approximately 2500 F within about a seven-second period in an environment approximating atmospheric conditions at 120,000 feet. Rapid periodic readout of the standard and fine wire thermocouple signals permitted a comparison of the two temperature indications. An analysis was performed which indicated that the temperature distortion at the heater wire produced by the thermocouple junctions appears to be of negligible magnitude. Consequently, the calibration technique appears to be basically sound, although several practical changes which appear desirable are presented and discussed. Additional investigation is warranted to evaluate radiation effects and transient response characteristics.

  14. Selected developments in laser wire stripping. [cutting insulation from aerospace-type wires and cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The operation of mechanical and thermal strippers and the early development of laser wire strippers are reviewed. NASA sponsored development of laser wire stripping for space shuttle includes bench-type strippers as well as an advanced portable hand-held stripper which incorporates a miniaturized carbon dioxide laser and a rotating optics unit with a gas-jet assist and debris exhaust. Drives and controls girdle the wire and slit the remaining slug without manual assistance. This unit can strip wire sizes 26 through 12 gage. A larger-capacity hand-held unit for wire sizes through 1/0 gage was built using a neodynium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The hand-held units have a flexible umbilical cable to an accompanying cart that carries the power supply, gas supply, cooling unit, and the controls.

  15. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

    2009-12-01

    To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and ? G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at ? G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and ? G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at ? G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at ? G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary. PMID:21319014

  16. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1) Global Roads

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1) Global Roads Robinson Projection Data, and Information Technology Outreach Services (ITOS)/University of Georgia. 2013. Global Roads Open Access Data Set.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/groads-global-roads-open-access-v1 The Global Roads Open Access Data Set

  17. Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Frequency response of a thermocouple wire: Effects of axial conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady-state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a uniform thermocouple wire and a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. For the case of a uniform wire, the amplitude ratio and phase angle compare favorably with the series solution of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) except near the ends of the wire. For the case of a non-uniform wire, the amplitude ratio at low frequency omega yields 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky for a steady-state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a non-uniform wire in the limit of infinite length l yields infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties.

  19. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  20. Three-wire Thermocouple: Frequency Response in Constant Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    Theory and experimental measurements are compared with a novel three-wire thermocouple. Signals from three wires of unequal diameters arc recorded from the thermocouple suspended in constant flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the three-wire thermocouple requires no compensation for omega less than or equal to 5(sub omega1), where omega, is the natural frequency of the smaller wire. The latter result represents a significant improvement compared to previous work with two-wire thermocouples. A correction factor has also been derived to account for wires of arbitrary diameter.