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Sample records for 1g hts wire

  1. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  2. Customised 2G HTS wire for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilenkov, S.; Molodyk, A.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.; Martynova, I.; Makarevich, A.; Markelov, A.; Moyzykh, M.; Blednov, A.

    2016-02-01

    Reproducibility of superconducting properties and suitability for specific applications by means of customised finish are two important attributes required from commercial 2G HTS wire. This paper reviews the consistent performance of SuperOx production 2G HTS wire and describes two novel customisation options: surround polyimide varnish insulation and composite bulk materials assembled with 2G HTS wires soldered together.

  3. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  4. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  5. Thermal conductivity of 2G HTS wires for current lead applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, C.; Strickland, N.; Pooke, D.; Gannon, J.; Carter, B.; Otto, A.

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the thermal conductivity of several 2G HTS coated conductor wires produced by AMSC's RABiTSTM/MOD processes. The measurements employed a non-steady state method in which the sample is connected to a cold head on one end and a copper block on the other end. The heat capacity of the copper block is used to determine heat flow through the sample as the cold head slowly warms up. Measurements were done at temperatures ranging from 10 K to 130 K on 2G wires made with a Ni 5at%W substrate and different lamination architectures. The focus of the investigation was on the effects of lamina material type, thickness of the silver layer and alloyed silver. The data show that 2G wires can be 3 times less thermally conductive when compared to 1G BSCCO wires with a Ag-Au matrix, making them excellent candidates for use in current lead applications.

  6. Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J.

    2008-09-01

    2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the worlds first 2G device installed in the grid.

  7. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  8. First Model Power Cables Made of Russian 2G HTS Wires and their Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Zubko, V. V.; Bykovsky, N. V.; Zanegin, S. Yu; Vysotsky, V. S.; Svalov, G. G.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.

    2014-05-01

    Recently launched production of 2G wires by SuperOx Company permitted us to start tests of representative models of power cable made of their wires. In Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute we have the test facility for extensive testing of heavily instrumented HTS cable models with full size cross-section and length up to 5 m. Our standard test program includes critical current measurements, current distribution measurements among layers, AC loss measurements, etc. In this paper we present details of first power cable models made of 4 mm width 2G wires from SuperOx and their test results. Model cables have two counter-wound layers with 18 tapes in each layer. Critical currents of cables were from 3 kA to ~4.5 kA. We also measured AC losses and compared them with losses in model cables made of 2G wires of other producers. AC losses measured were compared with calculated ones and demonstrated the good coincidence between experiments and calculations. First model cables tests permitted us to conclude that SuperOx wires have good parameters for production of 2G HTS power cables with low AC losses.

  9. Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

    2010-04-01

    High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

  10. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  11. V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.

    2003-05-25

    For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

  12. V- I transition and n-value of multifilamentary LTS and HTS wires and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arup K.

    2004-01-01

    For low Tc multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb 3Sn, the V- I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ( ?/ ?c)=( I/ Ic) n. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5 T is ?40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb 3Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages ? a few ?V prior to quenching. However, in well behaved wires, n is ?30-40 at 12 T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced Ic degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high Tc multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2 K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values ?15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

  13. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  14. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  15. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-06-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  16. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

    2010-11-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  17. Second Generation HTs Wire Based on RABiTS Substrates and MOD YBCO

    SciTech Connect

    Schoop, U.; Rupich, Marty; Thieme, C. L. H.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Zhang, W.; Li, Xiaoping; Kodenkandath, Thomas; Nguyen, N.; Siegal, E. E.; Civale, L.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2005-01-01

    The performance of Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire manufactured by continuous reel-to-reel processes is nearing the 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self field) performance threshold for commercial power cable applications. The 2G manufacturing approach under development at American Superconductor is based on the combination of the RABiTS substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. The capability of this process has been demonstrated in multiple 10 meter lengths with critical currents exceeding 250 A/cm-width with high uniformity and reproducibility. Critical currents of 380 A/cm-width have been achieved in short length samples prepared by the same basic process. The incorporation of nanoparticles ('nanodots') into the YBCO layer using the MOD process has resulted in a 2-fold improvement in the critical current at 65 K in a 3 T field. The research and development focus at ASMC is now directed toward the economical scale-up of the RABiTS/MOD process, optimization of the conductor properties for targeted applications and the use of 2G wire in initial demonstration applications.

  18. Magnetic field and field orientation dependence of the critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires and other HTS conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.O.; Holesinger, T.G.; Coulter, J.Y.; Maley, M.P.

    1996-10-01

    The authors have performed measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c} of Bi-2212/Ag round wire produced by isothermal melt processing. In contrast to the case for flat tape, there is very little dependence of J{sub c} on the direction of the magnetic field as it is rotated normal to the wire axis, which is the direction of the nominal current flow. However, when the angle of the magnetic field direction is rotated from normal to the wire axis to parallel to that axis, J{sub c} at 64 K and 0.2 T increases by more than a factor of four. Again, this is in contrast to the results observed for Bi-2212/Ag and Bi-2223/Ag flat tapes, which show no anisotropy under similar experimental conditions. They can explain these differences in angular anisotropy by referring to the microstructure of these two conductor types, which have distinctly different types of grain alignment. They discuss the general behavior of the dependence of J{sub c} on the orientation of a magnetic field for high temperature superconductors.

  19. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  20. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L.

    1996-09-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

  1. Cooling Configuration Design Considerations for Long-Length HTS Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Recent successes in demonstrating high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems hundreds of meters in length have inspired even longer length projects. A compact and energy efficient cooling configuration can be achieved using a counterflow-cooling arrangement. This is particularly attractive when all three phases are contained in a single cryostat because of the elimination of the space and thermal requirements of a separate liquid nitrogen return line. Future cable projects will utilize second generation (2G) wire which is expected to become lower in cost but may have different thermal requirements than first generation (1G) BSCCO wire due to the lower critical temperature and to a lesser extent, the lower thermal conductivity of the wire. HTS cable configurations will be studied with a numerical model to assess thermal hydraulic performance with AC and thermal losses; a summary of the results from the analysis will be presented. An analysis of the cable thermal- hydraulic response to over-current faults will be presented.

  2. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  3. Development of a brushless HTS exciter for a 10 kW HTS synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Min; Jiang, Zhenan; Pantoja, Andres E.; Bernardo, Patrick; Park, Minwon; Buckley, Robert G.

    2016-02-01

    HTS synchronous generators, in which the rotor coils are wound from high-T c superconducting wire, are exciting attention due to their potential to deliver very high torque and power densities. However, injection of the large DC currents required by the HTS rotor coils presents a technical challenge. In this paper we discuss the development of a brushless HTS exciter which operates across the cryostat wall to inject a superconducting DC current into the rotor coil circuit. This approach fundamentally alters the thermal load upon the cryogenic system by removing the need for thermally inefficient normal-conducting current leads. We report results from an experimental laboratory device and show that it operates as a constant voltage source with an effective internal resistance. We then discuss the design of a prototype HTS-PM exciter based on our experimental device, and describe its integration with a demonstration HTS generator. This 200 RPM, 10 kW synchronous generator comprises eight double pancake HTS rotor coils which are operated at 30 K, and are energised to 1.5 T field through the injection of 85 A per pole. We show how this excitation can be achieved using an HTS-PM exciter consisting of 12 stator poles of 12 mm YBCO coated-conductor wire and an external permanent magnet rotor. We demonstrate that such an exciter can excite the rotor windings of this generator without forming a thermal-bridge across the cryostat wall. Finally, we provide estimates of the thermal load imposed by our prototype HTS-PM exciter on the rotor cryostat. We show that duty cycle operation of the device ensures that this heat load can be minimised, and that it is substantially lower than that of equivalently-rated conventional current leads.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Rupich, M.

    2012-10-23

    Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

  5. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  6. Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-?) HTS Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  7. Development of Bi-2223 superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Kaneko, T.; Ayai, N.; Hayashi, K.; Takei, H.; Hata, R.

    2001-08-01

    The essential conditions of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are a high transport critical current density, shape uniformity of long length wire and mechanical performance. By exploiting the properties of (Bi, Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (Bi-2223) HTS material, we have succeeded in semi-mass-producing long wire (in the kilometer-class), which can be drawn, by processing silver alloy sheathed multifilamentary wire into tape form. It is now developing Bi-2223 HTS wire with even higher performance in order to develop the superconducting equipment required for industrial applications at the earliest possible time. This paper presents the results of Bi-2223 HTS wires' performance by the powder-in-tube manufacturing technologies, which we developed. Typical Jc performances for 10-1623 m long wires are above 30 kA/cm 2 (77 K, self-field, 1 ?V/cm). Recently we have completed the production of total over 150 km Bi-2223 HTS wires necessary to HTS magnet for Si single crystal growth applications and 66 kV/1 kA, three phase, 100 m long HTS power cable.

  8. Design and PHILS-based Transient Analysis of a Tri-axial HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chang-Soon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Dinh, Minh-Chau; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin; Sim, Kideok

    Tri-axial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables are very efficient compared with other HTS power cables due to their reduced use of HTS wires and cryogenic surface area, resulting from the mutually layered structure of the three phases. However, the operating characteristics of tri-axial HTS power cables differ from other cables in a transient-state condition. In order to install HTS power cables in a real grid, feasibility verification through simulation or experimentation is required in advance. Thus, the authors design a tri-axial HTS power cable and implement a power hardware-in-the-loop simulation that consists of a real time digital simulator-based simulation model and hardware devices including a power supply and a 1 m-long tri-axial HTS model cable. Simulation results show the stability verification under steady-state and transient-state conditions.

  9. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  10. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  11. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascun, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

  12. HTS Thin Films: Passive Microwave Components and Systems Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems, improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper, we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  13. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and spacebased systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment 2 (HTSSE-2). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  14. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Ellis, Alvin R; Gouge, Michael J; James, David Randy; Tuncer, Enis

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  15. Development of HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External HTS Multiturn Thin Film Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, M.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Takai, H.; Tanabe, K.

    Highly-sensitive HTS-SQUIDs are applied to various systems such as eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and compact magnetometer systems. To avoid unstable operation of the SQUID due to an excitation field, a flux transformer made of normal Cu wire is used to separate the pickup coil and SQUID. However, the resistance of the flux transformer generates thermal noise and reduces the signal bandwidth at low frequencies. In this study, we investigate use of a superconducting flux transformer with resistive connections (SFTR). The SFTR consists of pickup and input coils made of HTS thin films. The two coils are connected by using an HTS coated conductor. The input coil is stacked on an HTS thin film gradiometer. From the measured results of resistances of the connections between each coil and the coated conductor, it was found that the resistance of bonding wire was a dominant component. The estimated resistance of the SFTR was 7.2 m?, corresponding to a lower cut-off frequency of 11.7 Hz.

  16. Calibration of a HTS Based LOX 400 mm Level Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, Abhay S.; Pankaj, S.; Gowthaman, M.; Sudharshan, H.

    The measurement of the cryogen level in a cryostage of space crafts is crucial. At the same time the weight of the sensor should be small as it affects the payload fraction of the space craft. An attempt to develop a HTS based level sensor of 400 mm for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) measurement was made. In the initial phase of testing, loss of superconductivity of HTS wire in LOX inside a cryostat was noticed. Thus, a new four wall cryostat was designed to have a stable LOX level to provide thermal stability to the HTS based LOX sensor. The calibration of the developed sensor was carried out against capacitance level sensor which was pre calibrated using diode array to verify its linearity and performance for different current excitation levels. The calibrations were carried out without heater wires. The automatic data logging was accomplished using a program developed in LabVIEW 11.0.

  17. Design study on 50 kJ HTS SMES for simulated dynamic experiment of electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Taozhen; Fan, Zeyang; Li, Jingdong; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Shijie; Pan, Yuan; Wang, Jingrong

    2004-10-01

    We conducted a study in order to determine a suitable design for a 50 kJ class high temperature superconducting (HTS) SMES. Magnet size and volume are expected to be reduced by using the HTS since the HTS wire keeps better properties at high magnetic field than does LTS wire. In this paper, both the electromagnetic and mechanical design objects are considered when optimizing the magnet volume of a 50 kJ/10 kW grid model HTS-SMES system with finite element analysis method and simulated annealing algorithm. We carried out parameter surveys of the magnetic fields and circumference stress applied to the HTS-SMES magnets and studied a suitable magnet dimension with low inductance and high current. 2-3.5 T maximum magnetic field applied to the magnet and a low inductance and high current design for a 50 kJ HTS magnet are suitable for improving the dynamic response of system.

  18. Influence of Proton Irradiation on Angular Dependence of Second Generation (2G)HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Greene, G.; Gupta, R.; Sampson, W.

    2011-05-01

    In the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) the quadrupoles in the fragment separator are exposed to very high radiation and heat loads. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are a good candidate for these magnets because they can be used at {approx}30-50 K and tolerate higher heat generation than Nb-Ti magnets. Radiation damage studies of HTS wires are crucial to ensure that they will survive in a high radiation environment. HTS wires from two vendors were studied. Samples of 2G HTS wires from SuperPower and American Superconductor (ASC) were irradiated with a 42 {mu}A, 142 MeV proton beam from the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The angular dependence of the critical current was measured in magnetic fields at 77K.

  19. Tunable HTS Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancusi, Joseph E.; Roberson, Mark

    2002-06-01

    The tunable HTS program goals are to develop a process, method, or device to tune high-temperature superconductor (HTS) resonant circuits. The process for tuning should preserve the low-loss nature of the s preconducting resonant circuits and be compatible with the operating environment of packaged HTS RF circuitry. Although we were originally developing three technologies to perform this tuning, we have down selected to the two that offer the greatest potential for high 0 operation, the half-HTS MEMS variable capacitor and the continuously variable inductor. The target application is for this technology is SIGINT applications in the 400 MHz to 3000 MHz frequency band, with potential applications in areas from 20 MHz to 20 GHz. We reached a significant milestone with the demonstration of the continuously variable inductors. In this demonstration we achieved a 23% tuning range, with better than 1 pan in 10,000 resettability, and a 0 of over 1.0,000. These are significant achievements in the area of tunable filters.

  20. HTS cable design and evaluation in YOKOHAMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Minamino, T.; Masuda, T.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Noguchi, Y.

    2010-06-01

    HTS cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started since FY 2007 in Japan. The target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the live network of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Various preliminary tests with the short core samples were conducted to confirm the HTS cable design. One of the technical targets in this project is to reduce the AC losses of HTS cable cores. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO wire with twisted superconducting filaments which is named TypeAC is applied in the cable core. A short cable core made with TypeAC wires shows its AC loss is 0.8 W/m/ph at 2 kArms, which is about 1/4 of the one with standard DI-BSCCO wires. Another important target is to manage a fault current. At a preliminary test with the short cable cores, it showed that the cable could manage the through-fault of 10 kA at 2 sec and survived at 31.5 kA at 2 sec. As the electric insulation tests, AC 90 kV for 3 hours and lightning impulse at 385kV, 3 shots for each were applied to a cable core, successfully. The results of tensile and bending tests showed the cable core has good mechanical properties. The design of the HTS cable for YOKOHAMA project has been completed as well as those of a termination and a joint. A 30-meter HTS cable was manufactured and a 30-meter HTS cable system was installed in SEI facility. The cable system was cooled down and tested to verify its performance before constructing the HTS cable system in YOKOHAMA. This paper describes the design and test results of the 30-meter HTS cable, and also performance test results of the 30-meter cable system.

  1. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  2. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  3. Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kito, Y.

    2009-10-01

    A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the impact of connecting the HTS cable to the existing conventional facilities in Yokohama. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Corporation provides a cooling system. One of the technical targets in the project is to reduce the AC loss of superconducting cable. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO, which is a production name of BSCCO wires made by SEI, with twisted superconducting filaments is planed to be applied in the cable. A short cable core using the new wires shows less AC loss than 1 W/m/ph at 2 kA rms. Another important point is to design a cable system to withstand a large over current at a short circuit failure. At a preliminary test with a short cable, it was recognized that the cable had no degradation of conductor I c after applying the fault current of 31.5 kA for 2 s, which are required for 66 kV line. This report shows details of these experiment results and design of the cable.

  4. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  5. An HTS Machine Laboratory Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovic, N.; Jensen, B. B.; Trholta, C.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Zermeno, V. M. R.; Pedersen, N. F.

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which is in this design integral part of the cryostat. The discussion of the requirements for the TTE supported with a simple case study comparing a shaft and a cylinder as candidates for TTE are presented. The discussion resulted with a cylinder as a TTE design rated for a 250Nm and with more then 10 times lower heat conduction compared to a shaft. The HTS machine was successfully cooled to 77K and tests have been performed. The IV curves of the HTS field winding employing 6 HTS coils indicate that two of the coils had been damaged. The maximal value of the torque during experiments of 78Nm was recorded. Loaded with 33%, the TTE performed well and showed suffcient margin for future experiments.

  6. HTS microwave applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloupka, H.J.; Hein, M.A.; Mueller, G.

    1994-12-31

    European activities on the optimization of microwave properties and applications of HTS for microwave components and subsystems are reviewed. For that purpose, the various contributions are discussed in terms of relevant material issues and are related to different classes of applications. Passive as well its active microwave devices based on both linear and nonlinear conductivity properties of HTS between 0.5 and 500 GHz are covered. Additionally, some application categories are discussed from a general point of view. It will be shown that the present state of technology has made possible the successful demonstration of many single HTS components and of first super semiconducting hybrid subsystems.

  7. Design research on the conductor of 10 kA class HTS DC power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Dai, Shaotao; Zhang, Fengyuan; Huang, Tianbin; Wang, Yinshun; Lin, Yubao; Teng, Yuping; Zhang, Guomin; Xiao, Liye; Lin, Liangzhen

    2012-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable shows a wide application prospect in the field of power transmission for its nearly lossless and rather high capacity. A 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable system, which connects the rectifier output of a substation with the bus bar of an electrolytic aluminium cell, will be put into operation at Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. As one of the items in this project, a 5 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable was developed, which is used to investigate the conductor design, fabrication, current-carrying capacity and stability of the 360 m/10 kA HTS power cable. The HTS DC power cable core consists of five conductor layers wound with spliced Bi-2223 wires with the length of 600 m. The cable core has five layers and 23 conductors in each layer with the outer diameter of 45.42 mm. The superconducting power cable is fabricated and tested. The critical current is about 14.3 kA at 77 K. The superconducting power cable is charged to 10 kA with rate of 10 A/s and operates at steady-state for 30 min. In this paper, the 10 kA HTS DC power cable design, fabrication and test are presented. The experimental research of the performance of spliced superconducting wire and charging, steady-state operating performance of the cable was carried out.

  8. Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Hassenzahl, William V

    2011-01-01

    Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

  9. Development of the Current Bypassing Methods into the Transverse Direction in Non-insulation HTS Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, S. B.; Ikoma, H.; Kanemoto, D.

    In the case of motors and generators, the benefits of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils can be represented by the reduction of 50% in both losses and sizes compared to conventional machines. However, it is hard to establish quench detection and protection devices for the HTS coils applied to the rotors of motors and generators. So, the stability of the coils is lower than for the quiescent coils applied to NMR, MRI and so on. Therefore, it is important to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the layer-to-layer insulation and inserting metal tape instead of the electrical insulation. The operating current in the non-insulated HTS coil was bypassed into the transverse direction by the generated normal region because of their electrical contact among the winding. In this study, we examined the method to control the current bypassing on layer-to-layer for controlling the inductance of the non-insulated HTS coil. The current bypassing properties on non-insulated HTS coil wound with 2G wires will be discussed.

  10. HTS and NMR/MRI magnets: Unique features, opportunities, and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2006-10-01

    The unique features of HTS offer opportunities and challenges to a number of applications. In this paper we focus on NMR and MRI magnets and present a brief description of some of the NMR/MRI magnet programs at FBML that are currently on-going and expected to begin in the near future, specifically a 1 GHz NMR magnet comprising an LTS magnet and an HTS insert wound with BSCCO-2223 tape, an NMR magnet assembled from YBCO annuli, and an MRI "demonstration" magnet wound with MgB2 wire. Two conclusions are presented for HTS as applied to NMR/MRI magnets: (1) impact of HTS on NMR/MRI magnet technology is great, because HTS offers many opportunities and challenges, some of which are described here; and (2) impact of NMR/MRI magnets on HTS manufacturers is mixed-for high-field NMR magnet, it is small because the required amount of HTS in these magnets is negligible compared with that in electric power applications; for "low-field" NMR magnets, it may be potentially large if MgB2 replaces Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn; and for MRI magnets, it is potentially huge if MgB2 replaces Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn.

  11. Development Status of AMSC Amperium Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

    2014-05-01

    AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

  12. Development of HTS Current Leads and Solders

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, Mark A.; Coulter, J. Yates; Gamble, Mike

    1997-04-25

    On this CRADA Los Alamos National Laboratory and EURUS Technologies, Inc. worked together to further the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads. Several specialty solders for use with HTS materials were produced by EUR US and characterized by Los Alamos. Current lead assemblies including HTS conductor, structural support and copper electrical connections bonded to the HTS conductor with special solders were then fabricated by EURUS and tested and evaluated by Los Alamos. EURUS incorporated the results of this work into their commercial HTS current lead products

  13. Large Scale Applications of HTS in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimbush, Stuart C.

    New Zealand has one of the longest-running and most consistently funded (relative to GDP) programmes in high temperature superconductor (HTS) development and application worldwide. As a consequence, it has a sustained breadth of involvement in HTS technology development stretching from the materials discovery right through to burgeoning commercial exploitation. This review paper outlines the present large scale projects of the research team at the newly-established Robinson Research Institute of Victoria University of Wellington. These include the construction and grid-based testing of a three-phase 1 MVA 2G HTS distribution transformer utilizing Roebel cable for its high-current secondary windings and the development of a cryogen-free conduction-cooled 1.5 T YBCO-based human extremity magnetic resonance imaging system. Ongoing activities supporting applications development such as low-temperature full-current characterization of commercial superconducting wires and the implementation of inductive flux-pump technologies for efficient brushless coil excitation in superconducting magnets and rotating machines are also described.

  14. Study on stabilization and quench protection of coils wound of HTS coated conductors considering quench origins - Proposal of criteria for stabilization and quench protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami; Fujimoto, Yasutaka; Takao, Tomoaki

    2014-09-01

    It has been considered that HTS coils are hard to be quenched because of high quench energy due to high critical temperature and high specific heat of HTS wires. Therefore, attention to quench protection was not much paid. However, HTS coils still have possibility to be quenched during operation by mainly the following two origins, (a) presence of non-recoverable local defects in the conductors and (b) temperature rise of long part of the conductor. Actually, severe quench accidents, such as burning coils, are occurring in various places as scales of HTS increased. Purposes of this paper are to study on behaviors of normal zone and hot spot temperature of wires during quench detect/energy dump sequence and to find criteria for the stability and quench protection. In the paper, criteria are proposed for stability and quench protection of HTS coils. A criterion for the stability is that a coil can be operated stably without a quench against defects in coil windings and that for quench protection is that a coil can be safely protected from damages caused by a quench due to temperature rise of long part of coil wires. The criteria are used as design rules for HTS coils.

  15. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  16. Design study of superconducting sextupole magnet using HTS coated conductor for neutron-focusing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, T.; Koyanagi, K.; Ono, M.; Kuriyama, T.; Watanabe, I.; Tsuchiya, K.; Suzuki, J.; Adachi, T.; Shimizu, H. M.

    2006-10-01

    We performed a design study of sextupole magnet using high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The sextupole magnet is used as a focusing lens for neutron-focusing devices. A neutron-focusing device is desired to have a large aperture and a high magnetic field gradient of G, where G = 2B/r2, B is the magnetic field and r is a distance from the sextupole magnet axis. Superconducting magnets offer promising prospects to meet the demands of a neutron-focusing device. Recently NbTi coils of low temperature superconducting (LTS) have been developed for a sextupole magnet with a 46.8 mm aperture. The maximum magnetic field gradient G of this magnet is 9480 T/m2 at 4.2 K and 12,800 T/m2at 1.8 K. On the other hand, rapid progress on second generation HTS wire has been made in increasing the performance of critical current and in demonstrating a long length. The second generation HTS wire is referred to as coated conductor. It consists of tape-shaped base upon which a thin coating of superconductor, usually YBCO, is deposited or grown. This paper describes a design study of sextupole magnet using coated conductors.

  17. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  18. Next generation of HTS magnetic application: HTS bulk and coil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.; Koenig, R.

    2014-05-01

    The next generation of HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) will operate at magnetic field excitation higher than permanent magnets (> 1.0 T). The new bearing type is capable to support heavy -load rotors of more than one ton mass. Using FEM we calculate the interaction of HTS bulk and 2G coil to achieve higher magnetic flux excitation and flux gradients of HTS bearings at temperatures of 50 - 60 K. The new total HTS bearing type multiplies the present 10 -15 N/cm2 force density obtained with PM's by a factor of 5 and passes the force properties of active magnetic bearings (AMB). HTS coil excitation is capable to increases the levitation forces to more than the present 10 kN level and reduces relative cooling and material effort per load. We design a magnetic bearing for HTS bulk -coil excitation.

  19. Electrical and Mechanical Characterizations of Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K; Fabian, Paul E; Hooker, M W; Lizotte, M J; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor

    2011-01-01

    As HTS wire technology continues to advance, a critical need has emerged for dielectric materials that can be used in superconducting components such as terminations, fault current limiters, transformers, and motors. To address this need, CTD is developing nanocomposite insulations based on epoxy and benzoxazine chemistries. Depending on part geometry, some processing methods are more efficient than others. For this reason, CTD is investigating both fiber-reinforced and filled resin systems for use in these applications. A thorough set of electrical testing including AC breakdown, breakdown as a function of thickness, and flashover shows promising performance characteristics. In addition, mechanical testing (short beam shear and compression) indicate that these new materials to have as good or better performance than G10.

  20. Hydrogen in Mono-Atomic Gold Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Robert N.; Sherbakov, Andrew G.; Landman, Uzi; Hakkinen, Hannu

    2004-03-01

    Results of ab-initio scalar relativistic density functional calculations of the interaction between a mono-atomic gold wire (suspended between two gold tips) and a hydrogen molecule, at various stages of wire stretching, are presented. The hydrogen molecule does not bind to the wire until the wire is sufficiently stretched, i.e. starting to break, at which time the molecule inserts itself into the wire restoring a fraction of the conductance quantum g. With subsequent compression of the wire the axis of the molecule gradually tips away from the wire axis until it becomes "quasi-dissociated" with the H-H axis perpendicular to the wire. At this point the conductance almost vanishes, while for the bare wire the conductance at this tip-to-tip separation is close to 1g. These results, and the frequency of various vibrational modes of the hydrogen molecule, are compared with recent experimental and theoretical work involving platinum wires.

  1. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2004-10-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  2. Modular test facility for HTS insert coils

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

  3. Operating characteristics of contactless power transfer for electric vehicle from HTS antenna to normal conducting receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Do; Lee, Chang Young; Jo, Hyun Chul; Park, Young Gun; Yim, Seong Woo

    2014-09-01

    As contactless power transfer (CPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUCPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density and high quality factor Q value, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy and improved efficiency in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a reasonable option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS transmitted antenna coils within 40 cm distance at radio frequency (RF) generator of 60 W, 370 kHz. In addition, we achieved impedance matching conditions for different material coils between HTS and normal conductors.

  4. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  5. Development of Non-destructive Evaluation System Using an HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, J.; Kawauchi, S.; Ishikawa, F.; Tanabe, K.

    We are developing a new eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with the aim of applying it to power plants. Electric power facilities such as ducts and vessels are generally untransportable because of their size, and thus it is difficult to apply a conventional SQUID NDE system. The new NDE system employs an external Cu pickup coil which is supposed to be driven flexibly by a robot arm at room temperature and an HTS-SQUID chip which is placed in a magnetically shielded vessel. In the present research, we investigated the performance of an HTS-SQUID sensor connected with external pickup coils before mounting them to a robot arm. By varying the Cu coil conditions such as their sizes, the number of turns, and the diameter of wire, we qualitatively evaluated the frequency dependence of the effective area and the cutoff frequency.

  6. Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K; Hooker, M W; Lizotte, M J; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor

    2009-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology is rapidly developing for use in the areas of power generation and distribution. While significant progress has been made thus far in developing this technology, further effort is needed to improve the efficiency and cost of dielectric materials for use in these systems. These materials must be compatible with cryogenic operation, exhibit excellent dielectric properties at cryogenic temperatures, and provide a high level of reliability when in service. Moreover, the dielectric materials must be able to be produced into complex forms using cost-effective, industrially scalable processes. To improve upon current fiber-reinforced-polymer composite dielectric materials, the present study investigates the advantages of including nanomaterial reinforcement within the polymer resins. It was found that the nanomaterial additions did not greatly impact the polymer viscosity or increase the cure rate, which enables the nanomaterial-enhanced polymer to be used in fabricating fiber-reinforced composite dielectric materials. The nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials demonstrated greater than 60% higher AC dielectric breakdown strengths and improved consistency of performance compared to the current standard, G10. Similarly, shear and compression strengths of nanomaterial-enhanced composite dielectric materials compared well with those of G10.

  7. Flux Compression in HTS Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, P.; Colclough, M. S.; Chakalov, R.; Kawano, K.; Muirhead, C. M.

    We report on experimental investigation of the effect of flux compression in superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) films and YBCO/CMR (Colossal Magnetoresistive) multilayers. The flux compression produces positive magnetic moment (m) upon the cooling in a field from above to below the critical temperature. We found effect of compression in all measured films and multilayers. In accordance with theoretical calculations, m is proportional to applied magnetic field. The amplitude of the effect depends on the cooling rate, which suggests the inhomogeneous cooling as its origin. The positive moment is always very small, a fraction of a percent of the ideal diamagnetic response. A CMR layer in contact with HTS decreases the amplitude of the effect. The flux compression weakly depends on sample size, but sensitive to its form and topology. The positive magnetic moment does not appear in bulk samples at low rates of the cooling. Our results show that the main features of the flux compression are very different from those in Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed in bulk high temperature superconductors and Nb disks.

  8. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  9. Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshler, S.; Buczek, D.; Carter, B.; Cedrone, P.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J.; Inch, J.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Otto, A.; Podtburg, E.; Roy, D.; Rupich, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Schreiber, J.; Thieme, C.; Thompson, E.; Tucker, D.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.

    2009-10-01

    American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for the HTS layer. AMSCs wide strip process is a low cost manufacturing technology since multiple wires are produced in a single manufacturing pass by slitting the wide strip to narrower width in the last stage of the manufacturing process. Industry standard 4.4 mm wide wires are produced by laminating metallic foils, such as copper, stainless steel or any other material, to the HTS insert wire, and are chosen to tailor the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the wire for specific applications. The laminated, 4.4 mm wide wires are known as 344 superconductors. In this paper, we summarize the status of AMSCs manufacturing capability, the performance of the wire presently being produced, as well as the cost and technical advantages of AMSCs manufacturing approach. In addition, future direction for research and development to improve electrical performance is presented.

  10. Experimental study of thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wanqing; Yan, Zhongming; Luo, Wenbo; Zhang, Peixing; Gui, Zhixing; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system were measured the first time and will be presented in this paper. The HTS coil magnet is made of second generation YBCO wire. The coil is a double pancake coil consisting of 34 turns wire. The inner diameter, outer diameter and height of the coil are 20, 30 and 13 mm, respectively. The armature of the motor is three phases, and the inner diameter is 40 mm. It is made of copper windings. With a direct current of 40 A for the HTS coil magnet and a RMS current of 10 A for the armature, a peak thrust of 3.8 N was measured at the temperature of 77 K and a radial gap of 5 mm between the armature and the excitation system. Effects of armature current, coil current, running time, magnetizers and seams between magnetizers were also studied. In the experiments, the peak thrusts of different types of HTS coil magnets were about from 1.3 times to 8 times as strong as the peak thrust of the coreless coil magnet under the same conditions.

  11. R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

  12. US effort on HTS power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of experts ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi years program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

  13. Hybrid Current Lead Design of HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, T.; Ren, L.; He, Q.; Jiao, F.; Dong, H.; Jin, T.; Zhou, S.

    In application of Superconducting magnetic energy storage device (SMES), current lead represents a key development component. This paper will focus on parameters and structure design of hybrid high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current lead in a SMES with 100 kJ/100 kW class. Based on the theoretical analysis, finite element simulation (FEA) has been used. It studies the thermal influence of variable cross-sectional area, HTS material and the connection between current lead and cryocooler. Some improvements have been proposed to reduce heat losses. At the end of this paper, a whole procedure about hybrid current lead design is given.

  14. Wire stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economu, M. A. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An insulation stripper is described which is especially useful for shielded wire, the stripper including a first pair of jaws with blades extending substantially perpendicular to the axis of the wire, and a second pair of jaws with blades extending substantially parallel to the axis of the wire. The first pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the device is turned to form circumferential cuts in the insulation. Then the second pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the wire is moved through the device to form longitudinal cuts that permit easy removal of the insulation. Each of the blades is located within the concave face of a V-block, to center the blades on the wire and to limit the depth of blade penetration.

  15. Current distribution among layers of single phase HTS cable conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. B.; Wang, Y. S.; Pi, W.; Ju, P.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable shows high application prospect in modern power transmission, as it is superior over conventional transmission lines in high engineering current density and environmental friendliness. Its configuration is generally composed of several HTS layers designed with the principle of uniform current distribution, but there are few experimental results to verify the distribution. In this paper, a HTS cable model was designed based on the principle of uniform current, and the current distributions among layers in an HTS cable model were measured by Rogowski coils. The results provide an important basis for design of multi-layer HTS cable.

  16. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  17. Rapid and simple measurement of critical current density in HTS thin films using a permanent magnet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Takeishi, K.; Takano, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Yokoo, M.; Mukaida, M.; Hirano, S.; Ohshima, S.

    2005-10-01

    We present the results of non-destructive and contactless measurement of the critical current density (Jc) of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films using a permanent magnet method. A cylindrical permanent magnet (Sm2Co17) with a height of 5.0 mm and diameter d of 5.0 mm was used. To investigate the margin of the sample setting for the vertical direction, load vs. distance curves for a minimum distance Lmin which varied from 0.5 to 2.0 mm were measured. Here, L is the distance from the permanent magnet to a surface of the HTS film. The effective maximum repulsive force Fm,eff was almost constant below Lmin = 1.2 mm. This result indicates that the measurement system has a wide margin with respect to sample setting in the vertical direction. We investigated the dependence of Fm,eff on the sample area from diameter l = 20-4 mm and found that the relationship of the critical current density Jc = 1.7 10-7 (Fm,eff/t) can be applied for l/d > 2 and the required sample size of the HTS films is approximately l = 2d for this system. Here, t is the thickness of the HTS thin film. These results indicate that the permanent magnet method can be used to easily estimate the Jc of HTS films at 77 K. Additionally, this system has good reproducibility for Jc measurements. It is thus promising as a replacement for conventional inductive measurements and for measurements for Jc mapping of HTS films, tapes, and wires using a small magnet.

  18. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  19. Resistive fault current limiter using HTS single-layer coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, Carlos A.; Shigue, Carlos Y.; Pinatti, Daltro G.; Ruppert-Filho, Ernesto; Freitas, Rafael C.; Homrich, Roberto P.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the work that is being done as a part of the project to develop a resistive current limiter using HTS Bi-2223/Ag tapes with the same construction scheme previously reported using LTS NbTi/CuNi wire with normal operating current of 170 A in liquid helium bath. The Bi-2223/Ag tape was helically wounded on several cylindrical G-10 tubes forming concentric coils connected in series, parallel or anti-parallel configurations in order to reduce the equivalent inductance of the complete winding. The design targets are the impedance of the electromagnetic system rising to 1.5 ? during a fault occurrence in absence of inductance both in the normal state and in the superconducting state, rated voltage and current of 15 kV and 400 A, respectively, with maximum flux density of 0.1 T. The test results in low voltage (AC/DC) as well as magnetic field measurements at 77 K and 4.2 K are presented and the limiting performance of the system are also discussed.

  20. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  1. Design and simulation of HTS bulk linear synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new type high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk linear synchronous motor (LSM) theory is proposed by authors which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as a synchronizing one in using current-carrying-armature-winding instead of permanent magnets. Electromagnetic force which HTS bulk produces depends on strongly the space distribution of an applied magnetic field under field cooling. LSM thrust force distribution on HTS bulk which is essentially different from that on a permanent magnet. It is generally difficult to design HTS bulk LSM. This paper presents a design of HTS bulk LSM by the finite element method (FEM) and its dynamics simulation of propulsion motion. Dynamics simulation is carried out using an instantaneous-maximum-thrust-force control method proposed here which is based on an analytical formula of LSM thrust force derived from the FEM capable of modeling HTS bulk.

  2. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ?8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ?30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ?0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  3. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  4. Cold storage characteristics of mobile HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Ken; Kawano, Asumi; Okamura, Tetsuji

    2011-06-01

    A cold storage system specialized in mobile high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets (e.g. for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles) has been proposed. In this system, a cooling source is detachable and a HTS coil is capable of maintaining superconducting state with its heat capacity. This system allows a considerably lightweight HTS magnet. An apparatus was constructed to evaluate the possibility of using cold storage systems in maglev vehicles. The thermal characteristic of this apparatus was based on a magnet for previous maglev test vehicles [1]. The operational temperature range of the magnet was assumed from 20 K to 50 K. Some experiments indicated that heat conduction by residual gas was not negligible. Especially over 30 K, gas conduction took a large part of heat input. This phenomenon is attributable to reduction of cryopumping effect. However, activated carbon in the apparatus compensates cryopumping effect. A unique heat capacitor was also used to enhance the cold storage effect. Water ice was chosen as a heat capacitor because water ice has a higher heat capacity than metallic materials at cryogenic temperatures. A small amount of water ice also prolonged cryogenic temperature condition. These results indicate 1 day of cold storage is probable in a magnet for maglev vehicles.

  5. Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H.; Goodall, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

  6. Two applications of HTS technology on an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes two applications for HTS technology on an airborne platform. The first application is a RF front-end for an 8 to 40 GHz microwave/ millimeter-wave ESM system. The second application is a 2 to 4 GHz HTS Spiral Antenna Array System. The HTS microwave front-end unit consists of an HTS diplexer, and two low noise preamplifiers. The design demonstrates the benefits of HTS technology while providing a near-term insertion on a military airborne platform. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System utilizes a 4 element conical spiral array (conventional technology) and a beamforming network consisting of a HTS power combiner, a HTS bandpass filter, HTS coupler, and a conventional technology low noise preamplifier. Both applications utilize low insertion loss HTS devices coupled with the cryogenic cooling of conventional low noise preamplifiers to lower the overall noise figure of the systems. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System provides a 3 dB improvement in SNR over the best available conventional technology system. A 3 dB improvement in SNR can be compared to the doubling of the antenna aperture which provides a 3 dB gain increase, but at the expense of a decreased field of view. A 3 dB increase in SNR can also be viewed as a 41% increase in usable target range. The HTS antenna system maintains a wide field of view with a performance that approaches a steerable beam antenna. This is a cost effective approach for improving the collection capability of a system without the expense of developing a steerable beam antenna and the associated beam control hardware (tracker) and software.

  7. Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

    This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

  8. High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2003-04-01

    New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, trapped field and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, trapped field and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  9. Superconducting Electric Machine with Permanent Magnets and Bulk HTS Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A. V.; Vasich, P. S.; Dezhin, D. S.; Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Penkin, V. T.

    Theoretical methods of calculating of two-dimensional magnetic fields, inductive parameters and output characteristics of the new type of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors with a composite rotor are presented. The composite rotor has the structure containing HTS flat elements, permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. The developed calculation model takes into account the concentrations and physical properties of these rotor elements. The simulation results of experimental HTS motor with a composite rotor are presented. The application of new type of HTS motor in different constructions of industrial high dynamic drivers is discussed.

  10. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  11. HTS component development for electric power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.

    1994-07-29

    This presentation covers the collaboration between Intermagnetics General Corporation (IGC) and U.S. DOE laboratories such as the Argonnne National Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the DOE/Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (DOE/SPI); along with informal collaboration with six other government research facilities. Being developed is applications for superconductors related to electric power, such as generators, motors, transmisssion cable, fault current limiter, and transformers. Highlighted are the critical current densities of short and long tapes at 77K; material and labor costs for Bi-2223 tapes; structural and performance specifications for a HTS magnet; and an overview of the the DOE/SPI program with plans for future work.

  12. Effect of Solvent on the O2(a(1)?g) ? O2(b(1)?g(+)) Absorption Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Bregnhj, Mikkel; Ogilby, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    Radiative transitions between the three lowest-lying electronic states of molecular oxygen have long provided a model to study how collision-dependent perturbations influence forbidden processes. In an isolated oxygen molecule, transitions between the O2(X(3)?g(-)), O2(a(1)?g), and O2(b(1)?g(+)) states are forbidden as electric-dipole processes. For oxygen dissolved in organic solvents, the probabilities of radiative transitions between these states increase appreciably. Attempts to interpret solvent-dependent changes in the radiative rate constants have principally relied on O2(b(1)?g(+)) and O2(a(1)?g) emission experiments. However, the dominant nonradiative deactivation channels of O2(b(1)?g(+)) make it difficult to quantify solvent effects on the O2(b(1)?g(+)) ? O2(a(1)?g) radiative process. Thus, an appreciable amount of important information has heretofore not been available. In the present study, we examined the effect of 17 common organic solvents on the O2(a(1)?g) ? O2(b(1)?g(+)) absorption transition at ?5200 cm(-1) (i.e., ?1925 nm). The solvent-dependent absorption coefficients at the band maximum, ?max, range from 5 to 50 M(-1) cm(-1) and correlate reasonably well with the solvent refractive index; ?max is largest in solvents with the largest refractive index. This observation is consistent with a model in which oxygen is perturbed to a greater extent by solvents with a large electronic polarizability. Through the Strickler-Berg equation, we also used these absorption data to obtain the radiative rate constant for the O2(b(1)?g(+)) ? O2(a(1)?g) transition, and the results are consistent with a model in which the O2(a(1)?g) ? O2(X(3)?g(-)) transition is said to steal intensity from the O2(b(1)?g(+)) ? O2(a(1)?g) transition. PMID:26181520

  13. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  14. Upgrade of SULTAN/EDIPO for HTS Cable Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Lewandowska, M.

    CRPP hosts two unique conductor test facilities SULTAN (SUpraLeiter TestANlage) and EDIPO (European DIPOle). They allow the test of high current superconductors in high magnetic fields (SULTAN 11 T, EDIPO 12.5 T). In both facilities sample currents up to 100 kA can be supplied by means of a NbTi transformer. Presently the facilities are upgraded for the test of high current high-temperature superconductor (HTS) samples. For HTS conductor testing at temperatures between 20 and 50 K, the heat flux between the HTS sample under test and the NbTi transformer needs to be limited to around 10 W per conductor leg by means of an HTS adapter connecting them. The second required upgrade is the supply of intermediate temperature helium (20-50 K) to the HTS test conductor. It is mandatory that the helium gas coming from the HTS conductor under test can be returned to the cryoplant as cold gas (T < 20 K). To reach this goal a tube-in-tube heat exchanger has been manufactured in which 4.5 K helium coming from the cryoplant is in counter flow with the warm gas leaving the HTS test conductor.

  15. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  16. Modeling of Hts Applications Using Emtp with Flux-Pinning Scaling Models for Practical Hts Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, J. R.; Sood, V. K.

    2008-03-01

    The EMTP software (Electromagnetic Transient Program) for modeling the behavior of electric power systems is commonly used to obtain the transient response of system disturbances, for example caused by fault currents. We have developed specific modules describing practical HTS materials that can be used to describe new architectures involving superconducting power devices, for example fault current limiters. These modules include flux-pinning scaling models that vary smoothly in their parameterization of the J-T-B-E (current density, temperature, magnetic field and electric field) surfaces. In addition, the non-linear low temperature materials properties, such as specific heat, are included for a more accurate description of device behavior. The advantage of this approach is that the complex and non-linear flux-pinning and thermal characteristics of HTS devices can be integrated into power network models. The modeling is presented, with an emphasis on fault current limiters where three domains of operating characteristics are identified.

  17. Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Balachandran, U.; Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M.

    1993-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

  18. Development of quench protection system for HTS coils by active power method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Tsumiyama, Y.; Kim, S. B.; Murase, S.; Seong, K.-C.; Kim, H.-J.

    2007-10-01

    Recently, HTS coils have been developed for electric power apparatuses. In superconducting coils, local and excessive joule heating may give damage to the superconducting windings when a quench occurs and therefore it is essential that the quench is detected quickly and precisely so that the coils can be safely discharged. Resistive voltage measurement method is universally used for the quench detection, however, it is vulnerable to an electromagnetic noise which causes insufficient quench detection and at least needs a central voltage tap in windings. In a large superconducting coil, a lead-wire from the central voltage tap may cause a short-circuit when high voltage will be applied. In this paper, we present a quench protection system based on the active power method which detects a quench by measuring the instantaneous active power generated in a superconducting coil. The protection system based on this method is very strong against to the noise and no more needs a central voltage tap. The performance of system developed by us is confirmed by using test coil wound with Bi-2223 HTS tapes.

  19. Impact of flux gap upon dynamic resistance of a rotating HTS flux pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Long, Nicholas J.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    HTS flux pumps enable superconducting currents to be directly injected into a magnet coil without the requirement for thermally inefficient current leads. Here, we present results from an experimental mechanically rotating HTS flux pump employing a coated-conductor stator and operated at 77 K. We show the effect of varying the size of the flux gap between the rotor magnets and coated conductor stator from 1 to 7.5 mm. This leads to a corresponding change in the peak applied perpendicular magnetic field at the stator from approximately 350 to 50 mT. We observe that our experimental device ceases to maintain a measurable output at flux gaps above 7.5 mm, which we attribute to the presence of screening currents in the stator wire. We show that our mechanically rotating flux pump is well described by a simple circuit model which enables the output performance to be described using two simple parameters, the open-circuit voltage V oc and the internal resistance, R d. Both of these parameters are found to be directly proportional to magnet-crossing frequency and decrease with increasing flux gap. We show that the trend in R d can be understood by considering the dynamic resistance experienced at the stator due to the oscillating amplitude of the applied rotor field. We adopt a literature model for the dynamic resistance within our coated-conductor stator and show that this gives good agreement with the experimentally measured internal resistance of our flux pump.

  20. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  1. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM); Overmyer, Donald L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

  2. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Charles M.; Kobayashi, June H.; Guillory, Emery B.; Pettiette-Hall, Claire; Burch, John F.

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates greater than 1000 HTS RF SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150 deg in resonant structures, and 20 deg in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits.

  3. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  4. H-formulation for simulating levitation forces acting on HTS bulks and stacks of 2G coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, F.; Sotelo, G. G.; Junior, R. de Andrade; Sirois, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques to model high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are used throughout the world. At the same time, the use of superconductors in transportation and magnetic bearings promises an increase in energy efficiency. However, the most widespread simulation technique in the literature, the H-formulation, has not yet been used to simulate superconducting levitation. The goal of this work is to present solutions for the challenges concerning the use of the H-formulation to predict the behavior of superconducting levitators built either with YBCO bulks or stacks of 2G wires. It is worth mentioning the originality of replacing bulks with HTS stacks in this application. In our simulation methodology, the movement between the HTS and the permanent magnet was avoided by restricting the simulation domain to the HTS itself, which can be done by applying appropriate boundary conditions and analytical expressions for the source field. Commercial finite element software was used for the sake of ease of implementation. Simulation results were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. We conclude that the H-formulation is suitable for problems involving moving objects and is a good alternative to other approaches for simulating superconducting magnetic bearings.

  5. O2 (1?g) detection using broadband CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Jingwei; Cai, Xianglong; Gai, Baodong; Meng, Qingkun; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    1 ?g oxygen was the active medium of chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), the concentration and distribution of 1 ?g oxygen was important for the output power and beam quality. However, the current test technique, such as fluorescence detection method, absorption spectrum method could not get accurate 1 ?g oxygen information, due to the interference from the iodine fluorescence or the rigorous request of the laser source and optics and detection elements. The anti-stokes Raman spectrum of 1 ?g oxygen was regarded as a potential technique to obtain desirable signal, and the coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) was the most feasible technique to get better signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we reported a broadband nanosecond coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) detecting system built up for the detection of the concentration and distribution of O2( 1 ?g) in COIL?The second harmonic of a Nd: YAG pulse laser was separated into two parts, one part was used to pump a broadband nanosecond dye laser to generate light of 578-580 nm, which covered both stokes lines of O2 ( 1 ?g?and O2 (3 ?? The other part was combined with dye laser output by a dichroic mirror, and then introduced into the detection region of COIL through a focus lens. CARS signals for O2?1 ?g?and O2 ?3 ??have different wavelengths, and their intensity was proportional to the square of the concentration of O2?1 ?g? and O2( 3 ?). By changing the focus spot of pump and stokes laser, the concentration distribution of O2?1 ?g? and O2?3 ??at different position could be obtained.

  6. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  7. Recent advances of HTS power application research at IEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanwei; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances of high temperature superconductors (HTS) for power applications in the Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE), Chinese academy of Sciences are presented. A 75 meter, 10.5 kV/1.5 kA three phase HTS transmission cable has been successfully demonstrated in a live distribution grid in northwest China. A 10.5 kV/200A bridge-type fault current limiter (FCL) prototype based on Bi-2223 tapes is being tested in a Hunan power plant since August 2005. A 400V/16V/26 kVA three phase HTS transformer was designed, built and tested, and the on site system installation of a 10.5 kV/400V/630 kVA HTS transformer will be finished at Tebian Electric Ltd. soon. In addition, the progress of design and test of SMES is also given.

  8. Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

  9. Inductance and Current Distribution Analysis of a Prototype HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Ming; Yuan, Weijia

    2014-05-01

    This project is partly supported by NSFC Grant 51207146, RAEng Research Exchange scheme of UK and EPSRC EP/K01496X/1. Superconducting cable is an emerging technology for electricity power transmission. Since the high power capacity HTS transmission cables are manufactured using a multi-layer conductor structure, the current distribution among the multilayer structure would be nonuniform without proper optimization and hence lead to large transmission losses. Therefore a novel optimization method has been developed to achieve evenly distributed current among different layers considering the HTS cable structure parameters: radius, pitch angle and winding direction which determine the self and mutual inductance. A prototype HTS cable has been built using BSCCO tape and tested to validate the design the optimal design method. A superconductor characterization system has been developed using the Labview and NI data acquisition system. It can be used to measure the AC loss and current distribution of short HTS cables.

  10. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  11. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  12. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  13. Effect of the axial stress and the magnetic field on the critical current and the electric resistance of the joints between HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Sarazin, M.; Granados, X.; Y Pastor, J.; Obradors, X.

    2015-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires require a detailed characterization of the possible degradation of their properties by handling at room temperature as well as during their service life, establishing the limits for associated functional devices and systems. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of spliced joints between commercial HTS coated conductors based on YBCO at room (300 K) and service temperatures (77 K). Single lap shear tests were performed and the evolution of the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were measured. The complete strain field for the tape and joints was also obtained by digital image correlation. In addition, tensile tests under an external magnetic field were performed, and the effect of the applied field on the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were studied. Finally, finite element simulations were employed to reproduce the distribution of the stress field developed in the spliced joint samples during axial loading.

  14. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc transmission.

  15. Outline of a new HTS cable project in Yokohama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Honjo, S.; Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.

    2009-10-01

    A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. This project targets operation of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the real grid in order to verify its reliability and operation performance. The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the influence of connecting the HTS cable. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd. provides the cooling system. This project consist of the design of a total system to be finalized in 2008, the manufacture of the cable, terminations and joint scheduled for completion in 2009, installation in spring and summer of 2010 and commissioning by the fall of 2010. The HTS cable will be connected to the real grid in the 154/66 kV substation. It is set up between the 154/66 kV transformer and the 66 kV bus line. This report shows the outline of this project and details of the influence of the connecting cable to the real grid.

  16. Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Gouge, Michael J; Knoll, David

    2010-01-01

    Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

  17. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dr. Hosup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, HS; Youm, D; Moon, SH; Kim, JH; Heo, YU; Dou, SX; Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 m thick SmBa2Cu3O7- (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1000 A/cm for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor.

  18. Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 μm thick SmBa2Cu3O7 − δ (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

  19. Ultra-high performance, high-temperature superconducting wires via cost-effective, scalable, co-evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5 ?m thick SmBa2Cu3O7--? (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000 A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500 A/cm-width for a short 12 cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

  20. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than .04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station which includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 fig.

  1. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  2. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  3. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingyong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiansi; Dong, Hao; Wang, Yuxin; Shao, Senhao

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  5. Astronaut adaptation to 1 G following long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, John; Greenisen, Michael; Cowell, Lynda L.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of studies of changes undergone by several physiological systems (including the cardiovascular system, the fluid and electrolyte characteristics, the red blood cells, the bone and the muscle tissues, and the exercise capacity) due to the exposures to microgravity and to the adaptation to 1 G after a long-duration space flight. Special attention is given to the effects of various training protocols and countermeasures used to attenuate the physiological problems encountered upon return from space.

  6. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  7. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  8. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.

  9. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  10. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

  11. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  12. Numerical assessment of efficiency and control stability of an HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Wei; Yuan, Weijia; Coombs, T. A.

    2010-06-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed and developed in Cambridge University. It is expected to become cost competitive with the conventional PMSM owing to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque density, etc. The structure and parameters of HTS PMSM are detailed. Both AC losses by transport current and applied filed in stator armature winding of HTS PMSM are also analyzed. Computed and simulated results of the characteristics of the HTS PMSM and conventional PMSM are compared. The improvement on stability of direct torque control (DTC) on the HTS PMSM is estimated, and proved by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

  13. The characteristics of trapped magnetic flux inside bulk HTS in the Mixed-? levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, M.; Ueno, T.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.; Higuchi, T.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we propose a new experimental method to investigate the principle of 'Mixed-?' levitation systems. To confirm our claim, we measured the attractive force and the variation of flux passing through both, the HTS sample and the face surface of iron yoke, when the yoke is approached/retreated to the surface of field-cooled HTS sample. It is revealed that when the diameter of the yoke is less than the diameter of the HTS, in the small gap by reducing the gap, the flux which passes through the face surface of the yoke and consequently the attractive force will decrease. Therefore, stable levitation is achievable. However, when the diameter of yoke is equal to the diameter of the HTS, the magnetic flux will not decrease for a reducing gap and stable levitation is unfeasible. Briefly, stable levitation is achievable when the yoke diameter is less than the HTS's diameter. Additionally, as the yoke is approached to the HTS the flux variation of the HTS in 77 K is negligible compare to the flux variation of the HTS in the room temperature. Therefore, in superconductivity state the pinned fluxes in the HTS samples remain approximately constant and the HTS acts as a 'magnetic isolator'. This specification can be used to simulate the behavior of field-cooled HTS by the FEM software.

  14. NDE of coated-conductor using HTS SQUID array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, T.; Adachi, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Hata, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Machi, T.; Tanabe, K.

    2009-10-01

    We developed a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using an HTS SQUID array in order to examine rare-earth (RE)-123 HTS coated conductors striated into multi-filamentary lines. The 5-channel HTS SQUID gradiometer array was composed of ramp-edge junctions with LaErBaCuO and SmBaCuO electrode layers, and fabricated by using an HTS multi layer fabrication technique. The planar gradiometers with 1 1 mm 2 pickup loops and a baseline of 1 mm detected the vertical element of magnetic field gradient induced around defects by an eddy current. The gradiometer array cooled by thermal conduction from a liquid nitrogen bath was placed above the coated conductor on the main stage with a lift-off of about 1.5 mm. A coated conductor was fed from a reel to reel, and cooled blow its Tc by stages connected to Gifford-Mcmahon (GM) coolers. By employing a 3 kHz induction current generating the maximum field of 0.14 mT, we could identify a distribution of defects in a long-length non-striated conductor. Furthermore, we could detect and distinguish three kinds of defects, existence of a spotty normal-state region, electrical short between striated filaments, and delamination of the superconducting layer from the Hastelloy tape for each filamentary superconducting line at a high speed up to 30 m/h.

  15. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  16. HTS power leads for the BTEV interaction region

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A new Interaction Region (IR) for the BTEV experiment was planned to be built at Fermilab. This IR would have required new superconducting quadrupole magnets and many additional power circuits for their operation. The new ''low beta'' quadrupole magnet design was based upon the Fermilab LHC quadrupole design, and would have operated at 9.56 kA in 4.5 K liquid helium. The use of conventional power leads for these circuits would have required substantially more helium for cooling than is available from the cryogenic plant, which is already operating close to its limit. To decrease the heat load and helium cooling demands, the use of HTS power leads was necessary. In developing specifications for HTS leads for the BTEV interaction region, several 6 kA HTS leads produced by American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) have been tested at over-current conditions. Final design requirements were to be based on these test results. This paper summarizes the test results and describes the design requirements for the 9.65 kA HTS power leads.

  17. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  18. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Robust Analysis of High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assay Data

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Changwon; Sen, Pranab K.; Peddada, Shyamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) assays use cells or tissues to screen thousands of compounds in a short period of time. Data generated from qHTS assays are then evaluated using nonlinear regression models, such as the Hill model, and decisions regarding toxicity are made using the estimates of the parameters of the model. For any given compound, the variability in the observed response may either be constant across dose groups (homoscedasticity) or vary with dose (heteroscedasticity). Since thousands of compounds are simultaneously evaluated in a qHTS assay, it is not practically feasible for an investigator to perform residual analysis to determine the variance structure before performing statistical inferences on each compound. Since it is well-known that the variance structure plays an important role in the analysis of linear and nonlinear regression models it is therefore important to have practically useful and easy to interpret methodology which is robust to the variance structure. Furthermore, given the number of chemicals that are investigated in the qHTS assay, outliers and influential observations are not uncommon. In this article we describe preliminary test estimation (PTE) based methodology which is robust to the variance structure as well as any potential outliers and influential observations. Performance of the proposed methodology is evaluated in terms of false discovery rate (FDR) and power using a simulation study mimicking a real qHTS data. Of the two methods currently in use, our simulations studies suggest that one is extremely conservative with very small power in comparison to the proposed PTE based method whereas the other method is very liberal. In contrast, the proposed PTE based methodology achieves a better control of FDR while maintaining good power. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a data set obtained from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Additional information, simulation results, data and computer code are available online as supplementary materials. PMID:23908557

  1. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  2. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du, Yong

    2012-12-01

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable ?'-CuAl2 IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c = 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable ?'-CuAl2 phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and ?'-CuAl2, which can minimize lattice mismatch for ?'-CuAl2 to grow on Cu.

  3. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  4. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  5. A defect in the RNA-processing protein HNRPDL causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1G (LGMD1G).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Natssia M; Naslavsky, Michel S; Licinio, Luciana; Kok, Fernando; Schlesinger, David; Vainzof, Mariz; Sanchez, Nury; Kitajima, Joo Paulo; Gal, Lihi; Cavaana, Natale; Serafini, Peter R; Chuartzman, Silvia; Vasquez, Cristina; Mimbacas, Adriana; Nigro, Vincenzo; Pavanello, Rita C; Schuldiner, Maya; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana

    2014-08-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined muscle disorders with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. More than 20 genes with autosomal recessive (LGMD2A to LGMD2Q) and autosomal dominant inheritance (LGMD1A to LGMD1H) have been mapped/identified to date. Mutations are known for six among the eight mapped autosomal dominant forms: LGMD1A (myotilin), LGMD1B (lamin A/C), LGMD1C (caveolin-3), LGMD1D (desmin), LGMD1E (DNAJB6), and more recently for LGMD1F (transportin-3). Our group previously mapped the LGMD1G gene at 4q21 in a Caucasian-Brazilian family. We now mapped a Uruguayan family with patients displaying a similar LGMD1G phenotype at the same locus. Whole genome sequencing identified, in both families, mutations in the HNRPDL gene. HNRPDL is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein family member, which participates in mRNA biogenesis and metabolism. Functional studies performed in S. cerevisiae showed that the loss of HRP1 (yeast orthologue) had pronounced effects on both protein levels and cell localizations, and yeast proteome revealed dramatic reorganization of proteins involved in RNA-processing pathways. In vivo analysis showed that hnrpdl is important for muscle development in zebrafish, causing a myopathic phenotype when knocked down. The present study presents a novel association between a muscular disorder and a RNA-related gene and reinforces the importance of RNA binding/processing proteins in muscle development and muscle disease. Understanding the role of these proteins in muscle might open new therapeutic approaches for muscular dystrophies. PMID:24647604

  6. Mechanisms of plant resistance to 1 g gravity and hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sakaki, Takeshi

    Resistance to the gravitational force is one of two major graviresponses in plants, comparable to gravitropism. We have examined mechanisms of gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. Under hypergravity conditions, the expression of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, was up-regulated in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the level of membrane sterols was kept higher, without influencing the level or composition of other membrane components. Out of sterols, the levels of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides were greatly increased, suggesting the stimulation of sterol raft formation under hypergravity conditions. On the other hand, the expression of the majority of alphaand beta-tubulin genes was up-regulated and the percentage of cells with longitudinal cortical microtubules was increased by hypergravity. Hypergravity also increased the expression of genes encoding gamma-tubulin complex and katanin transiently, whereas it decreased that encoding various microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP65. The role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance was confirmed using Arabidopsis mutants. The analysis with mutants has also revealed that the signal transduction process via sterol rafts is distinct from that via cortical microtubules. These results indicate that membrane sterol rafts and cortical microtubules are deeply and independently involved in maintenance of normal growth capacity against the gravitational force. To confirm that the hypothesis is applicable to plant resistance to 1 g gravity, we will carry out the space experiment. This experiment, termed Resist Wall, is to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the Resist Wall experiment, Arabidopsis mutant strains will be cultivated under microgravity and at 1 g conditions on the ISS up to reproductive stage and phenotypes on growth and development will be compared using video images. Also, we will analyze the levels of gene expression and the cell wall properties of the mutants as well as the wild type, using materials fixed on orbit and collected to earth. The results obtained in this space experiment will also be presented.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascun, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2009-07-17

    This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

  9. Project Overview of HTS Magnet for Ultra-high-field MRI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, Taizo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    A project to develop an ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system based on HTS magnets using (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO; RE=rear earth) coils is underway. The project is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and aims to establish magnet technologies for a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system. REBCO wires have high critical current density in high magnetic fields and high strength against hoop stresses, and therefore, MRI magnets using REBCO coils are expected to have cryogenic systems that are smaller, lighter, and simpler than the conventional ones. A major problem in using REBCO coils for MRI magnets is the huge irregular magnetic field generated by the screening current in REBCO tapes. Thus, the main purpose of this project is to make the influence of this screening current predictable and controllable. Fundamental technologies, including treatment of the screening currents, were studied via experiments and numerical simulations using small coils. Two types of model magnets are planned to be manufactured, and the knowledge gained in the development of the model magnets will be reflected in the magnet design of a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system.

  10. Conceptual design of contactless power transfer into HTS receiver coil using normal conducting resonance antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyoung Ku; Chung, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo

    2014-09-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators has been recently explored to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire across a large air gap. As the CPT technology makes possible the process of connector-free charging, it has been studied for practical applications to a variety of power applications. In the superconducting magnet system, a widespread method of electric energy supply is realized by the current lead which is one of indispensable subsystems in the power transfer equipment; however, it causes energy losses. To overcome such a problem, the combination CPT technology with HTS receiver coils has been proposed. It is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Such a technique has been expected a reasonable approach to provide a safe and convenient way of charging or storage without connecting joints in the superconducting applications. In this study, we presented the feasibility and various effects of transmission property from room temperature to very low temperature vessel within 40 cm under different materials cooling vessels using radio frequency (RF) generator is 370 KHz.

  11. Homogeneous performance and strain tolerance of long Bi-2223 HTS conductors under hoop stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Kitaguchi, H.; Chaud, X.; Debray, F.; Nishijima, G.; Tsuchiya, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two types of high-strength industrial Bi-2223 conductor, one laminated by copper alloy and the other laminated by stainless steel, have been tested to examine the effect of hoop stress on the transport property. The specimens (2 m long) were prepared by winding one layer around a GFRP mandrel and the measurements were made in a liquid helium bath with the hoop stress calculated from the BJR product applied by external magnetic field. A careful measurement wire configuration was necessary to cancel the noise pick-up from the environment for more accurate determination of Ic and n-value. We show for the first time that both conductors showed homogeneous voltage-current characteristics over a long length and degradations with hoop stress occurred uniformly, which is crucial information for the development of HTS magnet technology. The onset of degradation occurred at 200 MPa and 220 MPa, with additional bending stress present from the winding diameter of 108 mm, for copper alloy laminated and stainless steel laminated conductors, respectively. After considering the effect of bending strain, our result agrees well with the previously measured data.

  12. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  13. New Hits as Antagonists of GPR103 Identified by HTS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical data indicate that GPR103 receptor and its endogenous neuropeptides QRFP26 and QRFP43 are involved in appetite regulation. A high throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule GPR103 antagonists was performed with the clinical goal to target weight management by modulation of appetite. A high hit rate from the HTS and initial low confirmation with respect to functional versus affinity data challenged us to revise the established screening cascade. To secure high quality data while increasing throughput, the binding assay was optimized on quality to run at single concentration. This strategy enabled evaluation of a larger fraction of chemical clusters and singletons delivering 17 new compound classes for GPR103 antagonism. Representative compounds from three clusters are presented. One of the identified clusters was further investigated, and an initial structureactivity relationship study is reported. The most potent compound identified had a pIC50 of 7.9 with an improved ligand lipophilic efficiency. PMID:24900874

  14. Characteristics of HTS tube depending on heat-treatment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Min; Jang, Gun-Eik

    2001-03-01

    Bi-2212 HTS tube was fabricated by centrifugal forming process (CFP). As a variation of melt casting process (MCP) or centrifugal casting technique, the CFP is a flexible method for manufacturing Bi-2212 bulk tubes and has been optimized to achieve smooth surface and uniform thickness. At this process, the slurry was prepared in the mixing ratio of 10:1 of Bi-2212 powder and binder. It was initially charged into the rotating mold at the speed of 300-450 rpm. Heat-treatment was performed at the temperature range 870-890C in air for partial melting. The HTS tube fabricated by CFP at 890C at the rotating speed of 450 rpm was highly densified and the plate-like grains with more than 20 ?m in diameter were well developed along the rotating axis. The measured Tc and Jc at 10 K were around 85 K and 3000 A/cm 2, respectively.

  15. High voltage insulation of bushing for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    For the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments, it is necessary to develop insulating materials and high voltage (HV) insulation technology at cryogenic temperature of bushing. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an attractive dielectric liquid. Also, the polymer insulating materials are expected to be used as solid materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), Silicon (Si) rubber, aromatic polyamide (Nomex), EPDM/Silicon alloy compound (EPDM/Si). In this paper, the surface flashover characteristics of various insulating materials in LN2 are studied. These results are studied at both AC and impulse voltage under a non-uniform field. The use of GFRP and Teflon as insulation body for HTS bushing should be much desirable. Especially, GFRP is excellent material not only surface flashover characteristics but also mechanical characteristics at cryogenic temperature. The surface flashover is most serious problem for the shed design in LN2 and operation of superconducting equipments.

  16. Practical technique of pulsed field magnetization for bulk HTS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Sano, T.; Sugyo, D.; Izumi, M.; Ida, T.; Nariki, S.; Sakai, N.; Hirabayashi, I.; Miki, M.

    2008-02-01

    We studied a pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of bulk HTS assembled into a synchronous motor as a field-pole. The PFM is essential to apply bulk HTS inside the machine as a practical technique. In the present study, we developed a PFM technique that is a usage of Controlled Magnetic density Distribution Coil (CMDC). The coil is composed of inner vortex coil and outer solenoid. We successfully obtained the trapped flux density with 1.3 T by the step-wise cooling method with CMDC at 38 K in the motor. The bulk was cooled by a condensed neon. In addition, we studied the PFM for Gd-bulk of 140 mm diameter. By using the CMDC, we obtained the trapped flux density distribution with regular shape. In this paper we report these advanced PFM techniques for a practical machinery applications.

  17. New Hits as Antagonists of GPR103 Identified by HTS.

    PubMed

    Nordqvist, Anneli; Kristensson, Lisbeth; Johansson, Kjell E; Isaksson da Silva, Krystle; Fex, Tomas; Tyrchan, Christian; Svensson Henriksson, Anette; Nilsson, Kristina

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical data indicate that GPR103 receptor and its endogenous neuropeptides QRFP26 and QRFP43 are involved in appetite regulation. A high throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule GPR103 antagonists was performed with the clinical goal to target weight management by modulation of appetite. A high hit rate from the HTS and initial low confirmation with respect to functional versus affinity data challenged us to revise the established screening cascade. To secure high quality data while increasing throughput, the binding assay was optimized on quality to run at single concentration. This strategy enabled evaluation of a larger fraction of chemical clusters and singletons delivering 17 new compound classes for GPR103 antagonism. Representative compounds from three clusters are presented. One of the identified clusters was further investigated, and an initial structure-activity relationship study is reported. The most potent compound identified had a pIC50 of 7.9 with an improved ligand lipophilic efficiency. PMID:24900874

  18. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Avrin, W.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  19. HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Woloshun, K. A.

    The design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler is discussed. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application, the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

  20. Optimization of HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage magnet volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Aki; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

    2003-08-01

    Nonlinear optimization problems in the field of electromagnetics have been successfully solved by means of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and the finite element method (FEM). For example, the combination of SQP and FEM has been proven to be an efficient tool in the optimization of low temperature superconductors (LTS) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) magnets. The procedure can also be applied for the optimization of HTS magnets. However, due to a strongly anisotropic material and a slanted electric field, current density characteristic high temperature superconductors HTS optimization is quite different from that of the LTS. In this paper the volumes of solenoidal conduction-cooled Bi-2223/Ag SMES magnets have been optimized at the operation temperature of 20 K. In addition to the electromagnetic constraints the stress caused by the tape bending has also been taken into account. Several optimization runs with different initial geometries were performed in order to find the best possible solution for a certain energy requirement. The optimization constraints describe the steady-state operation, thus the presented coil geometries are designed for slow ramping rates. Different energy requirements were investigated in order to find the energy dependence of the design parameters of optimized solenoidal HTS coils. According to the results, these dependences can be described with polynomial expressions.

  1. HTS current lead using a composite heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of HTS current leads being built by Los Alamos to supply power to a demonstration HTS coil which will operate in a vacuum cooled by a cryocooler. Because vapor cooling is not an option for this application the leads must be entirely conductively cooled. In the design of HTS current leads for this type of application, it is desirable to intercept part of the heat load at an intermediate temperature. This thermal intercept or connection must be electrically insulating but thermally conductive, two mutually exclusive properties of most candidate solid materials. To achieve this end we incorporate a composite nitrogen heat pipe, constructed of conducting and non-conducting materials, to provide efficient thermal communication and simultaneously, electrical isolation between the lead and the intermediate temperature heat sink. Another important feature of the current lead design is the use of high Jc thick film superconductors deposited on a non-conducting substrate to reduce the conductive heat leak through the lower portion of the lead. Two flexible electrical conductors are incorporated to accommodate handling, assembly and the dissimilar expansion coefficients of the various materials.

  2. Development of Substrate for RABiTS-based HTS Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-05

    During its fifteen years of life, this CRADA has evolved in both scope and purpose. Early efforts to develop high performance bismuth-based powder-in-tube first generation high temperature superconductors (HTS) have shifted toward efforts to understand and develop technologies required to fabricate second generation HTS coated conductors. Since the two original longstanding principal investigators from UT-Battelle and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) are not presently employed by their respective organizations, this final report shall focus primarily on results of the more recent past involving research and development of the deformation and annealing processes required to fabricate metallic substrates for RABiTS-based second generation coated conductors. The specific objectives of this recent work involve the development of OST Ni/3%W tape for HTS coated conductors and include: (a) to improve uniformity of cube texture through control of deformation and annealing parameters, (b) to minimize delamination and other buffer deposition problems through understanding and control of key parameters related to the metal substrate, (c) to ensure that the textured metal substrate allows well textured buffers with no delamination, and (d) to prepared a final report.

  3. Testing of an HTS Power Cable Made from YBCO Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, Michael J; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Rey, Christopher M; Lindsay, David T; Roden, Mark L; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed, built, and tested a 1.25-m-long, prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable made from second-generation YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO)-coated conductor tapes. Electrical tests of this cable were performed in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. DC testing of the HTS cable included determination of the V-I curve with a critical current of about 2100 A, which was consistent with the critical currents of the two layers of 4.4-mm wide YBCO tapes. AC testing of the cable was conducted at currents up to about 1500 Arms. The ac losses were determined calorimetrically by measuring the response of a calibrated temperature sensor placed on the former and electrically by use of a Rogowski coil with a lock-in amplifier. Over-current testing was conducted at peak current values up to 4.9 kA for pulse lengths of 0.3-0.5 s. Test results are compared to earlier data from a 1.25-m-long power cable made from 1-cm-wide YBCO tapes and also comparable BSCCO cables. This commercial-grade HTS cable demonstrated the feasibility of second-generation YBCO tapes in an ac cable application.

  4. Fault Current Tests of a 5-m HTS Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.

    2001-02-19

    The first industrial demonstration of a three-phase high-temperature superconducting transmission power cable at the Southwire manufacturing complex is in progress. One crucial issue during operation of the 30-m HTS cables is whether they could survive the fault current (which can be over an order of magnitude higher than the operating current) in the event of a short-circuit fault and how HTS cables and the cryogenic system would respond. Simulated fault-current tests were performed at ORNL on a 5-m cable. This single-phase cable was constructed in the same way as the 30-m cables and is also rated for 1250 A at 7.2 kV ac line-to-ground voltage. Tests were performed with fault-current pulses of up to 15 kA (for 0.5 s) with pulse lengths of up to 5 s (at 6.8 kA). Although a large voltage drop was produced across the HTS cable during the fault-current pulse, no significant changes in the coolant temperature, pressure, or joint resistance were observed. The cable survived 15 simulated fault-current shots without any degradation in its V-I characteristics.

  5. Numerical evaluation of stresses of a bulk HTS in field-cooled magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Takashima, H.

    Stresses in a bulk high Tc superconductor (HTS) are numerically evaluated, when the bulk HTS is fully magnetized with field-cooling. Numerical solutions for a cylindrical model are obtained by using the finite difference method. Differences between one- and two-dimensional solutions with the Bean model are discussed through the analysis. The numerical evaluation is useful to discuss the stress distributions in the bulk HTS.

  6. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  7. Numerical evaluation of field profile in an undulator with bulk HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimotoa, M.

    Application of a bulk high-Tc superconductor (HTS) to a permanent magnet undulator is numerically evaluated using macroscopic numerical simulation based on the critical state model. Shielding currents are induced by field-cooled magnetization with increasing of the gap length between magnets of the undulator. A hole of the HTS ring is treated as low conductivity region. Magnetic field at the center of the undulator is compared for cases with and without the bulk HTS. Numerical results agree well with the experimental results. Shielding field of the HTS ring is also numerically evaluated and discussed with experimental results.

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  17. Resistance of streamline wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defoe, George L

    1928-01-01

    This note contains the results of tests to determine the resistance of four sizes of streamline wire. The investigation was conducted in the six-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made at various velocities and it was found that the resistance of streamline wires was considerably less than that of round wires of equivalent strength. Scale effect was also found since, with an increase of Reynolds Number, a decrease in the resistance coefficient was obtained.

  18. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  19. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  20. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  1. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  2. Magnetic uniaxial wire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Costa, João T.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may have a dual electromagnetic response, such that for arbitrarily large wavelengths it concurrently supports two modes with hyperbolic- and elliptical-type dispersions. Importantly, one of the eigenwaves is nearly dispersionless and sees the metamaterial as a medium with extreme magnetic anisotropy. The metamaterial may thus behave as the magnetic analog of the conventional wire medium formed by a set of parallel straight metallic wires. It is demonstrated that the magnetic wire medium enables channeling the subwavelength details of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves.

  3. Superconducting wire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glad, W. E.; Chase, G. G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/sq cm) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  4. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  6. THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

  7. Design optimization of a HTS current lead with large current capacity for fusion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, T.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.

    2006-09-01

    Design study of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) current lead having a large current transportation capacity has been performed for thermonuclear fusion application on the basis of a 60 kA HTS current lead developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The lead consists of copper and HTS parts, and the conductors of the parts are a forced flow cooled bundle and conduction cooled cylindrically arrayed stacks of silver-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes for the copper and the HTS parts, respectively. The objective of the design study is to reduce cost for fabrication and operation of the HTS current lead by computing the optimum HTS operating temperature, where the total amount, including increase of fabrication cost and decrease of operating cost by adoption of HTS lead, is minimized. Results of the study show that HTS operating temperature of 75 K is optimum for 10,000 h operation and reduction by 1/5 of electric power consumption for a conventional lead can be achieved at the temperature.

  8. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

  9. HTS ion damage Josephson junction technology for SQUID arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouanani, S.; Kermorvant, J.; Crt, D.-G.; Lematre, Y.; Mage, J.-C.; Marcilhac, B.; Bergeal, N.; Malnou, M.; Lesueur, J.; Mailly, D.; Ulysse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The high temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson Junction (JJ) ion damage technology we are developing is well suited for making large SQUID arrays. We have studied arrays of similar SQUIDs together with large SQIFs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) with 2000 SQUIDs of different loop areas. Magnetic field sensitivity has been measured in both types of devices as a function of bias current and temperature. The effects of the barrier thickness (from 20 to 80 nm) and JJ length (2 or 5 ?m) on characteristics have been investigated.

  10. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.; Leslie, K. E.; Binks, R. A.; Lam, S. H. K.; Du, J.; Tilbrook, D. L.; Mitchell, E. E.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Lee, J. B.; Turner, R.; Downey, M.; Maddever, A.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  11. The Basic Properties of PPLP for HTS DC Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    In order to develop high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable, it is important to understand the cooling system, high voltage insulation and materials at cryogenic temperature. Especially, the basic properties of insulating materials must be solved for the long life, reliability and compact of system. In this paper, we will discuss mainly on the electrical and the mechanical properties of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The polarity effect of DC and impulse voltage, the volume resistivity and the space charge distribution and frost were studied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength of PPLP at LN2 (77 K) and room temperature (300 K) were studied.

  12. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  13. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  14. Optimal design of thrust force in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Eguchi, M.

    2005-10-01

    We proposed the vertical-type linear reluctance motor (LRM) with HTS bulks cooled in zero-field. The double-sided HTS bulk LRM is propelled contactlessly only by electromagnetic repulsive force from both sides of a double-sided armature guideway. This paper presents optimal thrust force design based on the dependence of thrust on the size of HTS bulk attached to the cage in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM. The thrust force is calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM), taking into account the E-J characteristic. Improved HTS bulk LRM which is 1.5 times heavier than the previous cage can be propelled contactlessly in propulsion and guidance simulation.

  15. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  16. Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

  17. The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

  18. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  19. Wire Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1983-03-01

    The Wire Transport Code was developed to study the dynamics of relativistic-electron-beam propagation in the transport tube in which a wire-conditioning zone is present. In order for the beam to propagate successfully in the transport section it must be matched onto the wire by focusing elements. The beam must then be controlled by strong lenses as it exits the wire zone. The wire transport code was developed to model this process in substantial detail. It is able to treat axially symmetric problems as well as those in which the beam is transversely displaced from the axis of the transport tube. The focusing effects of foils and various beamline lenses are included in the calculations.

  20. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjrn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  1. New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Takaike, A.; Hirokawa, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted, but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo-compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also, a heat-exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K, and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

  2. HTS cables open the window for large-scale renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geschiere, A.; Willn, D.; Piga, E.; Barendregt, P.

    2008-02-01

    In a realistic approach to future energy consumption, the effects of sustainable power sources and the effects of growing welfare with increased use of electricity need to be considered. These factors lead to an increased transfer of electric energy over the networks. A dominant part of the energy need will come from expanded large-scale renewable sources. To use them efficiently over Europe, large energy transits between different countries are required. Bottlenecks in the existing infrastructure will be avoided by strengthening the network. For environmental reasons more infrastructure will be built underground. Nuon is studying the HTS technology as a component to solve these challenges. This technology offers a tremendously large power transport capacity as well as the possibility to reduce short circuit currents, making integration of renewables easier. Furthermore, power transport will be possible at lower voltage levels, giving the opportunity to upgrade the existing network while re-using it. This will result in large cost savings while reaching the future energy challenges. In a 6 km backbone structure in Amsterdam Nuon wants to install a 50 kV HTS Triax cable for a significant increase of the transport capacity, while developing its capabilities. Nevertheless several barriers have to be overcome.

  3. Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjiang; Qiu, Ming; Liu, Yu; Wen, Zheng; Duan, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by measuring and analysing the typical locations of HTSs above the PM guideway. We also measure the levitation abilities of the arrangement at different field cooled heights (FCHs) and different measuring distances (MDs), and find that the lower FCH and the lower MD both cause more magnetic flux to penetrate the HTSs, and then cause stronger lateral stability. A demonstration PM-HTS maglev test vehicle is built with four maglev units and two PM guideways with the length of 7 m. Its levitation characteristics in different FC and loading conditions are demonstrated. By analysing the maglev launch assist process, we assess that the low FC is useful for increasing the lateral stability of the Maglifter.

  4. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  5. HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1999-07-12

    Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

  6. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-09-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  7. Sub-Micron Long HTS Ho Electron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harnack, 0.; Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a high-T, superconductor (HTS) was introduced recently as an alternative to a Schottky mixer at THz frequencies. The performance of the mixer depends on the total thermal conductance for heat removal from the phonon sub-system due to either length-dependent phonon diffusion or phonon escape to the substrate. We have measured both the length and temperature dependencies of the IF bandwidth of the mixers fabricated from 25-35 mn thick YBCO films on MgO and sapphire substrates. The films were grown by a laser deposition technique and electron-beam lithography was used to define bridge lengths down to 50 nm. Mixer measurements were done using signal frequencies in the range of 1-100 GHz. For 50 nm and 400 nm long devices on MgO, the 3-dB bandwidth was about 100 MHz. At temperatures below 60 K, the hot-electron plateau was clearly seen starting around 2-3 GHz. At temperatures above 70 K, the flux-flow effects begin to dominate and the IF bandwidth increases to 1-8 GHz, while the conversion efficiency drops by several dB. This temperature dependence of the IF bandwidth can account for previously reported unexpectedly high bandwidth of HTS mixers.

  8. High Performance Superconducting Wire in High Applied Magnetic Fields via Nanoscale Defect Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3 5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 m thick YBa2Cu3O7? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm?1 and 65.4 kA cm?2, respectively.

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 m thick YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  10. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  11. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  12. Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

  13. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  14. Development of 3kA conduction cooled HTS current lead system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsemochi, Koichi; Ono, Michitaka; Nomura, Shunji; Kuriyama, Toru; Kasahara, Hirofumi; Akita, Shirabe; Koso, Seiichi

    2003-10-01

    The research and development of superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) system, a national project, began in 1999. One of the purposes of this project is investigation concerning the application of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SMES. As a part of this project, the 3 kA class HTS small model coil was manufactured in order to verify the possibility of realizing conduction cooled HTS SMES. Therefore, it is important to develop the conduction cooled current lead system for applying this coil. We developed a kA class conduction cooled HTS current lead system. This current lead system consists of the copper current lead and the YBaCuO (YBCO) HTS current lead. The YBCO bulk manufactured by Nippon Steel Corporation was applied to the HTS current lead. The YBCO bulk keeps high critical current density ( Jc > 10,000 A/cm 2) in the magnetic field (1 T) at 77 K compared with Bi2223 superconductor. The experiment of this HTS current lead system was carried out, and rated current of 3000 A was achieved successfully.

  15. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  16. A Generator of H1(M}1g; H1(?g; Z)) and a Reflection Representation of the Mapping Class Groups via Iwahori-Hecke Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Nishiyama, K.; Yano, M.

    In this paper, we discuss a simple and geometric construction of a generator of H1(M}1g; H1(?g; Z)) This generator is obtained from a representation of the mapping class group via an Iwahori-Hecke algebra representation. See [M. Matsumoto, N. Nishiyama and M. Yano, ``A representation of mapping class groups via Iwahori-Hecke algebra'', preprint (May 2001)] for detail.

  17. The Improved Transient Stabilities of HTS Coils by Removing the Insulation and Inserting the Metal Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kajikawa, H.; Ikoma, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

    NMR/MRI magnets have a protection device to prevent the damages due to a quench. On the other hand, the protection device design of HTS coils or magnets are very difficult because it has a very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicate behaviors of quench. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the turn-to-turn insulation and inserting the metal tape instead of insulation. In this paper, the improved transient stabilities and self- protection abilities of HTS coils by removing the insulation and inserting metal tapes will be presented by minimum quench energy (MQE).

  18. The electromagnet design for 3-D superconducting actuator using HTS bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Inoue, T.; Shimizu, A.; Murase, S.

    2006-10-01

    We have been developing a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator consists of a field-cooled HTS bulk for mover and two-dimensional arranged multiple electromagnets as a stator. The HTS bulk is magnetically connected with electromagnets and it can be moved in 3-D directions and rotates without upper side electromagnets and spatial restrictions. The current and the polarity of each electromagnet were individually controlled by the switching power supply. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effects of the shapes of HTS bulks (disk shape with/without inner hole) and electromagnets (4 and 8 polarities) in points of stabilities and forces of levitation.

  19. Development of Field Control Method and Basic Design of HTS Magnet for MDDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, A.; Kim, S. B.; Eritate, I.; Abe, T.; Shima, S.; Takahashi, M.; Sanada, N.

    The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications. We proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of superconducting magnet, high temperature superconductors (HTS) tapes and iron blocks. In this study, it was confirmed that the control of magnetic field gradient was possible by arranging the HTS tapes and iron blocks on the superconducting magnet. In addition, the multiple racetrack HTS magnets were proposed in order to generate the high field gradient along the longitudinal direction.

  20. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  1. HTS Josephson heterodyne oscillator on a pulse-tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Lam, S. H. K.; Taylor, R.

    2009-10-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson heterodyne oscillator based on step-edge junction technology has recently been developed (Du et al 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 033507, Macfarlane et al 2009 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19 920). In this work, the implementation and characterization of such a heterodyne oscillator on a compact pulse-tube cryocooler (PTC) are presented. The rf performance of the oscillator cooled by the cryocooler is compared to that of the same device when cooled in the quiet gas phase of a liquid helium Dewar. Any measurable influence of additional electromagnetic noise and mechanical vibration of the cryocooler on the oscillator performance is assessed by measuring the linewidth broadening of the heterodyne oscillation. The cryocooled oscillator demonstrated excellent performance and negligible excess noise was observed when operating the PTC.

  2. Single flux quantum comparators for HTS AD converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, A. Yu.; Kirichenko, D. E.; Ivanov, Z.; Komissinsky, F.; Stepancov, E. A.; Khapaev, M. M.; Claeson, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated different comparators for Flash and ?-? high temperature superconducting ADCs designed using three-layer HTS tri-crystal junction integrated circuit technology with spread of the junction critical currents less than 10% and features size 0.6 ?m. Using the theoretical estimations for the bit error rate in RSFQ circuit under the restrictions of the given technology, we have estimated working temperature as T=62 K. At this temperature, the circuits were optimized in order to achieve maximum performance of the related ADCs in terms of input bandwidth, resolution and operating margins. For design purposes, a novel method was developed for inductance calculation with 3D magnetic field distribution in multilayer superconducting technology and extraction of the inductance matrix of the equivalent circuit.

  3. Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

  4. Conductance Degradation in HTS Coated Conductor Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, Edgar R.; Leidecker, Henning; Panashchenko, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    Solder joints between YBCO coated conductors and normal metal traces have been analysed as part of an effort to develop a robust HTS lead assembly for a spaceflight mission. Measurements included critical current and current transfer profiles. X-ray micrographs were used to verify proper solder flow and to determine the extent of voiding. SEM of cross-sections with EDS analysis was crucial in understanding the diffusion of the protective silver layer over the YBCO into the solder for different solder processes. The assembly must be stored for an extended period of time prior to final cool-down and operation. Measurements of the joint resistance over the course of months show a significant increase with time. Understanding the interface condition suggests an explanation for the change.

  5. Current transport in two-dimensional HTS NID junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devyatov, I. A.; Goncharov, D. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.

    2001-02-01

    Motivated by existing difficulties in the experimental observation of the zero bias anomaly (ZBA) in HTS NID and DID structures with thick dielectric barriers we have studied theoretically the effect of scattering of electrons on localized states (LS) within a barrier on width and amplitude of the ZBA. Our model structure consists of thick dielectric barrier with predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character of the electron transport (e.g. PBCO), separated normal metal (N), and an HTS superconductor with d-wave superconducting correlation (D). The barrier is modeled by a 2D rectangular potential with ?-functional cavities describing LS. To study conductance spectra the concept of coherent transport through systems with complex barrier developed by Bttiker and Belogolovskii et al. has been generalized to the case of breaking of the conservation of the quasiparticle momentum component parallel to the interfaces in the tunneling process. We have shown that transport properties of NID structures essentially differ from the transport in contacts with conventional superconductors (NIS) and principally cannot be described in a one-dimensional approximation. Direct analytical calculations give that tunneling via LS does not contribute to ZBA independently on their space position in the barrier and on the relation between the metals Fermi energy and LS energy level. It is also shown that the interference current component, which usually was not taken into account in the description of NIS contacts, suppresses the amplitude of ZBA provided by the direct tunneling process. The resultant ZBA peak should be very narrow and its amplitude is effectively suppressed by any scatters located in the barrier. This makes the experimental ZBA observation in NID structures with thick barriers very questionable.

  6. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  7. Mechanism of thickness dependence of critical current density in HTS YBCO film and its elimination using nano-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang

    The most promising characteristic of a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is its ability to carry larger electrical current at liquid nitrogen boiling temperature and strong applied magnetic field with minimal dissipation. Numerous large scale applications such as HTS transmission cables, HTS magnets and HTS motors have been developed using HTS materials. The major limitation that prevents its wide commercialization is its high cost-to-performance ratio. However, the effort to further improve HTS current carrying capability is jeopardized by a mysterious thickness dependence of the critical current density (Jc) --- Jc monotonically decreases with increasing thickness (t) at 77 K and self-field (SF). This poses a great challenge for both HTS applications and the understanding of vortex dynamics. What further complicates this issue is the complex defect structure in HTS films as well as the creep nature of magnetic vortices at a finite temperature. After a systematic study of the temperature and magnetic field effects on Jc--t, we conclude that Jc--t is most likely the result of a collective pinning effect dictated by a random pinning potential. Besides that, thermal fluctuations also alter Jc--t in a predictable way. Therefore, by either modifying the vortex structure or pinning structure, J c--t can be eliminated. Indeed, a thin film J c has been restored in a HTS/insulator/HTS trilayer while the magnetic coupling is weakened. Moreover, Jc--t has been removed when the random distributed point pins are overpowered by strong linear defects.

  8. Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Qu, Timing; Yu, Xiaoyu; Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Han, Zhenghe

    2013-11-01

    A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

  9. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  10. Status of 275 kV REBCO HTS Cable Development in the NEDO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Okuma, Takeshi; Maruyama, Osamu; Shiohara, Yuu; Hayakawa, Naoki; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting cable (HTS cable), which could be used as a backbone power line in the future, was developed in the NEDO project called M-PACC. One of the most important developments of a high voltage HTS cable was the high voltage insulation technology. A design guideline and a test specification that was necessary to design, product and demonstrate of a 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable have been studied by obtaining the various experimental data such as AC withstand voltage, impulse withstand voltage, partial discharge inception stress, and the V-t characteristics of the insulation, on the basis of the Japan Electrical Standards (JEC) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Moreover, the 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable with a length of 30 m was demonstrated under a long-term voltage and current loading test.

  11. Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

  12. Design of an HTS Levitated Double-Sided HTSLSM for Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Luhai; Jin, Jianxun; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    A hybrid high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous propulsion system composed of a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in the middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been proposed for a middle-low-speed maglev. Three carriages has been made up for the proposed maglev, and each carriage consists of four HTSLSM modules. The HTSLSM has been designed to reach a speed of 69 km/h and a maximum thrust of 48.9 kN for each motor. The finite element analysis has been used for the theoretical verification. The results obtained show that the HTS linear propulsion system satisfies the principal requirements for the maglev.

  13. RILP regulates vacuolar ATPase through interaction with the V1G1 subunit.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Cogli, Laura; Progida, Cinzia; Nisi, Veronica; Pascolutti, Roberta; Sigismund, Sara; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Bucci, Cecilia

    2014-06-15

    Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) is a downstream effector of the Rab7 GTPase. GTP-bound Rab7 recruits RILP to endosomal membranes and, together, they control late endocytic traffic, phagosome and autophagosome maturation and are responsible for signaling receptor degradation. We have identified, using different approaches, the V1G1 (officially known as ATP6V1G1) subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) as a RILP-interacting protein. V1G1 is a component of the peripheral stalk and is fundamental for correct V-ATPase assembly. We show here that RILP regulates the recruitment of V1G1 to late endosomal and lysosomal membranes but also controls V1G1 stability. Indeed, we demonstrate that V1G1 can be ubiquitylated and that RILP is responsible for proteasomal degradation of V1G1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that alterations in V1G1 expression levels impair V-ATPase activity. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that RILP regulates the activity of the V-ATPase through its interaction with V1G1. Given the importance of V-ATPase in several cellular processes and human diseases, these data suggest that modulation of RILP activity could be used to control V-ATPase function. PMID:24762812

  14. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 ?H Class HTS DC Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70?77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30?40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 ?H class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 ?H class DC reactor.

  15. Wire core reactor for NTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harty, R. B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

  16. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  17. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  18. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  19. Verification test of 22.9 kV underground HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Hyun, O. B.; Kim, H. R.; Yatsuka, K.; Masuda, T.; Isojima, S.; Watanabe, M.; Ryoo, H. S.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.

    2007-10-01

    Several verification tests are being underway world widely in order to apply HTS cable to real grid. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) has initiated HTS cable project since 2002 with the aid of MOCIE (Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy), Korea. The HTS cable system with the specification of three-phase, 1.25 kArms, 22.9 kV and 100 m was installed at the KEPCO's Gochang test yard. In consideration of economical efficiency on retrofit for typical underground cable, the HTS cable was designed to be applicable for 175 mm ELP duct and 55 m-long cable was laid on underground trench in the same manner as the conventional pulling method. Cool-down to LN2 temperature and warm-up to room temperature were performed several times to investigate the influence of thermal cycle. The main objectives of this project are to verify performance of the HTS cable system and evaluate the economical and technical feasibility from all angles. Expected pros and cons of HTS cable including reliability and maintainability will be assessed with the view point of utilities. This paper summarizes some results of installation and after-laying tests.

  20. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  1. Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN 2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

  2. Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.

    2010-06-01

    A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

  3. The surface discharge and breakdown characteristics of HTS DC cable and stop joint box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-09-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable system consists of a HTS cable and cable joint. The HTS DC cable should be electrically connected in joint boxes because of the unit length of HTS cable is limited to several-hundred meters. In particular, the stop joint box (SJB) must be developed for a compact cooling system. Polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) and epoxy maybe used as insulating materials for HTS DC cable and SJB. To develop a HTS DC cable, it is necessary to develop the cryogenic insulation technology, materials and the joint methods. In this paper, we will mainly discuss on the DC and impulse characteristics of epoxy and PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The surface discharge characteristics of epoxy included fillers, PPLP and epoxy with PPLP composite (epoxy + PPLP) were measured under 0.4 MPa. Also, the PPLP-insulated mini-model cable was fabricated and then DC, impulse and DC polarity reversal breakdown strength of mini-model cable under 0.4 MPa were investigated.

  4. Critical current measurement of HTS tape relating with cable structure for a DC power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2014-05-01

    In the 200 m high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable test facility at Chubu University, a coaxial power cable is used and composed of two BSCCO (Bi-2223) superconducting layers. The tapes are wound closely to reduce effects on the critical current of BSCCO at self-field. Accordingly, each superconducting layer has a different number of BSCCO tapes. Previously, we have investigated dependence of the critical current (Ic) on the gap in order to optimize the HTS DC cable design. We have been studying the effect on the performance of HTS tapes for the superconducting DC power cables by critical current measurements. In the present experiments several HTS tapes are used and set as a similar structure in the cable with a two-layer structure. The critical current of HTS tapes are measured against the gap between the tapes in the same layer. The experiments show the improvement of the critical current by optimizing the tape arrangements due to magnetic field interaction between the tapes. We will present the experimental results and discuss the design of the HTS DC cable.

  5. Heat Transfer Simulation to Liquid Nitrogen from HTS Tapes at the Overload Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, V. V.; Ryabov, S. M.; Fetisov, S. S.; Vysotsky, V. S.

    Knowledge of HTS materials behavior at overload currents is important to design fault current limiters or fault protection systems of electro-technical devices. There are sharp voltage peaks and voltage oscillations during rectangular current pulses (DC current) on HTS tapes cooled by liquid nitrogen. It is common knowledge that a homogeneous liquid can withstand certain amount of overheating before switching to the boiling phase. In the liquid nitrogen during the increase of the heat flux there is superheating (temperature overshoot) and boiling hysteresis takes place. We explain voltage peaks and voltage oscillations by the hysteresis phenomenon in boiling nitrogen during the increase and decrease of the heat flux in the nitrogen which is a result of current redistribution in the HTS tapes. Based on the measurements of voltage and temperature of the HTS tapes during current overload and numerical analysis of the process we estimated the heat-transfer characteristics from the HTS tapes to liquid nitrogen. We also obtained the information about limiting superheating of the liquid nitrogen. The influence of covers of the HTS tapes on superheating of the nitrogen is also discussed.

  6. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  7. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable using a multi-terminal based test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Geun; Dinh, Minh-Chau; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The current capacity of a power supply limits the experimental environment of higher capacity HTS power cable. Consequently, the transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable is difficult to assess. In this paper, a multi-terminal based test-bed is used to overcome those power supply capacity limitations. A 1 kA class HTS DC power cable was designed and the transient characteristics of the HTS DC power cable were analyzed using the multi-terminal based test-bed. Transient characteristics, such as resistance variation and critical current of the 1 kA class HTS DC power cable were successfully measured using small power sources in the multi-terminal based test-bed. Definitely, the suggested test system overcomes the assessment limits of the HTS power cables current capacity.

  9. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  11. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  12. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  13. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  14. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  15. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  16. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueqiang; He, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuehui; Duan, Tao; Wang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hong; He, Yusheng

    2010-02-01

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  17. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  18. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  19. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping

  20. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  1. Weld-Wire Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R.; Hall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the size or composition of weld wire being fed to an automatic welding machine are detected by an impedance-monitoring instrument. The instrument triggers an alarm if the changes would affect weld quality or cause weld failure. Device could find applications in construction of pipelines or nuclear powerplants.

  2. Wired To Flex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and

  3. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary

  4. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  5. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  6. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and

  7. The Effect of Magnetic Field on HTS Leads What Happens when thePower Fails at RAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-02-14

    The key to being able to operate the MICE superconducting solenoids on small coolers is the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads between the first stage of the cooler and the magnet, which operates at around 4.2 K. Because MICE magnets are not shielded, all of the MICE magnets have a stray magnetic field in the region where the coolers and the HTS leads are located. The behavior of the HTS leads in a magnetic field depends strongly on the HTS material used for the leads and the temperature of the cooler first stage temperature. The HTS leads can be specified to operate at the maximum current for the magnet. This report shows how the HTS leads can be specified for use the MICE magnets. MICE magnets take from 1.3 hours (the tracker solenoids) to 3.7 hours (the coupling magnet) to charge to the highest projected operating currents. If the power fails, the cooler and the upper ends of the HTS leads warm up. The question is how one can discharge the magnet to protect the HTS leads without quenching the MICE magnets. This report describes a method that one can use to protect the HTS leads in the event of a power failure at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

  8. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  9. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  10. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  11. Development of Coated Conductors in Japanese National Project "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    RE1Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE=rare earth) coated conductors have attracted the attention of many scientists due to the high superconducting properties, etc. Due to the great progress of R&D on coated conductors, the activities have shifted to specific applications. The new Japanese national project, named as "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils", started last year aiming for the applications of MRI and medical accelerators. To meet the requirements of those applications, the R&D of REBCO coated conductors (CCs) are being performed with that of coiling technology in parallel. The theme has two sub-themes of "development of long CCs with high in-field performance" and "development of CCs with extremely low heat generation" in this national project. The ambitious goals of these themes are set as intermediate ones due 2016 Mar; the theme of in-field: 100m-500A/cm-w@65K, 3T -850A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 100m-500 ?m of filament width w/ Icfilament inhomogeneity of distribution within 10% and joint resistance below 5n?. The final goals of these themes due 2018 Mar. were set as follows; the theme of in-field: 200m-600A/cm-w@65K, 3T -1000A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 200m-500 ?m of filament width w/ Icfilament distribution within 5% and joint resistance below 3n?. The objectives, goals and progress of this project will be reviewed in this article. As for the progress, for example, the combination of EuBCO+BHO was found to be effective to improve the in-field performance of PLD derived coated conductors. A 94 m long wire with Icmin of 108A/cm-w@77K, 3T (corresponding to 472A/cm-w @65K, 3T) was successfully fabricated. It is as twice Icmin of the long tape as the highest one in the previous project.

  12. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  13. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  14. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  15. Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Gouge, Michael J; Lindsay, David T; Roden, Mark L; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American Electric Power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 132/13.8 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype with full scale terminations tested at ORNL was conducted prior to the manufacture and installation of the AEP triaxial cable. These prototypes were used to demonstrate the crucial operating conditions including steady state operation at the 3000 Arms design current, high voltage operation, high voltage withstand and 110 kV impulse, and overcurrent fault capability. A summary of the results from the thermal analysis and testing conducted by Ultera and ORNL will be presented. Some analysis of the cable thermal-hydraulic response based on the testing that were used to determine some of the cable cryogenic system requirements are also presented.

  16. Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

  17. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  18. Characterization of pinning stability of HTS Gd123 bulks by using a pulsed-field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, R.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

    2010-06-01

    High-temperature superconductor (HTS) Gd-bulks are used for field-pole magnets of rotating machines. We have conducted a study of pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) for the bulks to be magnetized alternatively on the rotor. Performances of HTS bulks have been qualified on the basis of the field-cooling magnetization (FCM). HTS bulks are a kind of crystals containing lots of tiny crystals boundaries. It is difficult to find comparable data between PFM and FCM results, mainly because of the different pinning stability through both processes. We need to assess an effective method of characterization for the flux pinning stability under PFM. We compared two HTS bulks: one shows a flux flow and relatively small trapped flux while the other is magnetized with a little flux instability and a large integrated trapped flux. These Gd123 bulks are 100 mm in diameter and 20 mm in thickness. After applying PFM at the liquid nitrogen temperature, we measured the trapped field density distribution and introduced a new parameter representing the trapped flux instability at each position on the surface of the bulk. We propose a way of visualization of the flux pinning instability of the HTS bulks.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Characteristics in Long Distance HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Izumi, T.

    Japanese national project, called "Materials & Power applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC)", started in FY2008. In this project, high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable using REBCO tapes has been developing. These HTS cables are expected as a compact size with large capacity and low loss power transmission. In the future, it is supposed that these cables will be installed in power grid for replacing existing power cables. Under the operating HTS cable in the power grid, it is necessary that the REBCO tapes in the long distance cable are kept cooling at low temperature stably and efficiently by liquid nitrogen (LN2). In this paper, the flow characteristic, such as pressure drop of LN2 flowing in the long distance HTS cable, and the heat transfer characteristic against heat generation, such as AC loss, and heat leak from cryostat-pipes were analytically estimated with varying the volumetric flow and the diameter of outer pipe wall which are parameters easy to control in cable system design. As a result, it was confirmed that the volumetric flow increasing is affective to extending the maximum distance which can be transmitted but it required increasing discharge pressure too. This increasing discharge pressure can be restricted without affecting the longitudinal distribution of the HTS temperature by expanding of the diameter of outer pipe wall.

  20. Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

    2014-05-01

    The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

  1. Developing scientific confidence in HTS-derived prediction models: lessons learned from an endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas; Marty, M Sue; Rowlands, J Craig; Patlewicz, Grace; Goyak, Katy O; Becker, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    High throughput (HTS) and high content (HCS) screening methods show great promise in changing how hazard and risk assessments are undertaken, but scientific confidence in such methods and associated prediction models needs to be established prior to regulatory use. Using a case study of HTS-derived models for predicting in vivo androgen (A), estrogen (E), thyroid (T) and steroidogenesis (S) endpoints in endocrine screening assays, we compare classification (fitting) models to cross validation (prediction) models. The more robust cross validation models (based on a set of endocrine ToxCast assays and guideline in vivo endocrine screening studies) have balanced accuracies from 79% to 85% for A and E, but only 23% to 50% for T and S. Thus, for E and A, HTS results appear promising for initial use in setting priorities for endocrine screening. However, continued research is needed to expand the domain of applicability and to develop more robust HTS/HCS-based prediction models prior to their use in other regulatory applications. Based on the lessons learned, we propose a framework for documenting scientific confidence in HTS assays and the prediction models derived therefrom. The documentation, transparency and the scientific rigor involved in addressing the elements in the proposed Scientific Confidence Framework could aid in discussions and decisions about the prediction accuracy needed for different applications. PMID:24845243

  2. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  3. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  4. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  5. Lithium niobate photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Ricken, R; Sohler, W

    2009-12-21

    LN photonic wires of cross-section dimensions down to 1 x 0.73 microm2 were fabricated by Ar milling of a single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. Mode intensity distributions, propagation losses, and group indices of refraction were measured at 1.55 microm wavelength and compared with simulation results. Moreover, effective mode indices and end face reflectivities were numerically evaluated. The waveguide of 1 microm top width is the smallest LN photonic wire reported to date; it has a mode size of approximately 0.4 microm2 (0.5 microm2) only and propagation losses of 9.9 dB/cm (12.9 dB/cm) for qTM (qTE) polarization. PMID:20052137

  6. Excited singlet molecular O2 (1?g) is generated enzymatically from excited carbonyls in the dark

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Camila M.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Massari, Jlio; Ronsein, Graziella E.; Martinez, Glaucia R.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Cadet, Jean; Sies, Helmut; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Bechara, Etelvino J. H.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian tissues, ultraweak chemiluminescence arising from biomolecule oxidation has been attributed to the radiative deactivation of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1?g)] and electronically excited triplet carbonyl products involving dioxetane intermediates. Herein, we describe evidence of the generation of O2 (1?g) in aqueous solution via energy transfer from excited triplet acetone. This involves thermolysis of 3,3,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2-dioxetane, a chemical source, and horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-methylpropanal, as an enzymatic source. Both sources of excited carbonyls showed characteristic light emission at 1,270?nm, directly indicative of the monomolecular decay of O2 (1?g). Indirect analysis of O2 (1?g) by electron paramagnetic resonance using the chemical trap 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine showed the formation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. Using [18O]-labeled triplet, ground state molecular oxygen [18O2 (3?g-)], chemical trapping of 18O2 (1?g) with disodium salt of anthracene-9,10-diyldiethane-2,1-diyl disulfate yielding the corresponding double-[18O]-labeled 9,10-endoperoxide, was detected through mass spectrometry. This corroborates formation of O2 (1?g). Altogether, photoemission and chemical trapping studies clearly demonstrate that chemically and enzymatically nascent excited carbonyl generates 18O2 (1?g) by triplet-triplet energy transfer to ground state oxygen O2 (3?g?), and supports the long formulated hypothesis of O2 (1?g) involvement in physiological and pathophysiological events that might take place in tissues in the absence of light. PMID:25087485

  7. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  8. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  9. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  10. Oxygen consumption during cold exposure at 2.1 G in rats adapted to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J.; Patterson, S.; Monson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The thermoregulation ability of rats exposed to various gravitational fields is examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 22 C and 1 G, and 9 C and 2.1 G in experiment one, 1 G, 2.4 G, 5.8 G and 22 + or - 1.5 C in experiment two, and 1 G, 19-22 C, and 5 C in experiment three. It is observed that the core temperature in the control rats was 36.8 + or 0.4 C at 22C and 30.8 + or - 0.6 C at 9 C, and oxygen consumption dropped from 37 + or - 0.3 C core temperature at 22 C, 36.4 + or - 0.3 C at 9 C, 0.4 oxygen consumption was 8.18 + or - 0.9 ml/min at 22 C, and 14.2 + or - 0.4 ml/min at 9 C. The data from experiment two reveal that tail temperature in the control rats peaked at 2.4 G and at 5.8 G for the acclimated rats, and in experiment three a greater decrease in core temperature is detected in the 2.1-G rats. It is noted that prior acclimation to 2.1 G enhances the thermoregulation ability when exposed to the cold.

  11. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) sufficiently high to meet the field decay requirements (in persistent magnets), piece lengths long enough to wind coils, and acceptably low costs. HEP has traditionally used very high current magnets made from Rutherford cables, and the ability to be cabled is another key advantage. Very high on the list of materials able to fulfill the requirements above is Bi-2212 round wire. Both cables and high field coils on a small scale have been demonstrated using this material. By contrast, YBCO is a single-filament tape that is not easy to cable. As shown in Figure 1 these tapes are highly anisotropic in their current density. In the good orientation the performance is considerably better than Bi-2212, however at the highest fields measured, the isotropic current behavior of 2212 exceeds the bad orientation of YBCO.

  12. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  13. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  14. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  15. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  16. The role of HTS in drug discovery at the University of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martha J; Larsen, Scott D; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Sun, Duxin; Sherman, David H

    2014-03-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  17. Controller design and test results for a four axis HTS coil based Maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Xing, Hua-Wei

    2007-04-01

    Controller design and experimental results are reported in this paper for a four axis high temperature superconductivity (HTS) coil based electromagnetic levitation (Maglev) system. The HTS coils are made of Bi2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes. It has been experimentally proved that the designed controller works satisfactorily, although the physical parameters of a HTS coil based electromagnet (HTSEM) vary significantly with the frequency of the input voltage. A performance comparison has also been made between the classical lead-lag compensator and the modern H? loop-shaping controller. It becomes clear that robust control theories are capable of providing a controller with better performances, which is in a good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, it implies that the particular parameter variation characteristics can be simply dealt with by the available robust control theories that are naturally existent in a HTSEM.

  18. Voltage-current characteristics of two soldered 2G HTS tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Radchenko, I. P.; Fetisov, S. S.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Zubko, V. V.

    2010-06-01

    Most prospective 2G HTS are asymmetric in cross section due to technology feature. Superconducting layer is located more close to one side of a tape, while from the other side highly resistive substrate is located. Thus, it is possible to combine two 2G HTS tapes with different mutual orientations of superconducting layers. In this work we studied voltage current characteristics (VCC) of eight samples made of two soldered HTS tapes (copper coated SCS4050 tapes from Super Power Inc.). Connection of samples to terminations varied as well. VCC measured were different depending on tapes' combining method, joint to terminations and external magnetic fields. Peculiarities on VCC were indicated a current transfer between tapes. Possible explanation of the phenomenon is discussed also.

  19. The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  20. Electrical and thermal characteristics of Bi2212/Ag HTS coils for conduction-cooled SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, N.; Noguchi, S.; Kurupakorn, C.; Kojima, H.; Endo, F.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.; Okubo, H.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we investigated the electrical and thermal performance of conduction-cooled Bi2212/Ag HTS coils with 4K-GM cryocooler system. First, we measured the critical current Ic for different ambient temperatures T0 at 4.2 K - 40 K. Experimental results revealed that Ic increased with the decrease in T0 and was saturated at T0 < 10 K. We carried out thermal analysis considering heat generation, conduction and transfer under conduction-cooling condition, and reproduced the electrical and thermal characteristics of the conduction-cooled HTS coil, taking account of temperature dependence of specific heat and thermal conductivity of the materials. We also measured the temperature rise of Bi2212/Ag HTS coil for different continuous current levels at T0 = 4.8 K. Experimental results revealed the criterion of thermal runaway, which was discussed in terms of heat generation and propagation in the test coil.

  1. A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet–A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

  2. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  3. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  4. The Dynamic Characteristics on the Wall Traveling of the HTS Bulk Superconducting Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, M.; Kim, S. B.; Ozasa, S.; Nakano, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop the transportation device with non-contact and moves in free space. It is expected that our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in clean room which manufactures the silicon wafer where dislikes mechanical contact and dust. Proposed the actuator consists of a field-cooled HTS bulk for mover and two-dimensional arranged multiple electromagnets as a stator. In our previous study, the dynamic characteristics on the floor traveling of the HTS bulk mover had been studied. Therefore in this study, a system for the wall traveling was proposed to use the limited space effectively. It is expected that the wall traveling system is very useful to apply the transporter used in the tunnels which flammable gas may be produced. In this paper, the optimal angle between electromagnets located at floor and wall for moving to the wall traveling from the floor traveling was investigated experimentally. The position displacement on the rotating of the HTS bulk during the wall traveling was measured. As a result, the bulk with initial gap of 2 mm could move to the wall traveling from the floor traveling. Also, the position displacement on the height direction during the rotating of the HTS bulk was 18 mm from the initial position because of its gravity,but it was possible to rotate by changing the pattern NSNS of the trapped magnetic field in near the initial position.

  5. Fabrication and Test of a 60-kA HTS Current Lead for Fusion Magnet System

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, T.; Isono, T.; Kawano, K.; Hamada, K.; Matsui, K.; Nunoya, Y.; Hara, E.; Kato, T.; Okuno, K.; Bono, T.; Tomioka, A.; Sanuki, Y.; Ito, I.; Sakaki, K.; Konno, M.; Uede, T.

    2004-06-23

    A 60-kA HTS current lead was fabricated and tested in the frame of the R and D work for large fusion magnets such as the ITER magnet. The design of the current lead was characterized by its safe thermal protection for the current decay of about ten seconds after quench as well as lower electrical power consumption for its cryogenic equipment. The 60-kA current lead is composed of a lower temperature HTS part using HTS and a high temperature copper part using a conventional copper cable. The HTS part consists of 48 HTS units installed in the cylindrical array into the grooves provided on the outer surface of a stainless steel cylinder with a diameter of 146 mm. The unit was composed of six Bi2223/Ag-10at%Au tapes and its cross-sectional dimension is 6.5 mm x 2.7 mm. The stainless steel cylinder and Ag alloy sheath have a share in thermal protection for quench. The current lead was tested under the cooling condition that the bottom of the HTS part was immersed into 4.2 K liquid helium, and the bottom of the copper part was forced cooled with a helium gas of 3.2 g/s at 20 K. The lead was successfully operated at 60 kA without quench. Heat load to liquid helium was 4.8 W. The total electrical power consumption for the cryogenic equipment was estimated as 37 % of that of conventional copper current lead.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Characteristics of Flowing Liquid Nitrogen in HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has heat intrusion from the termination including joule heat generation at the terminal joint and from the room temperature cable through the Cu current lead. According to the length of the HTS cable, this heat loss may become a considerable amount which cannot be ignored in the HTS cable system. In this study, referring to a high-voltage cable (HV cable) which was developed in M-PACC project, the effect of heat transfer at the interface between the terminal joint and LN2 in the terminal vessel (ho) on the temperature of the HTS cable were calculated and evaluated. The condition of flow in the terminal vessel was assumed to be natural convection, forced flow or static condition for evaluating this effect with various heat transfer condition. As a result, in the case of the natural convection, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the terminal vessel where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is large since ho becomes high. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe of Cu former and the terminal vessel can be restricted. However, in the cases of the forced flow and the static condition, most of heats flow into the LN2 in the inner pipe where the volumetric flow of the LN2 is small since ho becomes small. Accordingly, the temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe becomes high. This temperature rise of the LN2 in the inner pipe makes the temperature of the HTS conductor large resulting in remarkable increase of AC losses. Consequently, on the HV cable design, for restriction of the AC loss increase, it is expected that designing the HTS cable termination such as extending outer surface of the terminal joint for increasing of the heat inflow from the terminal joint to the LN2 in the vessel is effective.

  7. MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiang-Fen; Fan, Yu-Chen; Gao, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of promoter methylation of two tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 189 subjects were included in this retrospective cohort, which contained 121 HCC patients without any history of curative treatment, 37 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 31 normal controls (NCs). DNA samples were extracted from 400 ?L of serum of each subject and then modified using bisulfite treatment. Methylation of the promoters of the TSGs (metallothionein 1M, MT1M; and metallothionein 1G, MT1G) was determined using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of combined MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the methylation status of serum MT1M (48.8%, 59/121) and MT1G (70.2%, 85/121) promoters in the HCC group was significantly higher than that in the CHB group (MT1M 5.4%, 2/37, P < 0.001; MT1G 16.2%, 6/37, P < 0.001) and NC group (MT1M 6.5%, 2/31, P < 0.001; MT1G 12.9%, 4/27, P < 0.001). Aberrant serum MT1M promoter methylation gave higher specificity to discriminate HCC from CHB (94.6%) and NCs (93.5%), whereas combined methylation of serum MT1M and MT1G promoters showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (90.9%), suggesting that they are potential markers for noninvasive detection of HCC. Furthermore, MT1M promoter methylation was positively correlated with tumor size (rs = 0.321, P < 0.001), and HCC patients with both MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation tended to show a higher incidence of vascular invasion or metastasis (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: MT1M and MT1G promoter methylation may be used as serum biomarkers for noninvasive detection of HCC. PMID:24782625

  8. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Levitation or suspension: Which one is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Kang, Dong; Yang, X. F.; Wang, Fei; Peng, G. H.; Zheng, Jun; Ma, G. T.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Because of the limitation of permanent magnet (PM), the efficient of bulk high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) in a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system is not very high. It is better to magnetize the bulk HTSC with a high trapped field to increase the force density. The different application type of magnetized bulk HTSC in a maglev system, namely, levitation or suspension type, will bring quite different operation performance. This paper discusses the influence of application type on operation performance of magnetized bulk HTSC by experiments and simulations. From the discussion, it can be found which application type is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev system.

  10. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  11. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  12. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  13. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of 1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

  14. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  15. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  16. O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) charge exchange with simple ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi?kowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak

    2014-06-01

    We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X^3? -_g and a1?g states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O2(a1?g) and the cations O+, CO+, Ar+, and N_2^+, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O2 reacting with the atomic ions Ar+, Kr+, Xe+, Cl+, and Br+. The T-shaped orientation of the (X - O2)+ potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b^1? ^+_g. The calculated rate constants for both O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O2, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O2(a1?g) are similar to those for O_2(X^3? -_g) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O2(a1?g) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O2 have about the same attractive interactions with ions.

  17. Test of new light-and-strong material for anode wires of wire chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Nakayama, M.; Okusawa, T.; Shimonaka, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Teramoto, Y.; Tsui, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yutori, T.; Uchimura, M.

    1991-10-01

    We have tested a new type of steel wires for anode wires of wire chambers. The measured yield strength of 50 ?m diameter wires of this material is 500-650 g, as compared to 430 g for tungsten wires. As used for the anode wires of proportional tubes, no significant difference of signals was observed between the wires of this material and the gold-plated tungsten wires. Wire sags, ?, in units of ?m, are expressed as ? = 3.2 L2, for 50 ?m diameter wires of this material when 600 g tension is applied, where L is the length of the wire in m.

  18. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  19. Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2010-06-01

    We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.

  20. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  1. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  2. Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Evidence for the 1 g{9}/{2} strength in 41Sc and proton decay mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; van de Wiele, J.; Gerlic, E.; Florent, J. J.; Willis, A.; Duhamel-Chretien, G.; Hourani, E.

    1991-04-01

    The centroid of the widely spread 1 g{9}/{2} proton particlestrength in 41Sc has been located at Ex=8.8 MeV. Relatively large decay branching ratios to the ground state and the first 3 - level of 40Ca have been observed in the 40Ca( 3He, dp) reaction at E3He=240 MeV.

  4. Is the O2(a1?g) Venus nightglow emission controlled by solar activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Lauriane; Grard, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    Several past studies showed that the O2(a1?g) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 ?m is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend linked to solar activity.

  5. Singlet oxygen (1?g)-mediated oxidation of cellular and subcellular components: ESR and AFM assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vileno, Bertrand; Lekka, Malgorzata; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Marcoux, Pierre; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Kasas, Sandor; Catsicas, Stefan; Graczyk, Alfreda; Forr, Lszl

    2005-05-01

    We report a comprehensive in vitro study of the photo-oxidative stress on different biomolecular and cellular targets generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n, a novel, fullerene-based and water-soluble sensitizer of singlet oxygen (1?g). The photodynamic efficiency of fullerol C60(OH)n was checked by using a singlet oxygen scavenger, TMP-OH, and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, which was capable of detecting the resulting paramagnetic product, TEMPOL. ESR was also used to monitor the conformation changes occurring in the spin-labelled protein, T4L lysozyme, which was exposed to the photo-oxidative stress in solutions containing fullerol C60(OH)n. Finally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to monitor changes in the local elastic properties of living and glutaraldehyde-fixed cells (neurons) exposed to the toxic action of 1?g generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n. Remarkably, the Young's modulus values measured for both living and fixed neurons revealed a pronounced drop as a function of exposure to the toxic action of 1?g. Thus, our ESR and AFM results bring evidence that the multi-hydroxylated fullerene is an efficient 1?g-generator in aqueous media and might be implemented as a photosensitizer for performing oxidations in biological systems.

  6. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  7. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast™ Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast™ research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  8. Long-term operating characteristics of Japan's first in-grid HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tetsutaro; Maruyama, Osamu; Honjo, Shoichi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hirose, Masayuki; Shimoda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Yaguchi, Hiroharu; Machida, Akito

    2015-11-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd and Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd have jointly conducted the first in-grid demonstration test of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in Japan, from FY2007 to FY2013. The objective of this project is to evaluate the reliability, stability and other characteristics of the system. The cable structure used in this project is the type of three-in-one cable. As a coolant, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen flows through the gap between the corrugated cryostat and the three cable cores. This structure can realize compactness and reduce heat invasion compared with three single-core HTS cables housed in separate cryostats. The cooling system consists of six refrigerators, two circulation pumps and a reservoir tank. Each refrigerator has a cooling power of 1.0 kW at 77 K, 0.8 kW at 67 K. The number of operating refrigerators is controlled so that the coolant temperature at the cable inlet is kept to preset value. The HTS cable was connected to the live electricity grid from October 29, 2012 to December 25, 2013. In-grid operation continued for more than one year without any accidental interruption of operation or other operating issues. During this time, we studied the operating performance of the HTS cable in dependence on the sub-cooled LN2 temperature.

  9. Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

  10. Mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system with robot arm and active shielding using fluxgate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-09-01

    A robot-arm-based mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system was developed for inspection of advanced structures such as hydrogen fuel cell tanks. In order to realize stable operation of HTS-SQUID exposed in Earths field and robot arms noise without flux trapping, flux jumping and unlocking during motion, a new active magnetic shielding (AMS) technique using fluxgate was introduced. The high sensitive fluxgate, which could measure magnetic field of up to several 10 ?T, was mounted near an HTS-SQUID gradiometer on the robot arm to measure the ambient noise and feed back its output to a compensation coil, which surrounded both SQUID and fluxgate to cancel the ambient noise around them. The AMS technique successfully enabled the HTS-SQUID gradiometer to be moved at 10 mm/s by the robot arm in unshielded environment without flux trapping, jumping and unlocking. Detection of hidden slots in multi-layer composite-metal structures imitating the fuel cell tank was demonstrated.

  11. Position control of active magnetic levitation using sphere-shaped HTS bulk for inertial nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, K.; Riku, K.; Agatsuma, K.; Ueda, H.; Ishiyama, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have developed an active magnetic levitation system that comprises a field-cooled disk-shaped or sphere-shaped HTS bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets. In this system, the levitation height of HTS bulk can be controlled by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. Further, the application of the vertical noncontact levitation system is expected due to its levitation stability without mechanical supports. We assume that this system is applied to inertial nuclear fusion. However, one of the important issues is to achieve position control with high accuracy of the fusion fuel in order to illuminate the target evenly over the entire surface. Therefore, this system is applied to the levitation and position control of a sphere-shaped superconducting capsule containing nuclear fusion fuel. In this study, we designed and constructed a position control system for the sphere-shaped HTS bulk with a diameter of 5 mm by using numerical simulation based on hybrid finite element and boundary element analysis. We then carried out the experiment of levitation height and position control characteristics of the HTS bulk in this system. With regard to position control, accuracies within 59 ?m are obtained.

  12. High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Pace, Marshall O; Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Lindsay, David T

    2007-01-01

    High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

  13. Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

    2012-06-01

    Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

  14. Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

    2014-05-01

    The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

  15. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPAs ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  16. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  17. Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doernbach, Jay

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

  18. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPA’s ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  19. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  20. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  1. Wire Stripper Holds Insulation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Allen D.; Morris, Henry S.; Bauer, Laverne

    1994-01-01

    Attachment to standard wire-stripping tool catches bits of insulation as they are removed from electrical wire and retains them for proper disposal. Prevents insulation particles from falling at random, contaminating electronic equipment and soiling workspace. Commercial tool modified by attaching small collection box to one of the jaws.

  2. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving

  3. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  4. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  5. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  6. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  7. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  8. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. PMID:22760970

  9. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  10. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  11. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  12. Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

  13. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  14. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (San Jose, CA); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  15. Evaluation of the measurement of AC transport current loss in assembled HTS tapes using a pick-up loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Oka, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Sato, T.; Yamaya, K.; Hamada, T.; Tanaka, H.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we investigated AC transport current measurement using a pick-up loop. In a single HTS tape the correction factors for different pick-up loop shapes correspond with the experimental and numerical results. In an assembled conductor, we experimentally investigated the difference in the correction factors for the serial and parallel connected transport current in each HTS tape. In parallel mode, the correction factor has a constant value against the total transport current, while in serial mode the correction factor varies. These results can be explained by the relation between the transport current distribution in each HTS tape and the position of the pick-up loops.

  16. The association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: Evidence from 33 studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; He, Jing; Cai, Jiao; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Jinhong; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant folate metabolism is closely related to tumorigenesis. Genetic variations in the Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) may alter the progress of folate metabolism, and thereby cause the initiation and progress of the cancer. Considerable studies have performed to investigate the association between RFC1 G80A (rs1051266) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions were conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism with cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. The association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer risk was evaluated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The significant association was found between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and hematological malignance susceptibility (A vs. G: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.003-1.23, P=0.045; GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31, P=0.002; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.07-1.29, P=0.001). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that the association became more prominent among Caucasians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.12-1.45, P<0.001; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.36, P=0.001). In term of the cancer type, this polymorphism significantly increased the risk of acute lymphoblast leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.001-1.28, P=0.048; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.46, P<0.001) and acute myeloid leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=2.57, 95%CI=1.37-4.85, P=0.003). No significant association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and overall solid cancer risk was observed, but a protective association with digestive cancer risk was found (GA vs. GG: OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.81-0.99, P=0.030). The comprehensive meta-analysis encouraged the notion that RFC1 G80A polymorphism may play an important role in hematopoietic system malignance. These findings need further validation in the large multicenter investigations. PMID:26819637

  17. Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 14?vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 14?vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000?A cm?1 at 77?K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455?A cm?1 at 65?K and 3?T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

  18. Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1-4 vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, Bφ, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1-4 vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-μm-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A cm(-1) at 77 K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455 A cm(-1) at 65 K and 3 T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

  19. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  20. ? collective mode as A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Ppin, C.; Benhabib, S.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible existence of a spin singlet excitation with charge 2 (? mode) originating the A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors. This ? mode relates the d -wave superconducting singlet pairing channel to a d -wave charge channel. We show that the ? boson forms a particle-particle bound state below the 2 ? threshold of the particle-hole continuum where ? is the maximum d -wave gap. Within a generalized random phase approximation and Bethe-Salpeter approximation study, we find that this mode has energies similar to the resonance observed with inelastic neutron scattering below the superconducting (SC) coherent peak at 2 ? in various SC cuprate compounds. We show that it is a very good candidate for the resonance observed in Raman scattering below the 2 ? peak in the A1 g symmetry. Since the ? mode sits in the S =0 channel, it may be observable via Raman, x-ray, or electron energy loss spectroscopy probes.

  1. The X1? +g ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knckel, H.; Rhmann, S.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-03-01

    The A^1? u^+ - X^1? g^+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X^1? g^+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.

  2. Quantitative assessment of caveolin-1 G14713A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility in the Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianjun; Wang, Gang; Li, Qiang; Song, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between caveolin-1 (CAV1) G14713A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility remains inconclusive. The current meta-analysis was performed on the basis of a systematic search in electronic databases for a more precise estimation of the associations. Methods Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the pooled effect. Results A total of 12 studies including 4,994 cases and 5,606 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, CAV1 G14713A polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer (A vs G: OR =1.77, 95% CI: 1.49–2.10, Phet<0.01; [AA + AG] vs GG: OR =2.03, 95% CI: 1.64–2.53, Phet<0.01; AA vs [AG + GG]: OR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.40–2.12, Phet<0.01; AA vs GG: OR =2.24, 95% CI: 1.69–2.98, Phet<0.01; AG vs GG: OR =1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41, Phet<0.01). Subgroup analysis by cancer type showed that CAV1 G14713A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancer and other cancer types. Conclusion Our findings suggest that CAV1 G14713A polymorphisms may modify the risk of cancer, especially digestive system cancer. However, further well-designed studies are warranted to validate this association.

  3. Amino acids as biomarkers in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Bame, Monica; Grier, Robert E; Needleman, Richard; Brusilow, William S A

    2014-01-01

    The development of therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been hindered by the lack of biomarkers for both identifying early disease and for monitoring the effectiveness of drugs. The identification of ALS biomarkers in presymptomatic individuals might also provide clues to the earliest biochemical correlates of the disease. Previous attempts to use plasma metabolites as biomarkers have led to contradictory results, presumably because of heterogeneity in both the underlying genetics and the disease stage in the clinical population. To eliminate these two sources of heterogeneity we have characterized plasma amino acids and other metabolites in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for ALS. Presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice have significant differences in concentrations of several plasma metabolites compared to wild type animals, most notably in the concentrations of aspartate, cystine/cysteine, and phosphoethanolamine, and in changes indicative of methylation defects. There are significant changes in amino acid compositions between 50 and 70days of age in both the SOD1(G93A) and wild type mice, and several of the age-related and disease-related differences in metabolite concentration were also gender-specific. Many of the SOD1(G93A)-related differences could be altered by treatment of mice with methionine sulfoximine, which extends the lifespan of this mouse, inhibits glutamine synthetase, and modifies brain methylation reactions. These studies show that assaying plasma metabolites can effectively distinguish transgenic mice from wild type, suggesting that one or more plasma metabolites might be useful biomarkers for the disease in humans, especially if genetic and longitudinal analysis is used to reduce population heterogeneity. PMID:24129262

  4. Final Remediation Report for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    SciTech Connect

    Morganstern, M.

    2002-06-18

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (K BPOP) Building Number 643-1G, is situated immediately south and outside the K-Reactor fence line and is approximately 400 feet in length and 60 feet in width. For the K BPOP operable unit, the Land Use Control (LUC) objectives are to prevent contact, removal, or excavation of buried waste in the area and to preclude residential use of the area.

  5. Photophysical properties of ( O2( 1?g)) 2 in solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Pi-Tai; Chen, Youn-Chan; Wei, Ching-Yen

    1998-09-01

    The photophysical properties of 1O2 dimol ( 1?g) 2?( 3?-g) 2 transition have been studied by Nile Blue A (NBA) delayed fluorescence induced by energy transfer from the 1O2 dimol. As a result, a radiative lifetime of (1.20.3)10 3 s -1 was deduced in CDCl 3 through a plot of the intensity ratio between NBA delayed fluorescence and 1O2 dimol as a function of NBA concentration.

  6. BSND and ATP6V1G3: Novel Immunohistochemical Markers for Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Igarashi, Hisaki; Kato, Hisami; Koda, Kenji; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seishiro; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Funai, Kazuhito; Takayama, Tatsuya; Ozono, Seiichiro; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Differentiating between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other RCC subtypes can be problematic using routine light microscopy. This study aimed to identify novel immunohistochemical markers useful for a differential diagnosis between chromophobe RCC and other RCC subtypes. We selected 3 genes (including BSND and ATP6V1G3) that showed specific transcriptional expression in chromophobe RCC using expression data (n?=?783) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subsequent immunohistochemical examination of 186 RCCs obtained in our patient series resulted in a strong diffuse positivity of BSND and ATP6V1G3 proteins (both of which are involved in the regulation of membrane transport) in all the chromophobe RCC specimens (23/23 cases, 100%) but not in the clear cell RCC specimens (0/153 cases, 0%) or the papillary RCC specimens (0/10 cases, 0%). BSND and ATP6V1G3 protein expressions were also detected in renal oncocytoma (13/14 cases, 92.9%) and in the distal nephron, including the collecting duct, in the normal kidney. A computational analysis of TCGA data suggested that DNA methylation was involved in the differential expression pattern of both genes among RCC subtypes. Finally, an immunohistochemical analysis showed lung carcinomas were negative (0/85 cases, 0%) for the expression of both proteins. These results suggest that BSND and ATP6V1G3 are excellent novel immunohistochemical markers for differentiating between chromophobe RCC and other subtypes of RCC, including clear cell and papillary RCCs. PMID:26091477

  7. Cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and glioma risk in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Song, Zhi; Liao, Da-Guang; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Liu, Feng; Zheng, Wen; Luo, Kui; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have suggested that the Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to various cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and the risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Materials and methods: CCND1 genotyping was determined by the PCR-RFLP method. The χ 2 test was used to assess for any deviation of the genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and to compare the genotype distributions among glioma patients and healthy control subjects. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) by using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The A allele frequency was higher in cases than that in controls (49.40% vs. 36.39%), and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Using the G allele as the reference allele, the subjects carrying the A allele had 3.926-fold increase in the risk of glioma (95% CI, 2.172-7.889), and p-value was significant (P = 0.007). Compared to individuals with the GG genotype, individuals with the AA genotype exhibited significantly increased glioma risk (OR = 3.661, 95% CI: 1.658-6.287, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CCND1 G870A polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese population. PMID:26309688

  8. H, G1, G2 photometric phase function extended to low-accuracy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Wilkman, O.; Muinonen, K.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a constrained nonlinear least-squares algorithm to be used in estimating the parameters in the H, G1, G2 phase function. As the algorithm works directly in the magnitude space, it will surpass the possible bias problem that may be present in the existing H ,G1 ,G2 fit procedure when applied to low-accuracy observations with large magnitude variations. With constraints on the photometric phase-curve shape parameters G1 and G2, it guarantees a physically reasonable phase-curve estimate. With a new data set of 93 asteroids, we re-assess the two-parameter version of the H ,G1 ,G2 function. Finally, we introduce a one-parameter version of the phase function that can give a suggestion of the asteroids taxonomic group based only on its phase curve. A statistical model selection procedure is presented that can automatically select between the different versions of the photometric phase functions. An online tool that implements these algorithms is introduced.

  9. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  10. Metallothionein 1G acts as an oncosupressor in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Cristina; Lavagni, Paola; Gariboldi, Manuela; Miranda, Claudia; Losa, Marco; Cleris, Loredana; Formelli, Franca; Pilotti, Silvana; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of tumors arising from the thyroid follicular epithelial cells, including papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), is only partially understood, and the role of tumor suppressor genes has not yet been assessed. The metallothionein (MT) gene family encodes a class of metal-binding proteins involved in several cellular processes, and their expression is often deregulated in human tumors. Recently, downregulation of MT gene expression in PTC has been reported, suggesting a possible oncosuppressor role of this gene family in the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors. To further explore this possibility, we performed expression and functional studies. Analysis of microarray data of thyroid tumors of different histologic types showed that several MT genes were downregulated with respect to normal tissue. The microarray data were corroborated by quantitative PCR experiments, showing downregulation of MTs in PTC and FTC, but to a greater extent in papillary carcinoma. The expression of MTs was also investigated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry; the results were consistent with the microarray data, showing general downregulation in tumor samples, which was more evident in PTC. The functional consequence of MT downregulation was addressed employing an experimental model made of the PTC-derived K1 cell line in which MT1G expression is repressed by promoter methylation. Restoration of MT1G expression by cDNA transfection affected growth rate and in vivo tumorigenicity of K1 cells, indicating an oncosuppressor role for MT1G in thyroid papillary tumorigenesis. PMID:18332874

  11. Some Important Aspects of Physical Modelling of Liquefaction in 1-g Shaking Table

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Towhata, Ikuo

    2008-07-08

    Physical modeling of liquefaction in 1-g shaking table and dynamic centrifuge test become very popular to simulate the ground behavior during earthquake motion. 1-g shaking table tests require scaled down model ground which can be prepared in three methods; water sedimentation, moist tamping and dry deposition method. Moist tamping and dry deposition method need saturation of model ground which is expensive and very difficult to achieve. Some model tests were performed in 1-g shaking table to see the influence of preparation method of model ground. Wet tamping and water sedimentation method of ground preparation were compared in these tests. Behavior of level ground and slope were also examined. Slope and level ground model test increased the understanding of excess pore pressure generation in both cases. Wet tamping method has a possibility of not being fully saturated. Pore pressure transducers should be fixed vertically so that it can not settle down during shaking but can move with ground. There was insignificant difference in acceleration and excess pore pressure responses between wet tamping and water sedimentation method in case of level ground. Spiky accelerations were prominent in slope prepared by water sedimentation method. Spiky accelerations were the result of lateral displacement induced dilatancy of soil.

  12. Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S.; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8 h), and reaction temperatures (60–120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

  13. Crimping: A wire fastening technique in wire chamber construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, B.; Koltick, D.; Kobayashi, M.

    1990-04-01

    The successful crimping technique for fasteninng wires individually in place, developed during the construction of the TOPAZ high-resolution vertex chamber, is described. A model of how crimping works which yeilds the parameters for successful crimping, the tools needed and their properties, results of a study of the relaxation rate for wires that have been crimped under various conditions and finally the results of applying this technique to the TOPAZ vertex chamber are presented. Wire size range from 20 to 400 μm in diameter, typically tensioned to half their breaking strength and crimped in thin-walled tubing. Applying this technique to 400 μm wires spaced only 2.0 mm apart in tubing with 160 μm walls yield upper limit tension loss rates of between 0.2% and 0.4% per year.

  14. Critical currents of YBCO tapes and Bi-2212 wires at different temperatures and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V.; Barzi, e.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Design studies for the cooling channel of a Muon Collider call for straight and helical solenoids generating field well in excess of the critical fields of state of the art Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn or NbTi. Therefore, High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) will need to be used for the manufacturing of all or certain sections of such magnets to be able to generate and withstand the field levels at the cryogenic temperatures required by the new machine. In this work, two major High Temperature Superconductors - Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductor tapes - are investigated to understand how critical current density of such conductors scales as a function of external field and operating temperature. This is vital information to make conductor choices depending on the application and to proceed with the design of such magnets.

  15. Environmental Influence of Gravity and Pressure on Arc Tracking of Insulated Wires Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Momentary short-circuit arcs between a defective polyimide-insulated wire and another conductor may thermally char (pyrolize) the insulating material. The charred polyimide, being conductive, can sustain the short-circuit arc, which may propagate along the wire through continuous pyrolization of the polyimide insulation (arc tracking). If the arcing wire is part of a multiple-wire bundle, the polyimide insulation of other wires within the bundle may become thermally charred and start arc tracking also (flash over). Such arc tracking can lead to complete failure of an entire wire bundle, causing other critical spacecraft or aircraft failures. Unfortunately, all tested candidate wire insulations for aerospace vehicles were susceptible to arc tracking. Therefore, a test procedure was designed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to select the insulation type least susceptible to arc tracking. This test procedure addresses the following three areas of concern: (1) probability of initiation, (2) probability of reinitiation (restrike), and (3) extent of arc tracking damage (propagation rate). Item 2 (restrike probability) is an issue if power can be terminated from and reapplied to the arcing wire (by a switch, fuse, or resettable circuit breaker). The degree of damage from an arcing event (item 3) refers to how easily the arc chars nearby insulation and propagates along the wire pair. Ease of nearby insulation charring can be determined by measuring the rate of arc propagation. Insulation that chars easily will propagate the arc faster than insulation that does not char very easily. A popular polyimide insulated wire for aerospace vehicles, MIL-W-81381, was tested to determine a degree of damage from an arcing event (item 3) in the following three environments: (1) microgravity with air at 1-atm pressure, (2) 1g with air at 1 atm, and (3) 1g within a 10^-6 Torr vacuum. The microgravity 1-atm air was the harshest environment, with respect to the rate of damage of arc tracking, for the 20 AWG (American Wiring Gauge) MIL-W-81381 wire insulation type . The vacuum environment resulted in the least damage. Further testing is planned to determine if the environmental results are consistent between insulation types and to evaluate the other two parameters associated with arc tracking susceptibility.

  16. Magnetic fields end-face effect investigation of HTS bulk over PMG with 3D-modeling numerical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujie; Lu, Yiyun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the magnetic fields end-face effect of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) is researched with 3D-modeling numerical method. The electromagnetic behavior of the bulk is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The framework is formulated by the magnetic field vector method (H-method). A superconducting levitation system composed of one rectangular HTS bulk and one infinite long PMG is successfully investigated using the proposed method. The simulation results show that for finite geometrical HTS bulk, even the applied magnetic field is only distributed in x-y plane, the magnetic field component Hz which is along the z-axis can be observed interior the HTS bulk.

  17. Propulsion and guidance simulation of HTS bulk linear synchronous motor taking into account /E-J characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2003-10-01

    We have proposed a new linear synchronous motor (LSM) theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing one in using current-carrying-armature-winding instead of permanent magnets. We have carried out basic experiments on two-dimensional electromagnetic forces produced in HTS bulk within DC-magnetic-field. As a result, we found that HTS bulk magnet in a cooling case can be levitated and guided stably according to the flux conditions between bulk and DC magnet. HTS bulk LSM can produce propulsion, levitation and guidance forces from zero speed, and be used in many applications. This paper proposes HTS bulk LSM analyzed and designed taking into account E- J characteristic. The LSM can produce stable guidance force without control. The LSM propulsion and guidance motion can be simulated numerically only by a simple propulsion control, which is not only closed-loop control but also open-loop control.

  18. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  19. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  20. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  1. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  2. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions.

  3. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Rech, Jérôme; Matveev, K A

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions. PMID:18352498

  4. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  5. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  6. Simulation of chain of quenches on toroidal HTS-SMES taking account of thermal and electromagnetic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oga, Y.; Noguchi, S.; Igarashi, H.

    When a temperature rise occurs at a local area inside a coil of toroidal HTS-SMES by any reason, a temperature hotspot which results in a thermal runaway appears at the local area. Subsequently, after appearing the local normal zone in the HTS coil, the transport current of the HTS coil decrease since the resistance of HTS coil appears and the current partially flows into a parallel-connecting shunt resistance. However, if the transport current of the normal-transitioned HTS coil is hardly changed, the temperature on the hotspot would rise more and then the normal zone would spread rapidly. It may cause a serious accident due to high stored energy. Therefore, using the numerical simulation, we have investigated the behaviors of the coil current, the critical current, and the temperature in the superconducting element coils of HTS-SMES. Consequently, the temperature of the superconducting element coils rises up extremely when a large heat is generated at a certain area of one of them by any reason. Moreover, there is a possibility that the shunt resister hardly functions for protection since the coil is burned out due to high inductances and low resistance of the superconducting element coil.

  7. Homogeneous current distribution experiment in a multi-laminated HTS tape conductor for a double-pancake coil of SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atomura, N.; Takahashi, T.; Chiba, Y.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2011-11-01

    A multi-laminated HTS tape conductor wound into double-pancake coils has recently been used for large SMES. If the HTS tapes are simply laminated to form the conductor, the current distribution in the laminated tape conductor of the coil is not homogeneous because of the differences among all the tape inductances. Transposition of these tapes at the innermost or outermost layer of the coil is effective for homogeneous current distribution. However, this method would requires the same number of single-pancake coils as that of the HTS tape conductor, and hence the number of HTS tape conductors is restricted. In this paper, we propose a new method to control the current distribution in the laminated conductor using transposition at the innermost layer of a double-pancake coil and adjusting the gaps between the laminated tapes. We analyze the current distributions for multi-laminated HTS tape conductors for a double-pancake coil, and show the homogeneous current distribution of the laminated tape conductor. In order to verify the theory, we designed homogeneous current distribution coil wound with the multi-laminated (four times) HTS tape conductors by transposing them at the innermost layer and by adjusting the additional thickness 0.075 mm between the parallel conductors. We obtained the homogeneous current distribution in the tape conductor. The experimental data were in good agreement with the theory.

  8. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

    2013-11-01

    We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  9. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  10. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans attenuates neuroinflammation in symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective motor neuron death in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. Neuroinflammation is one of several pathological causes of degenerating motor neurons and is induced by activated microglial cells and astrocytes in ALS. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM) is utilized in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as cancer, apoplexy, and epilepsy. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of SSM are currently unclear, even though SSM increases immune and antibiotic activity. Methods To determine the effects of SSM on symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice, SSM (2.5 ??/g) was injected bilaterally at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint three times per week for twoweeks. The effects of SSM treatment on anti-neuroinflammation in the brainstem and spinal cord of hSOD1G93A mice were assessed via Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining, and immunohistochemistry using Iba-1, CD14, HO1, and NQO1 proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Results In this study, we investigated whether SSM affects neuroinflammation in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. We found that SSM treatment attenuated the loss of motor neurons and reduced the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SSM administration in this animal model of ALS suppressed oxidative stress in the brainstem and spinal cord by 1.6- and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SSM, which has previously been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), might also be considered as an anti-neuroinflammatory therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24168240

  11. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  12. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  13. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  14. Structure of the Human Telomere in K+ Solution: An Intramolecular (3 + 1) G-Quadruplex Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Kim Ngoc; Kuryavyi, Vitaly; Lacroix, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present the intramolecular G-quadruplex structure of human telomeric DNA in physiologically relevant K+ solution. This G-quadruplex, whose (3 + 1) topology differs from folds reported previously in Na+ solution and in a K+-containing crystal, involves the following: one antisynsynsyn and two synantiantianti G-tetrads; one double-chain reversal and two edgewise loops; three G-tracts oriented in one direction and the fourth in the opposite direction. The topological characteristics of this (3 + 1) G-quadruplex scaffold should provide a unique platform for structure-based anticancer drug design targeted to human telomeric DNA. PMID:16866556

  15. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttil, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(?; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce photometric fits to very scarce and low-accuracy data. There are a few details that should be considered with the H,G_1,G_2 or H,G_{12} systems with scarce data. The first point is the distribution of errors in the fit. The original H,G system allowed linear regression in the flux space, thus making the estimation computationally easier. The same principle was repeated with the H,G_1,G_2 system. There is, however, a major hidden assumption in the transformation. With regression modeling, the residuals should be distributed symmetrically around zero. If they are normally distributed, even better. We have noticed that, at least with some NEO observations, the residuals in the flux space are far from symmetric, and seem to be much more symmetric in the magnitude space. The result is that the nonlinear fit in magnitude space is far more reliable than the linear fit in the flux space. Since the computers and nonlinear regression algorithms are efficient enough, we conclude that, in many cases, with low-accuracy data the nonlinear fit should be favored. In fact, there are statistical procedures that should be employed with the photometric fit. At the moment, the choice between the three-parameter and two-parameter versions is simply based on subjective decision-making. By checking parameter error and model comparison statistics, the choice could be done objectively. Similarly, the choice between the linear fit in flux space and the nonlinear fit in magnitude space should be based on a statistical test of unbiased residuals. Furthermore, the so-called Box-Cox transform could be employed to find an optimal transformation somewhere between the magnitude and flux spaces. The H,G_1,G_2 system is based on cubic splines, and is therefore a bit more complicated to implement than a system with simpler basis functions. The same applies to a complete program that would automatically choose the best transforms to data, test if two- or three-parameter version of the model should be fitted, and produce the fitted parameters with their error estimates. Our group has already made implementa

  16. Correlation of AH-1G airframe test data with a NASTRAN mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Test data was provided for evaluating a mathematical vibration model of the Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe. The math model was developed and analyzed using the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program. Data from static and dynamic tests were used for comparison with the math model. Static tests of the fuselage and tailboom were conducted to verify the stiffness representation of the NASTRAN model. Dynamic test data were obtained from shake tests of the airframe and were used to evaluate the NASTRAN model for representing the low frequency (below 30 Hz) vibration response of the airframe.

  17. Investigation of difficult component effects on FEM vibration prediction for the AH-1G helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Secondary structure and damping were found to have significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. The nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomeric mounts on the low-frequency pylon modes below the main rotor were also significant.

  18. Fabrication of PDA/HTS prototype components. [graphite composites for space shuttle and YF-12 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A process was developed for autoclave molding structural poly-(Diels-Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin/HTS graphite composites for short-term 600 F service. The autoclave molding process used to fabricate these composites required a maximum cure temperature of 427 K (400 F) and a maximum molding pressure of 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psig). This process then was adapted to the fabrication of co-cured polyimide sandwich panels consisting of PDA/HTS skins, PDA syntactic foam and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by manufacturing five three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels using the PDA resin. It was concluded from successful evaluation of these prototype units that the PDA resin is suitable for fabrication of components using commercial equipment.

  19. Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. )

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

  20. A method to enhance the curve negotiation performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, T.; Gou, Y. F.; Deng, Z. G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, B. T.; Chen, P.

    2015-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev has attracted more and more attention due to its special self-stable characteristic, and much work has been done to achieve its actual application, but the research about the curve negotiation is not systematic and comprehensive. In this paper, we focused on the change of the lateral displacements of the Maglev vehicle when going through curves under different velocities, and studied the change of the electromagnetic forces through experimental methods. Experimental results show that setting an appropriate initial eccentric distance (ED), which is the distance between the center of the bulk unit and the center of the permanent magnet guideway (PMG), when cooling the bulks is favorable for the Maglev system’s curve negotiation. This work will provide some available suggestions for improving the curve negotiation performance of the HTS Maglev system.

  1. [Development of HTS model on SERT inhibitors combined biological screening model with HTVS].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Fang, Jian-song; Liu, Ai-lin; Du, Guan-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of drug screening on serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors, a high-throughput screening (HTS) model is established in RBL-2H3 cells. The RBL-2H3 cells are very similar to the serotonin genetic neuro, in modulation of post-receptor mechanisms and transduction pathway of SERT reactivated. Depending on a fluorescence substrate ASP+ used in detection method of inhibitor rates, it's convenient, quick, accurate and effective, not making the environmental biohazard compared with radioactive experiments. Furthermore, biological screening model combined with computer aided virtual screening technique describing high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS). Bayesian classification method and molecular fingerprint similarity were applied to virtual screening technique, for screening compounds in compound library. Some compounds have been found, and then validated further by biological screening model. Combination of HTS and HTVS improves the efficiency of screening SERT inhibitors. PMID:26757547

  2. A cryogen-free HTS Josephson junction detector for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Smart, K.; Li, L.; Leslie, K. E.; Hanham, S. M.; Wang, D. H. C.; Foley, C. P.; Ji, F.; Li, X. D.; Zeng, D. Z.

    2015-08-01

    A cryogen-free terahertz (THz) imaging system based on a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction detector is reported. The detector was made of a YBa2Cu3O7-x step-edge Josephson junction and integrated into an on-chip thin-film antenna. The HTS Josephson detector was cooled via a commercial mechanical cryocooler; an important step towards cryogen-free THz instrumentation, which is critical for industrial acceptance. In addition, it is shown that operating the detector in a cryocooler provides improved flexibility for optimizing the detector parameters and performance due to the ability to adjust the temperature compared to liquid nitrogen cooling methods. The dc and ac characteristics, the detector responsivity and the noise-equivalent power of the detector, and resulting image quality were studied as the function of operating temperatures.

  3. Measurement of temperature dependent AC losses in HTS bulk by electric and calorimetric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, K.; Sekizawa, S.; Ogawa, J.; Tsukamoto, O.

    2006-06-01

    HTS bulk can trap higher magnetic field than a permanent magnet and electric motor and actuators are promising applications. The HTS bulks in those electric machines are exposed to AC magnetic field perturbations, which cause AC losses in the bulks. Therefore, it is important to understand the AC loss characteristics. In the previous works, we measured the AC losses by an electric method using the double pick-up coils method. This time, we measured the AC losses by a calorimetric method using a cryo-cooler and heater at different temperature. In this paper, the AC losses measured by the electric and calorimetric methods are compared with each other to investigate the validity of the measurement methods.

  4. Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, You-He

    2010-03-01

    Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  5. Electromagnetic Design of HTS D-shaped Coils for a Toroidal-type Superconducting Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Deng, X.; Ren, L.; Xu, Y.; He, J.; Tang, Y.

    High current and magnetic field are essential for achieving MCF (magnetic confinement fusion). Superconducting materials and technology have unique advantages to achieve high magnetic field and large-current transmission. With the commercialization of 2G HTS tapes, they are paid wide attention to in Tokamak magnet application. In order to investigate the feasibility of applying HTS into Tokamak magnets, a toroidal-type magnet has been designed using YBCO tapes by means of FEM analysis combining with Matlab. The effects of the coil number and coil arrangements on the critical current, the maximum parallel magnetic field, the inductance and the storage capacity of the magnet are analyzed. Based on that, key technological points of the electromagnetic design are discussed.

  6. Effect of corrugated characteristics on the liquid nitrogen temperature field of HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. M.; Li, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Gao, C.; Qiu, M.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    In the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system, liquid nitrogen is usually chosen to be the coolant because of its low saturation temperature and large latent heat of vaporization. Thus, it is very important for superconducting cables that the liquid nitrogen temperature field keeps stable. However, the cryostat is usually made of flexible corrugated pipes and multi-layer insulation materials. The characteristics (e.g. wave pitch and wave depth) of corrugated pipes may have an effect on the heat exchange between cable and liquid nitrogen, even the whole temperature field of liquid nitrogen. In this paper, a two-dimensional model for 30 m long HTS cable has been modified to analyze the effect of corrugated characteristics on the temperature field of liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen temperature difference between the outlet and the inlet of passage gradually increases as the wave pitch of the corrugated tube decreases and the wave depth increases.

  7. Vacuum-Insulated, Flexible Cryostats for Long HTS Cables: Requirements, Status, and Prospects.

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Roden, Mark L; Maguire, J. F.; Weber, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Several high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable demonstration projects have begun operation on the electric grid in the last few years with the liquid nitrogen-cooled cable contained in one or more vacuum-insulated, flexible cryostats with lengths up to 600 meters. These grid demonstration projects are prototypes of the anticipated commercial market which will require superconducting cable lengths in the multiple kilometer range with the vacuum-jacketed cryostats in underground ducts providing acceptable thermal insulation for decades. The current state-of-the art for flexible cryostats (installation constraints, heat loads with a good and degraded vacuum, impact of cable bends, getter lifetime and reliability) is discussed. Further development needed to meet the challenging commercial HTS cable application is outlined.

  8. The study on stress-cone based on HTS cable terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Fang, J.; Huang, X. H.; Lu, W. J.; Li, D.; Guo, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Our research aims at improving the performance of 35 kV class stress-cone for HTS cable terminal. Firstly, the equivalent circuit model of a stress-cone is constructed for simulation. The relation between the sag voltage of each layer can be characterized by structural and material parameters, such as the stress-cones plate length, plate radius, insulating material thickness and dielectric constant. Secondly, the simulation based on ANSYS is developed for analyzing the electric field of stress cone of HTS cable terminal, by altering the length of step and insulation material parameter of stress cone, we get the voltage of each plate layer, horizontal electric field and vertical electric field, and the influence of stress-cone parameter on stress cone electric field is analyzed.

  9. A Feasibility Study on HTS Cable for the Grid Integration of Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, D.-H.

    Nowadays there are a lot of demands for the renewable energy generation because fossil fuel is being exhausted. The size of renewable plant has a tendency to be increased for economic reasons. So the high voltage level facilities are necessary for interconnection between power grid and renewable plant. The interconnection facilities should have a transmission capacity enough to transfer the peak power generated by renewable plant. However, the output of renewable has an intermittent characteristic and its variation range is not small. Therefore an average utilization ratio of interconnection line between is low because of the power fluctuation from renewable plant. The High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable is able to transmit a large amount of electricity without additional power facility. In this paper, an advantage of using HTS cable as an interconnection line between power grid and renewable plant are analyzed.

  10. Influence of Off-Centre Operation on the Performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Y.; He, D.; Zheng, J.; Ye, C.; Xu, Y.; Sun, R.; Che, T.; Deng, Z.

    2014-03-01

    Owing to instinctive self-stable levitation characteristics, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev using bulk high-temperature superconductors attracts more and more attention from scientists and engineers around the world. In this paper, the levitation force relaxation and guidance force characteristics of a Y-Ba-Cu-O levitation unit with different eccentric distances (EDs) off the center of the permanent magnet guideway were experimentally investigated under field-cooling (FC) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the levitation force slightly increases at small EDs firstly, but degrades with further increasing of EDs. However, the maximum guidance force and its stiffness exhibit enhancement in moderate ED range. The results demonstrate that a properly designed initial FC eccentric distance is important for the practical applications of HTS maglev according to specific requirements like running in curve lines.

  11. Numerical models for ac loss calculation in large-scale applications of HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéval, Loïc; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models are powerful tools to predict the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. In recent years, a variety of models have been successfully developed to simulate high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) coated conductor tapes. While the models work well for the simulation of individual tapes or relatively small assemblies, their direct applicability to devices involving hundreds or thousands of tapes, e.g., coils used in electrical machines, is questionable. Indeed, the simulation time and memory requirement can quickly become prohibitive. In this paper, we develop and compare two different models for simulating realistic HTS devices composed of a large number of tapes: (1) the homogenized model simulates the coil using an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous bulk with specifically developed current constraints to account for the fact that each turn carries the same current; (2) the multi-scale model parallelizes and reduces the computational problem by simulating only several individual tapes at significant positions of the coil’s cross-section using appropriate boundary conditions to account for the field generated by the neighboring turns. Both methods are used to simulate a coil made of 2000 tapes, and compared against the widely used H-formulation finite-element model that includes all the tapes. Both approaches allow faster simulations of large number of HTS tapes by 1–3 orders of magnitudes, while maintaining good accuracy of the results. Both models can therefore be used to design and optimize large-scale HTS devices. This study provides key advancement with respect to previous versions of both models. The homogenized model is extended from simple stacks to large arrays of tapes. For the multi-scale model, the importance of the choice of the current distribution used to generate the background field is underlined; the error in ac loss estimation resulting from the most obvious choice of starting from a uniform current distribution is revealed.

  12. Optimization of a condensed-neon cooling system for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, B.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2010-06-01

    The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below Tc. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.

  13. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  14. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government’s financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  15. Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, H. K.; Koh, D. Y.; Ko, J. S.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2011-11-01

    The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

  16. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  17. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  18. Heat transfer characteristics of HTS tape impregnated with solid nitrogen solid neon hybrid refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the heat transfer characteristics of HTS tape, which is impregnated with solid nitrogen-solid neon hybrid refrigerant. We have proposed such refrigerant as high performance heat capacitor for the HTS power applications in a temperature range from 10 K to 30 K. The experiments were carried out with the use of the Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. Bi-2223/Ag tape conductors were subjected to this study, and impregnated with the refrigerant. After stabilizing the temperature of the tape with the bias current, the voltage of such tape was measured as a function of time. Furthermore, temporal traces of the temperature were also measured at different two points, i.e., surface and 2 mm apart from the tape, respectively. We repeated such measurements for different ratios of neon/nitrogen and operating temperature. It was shown that so-called dry-out phenomenon was overcome by the use of our proposed hybrid refrigerant. Detailed discussions with respect to cooling behavior of the boundary layer between the aforementioned refrigerant and the HTS tape are to be presented.

  19. Non-destructive inspection using HTS SQUID on aluminum liner covered by CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2007-10-01

    An eddy-current-based SQUID non-destructive inspection (NDI) system to detect deep-lying cracks in multi-layer composite-Al vessels was developed taking advantage of the uncontested sensitivity of HTS-SQUID in low-frequency range. An HTS-SQUID gradiometer was mounted in a pulse tube cryocooler. A pair of differential coils with C-shaped ferrite cores was employed to induce an enhanced eddy current in an Al vessel wrapped in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover. Ellipsoidal dome-shaped Al liners containing through cracks, which were made by pressure cycle tests, in the CFRP covers with total thickness of 6 mm (CFPR 3 mm, and Al 3 mm) were inspected by the system. While inducing eddy currents in the vessels with excitation fields at 100 Hz or 7 kHz, the vessels were rotated under the HTS-SQUID. Above the cracks, anomalous signals due to the cracks were clearly detected at both frequencies. These results suggested the SQUID-NDI technique would be a possible candidate for inspection of high-pressure multi-layer composite-Al vessels.

  20. Application of HTS bulk magnet system to the magnetic separation techniques for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Terasawa, T.; Itoh, Y.; Yabuno, R.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the application of the HTS bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water drained from the university laboratories. The study has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. A superconducting bulk magnet has the highest value of the trapped magnetic fields at the centre of the sample surface, showing a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface. Magnetic force acting on magnetic particles in magnetic fields is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field. The HTS bulk is superior to a solenoid magnet which has a poor gradient in magnetic fields in a bore. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method which requires iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without any filters. The magnetic separation using HTS bulk magnet is substantially effective for the practical water purification.

  1. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  2. The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

  3. Study on application of magnetic levitation utilizing HTS bulks to spin processors for photo mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, S.; Sato, R.; Ogawa, J.; Oka, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Sato, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Sasahara, T.; Tamaki, T.; Nishiwaki, S.; Yuki, Y.

    2007-10-01

    Ultra-fine patterning of several ten nanometer pitch for semiconductor devices is required for higher integrations of circuit elements and, therefore, extremely high preciseness and quality are also required for patterning of microstructures on photo masks. A serious problem that causes the deterioration of pattern preciseness of photo mask is the deposition of micron or sub-micron particles, such as oil dusts, that generate from mechanical bearings of the spin processors in the grooves of the micro patterns. In this work, application of magnetic levitation utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks to the spin processors for the photo mask production is proposed. To address this issue, a small size test spinner utilizing the magnetic levitation with the HTS bulks is developed to investigate its applicability to the spin processors for the photo mask production. The structure of the test spinner is presented and the results of levitation and rotation tests are reported in this paper. The test results show the basic compatibility of the magnetic levitation with the HTS bulks to the spin processor.

  4. AdHTS: a high-throughput system for generating recombinant adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Wook; Seen, Dong-Seung; Song, Yong Bhum; Son, Ho-Sun; Jung, Neon-Cheol; Huh, Won-Ki; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Kim, Kyungjin; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Tae Gyu

    2012-12-31

    The need for efficient high-throughput gene delivery system for mammalian cells is rapidly increasing with the growing request for functional genomics studies and drug discoveries in various physiologically relevant systems. However, plasmid-based gene delivery has limitations in transfection efficiency and available cell types. Viral vectors have great advantages over plasmid-based vectors, but construction of recombinant viruses remains to be a big hurdle for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a rapid and simple high-throughput system for constructing recombinant adenoviruses which have been used as efficient gene delivery tools in mammalian systems in vitro and in vivo. By combining Gateway-based site-specific recombination with Terminal protein-coupled adenovirus vector, the adenovirus high-throughput system (AdHTS) generates multiple recombinant adenoviruses in 96-well plates simultaneously without the need for additional cloning or recombination in bacteria or mammalian cells. The AdHTS allows rapid and robust cloning and expression of genes in mammalian cells by removing shuttle vector construction, bacterial transformation, or selection and by minimizing effort in plaque isolation. By shortening the time required to convert whole cDNA library into desired viral vector constructs, the AdHTS would greatly facilitate functional genomics and proteomics studies in various mammalian systems. PMID:23063969

  5. Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Pan; Lu Yongjin; Lei Liping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang

    2010-06-15

    The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to a type of the micro-forming in macro-scale processing. There are two main characteristics founded: (a) contact and friction between silver and BSCCO surfaces, (b) interface between two materials. A series of micro-tensile experiments of silver foil with thicknesses of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 mm are designed to investigate the behaviors of silver with various scale of sizes. And the surface topography measurements have been carried out to analyze the changes in surface topography. Based upon experiments, some topics are researched which are referred to inhomogeneous, local effect, size effect, grain and micro-structure affecting, surface roughness, long-distance sausage phenomenon. Further the local breakdown of silver by Bi-HTS powder during process is analyzed through failure criterion. The results of this work will bring out an important exploration value to the theory and computation of micro-forming.

  6. Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ∅ 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

  7. Structural Integrity Recording System (SIR) for U.S. Army AH-1G Helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. G.; Johnson, R. B.; Tyler, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A Structural Integrity Recording System (SIRS) was designed and developed to track the fatigue damage accumulation on 10 critical helicopter components for the subsequent timely replacement of such components for safer and more economical helicopter operation. SIRS comprises three discrete but interrelated subsystems: an airborne microprocessor-based recorder, a portable flight-line data retrieval unit, and a software system. The validation of SIRS, initially configured for the AH-1G helicopter, consisted of two phases. Phase I (Development Test and Evaluation - DT E) covered the design, fabrication, laboratory qualification testing, reliability analysis, and flight-testing of the prototype SIRS recorder. Phase II (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation - IOT E) covered the evaluation of the entire system operation and the resultant data acquired during a 3-month recording period with five AH-1G's, each equipped with a SIRS recorder. As the documentation of both DT E and IOT E, this report describes the characteristics and functions of the entire system and details the successful performance of the SIRS recorder in the laboratory qualification testing and the flight environment. The SIRS recorder performed as designed, operated reliably, and yielded valid data.

  8. Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

  9. Postmitotic Expression of SOD1G93A Gene Affects the Identity of Myogenic Cells and Inhibits Myoblasts Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Martina; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Aucello, Michela; Musar, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of mutant SOD1 gene (SOD1G93A) on muscle cell differentiation, we derived C2C12 muscle cell lines carrying a stably transfected SOD1G93A gene under the control of a myosin light chain (MLC) promoter-enhancer cassette. Expression of MLC/SOD1G93A in C2C12 cells resulted in dramatic inhibition of myoblast differentiation. Transfected SOD1G93A gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes downregulated the expression of relevant markers of committed and differentiated myoblasts such as MyoD, Myogenin, MRF4, and the muscle specific miRNA expression. The inhibitory effects of SOD1G93A gene on myogenic program perturbed Akt/p70 and MAPK signaling pathways which promote differentiation cascade. Of note, the inhibition of the myogenic program, by transfected SOD1G93A gene expression, impinged also the identity of myogenic cells. Expression of MLC/SOD1G93A in C2C12 myogenic cells promoted a fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) phenotype, upregulating HDAC4 protein and preventing the myogenic commitment complex BAF60C-SWI/SNF. We thus identified potential molecular mediators of the inhibitory effects of SOD1G93A on myogenic program and disclosed potential signaling, activated by SOD1G93A, that affect the identity of the myogenic cell population. PMID:26491230

  10. Protein 4.1G Regulates Cell Adhesion, Spreading, and Migration of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts through the ?1 Integrin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yaomei; Zhang, Jingxin; Qi, Yuanming; Weng, Haibo; Kang, Qiaozhen; Guo, Xinhua; Baines, Anthony J; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2016-01-29

    Protein 4.1G is a membrane skeletal protein that can serve as an adapter between transmembrane proteins and the underlying membrane skeleton. The function of 4.1G remains largely unexplored. Here, using 4.1G knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a model system, we explored the function of 4.1G in motile cells. We show that the adhesion, spreading, and migration of 4.1G(-/-) MEF cells are impaired significantly. We further show that, although the total cellular expression of ?1 integrin is unchanged, the surface expression of ?1 integrin and its active form are decreased significantly in 4.1G(-/-) MEF cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, a downstream component of the integrin-mediated signal transduction pathway, is suppressed in 4.1G(-/-) MEF cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro binding assays showed that 4.1G binds directly to ?1 integrin via its membrane-binding domain. These findings identified a novel role of 4.1G in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration in MEF cells by modulating the surface expression of ?1 integrin and subsequent downstream signal transduction. PMID:26644476

  11. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  12. Wire chambers revisited.

    PubMed

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative ejection fraction information of the highest quality. The detection of higher energy gamma rays has proved more problematical, needing a solid photon-electron convertor to be incorporated into the chamber. Several groups have been working on this problem with modest success so far. The only clinical detectors have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now in routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8491229

  13. Effects of spaceflight on rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Recktenwald, M. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Roy, R. R.; Riazanski, S.; McCall, G. E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Washburn, D. A.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Effects of spaceflight on Rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G. Locomotor performance, activation patterns of the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) and MG tendon force during quadrupedal stepping were studied in adult Rhesus before and after 14 days of either spaceflight (n = 2) or flight simulation at 1G (n = 3). Flight simulation involved duplication of the spaceflight conditions and experimental protocol in a 1G environment. Postflight, but not postsimulation, electromyographic (EMG) recordings revealed clonus-like activity in all muscles. Compared with preflight, the cycle period and burst durations of the primary extensors (Sol, MG, and VL) tended to decrease postflight. These decreases were associated with shorter steps. The flexor (TA) EMG burst duration postflight was similar to preflight, whereas the burst amplitude was elevated. Consequently, the Sol:TA and MG:TA EMG amplitude ratios were lower following flight, reflecting a "flexor bias." Together, these alterations in mean EMG amplitudes reflect differential adaptations in motor-unit recruitment patterns of flexors and extensors as well as fast and slow motor pools. Shorter cycle period and burst durations persisted throughout the 20-day postflight testing period, whereas mean EMG returned to preflight levels by 17 days postflight. Compared with presimulation, the simulation group showed slight increases in the cycle period and burst durations of all muscles. Mean EMG amplitude decreased in the Sol, increased in the MG and VL, and was unchanged in the TA. Thus adaptations observed postsimulation were different from those observed postflight, indicating that there was a response unique to the microgravity environment, i.e., the modulations in the nervous system controlling locomotion cannot merely be attributed to restriction of movement but appear to be the result of changes in the interpretation of load-related proprioceptive feedback to the nervous system. Peak MG tendon force amplitudes were approximately two times greater post- compared with preflight or presimulation. Adaptations in tendon force and EMG amplitude ratios indicate that the nervous system undergoes a reorganization of the recruitment patterns biased toward an increased recruitment of fast versus slow motor units and flexor versus extensor muscles. Combined, these data indicate that some details of the control of motor pools during locomotion are dependent on the persistence of Earth's gravitational environment.

  14. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  15. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. IV. Energy levels, partition sums, band constants, RKR potentials, Franck-Condon factors involving the X3? -g, a1?g and b1? +g states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    We have updated the isotopically invariant Dunham fit of O2 with newly reported literature transitions to derive (1) the energy levels, partition sums, band-by-band molecular constants, and RKR potentials for the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states of the six O2 isotopologues: 16O16O, 16O17O, 16O18O, 17O17O, 17O18O, and 18O18O; (2) Franck-Condon factors for their a1? g-X3? -g, b1? +g-X3? -g, and a1? g-b1? +g band systems. This new spectroscopic parameterization characterizes all known transitions within and between the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states within experimental uncertainty and can be used for accurate predictions of as yet unmeasured transitions. All of these results are necessary to provide a consistent linelist of all transitions which will be reported in a followup paper.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Five New F-bearing Basalt Reference Materials (Fba Glasses): Quantifying the Fluorine Content of the Basaltic Glass Standards BCR-2G, BHVO-2G. GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, ML3B-G, KL2-G, and ALV-519-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fluorine is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts have been detected in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace to minor F with high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, F contents of low-silica, basaltic glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories are not well known. In this study, we synthesized five basalt glasses doped with variable amounts of fluorine (Fba glasses) to serve as new glass standards for the analysis of F in low-silica, iron-rich geological materials, and we used the new Fba glasses to determine the F content of nine commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic composition. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2 to create five glasses with the following F content (wt.% 1?): Fba-1 (0.13 0.05); Fba-2 (0.53 0.11); Fba-3 (0.87 0.10); Fba-4 (1.41 0.11); Fba-5 (2.24 0.12). The mixtures were heated in a 1 atm furnace to 1470 C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). EPMA used Biotite-3 (Bt-3: 3.3 wt.% F) and synthetic fluorphlogopite (F-phlog: 9.02 wt.% F) as F calibration standards. Wavelength scans of the F K? line on Bt-3 and F-phlog showed asymmetric peaks, necessitating the use of peak-integration analysis of the K? signal. EPMA was conducted on a Cameca SX100 with a 15 ?m diameter defocused electron beam, 15 kV accelerating voltage, 20 nA primary current, TAP crystal for detecting F K? X-rays, and five iterations in peak-integration mode. Results showed < 6% difference in the F content of the Fba glasses between the Bt-3 and F-phlog standards, implying the peak-integration method is standard-independent. SIMS analysis was conducted on a Cameca ims 6f with a primary beam of 16O-, detection of low-energy negative secondary ions (-5 kV), and a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Homogeneity of the Fba glasses was established by both SIMS and EPMA. Glasses labeled Fba-2, -3. -4, and -5 pass statistical tests for homogeneity and may be used as EPMA or SIMS standards. SIMS calibration curves were constructed using the Fba glasses and other F standards of varying silica, iron, and sodium content, including Bt-3, F-phlog, NIST 610, KE-12, and UTR-2. The calibration curves revealed large matrix effects for the analysis of F by SIMS (~ 50%) between an Fba:Bt-3 curve and a high-silica glass:F-phlog curve. The Fba:Bt-3 calibration curve was used to determine the F contents (ppm 1 ?) of the following nine commonly used basaltic glass standards: BCR-2G (321 15), BHVO-2G (297 14), GSA-1G (7 0.1), GSC-1G (9 0.5), GSD-1G (18 1), GSE-1G (154 7), ML3B-G (47 2), KL2-G (82 4), ALV-519-4 (76 4).

  17. Ab initio potential energy curve for the J1? g state of the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko?os, W.; Rychlewski, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curve for the J1? g state of the hydrogen molecule was computed using highly flexible wavefunction in the form of a 60-term expansion in elliptic coordinates. The vibrational Schrdinger equation for the J state was solved for H 2, HD, and D 2. For H 2 the resulting energies are compared with the experimental values and it is shown that the adiabatic effects are likely to be responsible for the main part of the existing discrepancy between theoretical and experimental values. For HD the disagreement is too great to be attributable to approximations in the present work and therefore it is suggested that the J state of HD was incorrectly determined.

  18. Restraint hypothermia in cold-exposed rats at 3 G and 1 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, C. B.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between heat loss, heat production, and hypothermia was investigated in experiments with rats which determined if hypergravity affects heat production by altering oxygen consumption and if restraint modifies the ability of the rats to activate thermogenic mechanisms after cold exposure in a hypergravic field. Restrained and unrestrained rats were exposed for 1 hr periods to 1 G and 3 G at ambient temperatures of 24 C or 10 C, and the rate of oxygen consumption, the core temperatures, and the tail temperatures were measured. Results show that thermoregulatory mechanisms are impaired when rats are exposed to 3 G fields, and at 24 C as well as at 10 C this impairment leads to an inappropriate increase in heat loss.

  19. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  20. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  1. Wires for Shape Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 m diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

  2. Peculiarities of Wire Array Implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Zaitsev, V. I.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Medovschikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Oleinik, G. M.; Porofeev, I. Yu.; Samokhin, A. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Frolov, I. N.; Fedulov, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the experiments on Z-pinch produced from wire arrays performed on the facility Angara-5-1 are presented. The models of liner implosion, i.e. prolonged plasma production have found their confirmation. Estimation based on our experimental data show that W wire cores are heterogeneous. The velocity of core expansion is determined by energy deposited at the first nanoseconds after current start. The effect of the inner array on the current distribution in the region between the arrays has been revealed. The lost mass was measured at initial radius of array at the moment of X-ray pulse maximum.

  3. Charge transport along proton wires.

    PubMed

    Karahka, Markus Leopold; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Using density functional theory we look at the quantum mechanics of charge transport along water wires both with free ends and donor/acceptor terminated. With the intermediate geometries in the DFT iterations we can follow the charge transfer mechanism and also construct the energy landscape explicitly. It shows activation barriers when a proton is transferred from one water molecule to the next. This, together with snapshots of intermediate geometries, leads to a justification and further elucidation of the Grotthuss mechanism and the Bjerrum effect. The charge transfer times and the conductivity of the proton wire are obtained in agreement with experimental results. PMID:24706126

  4. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  5. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

  6. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  7. Choice of flexible cryostat for 2.5 km DC HTS cable to be laid in St. Petersburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Romashov, Maxim A.; Bemert, Sergey E.; Sytnikov, Victor E.

    2014-01-01

    HTS tapes production technology has reached the level which allows the manufacture of high-quality cables of long length. In this connection, the issue of creating an HTS power transmission line of some kilometer length had been raised. Pressure loss appears as one of the limiting factors in the circulation of the liquid nitrogen cooling HTS cable placed in a long cryostat. Pressure loss is small in short lines and for this reason did not attract close attention of researchers until recently. Within the framework of the Russian R&D program for HTS power devices, 30 and 200 m AC HTS power transmission lines were created in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and a new 2.5 km 50 MW DC line to be installed in a real city network of St. Petersburg is now at the design and development phase. Pressure loss calculations show the 64/70 mm NEXANS-type corrugated flexible cryostat to be optimal for the cooling channel and the 39/44 mm one - for the return channel. In this case, it is possible to use just one cryopump and one cryocooler to achieve an operational temperature difference of 4-6 K and a pressure drop of 0.1-0.2 MPa in the cooling channel at a flow rate of 20-30 l/min.

  8. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  9. Preparation and properties of amorphous wires

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, I.; Ueno, S.

    1995-03-01

    Amorphous magnetostrictive Fe-Si-B and Co-Fe-Si-B various diameters were prepared by in-rotating-water spinning method. Magnetic properties of as-quenched wires and their domain wall propagation characteristics were investigated. All as-quenched amorphous wires show reentrant flux reversal. The critical field of reverse domain nucleation H* decreases with increasing wire diameter. The ratio of B{sub r} to B{sub s} Is almost constant at about 0.45 for as-quenched amorphous wires. The critical length for re-entrant flux reversal linearly increases with Increasing wire diameter, which reflects the effect of the demagnetizing field or the wire. The domain wall mobility of as-quenched amorphous wire is linearly related to the reciprocal of wire diameter.

  10. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  11. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conductor shall be of sufficient conductivity and shall be maintained in such condition to ensure proper... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations...

  12. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  13. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conductor shall be of sufficient conductivity and shall be maintained in such condition to ensure proper... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations...

  14. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  15. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  16. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  17. Magnet-wire wrapping tool for integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Wire-dispensing tool which resembles mechanical pencil is used to wrap magnet wire around integrated circuit terminals uniformly and securely without damaging insulative coating on wire. Tool is hand-held and easily manipulated to execute wire wrapping movements.

  18. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  19. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  20. Shape-Memory Wires Switch Rotary Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermomechanical rotary actuator based on shape-memory property of alloy composed of equal parts of titanium and nickel. If alloy stretched while below transition temperature, it reverts to original length when heated above transition temperature. Two capstans on same shaft wrapped with shape-memory wires. As one wire heated, it contracts and stretches opposite wire. Wires heated in alternation so they switch shaft between two extreme angular positions; "on" and "off" positions of rotary valve.

  1. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  2. Moving Large Wiring-Harness Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Samuel D.; Gurman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    Carrier for wiring-harness fabrication boards enables lone operator to move board easily and safely. Holds harness while operator fabricating, while being stored, and being transported to equipment frame for mounting. When positioned for assembly of wiring harness, board and carrier give operator easy and convenient access to wires and cables, when positioned for transfer of wiring harness to or from storage area, carrier holds board securely while moved by one person.

  3. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1) Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2) developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3) evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N). We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5). All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5 and 43.0. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1) Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2) EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3) and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3) all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold. PMID:26702209

  4. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  5. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  6. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training

  7. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  8. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  9. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  10. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  11. Evaluation of IDH1G105 polymorphism as prognostic marker in intermediate-risk AML.

    PubMed

    Fasan, Annette; Haferlach, Claudia; Eder, Christiane; Alpermann, Tamara; Quante, Anne; Peters, Annette; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Schnittger, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Germline polymorphisms in genes mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may have prognostic impact. Therefore, the relevance of the polymorphism IDH1G105 (IDH1105(GGT) minor allele) was evaluated in the context of concomitant molecular mutations in a cohort of 507 AML cases with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In addition, a cohort of 475 healthy controls was analyzed for this polymorphism. IDH1105(GGT) minor allele was found in 10% of AML patients and 9% of healthy controls. While no differences were seen with regard to cytomorphology or cytogenetics, immunophenotyping revealed significantly reduced expression of the progenitor marker CD34 in AML cases harboring IDH1105(GGT) minor allele. Cases with IDH1105(GGT) minor allele as compared to those with the IDH1105(GGC) major allele had significantly longer event-free survival (EFS) (median 16 vs 11months, p?=?0.013) which was most pronounced in the age group >60years (median 14 vs 9months, p?=?0.007) and in the NPM1 mutated/FLT3-ITD/FLT3wt ratio <0.5 group (median 61 vs 13months, p?=?0.012). However, this association is not independent of other prognostic parameters, and we conclude that IDH1105(GGT) minor allele has to be considered in the context of the genetic background of the individual AML analyzed. PMID:26351014

  12. Quantifying Biomechanical Characteristics of Jumping Exercises in 1G and in Simulated and True Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. L.; DAndrea, S. E.; Perusek, G.; Orlando, T.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise in microgravity is one of the most promising countermeasures to the dual problems of space flight-induced bone loss and muscle atrophy. Although exercise in microgravity has been studied extensively from a metabolic standpoint, little research has focused on the efficacy of different forms of exercise for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity. Exercise protocols have not been effective in preventing muscle atrophy and bone loss during space flight, especially in the lower extremities. In 1-G, however, animal experiments have clearly indicated that: (1) certain bone strains and strain rates do stimulate bone deposition, and (2) repetitive loading of the lower extremity can increase osteonal bone formation even as proximally as the vertebral column. Such studies have also indicated that a relatively small number of appropriate loading cycles may lead to bone deposition. This suggests that an optimal exercise regimen might be able to maintain bone and muscle integrity during space flight. Since there is evidence that the bones and muscles of the lower limbs are particularly affected by space flight, the present study addressed two major aims: (1) quantify externally applied impact loads and rates of loading under the feet during tethered jumping exercises, and (2) determine the amount of eccentric and concentric whole-muscle activity during these jumping exercises in true and in simulated zero-gravity.

  13. Fish Otolith Growth in 1g and 3g Depends on the Gravity Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R. H.; Werner, K.; Breuer, J.; Rahmann, H.

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) as well as calcium (Ca) content of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were determined after a long-term stay at hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge). Both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g-control specimens and the absolute amount of otolith-Ca was diminished. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was markedly decreased. In the course of another experiment, larvae were raised in aquarium hatch baskets, from which one was placed directly above aeration equipment, which resulted in random water circulation shifting the fish around (``shifted'' specimens). The lapillar asymmetry of the ``stationary'' specimens showed a highly significant increase during early development when larvae were forced to lay on their sides due to their prominent yolk-sacs. In later developmental stages, when they began to swim freely, a dramatic decrease in lapillar asymmetry was apparent. Taken together with own previous findings according to which otolith growth stops after vestibular nerve transection, the results presented here suggest that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector, obviously involving a feedback loop between the brain and the inner ear

  14. [Severe digitalis poisoning after the ingestion of 1 g of digoxin].

    PubMed

    Trster, S; Bodmann, K F; Schuster, H P

    1992-07-24

    A 50-year-old, previously healthy, woman swallowed 1 g digoxin powder, dissolved in water, with suicidal intent. On admission to hospital one hour later, having vomited three times at home, the prominent signs were somnolence and hypersalivation. Serum digoxin level was 3.37 ng/ml. There followed repeated episodes of asystole alternating with ventricular fibrillation requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation over 90 min and adrenaline administration. Repeated electrical defibrillation, administration of dopamine, phenytoin and lidocaine, as well as transitory transvenous electrical stimulation became necessary. Anti-digoxin antibody fragments were administered, initially 80 mg, to a total of 3,280 mg over 24 hours. After 3 days of intensive care and a further 21 days in hospital she was discharged and referred to psychiatric treatment. This case demonstrates that even severe digoxin poisoning can be successfully treated without sequelae by the appropriate administration of digoxin antidote. The main problems in this case were regulation of the dosage and acquiring the necessary amount of antidote which greatly exceeded the hospital's own depot. PMID:1633762

  15. Surface characterization through shape oscillations of drops in microgravity and 1-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Holt, R. Glynn; Tian, Yuren; Shi, Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Yu

    1994-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to determine the rheological properties of liquid drops of single or multiple components in the presence or absence of surface active materials by exciting drops into their quadrupole resonance and observing their free decay. The resulting data coupled with appropriate theory should give a better description of the physics of the underlying phenomena, providing a better foundation than earlier empirical results could. The space environment makes an idealized geometry available (spherical drops) so that theory and experiment can be properly compared, and allows a 'clean' environment, by which is meant an environment in which no solid surfaces come in contact with the drops during the test period. Moreover, by considering the oscillations of intentionally deformed drops in microgravity, a baseline is established for interpreting surface characterization experiments done on the ground by other groups and ours. Experiments performed on the United States Microgravity Laboratory Laboratory (USML-1) demonstrated that shape oscillation experiments could be performed over a wide parameter range, and with a variety of surfactant materials. Results, however, were compromised by an unexpected, slow drop tumbling, some problems with droplet injection, and the presence of bubbles in the drop samples. Nevertheless, initial data suggests that the space environment will be useful in providing baseline data that can serve to validate theory and permit quantitative materials characterization at 1-g.

  16. [Super-elastic wire used in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Laino, A; Boscaino, F; Michelotti, A

    1990-01-01

    The Authors describe the unusual super-elastic property of the Japanese NiTi alloy wire. They examine the clinical applications in relation to the relatively constant force delivered during the deactivation and in relation to the new possibility to shape wire which are offered by the Archmate Wire Bender. PMID:2074888

  17. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  18. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of...

  19. Microglia and motor neurons during disease progression in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: changes in arginase1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor system. Although the etiology of the disease is not fully understood, microglial activation and neuroinflammation are thought to play a role in disease progression. Methods We examined the immunohistochemical expression of two markers of microglial phenotype, the arginine-metabolizing enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase1 (Arg1), in the spinal cord of a mouse model carrying an ALS-linked mutant human superoxide dismutase transgene (SOD1G93A) and in non-transgenic wild-type (WT) mice. Immunolabeling for iNOS and Arg1 was evaluated throughout disease progression (6 to 25weeks), and correlated with body weight, stride pattern, wire hang duration and ubiquitin pathology. For microglia and motor neuron counts at each time point, SOD1G93A and WT animals were compared using an independent samples t-test. A Welch t-test correction was applied if Levenes test showed that the variance in WT and SOD1G93A measurements was substantially different. Results Disease onset, measured as the earliest change in functional parameters compared to non-transgenic WT mice, occurred at 14weeks of age in SOD1G93A mice. The ventral horn of the SOD1G93A spinal cord contained more microglia than WT from 14weeks onwards. In SOD1G93A mice, Arg1-positive and iNOS-positive microglia increased 18-fold and 7-fold, respectively, between 10 and 25weeks of age (endpoint) in the lumbar spinal cord, while no increase was observed in WT mice. An increasing trend of Arg1- and iNOS-expressing microglia was observed in the cervical spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Additionally, Arg1-negative motor neurons appeared to selectively decline in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A mice, suggesting that Arg1 may have a neuroprotective function. Conclusions This study suggests that the increase in spinal cord microglia occurs around and after disease onset and is preceded by cellular pathology. The results show that Arg1 and iNOS, thought to have opposing inflammatory properties, are upregulated in microglia during disease progression and that Arg1 in motor neurons may confer protection from disease processes. Further understanding of the neuroinflammatory response, and the Arg1/iNOS balance in motor neurons, may provide suitable therapeutic targets for ALS. PMID:24655927

  20. Design of Conduction-cooled HTS Coils for a Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shigeki; Koyanagi, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ishii, Yusuke; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; Noda, Koji

    Carbon ion cancer therapy is becoming more widespread due to its high curative effects and low burden on patients. Carbon ions are delivered to patients through electromagnets on a rotating gantry.A rotating gantry is attractive because it allows carbon ions to irradiate a tumor from any direction without changing the posture of the patient. On the other hand, because of the high magnetic rigidity of carbon ions, the weight of a rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy is about three times higher than one for proton cancer therapy, according to our estimation. The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets has been considered for reducing the size of the rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy. The target weight is 200 t or less,which is equivalent to the weight of a typical rotating gantry for proton cancer therapy.In this study, the magnet layout of the rotating gantry and the superconducting magnets were designed from the viewpoint of beam optics.When applying high-temperature superconductors to accelerator magnets, there are some issues that should be considered, for example, the influence of tape magnetization and manufacturing accuracy on the field quality, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils under an alternating magnetic field, and methods to protect the coils from thermal runaway caused by an anomalous thermal input such as that due to beam loss. First, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils was simulated numerically, and the thermal runaway current was calculated in a static situation.

  1. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph

    2014-01-29

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  2. 3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zermeo, Vctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications.

  3. A Novel Flow Cytometric HTS Assay Reveals Functional Modulators of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J.; Haynes, Mark K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Tegos, George P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6s ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  4. An introduction to the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G HTS motor for the ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Heejong; Kim, Yeong-Chun; Park, Heui-Joo; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Minwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor for the ship propulsion application at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction. The purpose of this 2G HTS propulsion motor is to launch the business area for marine applications such as surface ship, submarine, merchant ship etc. The principles and interpretation of the magnetic field for 2G HTS motor and permanent magnet type motors are similar on the basis of 3D design and production. The most important component of an HTS motor is the rotor, which is composed of HTS coil, non-ferrous metal, torque disk, damper, and hollow shaft. A HTS rotor using hastelloy-based 2G HTS coils was designed and built. Open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics of the superconducting motor were investigated and compared with the analysis results at reduced excitation to verify the design. Preliminary testing of a 2G HTS motor has been conducted at a few hundred kilowatts as per the design. Through these results, we anticipate that most of the design criteria can be satisfied. However, we have faced several issues during the testing of the motor and these issues need to be resolved in order to take the design further.

  5. Probe molecules (PrM) approach in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high throughput screening (HTS): in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient and accurate adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high-throughput screening (HTS) methods use a systems biology based approach to computationally model in vitro cellular and molecular data for rapid chemical prioritization; however, not all HTS assays are grounded by rel...

  6. Plate-fin Heat-exchangers for a 10 kW Brayton Cryocooler and a 1 km HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Jung, Seyong; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si-Dole

    Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHX) are designed and fabricated for a cryogenic cooling system, serving for a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler and a 1 km HTS transmission cable under development in Korea. To achieve compactness and thermal efficiency at the same time, a recuperative HX for Brayton cycle and a sub-cooling HX of liquid nitrogen for HTS cable are designed as integrated parts. A key design feature is focused on the coldest part of sub-cooling HX, where the streams of liquid nitrogen and refrigerant (helium gas) are arranged as two-pass cross-flow so that the risk of freeze-out of liquid nitrogen can be reduced. Details of hardware PFHX design are presented and discussed towards its immediate application to the HTS cable system.

  7. High temperature superconductivity: A joint feasibility study for a power application with HTS cable by PECO Energy Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    High temperature superconductivity (HTS) cables have the potential to revolutionize the power delivery industry by reducing costs and maximizing the use of existing conduits for underground transmission. In 1986 a class of ceramic materials showing superconductivity slightly below the temperature of liquid nitrogen was discovered and, when used in cables, can carry two to five times more current than conventional cables of comparable size. In October of 1996, EPRI, Pirelli Cable Corporation, and PECO Energy Company performed a joint study to assess the technical and economic feasibility of installing a HTS cable system in downtown Philadelphia. The project team concluded that HTS system could be designed to meet the requirements of a standard underground transmission cable at distribution voltages, and be more advantageous than a conventional system because of better utilization of the existing duct system.

  8. Calorimeter for measuring AC losses in HTS cables for superconducting power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Boenig, H. J.; Maley, M. P.; Fleshler, S.

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a calorimeter with a sensitivity of better than 1 mW/m for measuring AC losses in HTS multi-strand conductors for superconducting power transmission lines over a temperature range of 64 K to 80 K. By choosing a temperature difference technique we eliminate the need for corrections due to heating at the cable end connections. Use of a three-phase configuration allows measurement of single-phase, three-phase, and coupling losses. The 60 Hz calorimeter power supply has a capacity of 2500 A rms.

  9. Single-phase AC losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Maley, M. P.; Boenig, H. J.; Willis, J. O.; Coulter, J. Y.; Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G.

    1998-12-01

    We report single-phase AC loss measurements on 8-, 4-, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. We use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in 1-m long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8- and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher - probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

  10. Two Methods for a First Order Hardware Gradiometer Using Two HTS SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-09-15

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. ''Analog'' gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  11. Characterization of Hybrid Ferroelectric/HTS Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, M. D.; Mueller, C. H.; Bhasin, K. B.; Miranda, F. A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, a diversity of HTS-based microwave components has been demonstrated. Because of their low conductor losses, HTS-based components are very attractive for integration into microwave circuits for space communication systems. Recent advancements have made deposition of ferroelectric thin films onto HTS thin films possible. Due to the sensitivity of the ferroelectric's dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) to an externally applied electric field (E), ferroelectric/superconducting structures could be used in the fabrication of low loss, tunable microwave components. In this paper, we report on our study of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) and Ba(0.08)Sr(0.92)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) ferroelectric/superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. For the (Ba:Sr, 0.50:0.50) epitaxial sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 425 and a loss tangent (tan delta) of 0.040 were measured at 298 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. For the same sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 360 and tan delta of 0.036 were obtained at 77 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. Variations in epsilon(sub r) from 180 to 360 were observed over an applied E range of 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5.62 x 10(exp 4) V/cm with little change in tan delta. However, the range of epsilon(sub r) variation for the polycrystalline (Ba:Sr, 0.08:0.92) sample over 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 4.00 x 10(exp 4) V/cm was only 3.6 percent while tan delta increased markedly. These results indicate that a lack of epitaxy between the ferroelectric and superconducting layers decreases tuning and increases microwave losses.

  12. Development of a Flat-plate Cryogenic Oscillating Heat Pipe for Improving HTS Magnet Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Mito, T.; Yanagi, N.; Tamura, H.

    A new method of including cryogenic oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in the HTS coil windings as a thermal transport device has been studied. In this work, two type of OHPs are tested in low temperature. Employed working fluids are H2, Ne, N2. We have attained high performance thermal property using a bent-pipe cryogenic OHP as a prototype. Obtained effective conductivities have reached to 46000 W/m K. Then a flat-plate cryogenic OHP has been developed, that is suitable for imbedding in magnet windings. Preliminary experiments have been conducted and the result has been promising.

  13. Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-12-31

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  14. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  15. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  16. A Novel Electrical Insulating Material for 275 kV High-Voltage HTS Cable with Low Dielectric Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, N.; Nishimachi, S.; Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Liu, J.; Yagi, M.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables at high voltage operation, the electrical insulation technique in consideration of the dielectric loss reduction becomes crucial. In this paper, we focused on a Tyvek/polyethylene (PE) sheet, instead of the conventional polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). We obtained the dielectric characteristics (epsilonr, tan?) and partial discharge inception strength (PDIE) of PPLP, Tyvek and Tyvek/PE. We pointed out that the dielectric loss of 275 kV HTS cable with Tyvek/PE insulation will be reduced to 21 % of that with PPLP, and the total electrical loss including the AC loss will be reduced to 41 %.

  17. Protective relay system for the first demonstration of the HTS cable and the SFCL in live grid in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Ryul; Yoon, Jaeyoung; Yang, Byeong-mo; Lee, Byongjun

    2013-11-01

    This study proposed a novel power protection system for the application of 22.9 kV HTS cable and SFCL systems to the Icheon substation in South Korea, and studied the protective coordination of the proposed system using a transient simulation program, PSCAD/EMTDC. Korea Electric Power Cooperation (KEPCO) designed and reconstructed the protection system of the Icheon substation based on the results of this study. The 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable and 22.9 kV, 630 A hybrid SFCL systems have been successfully operated in the live power grid of the Icheon substation since August, 2011.

  18. Abnormal repolarization dynamics in a patient with KCNE1(G38S) who presented with torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mizumaki, Koichi; Hata, Yukiko; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Risk of G38S, major KCNE1 polymorphism [KCNE1(G38S)], for long QT syndrome (LQTS) remains unclear. A 72-year-old woman was admitted with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP). She had remarkable QT prolongation (corrected QT interval 568ms) under conditions of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. After correction of this electrolytic imbalance, TdP was suppressed and metoprolol was started. The QT-RR slope in 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was steep and this enhanced bradycardia-dependent QT prolongation was similar to that in LQTS. She carried KCNE1(G38S). Patients with KCNE1(G38S) could have similar potential risk of ventricular arrhythmia as with LQTS. Analysis of QT-RR relationship could also evaluate the latent arrhythmogenicity of KCNE1(G38S). PMID:26520166

  19. Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ruiz-Camacho, J.; Beg, F. N.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, C. A.; Bell, A. R.; Haines, M. G.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2000-04-01

    Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches is modeled using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. Modified Thomas-Fermi equations of state and dense plasma transport coefficients allow the phase transitions from solid to plasma to be approximated. Results indicate the persistence of a two-component structure with a cold, dense core embedded within a much hotter, low density, m=0 unstable corona. Extensive benchmark testing against data from a number of single-wire experiments is presented. Artificial laser schlieren and x-ray back-lighting images generated from the code data are compared directly to experimental results. The results were found to be insensitive to inaccuracies in the equations of state and transport coefficients. Simulations of individual wires in a wire array show different behavior to that observed experimentally due to the absence of three-dimensional effects. Simulations with similar conditions to wires in an array show a general trend in the plasma structure at start of implosion from discrete wires with large m=0 perturbation amplitudes to partially merged wires with smaller perturbation amplitudes as the number of wires is increased. Results for a wire number scan with aluminum wire arrays on the SATURN generator suggest that the observed sharp transition to high x-ray power at around 40 wires corresponds to a sharp decrease in m=0 perturbation amplitude and hence a sharp decrease in the seed perturbation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  20. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.