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1

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

2

The Development of Second Generation HTS Wire at American Superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the second generation (2G) YBCO high temperature superconducting wire has progressed rapidly and its performance is approaching, and in some areas exceeding, that of first generation (1G) HTS wire. American Superconductor's approach to the low-cost manufacturing of 2G wire is based on a wide-strip (4 cm) process using a metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer

M. W. Rupich; U. Schoop; D. T. Verebelyi; C. L. H. Thieme; D. Buczek; X. Li; W. Zhang; T. Kodenkandath; Y. Huang; E. Siegal; W. Carter; N. Nguyen; J. Schreiber; M. Prasova; J. Lynch; D. Tucker; R. Harnois; C. King; D. Aized

2007-01-01

3

Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire  

SciTech Connect

While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

2009-09-13

4

Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC’s manufacturing approach is based on RABiTSTM\\/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template.

W. Zhang; M. W. Rupich; U. Schoop; D. T. Verebelyi; C. L. H. Thieme; X. Li; T. Kodenkandath; Y. Huang; E. Siegal; D. Buczek; W. Carter; N. Nguyen; J. Schreiber; M. Prasova; J. Lynch; D. Tucker; S. Fleshler

2007-01-01

5

Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current × Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the world’s first 2G device installed in the grid.

Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J.

2008-09-01

6

Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

2014-09-01

7

The Development of Second Generation HTS Wire at American Superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) YBCO high temperature superconductor wire, based on the RABiTS\\/MOD process, is now being produced in continuous lengths at American superconductor (AMSC) using a full-scale, reel-to-reel manufacturing line. AMSC's approach for manufacturing 2G wire is designed around a low-cost, wide-strip technology, in which a 4-cm wide strip is slit into multiple narrower wires, then laminated to metallic stabilizers

Xiaoping Li; Martin W. Rupich; Cornelis L. H. Thieme; M. Teplitsky; Srivatsan Sathyamurthy; E. Thompson; D. Buczek; J. Schreiber; K. Demoranville; J. Lynch; J. Inch; D. Tucker; R. Savoy; S. Fleshler

2009-01-01

8

AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD\\/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were

V. S. Vysotsky; K. A. Shutov; A. A. Nosov; N. V. Polyakova; S. S. Fetisov; V. V. Zubko; V. E. Sytnikov; W. L. Carter; S. Fleshler; A. P. Malozemoff; G. Snitchler

2010-01-01

9

Design and evaluation of 66 kV-class HTS power cable using REBCO wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sumitomo Electric (SEI) has been involved in the development of 66 kV-class HTS cables using REBCO wires. One of the technical targets in this project is to reduce the AC loss to less than 2 W/m/phase at 5 kA. SEI has developed a clad-type of textured metal substrate with lower magnetization loss compared with a conventional NiW substrate. In addition, 30 mm-wide REBCO tapes were slit into 4 mm-wide strips, and these strips were wound spirally on a former with small gaps. The AC loss of a manufactured 4-layer cable conductor was 1.5 W/m at 5 kA at 64 K. Given that the AC loss in a shield layer is supposed to be one-fourth of a whole cable core loss, our cables are expected to achieve the AC loss target of less than 2 W/m/phase at 5 kA. Another important target is to manage a fault current. A cable core was designed and fabricated based on the simulation findings, and over-current tests (max. 31.5 kA, 2 s) were conducted to check its performance. The critical current value of the cable cores were measured before and after the over-current tests and verified its soundness. A 5 kA-class current lead for the cable terminations was also developed. The current loading tests were conducted for the developed current leads. The temperature distribution of the current leads reached to the steady-state within less than 12 h, and it was confirmed that the developed current lead has enough capacity of 5 kA loading.

Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Ohkuma, T.

2011-11-01

10

AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were oriented to face radially inward and radially outward for the inner and outer layers of the cable, respectively, to minimize the spacing between the HTS layers and any effects of the weak substrate magnetism. To verify the calculations and design principles, the model cable was instrumented with potential taps and sensors, including Rogowski coils and Hall probes, to measure the current distribution among layers, voltage - current characteristics and other parameters. AC losses in this cable model have been measured and analyzed by use of digital measurements of current and voltage. At low to intermediate currents, they are in the range of a few tenths of a watt per meter, consistent with the ferromagnetic loss of the substrate. Analysis of the individual contributions of the Ni-W substrate and the superconductor hysteresis loss is given.

Vysotsky, V. S.; Shutov, K. A.; Nosov, A. A.; Polyakova, N. V.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zubko, V. V.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Carter, W. L.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Snitchler, G.

2010-06-01

11

Design and Evaluation of 66 kV-class “3-in-One” HTS Cable Using REBCO Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sumitomo Electric (SEI) has been involved in the development of 66 kV-class HTS cables using REBCO wires. One of the technical targets is to reduce the AC loss to less than 2 W/m/phase at 5 kA. SEI has developed a clad-type textured metal substrate with lower magnetization loss than NiW substrate. REBCO tapes 30 mm-wide were slit into 4 mm-wide strips, and these strips were wound spirally on a former with small gaps. The measured AC loss of the manufactured cable was 1.8 W/m/phase at 5 kA, achieving the AC loss goal.

Ohya, M.; Hirota, H.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Ohkuma, T.

12

V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.  

SciTech Connect

For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

GHOSH,A.K.

2003-05-25

13

Alternative HTS coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

2002-10-01

14

Study on Method to Suppress Decay of Trapped Magnetic Fluxes in the HTS Bulk Subjected to Perturbation of External Magnetic Field by Use of Shielding Coil Wound of HTS Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trapped magnetic fluxes in HTS bulks are decayed when the bulks are subjected to perturbation of external magnetic fields. In HTS bulk apparatuses such as HTS bulk motors and magnetic levitation bearings, there is a possibility that the trapped magnetic fluxes in the bulks disappear because the bulks are in- evitably subjected to perturbations of the external magnetic fields. For

K. Yamagishi; O. Tsukamoto; J. Ogawa; D. Miyagi

2011-01-01

15

Recent progress of HTS cable project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of developments of HTS wires and their applications have been conducted since the discovery of HTS materials in the world. It has been recently reported that critical current of BSCCO wires improved to more than 200 A at 77 K and a large amount of wire was provided with high quality as industrial products. This improvement can be expected to accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications such as an HTS cable, HTS motor and so on. As the proofs of such trends, Sumitomo Electric constructed two HTS cable systems and started their operations in the USA and Korea last year. One of them is the HTS cable in Albany, NY, which has a capacity of 34.5 kV and 800 A and 350 m in length. It has been operated in a real grid without any trouble for 9 months. The other is the HTS cable in Korea, which has a capacity of 22.9 kV and 1250 A and 100 m in length. Its operation also started in the KEPCO testing yard last year. These results demonstrate reliance and stability of its operation. Recently, a new national project of an HTS cable has just started in Japan to demonstrate the operation in a real grid and study the system operations including a monitoring method, an alarm system, a maintenance method, etc. This paper reports the results of Albany and Korea projects and an outline of the new project.

Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Watanabe, M.

2008-09-01

16

Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems  

SciTech Connect

The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

Knoll, David

2012-12-31

17

DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

Goyal, A.; Rupich, M. (American Superconductor Corp.)

2012-10-23

18

Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ˜200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-?) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

2010-04-01

19

Review of activities in USA on HTS materials  

SciTech Connect

Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

Peterson, D.E.

1995-02-01

20

Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

Rey, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL] [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

21

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY PROGRAM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) is a technology with the potential  

E-print Network

#12;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY PROGRAM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS-of-way. The Department of Energy's efforts to advance High Temperature Superconductivity combine major national strengths: the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), the 2nd Generation Wire Initiative

22

Development of HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External HTS Multiturn Thin Film Pickup Coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly-sensitive HTS-SQUIDs are applied to various systems such as eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and compact magnetometer systems. To avoid unstable operation of the SQUID due to an excitation field, a flux transformer made of normal Cu wire is used to separate the pickup coil and SQUID. However, the resistance of the flux transformer generates thermal noise and reduces the signal bandwidth at low frequencies. In this study, we investigate use of a superconducting flux transformer with resistive connections (SFTR). The SFTR consists of pickup and input coils made of HTS thin films. The two coils are connected by using an HTS coated conductor. The input coil is stacked on an HTS thin film gradiometer. From the measured results of resistances of the connections between each coil and the coated conductor, it was found that the resistance of bonding wire was a dominant component. The estimated resistance of the SFTR was 7.2 m?, corresponding to a lower cut-off frequency of 11.7 Hz.

Teraoka, M.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Takai, H.; Tanabe, K.

23

Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award  

E-print Network

. · Awarded the Nano 50TM Award from Nanotech Briefs® Magazine for technology. Developers: · A. Goyal S. KangSuperconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award HTS Wires Enabled via 3D Self . · The technology meets performance requirements for most large-scale applications of HTS, including underground

24

HTS cable design and evaluation in YOKOHAMA Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started since FY 2007 in Japan. The target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the live network of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Various preliminary tests with the short core samples were conducted to confirm the HTS cable design. One of the technical targets in this project is to reduce the AC losses of HTS cable cores. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO wire with twisted superconducting filaments which is named TypeAC is applied in the cable core. A short cable core made with TypeAC wires shows its AC loss is 0.8 W/m/ph at 2 kArms, which is about 1/4 of the one with standard DI-BSCCO wires. Another important target is to manage a fault current. At a preliminary test with the short cable cores, it showed that the cable could manage the through-fault of 10 kA at 2 sec and survived at 31.5 kA at 2 sec. As the electric insulation tests, AC 90 kV for 3 hours and lightning impulse at ±385kV, 3 shots for each were applied to a cable core, successfully. The results of tensile and bending tests showed the cable core has good mechanical properties. The design of the HTS cable for YOKOHAMA project has been completed as well as those of a termination and a joint. A 30-meter HTS cable was manufactured and a 30-meter HTS cable system was installed in SEI facility. The cable system was cooled down and tested to verify its performance before constructing the HTS cable system in YOKOHAMA. This paper describes the design and test results of the 30-meter HTS cable, and also performance test results of the 30-meter cable system.

Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Minamino, T.; Masuda, T.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Noguchi, Y.

2010-06-01

25

Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

26

Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer’s thermal stability are discussed.

Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

2010-11-01

27

Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the impact of connecting the HTS cable to the existing conventional facilities in Yokohama. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Corporation provides a cooling system. One of the technical targets in the project is to reduce the AC loss of superconducting cable. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO, which is a production name of BSCCO wires made by SEI, with twisted superconducting filaments is planed to be applied in the cable. A short cable core using the new wires shows less AC loss than 1 W/m/ph at 2 kA rms. Another important point is to design a cable system to withstand a large over current at a short circuit failure. At a preliminary test with a short cable, it was recognized that the cable had no degradation of conductor I c after applying the fault current of 31.5 kA for 2 s, which are required for 66 kV line. This report shows details of these experiment results and design of the cable.

Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kito, Y.

2009-10-01

28

Fabrication and test results of 2 T conduction cooled HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-scale conduction cooled high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet is fabricated and tested. This HTS magnet was designed in order to generate 2 T at center of room bore in operating current 120 A. It consists of eight double-pancake sub-coils, two HTS current leads, a GM cryocooler and a cryostat without a radiation shield vessel. Sub-coils were wound with 1G HTS tapes of Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. using wet winding method. Assembled magnet was impregnated with epoxy resin in vacuum. Room bore diameter of this magnet was 70 mm. Each bobbin of double-pancake coils was of GFRP and aluminum alloy. Upper and lower supporting plates of coils is made by aluminum alloy in order to improve thermal conduction. In this paper, fabrication and test results of HTS magnet including magnetic field and temperature variation are reported.

Kim, S.; Sohn, M. H.; Sim, K.; Kim, H. M.; Seong, K. C.; Kwon, Y. K.; Park, H. Y.; Eom, B. Y.

2009-10-01

29

Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

None

2007-06-07

30

Engineered HTS microbridges  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of useful Josephson tunnel junctions made from cuprate superconductors, microbridges of various types are the only useful active devices for HTS electronics applications. A variety of techniques now exist to reproducibly engineer microbridges in high-quality epitaxial YBCO films. This paper reports on two such techniques from our own group that has resulted in high-yield processes for fabricating both dc and rf SQUIDs operating at temperatures as high as 82 K. The authors compare the results on these devices--step-edge microbridges and focused-ion beam microbridges--- with those on several other structures under investigation by other researchers.

Simon, R.W.; Bulman, J.B.; Burch, J.F.; Coons, S.B.; Daly, K.P.; Dozier, W.D.; Hu, R.; Lee, A.E.; Luine, J.A.; Platt, C.E.; Schwarzbek, S.M.; Zani, M.J. (TRW Space and Technology Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

31

Progress in high temperature superconductor coated conductors and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires are based on a coated conductor technology. They follow on from a first generation (1G) HTS wire consisting of a composite multifilamentary wire architecture. During the last couple of years, rapid progress has been made in the development of 2G HTS wire, which is now displacing 1G HTS wire for most if

A. P. Malozemoff; S. Fleshler; M. Rupich; C. Thieme; X. Li; W. Zhang; A. Otto; J. Maguire; D. Folts; J. Yuan; H.-P. Kraemer; W. Schmidt; M. Wohlfart; H.-W. Neumueller

2008-01-01

32

Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

2014-05-01

33

Design of HTS tape characteristics measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes are now commercially available for practical applications to apply various purposes. However HTS tapes show different electrical and mechanical characteristics, according to the manufacturers who are trying to apply various fabrication processes and treatments. From the viewpoint of an application, it is very important to investigate the properties of HTS tapes under mechanical stress, because

Jin-Hong Joo; Seog-Whan Kim; Hae Joon Kim; Kyu Jeong Song; Jung-Pyo Hong

2004-01-01

34

Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

Ueno, E.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

2014-09-01

35

HTS technologies in biopharmaceutical discovery.  

PubMed

The concepts and philosophies of HTS can be productively applied to the discovery of new biopharmaceuticals. It is now possible, comprehensively and systematically, to enumerate, clone, produce and screen all secreted proteins, by building upon knowledge accumulated over the past two decades in HTS, genomics and parallel protein expression technologies. Each of the crucial operational components (comprehensive and high-quality cDNA library construction, proper protein-sequence classification, high-throughput protein production, medically relevant assays, state-of-the-art screening and data management) must be optimized to increase the chances of success. In this review, we draw comparisons between small-molecule and protein screening to illuminate common underlying principles as well as differences between the two operations. PMID:16846799

Wu, Ge; Doberstein, Stephen K

2006-08-01

36

Recovery Under Load Performance of 2nd Generation HTS Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Electric Power Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) has been pursued for decades and has been limited thermally and\\/or mechanically by the available superconducting materials performance characteristics . However, within the past few years a newer, more robust type of superconductor known as 2G HTS wire, has become available in sufficient quantity and lengths for developers to build prototype devices and

Juan-Carlos H. Llambes; Drew W. Hazelton; Charles S. Weber

2009-01-01

37

Study on stabilization and quench protection of coils wound of HTS coated conductors considering quench origins - Proposal of criteria for stabilization and quench protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been considered that HTS coils are hard to be quenched because of high quench energy due to high critical temperature and high specific heat of HTS wires. Therefore, attention to quench protection was not much paid. However, HTS coils still have possibility to be quenched during operation by mainly the following two origins, (a) presence of non-recoverable local defects in the conductors and (b) temperature rise of long part of the conductor. Actually, severe quench accidents, such as burning coils, are occurring in various places as scales of HTS increased. Purposes of this paper are to study on behaviors of normal zone and hot spot temperature of wires during quench detect/energy dump sequence and to find criteria for the stability and quench protection. In the paper, criteria are proposed for stability and quench protection of HTS coils. A criterion for the stability is that a coil can be operated stably without a quench against defects in coil windings and that for quench protection is that a coil can be safely protected from damages caused by a quench due to temperature rise of long part of coil wires. The criteria are used as design rules for HTS coils.

Tsukamoto, Osami; Fujimoto, Yasutaka; Takao, Tomoaki

2014-09-01

38

A study on electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the field coil in HTS motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors electromagnetically consist of a rotator wound with HTS wires and an armature with conventional copper wires like Litz wire. The HTS rotor windings, as field coils, consist of a straight part and an end-ring part. Because a major rotation torque is induced by an interaction between magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors in the straight part, most of mechanical stresses in the motor occur at the straight part. An end-ring is placed in the edge of the straight part and used to connect to each adjacent straight-part coils. The magnetic fields by coil currents concentrate on the end-ring part, therefore, it is expected that the critical current of the entire coil, straight and end-ring, can be determined by the magnitude of the field in the end-ring. This paper deals with the overall J c degradation in the end-ring part by self-field generated from the coil. In addition to electromagnetic analyses, we have performed a numerical analysis in order to evaluate mechanical stresses in the straight part of field coil by armature reaction on steady-state operation. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

Kim, S. B.; Kadota, T.; Joo, J. H.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. P.; Kim, H. M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Jo, Y. S.

2010-11-01

39

HTS Magnet for Maglev Applications (1)— Coil Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an HTS coil for maglev applications. The magnet consists of four persistent current HTS coils and is operated at a rated temperature of 20 K and a rated magnetomotive force of 750 kA for each coil. This paper describes the fabrication and test results of each persistent current HTS coil. The HTS coil consists of 12 single-pancake coils

Kenji Tasaki; Kotaro Marukawa; Satoshi Hanai; Taizo Tosaka; Toru Kuriyama; Tomohisa Yamashita; Yasuto Yanase; Mutsuhiko Yamaji; Hiroyuki Nakao; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Satoshi Hirano; Katsuyuki Kuwano; Takeshi Okutomi; Motoaki Terai

2006-01-01

40

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

41

The study on improving the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the insulation and lamination of the various metal tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicated quench behaviors. Because of these reasons, it is difficult to expect the self-protection. In this paper, two methods are suggested to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. One is to remove the insulation between turn-turn winding in HTS coils to enhance the thermal and electrical contacts along transverse direction and to increase the whole thermal stability of them. The other is Cu or Brass tapes are wound with HTS tape wire instead of the insulation to improve the thermal, electrical and mechanical stability of the HTS coils. To clarify the quench behaviors of the suggested coils, the normal zone propagation properties of the fabricated non-insulated HTS pancake coils were shown by measured voltage and temperature traces during the quench as a function of the operating temperature. And the characteristics of the normal transition and amount of the shared current to adjacent layers were quantitatively measured by a Hall sensor located at the center of HTS coils to measure the change of the self-magnetic field by operating current. The current sharing behaviors in the non-insulated HTS coil and the coil with Cu tape inserted were observed. The minimum quench energy (MQE) of the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted was the largest in the tested coils. It means that the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted had the highest transient stability against the thermal disturbances among the tested coils and the improvement of self protection abilities was proved.

Kim, S. B.; Kaneko, T.; Saito, A.; Kajikawa, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

2013-01-01

42

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

43

An ultra-narrowband HTS bandpass filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the measured results of an HTS ultra-narrowband bandpass filter with a 100 kHz bandwidth. This filter, with a fractional bandwidth of 0.014% and a center frequency of 700 MHz, represents a previously unrealized portion of filter parameter space. This filter was realized using a five-pole Chebyshev filter design and was fabricated using an HTS microstrip configuration. This

Krishnaveni Dustakar; Stuart Berkowitz

2003-01-01

44

Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

2014-05-01

45

Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for

S. Fleshler; D. Buczek; B. Carter; P. Cedrone; K. Demoranville; J. Gannon; J. Inch; X. Li; J. Lynch; A. Otto; E. Podtburg; D. Roy; M. Rupich; S. Sathyamurthy; J. Schreiber; C. Thieme; E. Thompson; D. Tucker; K. Nagashima; M. Ogata

2009-01-01

46

Cryogen-free lkA-class Ic measurement system featuring an 8 T HTS magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a cryogen-free critical-current (Ic) measuring system comprising a conduction-cooled 8 T HTS magnet and convection-cooled sample, both cooled by commercial cryocoolers. The sample can be rotated and transport currents of up to 800 A delivered with less than 0.5 K temperature rise during the Ic measurement. The system is automated with respect to variations in temperature (30-90 K), field (0-8 T), and field angle (0-360°). We have used this system to measure HTS wire samples, concentrating on metal-organic deposited YBCO on RABiTS substrates. Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of Ic anisotropy with temperature, and the dangers of extrapolating from 77 K to 30 K.

Strickland, N. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Wimbush, S. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Huang, T.; Lazic, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Talantsev, E. F.; Long, N. J.; Tallon, J. L.

2014-05-01

47

A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

2011-11-29

48

Experimental study of thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system were measured the first time and will be presented in this paper. The HTS coil magnet is made of second generation YBCO wire. The coil is a double pancake coil consisting of 34 turns wire. The inner diameter, outer diameter and height of the coil are 20, 30 and 13 mm, respectively. The armature of the motor is three phases, and the inner diameter is 40 mm. It is made of copper windings. With a direct current of 40 A for the HTS coil magnet and a RMS current of 10 A for the armature, a peak thrust of 3.8 N was measured at the temperature of 77 K and a radial gap of 5 mm between the armature and the excitation system. Effects of armature current, coil current, running time, magnetizers and seams between magnetizers were also studied. In the experiments, the peak thrusts of different types of HTS coil magnets were about from 1.3 times to 8 times as strong as the peak thrust of the coreless coil magnet under the same conditions.

Duan, Wanqing; Yan, Zhongming; Luo, Wenbo; Zhang, Peixing; Gui, Zhixing; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Yu

2015-01-01

49

Alternative Design Concepts for Multi-Circuit HTS Link Systems  

E-print Network

Superconducting cables for power transmission usually contain two conductors for DC application, or three conductors for AC, with high voltage insulation. In contrast, for some applications related to accelerators it is convenient to transfer high currents via superconducting links feeding a number of circuits at relatively low voltage, of the order of a kilovolt, over distances of up to a few hundred meters. For power transmission applications based on cooling via sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, suitable HTS conductors are only available in the form of tape, and a multi-layer variant can be envisaged for the multi-circuit links. However, where cooling to temperatures of the order of 20 K is feasible, MgB2 conductor, available in the form of both tape and wire, can also be envisaged and in the latter case used to assemble round cables. There are, therefore, two distinct topologies - based on the use of wires or tapes - that can be envisaged for use in applications to multi-circuit link systems. In this paper the ...

Ballarino, A

2011-01-01

50

R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

2010-01-01

51

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

2013-01-01

52

Current distribution among layers of single phase HTS cable conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable shows high application prospect in modern power transmission, as it is superior over conventional transmission lines in high engineering current density and environmental friendliness. Its configuration is generally composed of several HTS layers designed with the principle of uniform current distribution, but there are few experimental results to verify the distribution. In this paper, a HTS cable model was designed based on the principle of uniform current, and the current distributions among layers in an HTS cable model were measured by Rogowski coils. The results provide an important basis for design of multi-layer HTS cable.

Zheng, Y. B.; Wang, Y. S.; Pi, W.; Ju, P.; Wang, Y. S.

2014-12-01

53

HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

2013-11-01

54

AC losses of prototype HTS transmission cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, 1 m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both

J. W. Lue; J. A. Demko; L. Dresner; R. L. Hughey; U. Sinha; J. C. Tolbert; S. K. Olsen

1999-01-01

55

HTS twisted stacked-tape cable conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of high field magnet applications of the twisted stacked-tape cabling method with 2G YBCO tapes has been investigated. An analysis of torsional twist strains of a thin HTS tape has been carried out taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the lengthening tensile strains due to the torsional twist. The model is benchmarked against experimental

Makoto Takayasu; Luisa Chiesa; Leslie Bromberg; Joseph V Minervini

2012-01-01

56

From BCS to Hts and Rts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great progress has been made in high temperature superconductivity (HTS) science, material and technology in the 20 years since its discovery. The next grand challenge will be room temperature superconductivity (RTS). Room temperature superconductivity, if achieved, can change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only "at an astronomical temperature and at an astronomical distance". With the advent of HTS in 1987, the outlook for RTS has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why room temperature superconductivity should be impossible. BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but, since its inception, it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at higher temperatures. To date, empiricism remains the most effective way to discover superconductors with high transition temperatures. In this paper based on the talk given at the Professor Yang's 85th birthday celebration on October 31, 2007 in Singapore, I shall summarize the search for superconductors of higher Tc prior to and after the discovery of HTS, list the common features of HTS and describe some approaches toward RTS that we are currently pursuing.

Chu, C. W.

2008-12-01

57

Design of Trimmingless Narrowband Planar HTS Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high temperature superconductor (HTS) films provides a higher selectivity of planar filters. The lower out-of-band interference increases the sensitivity of receiving systems and allows reduction of transmitter radiated power. Our goal was to show how these filters can be designed with a desired accuracy, and to give evidence for a real possibility of designing the trimmingless planar

I. Vendik; O. Vendik; A. Deleniv; M. Gashinova; A. Lapshin; D. Kholodniak

2001-01-01

58

Tests Using The "Little Wire Test" Equipment  

E-print Network

;2 springs outer conductorceramic insulator chuck test wire graphite jaws cap inner conductor to pulsed power1 Tests Using The "Little Wire Test" Equipment (Apr. 4, 2013) J. R. J. Bennett1, G. Skoro1(2), P. Loveridge1, A. Ahmad2 1. Fatigue Life of Tungsten at High Temperatures and High Strain Rates. 2. Fatigue

McDonald, Kirk

59

Wire chamber  

DOEpatents

A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

1989-01-01

60

Human rigHts advocacy in action  

E-print Network

18 Brave new world 22 thought that counts 27 In pictures snapshots 5 taken 29 Regulars BristolHuman rigHts advocacy in action Lives weLL Lived: a new age of animaL weLfare aLzHeimer's: no smoke in pieces 2 & 17 alumni in the news 3 Bristol and beyond 10 Summer2012 Contents 29 2 new solutions to old

Bristol, University of

61

Benefits of HTS technology to ship systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of the 'analysis of high-temperature superconductor benefits for ship systems' study commissioned by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) in 2004. The total power requirement is approaching 100 MW on large U.S. navy surface ships. High-temperature superconductor (HTS) alternating current (AC) synchronous motors and generators scale advantageously compared to other technologies. ONR initiated this study, which

Swam S. Kalsi; Nancy Henderson; Dave Gritter; O. Nayak; C. Gallagher

2005-01-01

62

Circularly polarized HTS microstrip antenna array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-element, 11.67 GHz, high-Tc superconducting (HTS) microstrip antenna array with corporate feed network and circular polarization for direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) system was designed and built on a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. One antenna pattern was fabricated from gold thin film, and a second pattern was fabricated from YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) superconducting thin film. To improve the axial ratio

Dong-Chul Chung; Sung-Yul Choi; Young-Ho Ko; Jong-Ha Lee; Min-Hwan Kwak

2003-01-01

63

Phase II of the Albany HTS Cable Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems are expected to be a solution for improvement of the power grid and three demonstration projects in the real grid are underway in the United States. One of these is the Albany, NY HTS Cable Project, involving the installation and operation of a 350 meter HTS cable system with a capacity of 34.5 kV, 800

H. Yumura; Y. Ashibe; H. Itoh; M. Ohya; M. Watanabe; T. Masuda; C. S. Weber

2009-01-01

64

Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Goodall, R.M. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering] [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

1996-07-01

65

AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables  

SciTech Connect

Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

1998-09-13

66

High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

2003-04-01

67

Wire Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

Swanquist, Barry

1998-01-01

68

Stretching Wires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

2013-01-04

69

The State of SuperconductingThe State of Superconducting TechnologyTechnology  

E-print Network

TechnologiesEnabling Technologies Leading in HTS Wire ManufactureLeading in HTS Wire Manufacture · World TechnologiesEnabling Technologies 1 G Wire Composite Critical Current Surface1 G Wire Composite Critical11 The State of SuperconductingThe State of Superconducting TechnologyTechnology Presented at

70

Development and testing of HTS cables and terminations at ORNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Southwire Company have used the ORNL 5 m cable test facility to develop high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and terminations to support the first industrial demonstration of an HTS cable at the Southwire manufacturing complex. Two 5 m, cold dielectric cables have been tested for direct current (DC) voltage, alternating current (AC) losses,

M. J. Gouge; J. A. Demko; P. W. Fisher; C. A. Foster; J. W. Lue; J. P. Stovall; U. Sinha; J. Armstrong; R. L. Hughey; D. Lindsay; J. Tolbert

2001-01-01

71

HTS microstrip antenna array for circular polarization with cryostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the comparison results of an HTS antenna array for circular polarization with a self cryostat and comparison with a gold counterpart. The HTS antenna array designed in this work was fabricated using a YBCO superconducting thin film on an MgO substrate, and the designed resonant frequency was 11.85 GHz. We used square patches with truncated corners for circular

Dong-Chul Chung; Chang-Hun Yun; Kay-Hyeok An; Sung-Hun Lim; Sung-Yul Choi; Byoung-Sung Han; Je-Ha Oh; Min-Hwan Kwak; Sung-Hae Jung; Kwang-Yong Kang; Seok-Kil Han; Jong-Sun Hwang; Tae-Hyun Sung; Hyo-Sang Choi

2005-01-01

72

HTS microstrip bipin antenna array for broadband satellite communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the broadband antenna array made of high-Tc superconducting (HTS) thin films. Though HTS antennas have high efficiency and high gain, narrow bandwidth due to the high Q is the major limitation for application of satellite communication and mobile communication. Defining bandwidth as the frequency range over which standing wave ratio (SWR) is 2:1 or less,

Dong-Chul Chung

2003-01-01

73

NOVEL QUENCH DETECTION SYSTEM FOR HTS COILS* Piyush Joshi#  

E-print Network

NOVEL QUENCH DETECTION SYSTEM FOR HTS COILS* Piyush Joshi# , Sebastian Dimaiuta, George Ganetis The performance of this system was evaluated by studying quench and voltage tap data of a small pancake coils made Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Magnet R&D, small coils are being built and tested to study quench

Gupta, Ramesh

74

University Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University Wire is a daily Internet news service for college newspapers. Included are a story of the day, a large list of pointers to Internet resources in topics such as current headlines, politics, medicine and health, and women's resources; a "Kopyedit Korner," with pointers to writing reference materials; a placement center with job openings lists for college journalists; a large selection of pointers to college newspapers; and pointers to general circulation newspapers. Pointers to student and professional journalism organizations, as well as a calendar of journalism related events, are also provided. University Wire is a service of The Main Quad.

1997-01-01

75

Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements  

DOEpatents

A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM); Overmyer, Donald L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

76

Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet  

E-print Network

This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) ...

Ahn, Min Cheol

77

HTS coil development and fabrication. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this subtask (Task 2C) was to develop high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil technology aimed specifically at superconducting generator applications. Bi-2223 tape produced in a separate subtask (Task 2A) was first wound and tested in a small circular coil. This small coil winding experience led the authors to develop a tape strengthening method using a lamination process and to develop a turn insulation method using a paper wrap process. A prototype racetrack coil was wound using 2500 feet of the laminated and insulated Bi-2223 tapes. The racetrack coil was cooled to 20K in a vacuum dewar using a unique closed-cycle helium gas refrigeration system.

Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Ranze, R. [and others

1996-10-01

78

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

79

Inductance and Current Distribution Analysis of a Prototype HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is partly supported by NSFC Grant 51207146, RAEng Research Exchange scheme of UK and EPSRC EP/K01496X/1. Superconducting cable is an emerging technology for electricity power transmission. Since the high power capacity HTS transmission cables are manufactured using a multi-layer conductor structure, the current distribution among the multilayer structure would be nonuniform without proper optimization and hence lead to large transmission losses. Therefore a novel optimization method has been developed to achieve evenly distributed current among different layers considering the HTS cable structure parameters: radius, pitch angle and winding direction which determine the self and mutual inductance. A prototype HTS cable has been built using BSCCO tape and tested to validate the design the optimal design method. A superconductor characterization system has been developed using the Labview and NI data acquisition system. It can be used to measure the AC loss and current distribution of short HTS cables.

Zhu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Ming; Yuan, Weijia

2014-05-01

80

Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

2014-05-01

81

Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire  

DOEpatents

A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

1992-08-11

82

Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire  

DOEpatents

A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

Brandon, Eldon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Frederick M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reichenbach, Marvin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

83

HTS electrical machines with YBCO bulk and Ag-BSCCO plate-shape HTS elements: recent results and future development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the multi-domain and single-domain YBCO ceramic samples. The test results of the series of these HTS motors with output power 1-20 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is four to five times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

2001-05-01

84

Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS  

SciTech Connect

Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Knoll, David [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture] [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture

2010-01-01

85

Outline of a new HTS cable project in Yokohama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. This project targets operation of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the real grid in order to verify its reliability and operation performance. The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the influence of connecting the HTS cable. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd. provides the cooling system. This project consist of the design of a total system to be finalized in 2008, the manufacture of the cable, terminations and joint scheduled for completion in 2009, installation in spring and summer of 2010 and commissioning by the fall of 2010. The HTS cable will be connected to the real grid in the 154/66 kV substation. It is set up between the 154/66 kV transformer and the 66 kV bus line. This report shows the outline of this project and details of the influence of the connecting cable to the real grid.

Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Honjo, S.; Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.

2009-10-01

86

Ultra-High Performance, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires via Cost-effective, Scalable, Co-evaporation Process  

PubMed Central

Long-length, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying high critical current, Ic, are required for a wide range of applications. Here, we report extremely high performance HTS wires based on 5??m thick SmBa2Cu3O7 ? ? (SmBCO) single layer films on textured metallic templates. SmBCO layer wires over 20 meters long were deposited by a cost-effective, scalable co-evaporation process using a batch-type drum in a dual chamber. All deposition parameters influencing the composition, phase, and texture of the films were optimized via a unique combinatorial method that is broadly applicable for co-evaporation of other promising complex materials containing several cations. Thick SmBCO layers deposited under optimized conditions exhibit excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. Such excellent structural epitaxy over the entire thickness results in exceptionally high Ic performance, with average Ic over 1,000?A/cm-width for the entire 22 meter long wire and maximum Ic over 1,500?A/cm-width for a short 12?cm long tape. The Ic values reported in this work are the highest values ever reported from any lengths of cuprate-based HTS wire or conductor. PMID:24752189

Kim, Ho-Sup; Oh, Sang-Soo; Ha, Hong-Soo; Youm, Dojun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Wee, Sung-Hun; Goyal, Amit

2014-01-01

87

Insulation Design and Experimental Results for Transmission Class HTS Transformer With Composite Winding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the response to the demand for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialize high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments has been made around the world. In Korea, companies and universities are developing a power distribution and transmission class HTS transformer that is one of the 21st century superconducting frontier projects. The composite winding of transmission class HTS

H. G. Cheon; D. S. Kwag; J. H. Choi; C. H. Min; T. S. Park; H. H. Kim; S. H. Kim

2008-01-01

88

Performance of an HTS Generator Field Coil Under System Fault Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils are generally stable against transient thermal disturbances. Protection against spontaneous quenches is not a main design issue for an HTS coil. However, HTS coils used in many electric devices such as motors, generators, transformers, and current limiters will operate under over-current fault conditions, which may result in a coil quench and thermal runaway. Those electric devices

Kiruba Sivasubramaniam; Xianrui Huang; E. T. Laskaris; T. Zhang; J. W. Bray; J. M. Forgarty; Rebecca A. Nold

2006-01-01

89

Reproducibility of HTS-SQUID magnetocardiography in an unshielded clinical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology has been developed which measures the magnetic field of the human heart (magnetocardiogram, MCG) by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) sensors. These sensors can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen without electromagnetic shielding. We tested the reproducibility of HTS-MCG measurements in healthy volunteers. Unshielded HTS-MCG measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers in left precordial

Uwe Leder; Frederik Schrey; Jens Haueisen; Lars Dörrer; Jörg Schreiber; Mario Liehr; Gero Schwarz; Olaf Solbrig; Hans R. Figulla; Paul Seidel

2001-01-01

90

Windows: Life after Wire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

Razwick, Jerry

2003-01-01

91

Stretched Wire Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

2005-09-06

92

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

93

Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

2010-12-01

94

HTS inductive energy controlled discharging characteristics and UPS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconducting (HTS) inductive energy charging and discharging characteristics have been theoretically analyzed, with detailed calculation and Matlab-based simulation models presented. Simulation results show the feasibility of the UPS applications using superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology with substantial advantages.

Xiaoyuan Chen; Jianxun Jin; Ying Xin; Jingyin Zhang; Weizhi Gong; Anlin Ren

2009-01-01

95

HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

2014-05-01

96

NDE of coated-conductor using HTS SQUID array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using an HTS SQUID array in order to examine rare-earth (RE)-123 HTS coated conductors striated into multi-filamentary lines. The 5-channel HTS SQUID gradiometer array was composed of ramp-edge junctions with LaErBaCuO and SmBaCuO electrode layers, and fabricated by using an HTS multi layer fabrication technique. The planar gradiometers with 1 × 1 mm 2 pickup loops and a baseline of 1 mm detected the vertical element of magnetic field gradient induced around defects by an eddy current. The gradiometer array cooled by thermal conduction from a liquid nitrogen bath was placed above the coated conductor on the main stage with a lift-off of about 1.5 mm. A coated conductor was fed from a reel to reel, and cooled blow its Tc by stages connected to Gifford-Mcmahon (GM) coolers. By employing a 3 kHz induction current generating the maximum field of 0.14 mT, we could identify a distribution of defects in a long-length non-striated conductor. Furthermore, we could detect and distinguish three kinds of defects, existence of a spotty normal-state region, electrical short between striated filaments, and delamination of the superconducting layer from the Hastelloy tape for each filamentary superconducting line at a high speed up to 30 m/h.

Hato, T.; Adachi, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Hata, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Machi, T.; Tanabe, K.

2009-10-01

97

Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Chen, William T.; Du Yong [Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc., 1255 E Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2012-12-15

98

Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 °C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable ?'-CuAl2 IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4¯m2, a = 0.404 nm, c = 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable ?'-CuAl2 phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and ?'-CuAl2, which can minimize lattice mismatch for ?'-CuAl2 to grow on Cu.

Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du, Yong

2012-12-01

99

Numerical study on self-field losses of 30 m BSCCO HTS transmission cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-field losses of the one phase of high- T C superconducting (HTS) transmission cable are calculated by the electric circuit (EC) model. The one phase of HTS cable is constructed by the former of fine-strands copper rod, HTS conductor with four superconducting layers, the insulation made by polypropylene laminated paper, and HTS shielding with two superconducting layers, which was fabricated by Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). The length of the cable is 30 m. Each HTS layer comprises BSCCO tapes. The current-dependent resistance of HTS layers in EC model is estimated on the base of Norris expressions for ellipse. The calculated losses are compared with the experimental results measured by 4-terminal method by SEI. The calculation of alternating current (AC) losses, a summation of the self-field losses in HTS layers and the eddy-current losses in the former, is almost equal to the measurement at wide transport-current range below the lowest value of the layer critical current. This result indicates that the numerical calculation by EC model is quite reliable. The minimum AC loss is also calculated by obtaining the optimum helical-pitch lengths of HTS layers at transporting 1 kA rms. The minimum loss is 36% lower than the loss of HTS cable designed by SEI at the transport current value. In HTS cable with the optimum helical-pitch lengths, the calculation of the layer currents are not uniform in HTS conductor but are almost uniform in HTS shielding, which is contradict to SEI's one. It is considered that the numerical calculation by EC model is useful to obtain the optimum helical-pitch lengths in HTS cable with the minimum AC loss.

Noji, H.

2009-01-01

100

Large Wire Strain Gauges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wires yield data on average strains over distances ranging from inches to many feet. Long constantan wires used to measure average strains over distances characteristic of vehicles or buildings. Connected in bridge circuit, wires measure strain accurately within 1 percent, and linearly, within 0.1 percent. Wires stretch as much as 0.15 percent and still return to zero residual strain after release.

Bryner, B. D.

1987-01-01

101

Dispersion interaction between crossed conducting wires  

SciTech Connect

We compute the T=0 K Van der Waals (nonretarded Casimir) interaction energy E between two infinitely long, crossed conducting wires separated by a minimum distance D much greater than their radius. We find that, up to a logarithmic correction factor, E{proportional_to}-D{sup -1}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}f({theta}), where f({theta}) is a smooth bounded function of the angle {theta} between the wires. We recover a conventional result of the form E{proportional_to}-D{sup -4}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}g({theta}) when we include an electronic energy gap in our calculation. Our prediction of gap-dependent energetics may be observable experimentally for carbon nanotubes either via atomic force microscopy detection of the Van der Waals force or torque or indirectly via observation of mechanical oscillations. This shows that strictly parallel wires, as assumed in previous predictions, are not needed to see a unique effect of this type.

Dobson, John F.; Gould, Timothy [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia and CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, New South Wales 2301 (Australia); Klich, Israel [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2009-07-15

102

Laser Wire Stripper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

1983-01-01

103

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Wolfgang Christian

104

Conceptual design of contactless power transfer into HTS receiver coil using normal conducting resonance antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contactless power transfer (CPT) technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators has been recently explored to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire across a large air gap. As the CPT technology makes possible the process of connector-free charging, it has been studied for practical applications to a variety of power applications. In the superconducting magnet system, a widespread method of electric energy supply is realized by the current lead which is one of indispensable subsystems in the power transfer equipment; however, it causes energy losses. To overcome such a problem, the combination CPT technology with HTS receiver coils has been proposed. It is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Such a technique has been expected a reasonable approach to provide a safe and convenient way of charging or storage without connecting joints in the superconducting applications. In this study, we presented the feasibility and various effects of transmission property from room temperature to very low temperature vessel within 40 cm under different material’s cooling vessels using radio frequency (RF) generator is 370 KHz.

Kang, Hyoung Ku; Chung, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo

2014-09-01

105

Homogeneous performance and strain tolerance of long Bi-2223 HTS conductors under hoop stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of high-strength industrial Bi-2223 conductor, one laminated by copper alloy and the other laminated by stainless steel, have been tested to examine the effect of hoop stress on the transport property. The specimens (˜2 m long) were prepared by winding one layer around a GFRP mandrel and the measurements were made in a liquid helium bath with the hoop stress calculated from the BJR product applied by external magnetic field. A careful measurement wire configuration was necessary to cancel the noise pick-up from the environment for more accurate determination of Ic and n-value. We show for the first time that both conductors showed homogeneous voltage-current characteristics over a long length and degradations with hoop stress occurred uniformly, which is crucial information for the development of HTS magnet technology. The onset of degradation occurred at 200 MPa and 220 MPa, with additional bending stress present from the winding diameter of 108 mm, for copper alloy laminated and stainless steel laminated conductors, respectively. After considering the effect of bending strain, our result agrees well with the previously measured data.

Miyoshi, Y.; Kitaguchi, H.; Chaud, X.; Debray, F.; Nishijima, G.; Tsuchiya, Y.

2014-02-01

106

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

107

Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS

Chen Gu; Menglin Liu; Huawei Xing; Tong Zhou; Wensheng Yin; Jun Zong; Zhenghe Han

2005-01-01

108

Test results of a HTS power transformer connected to a power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 22 kV\\/6.9 kV–1 MVA high-Tc superconducting (HTS) power transformer has been developed as a prototype with single-phase part of a 3 MVA HTS power transformer. The prototype unit is cooled by a continuous subcooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) supply system with cryocoolers. During the field tests, the HTS transformer was connected to a distribution line at Imajuku substation (Kyushu Electric

H. Kimura; K. Honda; H. Hayashi; K. Tsutsumi; M. Iwakuma; K. Funaki; T. Bohno; A. Tomioka; Y. Yagi; H. Maruyama; K. Ohashi

2002-01-01

109

Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

2014-05-01

110

Phase sensitive measurements of the superconducting order parameter in hole and electron doped HTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hole doped high-temperature superconductors (HTS) there is only little doubt left that the superconducting order parameter is of dx2?y2 wave type. Several methods of phase sensitive measurements of the superconducting order parameter yield convincing and consistent results in case of the hole doped HTS. For the electron doped HTS there has been mounting experimental evidence for s-wave type order

L. Alff; B. Welter; S. Kleefisch; A. Marx; R. Gross

2001-01-01

111

Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

112

Identifying actives from HTS data sets: practical approaches for the selection of an appropriate HTS data-processing method and quality control review.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) has achieved a dominant role in drug discovery over the past 2 decades. The goal of HTS is to identify active compounds (hits) by screening large numbers of diverse chemical compounds against selected targets and/or cellular phenotypes. The HTS process consists of multiple automated steps involving compound handling, liquid transfers, and assay signal capture, all of which unavoidably contribute to systematic variation in the screening data. The challenge is to distinguish biologically active compounds from assay variability. Traditional plate controls-based and non-controls-based statistical methods have been widely used for HTS data processing and active identification by both the pharmaceutical industry and academic sectors. More recently, improved robust statistical methods have been introduced, reducing the impact of systematic row/column effects in HTS data. To apply such robust methods effectively and properly, we need to understand their necessity and functionality. Data from 6 HTS case histories are presented to illustrate that robust statistical methods may sometimes be misleading and can result in more, rather than less, false positives or false negatives. In practice, no single method is the best hit detection method for every HTS data set. However, to aid the selection of the most appropriate HTS data-processing and active identification methods, the authors developed a 3-step statistical decision methodology. Step 1 is to determine the most appropriate HTS data-processing method and establish criteria for quality control review and active identification from 3-day assay signal window and DMSO validation tests. Step 2 is to perform a multilevel statistical and graphical review of the screening data to exclude data that fall outside the quality control criteria. Step 3 is to apply the established active criterion to the quality-assured data to identify the active compounds. PMID:21160066

Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S; Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Paul A

2011-01-01

113

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

114

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

115

Lingual straight wire method.  

PubMed

The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

2009-12-01

116

Study on Trapped Field Characteristics of HTS Bulk Annuli With Iron Rings for Ferromagnetic Shimming of a Compact NMR Magnet  

E-print Network

Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, ...

Kim, Seok Beom

117

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

118

Field Test of 3 phase, 22.9kV, 100m HTS Cable System in KEPCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from investigation of feasibility and basic studies, KEPCO\\/KEPRI has carried an enterprising project for HTS cable system since 2002. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate HTS cable system and evaluate the feasibility in electricity utility's view. The installation of 100m\\/3phase\\/22.9kV\\/50MVA HTS cable system is undergoing in KEPCO's test yard, located in Gochang, Korea. The HTS cable system

S H Sohn; H S Choi; H R Kim; O B Hyun; S W Yim; T Masuda; K Yatsuka; M Watanabe; H S Ryoo; H S Yang; D L Kim; S D Hwang

2006-01-01

119

Development of HTS current leads for 1 kWh\\/1 MW module type SMES system. I. Design study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a 1 kWh\\/1 MW module-type SMEs. Each module of a module-type SMES requires a pair of current leads. Therefore, we employed bulk HTS in order to reduce the heat load of the current leads. It is important that HTS current leads for SMES be reliable. The HTS current leads described

M. Konno; K. Sakaki; T. Uede; A. Tomioka; T. Bohno; S. Nose; T. Imayasho; H. Hayashi; K. Tsutsumi; F. Irie

1997-01-01

120

AC Loss of a Multi-Layer per Phase TriAxial HTS Cable with Balanced Current Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, high-temperature superconductor (HTS) cables have been widely studied because of their compactness and high power\\u000a capacity compared to conventional copper cables. In HTS cables, AC loss is an important issue since large losses reduce the\\u000a efficiency of the power line.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Among HTS cables, tri-axial cable is under intensive investigation recently, since it has a smaller amount of HTS tapes,

A. N. Ozcivan; M. Toda; N. Hu; K. Hoshino; T. Yagai; M. Tsuda; T. Hamajima

2011-01-01

121

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

122

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

123

New Materials for Bonding Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Insulated wire for Fine pad pitch bonding and 3D PKG technology, Cu wire and Au-Ag wire for cost reduction, and Ag wire in response to bond pad metallization change are reviewed from technology aspect. With only few tens of nanometers thick coating layer, insulated wire forms stable free air ball with good 1 st bond bondability. As

Jeong Tak Moon; June Sub Hwang; Jong Su Cho; Seong Hyoun Kim

124

An approach of optimal design of HTS synchronous motor using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an optimal design of 100 HP, 4 pole, 1800 rpm high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor in terms of energy efficiency and downsizing, i.e., specific power density. Bi-2223\\/Ag multifilamentary tape is used as a material of HTS field coil. Design variables and constraints are appropriately set up in consideration of electromagnetic characteristics. Size of the rotor and

Sang-Il Han; Itsuya Muta; Tsutomu Hoshino; Taketsune Nakamura

2004-01-01

125

Thermal stability of a cryocooler-cooled HTS pancake coil wound with Bi2223 tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated and tested a cryocooler-cooled high temperature superconducting (HTS) single pancake coil wound with a Bi2223 tape in order to investigate thermal stability of the HTS coil. The inner diameter of the coil is ?100 mm and the outer diameter is ?257 mm. The coil is impregnated with epoxy resin and a conduction plate made of aluminum is fixed

K. Tasaki; T. Kuriyama; S. Nomura; Y. Sumiyoshi; H. Hayashi; H. Kimura; K. Tsutsumi; M. Iwakuma; K. Funaki

2003-01-01

126

Transport current loss and Ic degradation of HTS tapes under mechanical load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of an HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape is evaluated by measuring the critical current Ic, AC loss and mechanical properties of the short samples. However, in coils or magnets for applications, the HTS tapes are under mechanical load caused by winding tension, bending and sometimes twisting. Also thermal contraction by the cooling changes the tension. The mechanical load reduces

Seog-Whan Kim; Hae Joon Kim; Jin-Hong Joo; Kyu Jeong Song

2004-01-01

127

AC loss in a tri-axial HTS cable with balanced current distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconductor (HTS) cables have been studied because they are more compact compared to conventional copper cables. In power applications of HTS cable AC loss is significantly important, as it is related with capacity and efficiency of the power line. Recently, a tri-axial cable composed of three concentric phases has been intensively developed, because of their reduced amount of

A. N. Ozcivan; K. Shimoyama; S. Soeda; T. Yagai; M. Tsuda; T. Hamajima

2008-01-01

128

THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

129

Wire Array Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

Turner-Evans, Dan

130

Characteristic analysis of 154 kV HTS power cable under fault conditions using PSCAD/EMTDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the characteristic analysis of 154 kV HTS power cable system under fault conditions using PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC). Before applying the HTS power cable to the real utility, the system needs to be analyzed using certain simulation tools. The resistance of conventional power cables is not changed by fault current. But HTS power cable has some different properties. The impedance of superconductor is dramatically changed along with the current over the critical value, temperature, and magnetic field. PSCAD/EMTDC does not provide the HTS power cable model which includes the same electrical characteristics of real HTS power cable. In order to develop the EMTDC model component of 154 kV class HTS power cable, the authors have manufactured a 1/58 HTS model power cable and experimented under several types of fault conditions. The measured characteristics of the model cable, resistance and temperature variation, were used to develop the HTS power cable model component in EMTDC. Using this model component, HTS power cable system was analyzed under the fault conditions. The simulation results of fault current, temperature and resistance variation of HTS power cable are described in detail, and how to apply the characteristics of HTS power cable in the simulation tool is also discussed in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model component of 154 kV class HTS power cable.

Kim, J. G.; Lee, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, A. R.; Cho, J.; Sim, K. D.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Lee, J. K.

2009-10-01

131

A Possible Path from BCS through HTS to VHTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years after celebrating the 50th anniversary of the BCS theory and the 20th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTS), it appears to be most fitting for us to contemplate the possibility of very high temperature superconductivity (VHTS). VHTS, preferably at room temperature, if achieved, could change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only ``at an astronomical distance and under an astronomical pressure.'' With the advent of liquid nitrogen superconductivity in 1987, the outlook has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why VHTS would be impossible, in spite of the 2006 prediction of the death of HTS by 2010-2015 through the so-called scientometric analysis of the publication record of the previous 20 years. The recent discovery of the new class of Fe-pnictide HTSs fuels more cautious optimism. Since its inception, BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at a higher temperature. This may be attributed to the small energy scale of superconductivity in comparison with those of other excitations in the solids. After examining existing data, we believe that a holistic multidisciplinary enlightened empirical approach appears to be the most effective way to discover novel superconductors with higher transition temperatures. In this talk, I shall present several possible approaches toward VHTS that we are currently pursuing, after briefly summarizing what has happened in the long search for HTS and VHTS.

Chu, C. W.

2010-03-01

132

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-01-01

133

The Results of Cooling Test on Hts Power Cable of Kepco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the inherent characteristics of the superconductivity that allows large power transmission capability, much research on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables has been carried out world-wide. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) had installed a three-phase, 100-m class, HTS cable system at Gochang power test center of KEPCO that handles 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 50 MVA. The HTS cable system of KEPCO consists of two terminations, the HTS power cable, and cooling system. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is used for the HTS power cable coolant, providing an inlet temperature to the cable during operations from 66 K to 77 K. Circulation cooling tests at different temperatures were performed to investigate operating conditions, and heat losses under alternating-current (AC) load conditions were measured. The results of performance correlated with cooling test will be presented in this paper.

Lim, J. H.; Sohn, S. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.

2008-03-01

134

The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-11-01

135

The Dynamic Characteristics of 3-D Superconducting Actuator Using the Magnetized HTS Bulk by Sandwiched Electromagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop a non-contact transportation device. In our previous works, the overshooting of the HTS bulk mover magnetized by 2-D arranged electromagnets were observed. Therefore, the new magnetization method using sandwiched electromagnets was purposed in order to solve the overshooting problems of HTS bulk mover. In this paper, the dynamic stabilities on the rotating and horizontal moving of the HTS bulk mover magnetized by sandwiched electromagnets was investigated experimentally, and the maximum moving displacements and convergence times during the overshooting state were reduced by proposed magnetization method with small magnetizing current.

Nakano, H.; Kim, S. B.; Ozasa, S.; Sawae, M.

136

HTS ion damage Josephson junction technology for SQUID arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson Junction (JJ) ion damage technology we are developing is well suited for making large SQUID arrays. We have studied arrays of similar SQUIDs together with large SQIFs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) with 2000 SQUIDs of different loop areas. Magnetic field sensitivity has been measured in both types of devices as a function of bias current and temperature. The effects of the barrier thickness (from 20 to 80 nm) and JJ length (2 or 5 ?m) on characteristics have been investigated.

Ouanani, S.; Kermorvant, J.; Crété, D.-G.; Lemaître, Y.; Mage, J.-C.; Marcilhac, B.; Bergeal, N.; Malnou, M.; Lesueur, J.; Mailly, D.; Ulysse, C.

2014-05-01

137

Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

2013-11-01

138

RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

2008-09-01

139

High Performance Superconducting Wire in High Applied Magnetic Fields via Nanoscale Defect Engineering  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3 5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 m thick YBa2Cu3O7? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm?1 and 65.4 kA cm?2, respectively.

Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL

2008-01-01

140

5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

2014-05-01

141

Restoration and testing of an HTS fault current controller  

SciTech Connect

A three-phase, 1200 A, 12.5 kV fault current controller using three HTS 4 mH coils, was built by industry and tested in 1999 at the Center Substation of Southern California Edison in Norwalk, CA. During the testing, it appeared that each of the three single-phase units had experienced a voltage breakdown, one externally and two internally. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was asked by DOE to restore the operation of the fault current controller provided the HTS coils had not been damaged during the initial substation tests. When the internally-failed coil vacuum vessels were opened it became evident that in these two vessels, a flashover had occurred at the high voltage bus section leading to the terminals of the superconducting coil. An investigation into the failure mechanism resulted in six possible causes for the flashover. Based on these causes, the high voltage bus was completely redesigned. Single-phase tests were successfully performed on the modified unit at a 13.7 kV LANL substation. This paper presents the postulated voltage flashover failure mechanisms, the new high voltage bus design which mitigates the failure mechanisms, the sequence of tests used to validate the new design, and finally, the results of variable load and short-circuit tests with the single-phase unit operating on the LANL 13.7 kV substation.

Waynert, J. A. (Joseph A.); Boenig, H. (Heinrich E.); Mielke, C. H. (Charles H.); Willis, J. O. (Jeffrey O.); Burley, B. L. (Burt L.)

2002-01-01

142

Investigation of Current Distribution in Multi-Tape HTS Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems in multi-element superconductors is to ensure the current distribution between several elements in accordance with their individual critical currents. The experimental investigation of self-field current redistribution between several HTS tapes was performed in order to support the design of a resistive type SFCL. The critical currents at 1 ?V/cm of 12 mm wide tapes SF12100 produced by Super Power were in the range 210-300A at 78 K temperature. The rated rms current of SFCL project is 900 A. The samples were wound onto about 200 mm diameter bobbin and consisted of one or two layers of 3 or 6 connected in parallel HTS tapes. The multi-tape conductor turns were at first charged with DC or AC (50 Hz) individually. Then they were mounted coaxially and connected in opposite in order to reduce self-field and inductance values. The dynamic behavior of currents in the tapes was reconstructed from simultaneously measured data of 7 Hall probes and V-A curves of several tapes. In spite the critical currents of individual tapes were far from being equal the total critical current of the samples was close to the sum of tapes critical currents (about 750 A for 3 tapes and 1350 A for 6 tapes). Some recommendations for the improvement of current distribution uniformity are given for the case of SFCL.

Novikov, M. S.; Keilin, V. E.; Lobyntsev, V. V.; Novikov, S. I.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

143

Experimental results of tri-axial HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a tri-axial cable composed of three concentric phases has been intensively developed, because it has advantages such as reduced high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tape, small leakage field and small heat loss as compared to three single-phase cables. However, there is an inherent imbalance in the three-phase currents in tri-axial cables due to the differences in the radii of the three-phase current layers. The imbalance of the currents causes additional loss and a large leakage field in the cable, and deteriorates the electric power quality. We have already proposed that it is possible to obtain a balanced three-phase distribution by adjusting all of the twist pitches. In order to verify the theory, we designed and fabricated a 1-m-long tri-axial HTS cable and carried out the cable test. The balanced three-phase voltages of the cable were measured by supplying an AC transport current with frequency from 50 to 500 Hz at 77 K. It is found from the test results that the balanced three-phase distributions can be realized by adjusting all of the twist pitches.

Shimoyama, Kazuki; Ozcivan, Nuri; Soeda, Seiji; Hu, Nannan; Onoe, Yuichi; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Makoto; Hamajima, Takataro

2009-08-01

144

HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

1999-07-12

145

Next Generation Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

2007-01-01

146

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

147

Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac  

SciTech Connect

An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

2011-03-28

148

Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

2014-09-01

149

Electrical machines with bulk HTS elements.. The achieved results and future development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO and Bi-Ag elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. Two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in these types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in multi-domain and single-domain HTS ceramic samples. The test results of these HTS motors with output power 1-37 kW and current frequencies 50 and 400 Hz are given. The results show that in liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is 4-5 times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

2001-09-01

150

Design and fabrication of double pancake coil using 2G wire for conduction cooled superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large bore double pancake coil(DPC) was designed and tested with 2G HTS wire to develop the conduction cooled superconducting magnet with central field intensity of 3 T at 20 K operating temperature and clear bore of 100 mm at room temperature. The effect of insulation between turns of double pancake coils was tested. Two double pancake coils with and without turn to turn insulation were wound using 4 mm wide 2G conductor. A temporary result suggests that the coil wound without electrical insulation can be protected from higher over current and shows improved stability.

Yoon, S. W.; Lee, H. J.; Moon, S. H.; Park, S. H.; Han, J.; Choi, K.; Hong, G. W.

151

Simulation and Test for the Thermal Behaviour of a Prototype Synchronous Generator with HTS Armature Windings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synchronous generator prototype with HTS armature windings and a permanent magnet rotor (HTS-PM) was developed. The temperature evolution during cooling and operation processes of the HTS coils was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). The simulated results coincided well with the temperature measurement data acquired by PT-100 sensors. Cooling time, terminal temperature, contact thermal conductivity, during cooling, as well as the proportion between real and calculated iron loss, contact thermal conductivity, at various rotating speeds during operation, were worked out using the FEM model.

Yu, X.-Y.; Qu, T.-M.; Song, P.; Li, L.-N.; Chen, D.-X.; Han, Z.

152

Torsion Strain Effects on Critical Currents of Hts Superconducting Tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A torsional twist strain effect on the critical current of a thin HTS tape has been found to be well described by a longitudinal strain model taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the tensile longitudinal strains due to a torsional twist. The critical current of a twisted tape is given by the integration of the critical current densities corresponding to the strain distribution over the tape cross-section using axial strain data of the tape. The model is supported with experimental results of YBCO and BSCCO-2223 tapes. It has been also found that torsional twisting effects on the critical currents of a tape composing of the conventional lapped-tape cable and the twisted stacked-tape cable are described by the same equation as that of a twisted single tape.

Takayasu, Makoto; Minervini, Joseph V.; Bromberg, Leslie

2010-04-01

153

Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

154

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2012-07-01

155

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2012-07-01

156

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2011-07-01

157

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2013-07-01

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30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2014-07-01

159

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2013-07-01

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30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2014-07-01

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30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2010-07-01

162

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2010-07-01

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30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2011-07-01

164

Status of 275 kV REBCO HTS Cable Development in the NEDO Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting cable (HTS cable), which could be used as a backbone power line in the future, was developed in the NEDO project called M-PACC. One of the most important developments of a high voltage HTS cable was the high voltage insulation technology. A design guideline and a test specification that was necessary to design, product and demonstrate of a 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable have been studied by obtaining the various experimental data such as AC withstand voltage, impulse withstand voltage, partial discharge inception stress, and the V-t characteristics of the insulation, on the basis of the Japan Electrical Standards (JEC) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Moreover, the 275 kV, 3 kA HTS cable with a length of 30 m was demonstrated under a long-term voltage and current loading test.

Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Okuma, Takeshi; Maruyama, Osamu; Shiohara, Yuu; Hayakawa, Naoki; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

165

Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

2013-11-01

166

Robust Optimization in HTS Cable Based on DEPSO and Design for Six Sigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-uniform AC current distribution among the multi-layer conductors in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable reduces the current capacity and increases the AC loss. In this paper, Particle swarm optimization coupled with differential evolution operator (DEPSO) has been applied in structural optimization of HTS cables. While the existence of fluctuation in design variables or operation conditions has a great influence

Shuhong Wang; Xinying Liu; Jie Qiu; Jian Guo Zhu; Youguang Guo; Zhi Wei Lin

2008-01-01

167

The R&D Project of HTS Magnets for the Superconducting Maglev  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes landmarks in the R&D project and the progress of persistent current HTS magnets, which has been in development for the Superconducting Maglev trains since 1999. The first trial HTS magnet is operated with a very small current decay rate of 0.44%\\/day and can be cooled by a cryocooler below 20 K, using a conduction cooling method. The

Motoaki Terai; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Toru Kuriyama; Satoshi Hanai; Tomohisa Yamashita; Hiroyuki Nakao

2006-01-01

168

Albany Hts Cable Project Long Term InGrid Operation Status Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems are expected to be a solution for improvement of the power grid and three demonstration projects in the real grid are under way in the United States. One of them is the Albany, NY Cable Project, involving the installation and operation of a 350 meter HTS cable system with a capacity of 34.5kV, 800A, connecting

H. Yumura; T. Masuda; M. Watanabe; H. Takigawa; Y. Ashibe; H. Ito; M. Hirose; K. Sato

2008-01-01

169

HTS narrow band filters at UHF band for radio astronomy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance narrow-band High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) filters at 610 MHz with very sharp cut-off response and low loss are needed for improving the observation of pulsars at the Jodrell Bank Observatory, UK. An eight-pole quasi-elliptic HTS filter using compact resonators has been designed for this purpose. The measured response of filter has an insertion loss of 0.3 dB (including a

Jiafeng Zhou; Michael J. Lancaster; Frederick Huang; Neil Roddis; Dave Glynn

2005-01-01

170

The surface discharge and breakdown characteristics of HTS DC cable and stop joint box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable system consists of a HTS cable and cable joint. The HTS DC cable should be electrically connected in joint boxes because of the unit length of HTS cable is limited to several-hundred meters. In particular, the stop joint box (SJB) must be developed for a compact cooling system. Polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) and epoxy maybe used as insulating materials for HTS DC cable and SJB. To develop a HTS DC cable, it is necessary to develop the cryogenic insulation technology, materials and the joint methods. In this paper, we will mainly discuss on the DC and impulse characteristics of epoxy and PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The surface discharge characteristics of epoxy included fillers, PPLP and epoxy with PPLP composite (epoxy + PPLP) were measured under 0.4 MPa. Also, the PPLP-insulated mini-model cable was fabricated and then DC, impulse and DC polarity reversal breakdown strength of mini-model cable under 0.4 MPa were investigated.

Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

2014-09-01

171

AC loss in a tri-axial HTS cable with balanced current distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconductor (HTS) cables have been studied because they are more compact compared to conventional copper cables. In power applications of HTS cable AC loss is significantly important, as it is related with capacity and efficiency of the power line. Recently, a tri-axial cable composed of three concentric phases has been intensively developed, because of their reduced amount of HTS tapes, small leakage field, low heat loss when compared to three coaxial HTS cable. However, it experiences additional losses and large leakage field due to inherent imbalanced currents. Inside the tri-axial cable, each phase is subject to out-of-phase magnetic fields formed by other phase layer currents. Because tapes are twisted on successive layers, axial field by outer layers and azimuthal field by inner layers are produced in a tri-axial HTS cable. Any slab in the cable experiences parallel component of magnetic field on the wide faces of the tapes; induced by currents of all layers. Since the fields on tapes generate magnetization losses, they should be calculated in consideration of the balanced current distribution of the tri-axial cable. In this paper, AC loss in the tri-axial HTS cable consisting of one layer per phase is described, theoretically, where the balanced phase current distribution is satisfied through treating two different cable segments. The average AC losses in the cable are calculated as functions of the segment lengths and the segment twist pitches.

Ozcivan, A. N.; Shimoyama, K.; Soeda, S.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

2008-09-01

172

Wire core reactor for NTP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

Harty, R. B.

1991-01-01

173

OrchidWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by orchid enthusiasts Wendell and Theresa Kozak of Vancouver Island, Canada, OrchidWire website is a great resource for anyone interested in orchids. This site is an online orchid resource directory with links to 3911 images and 1184 sites in 51 countries. Site visitors can peruse orchid resources by using an alphabetical appendix or by selecting from different categories like Wild, Culture, Geographic, Genera, and many more. Specific orchid listings or images can be located by using the site search engine. Site users can also submit suggestions for addition to the OrchidWire database.

Kozak, Theresa

174

Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

2010-04-01

175

Engineering Nanocolumnar Defect Configurations for Optimized Vortex Pinning in High Temperature Superconducting Nanocomposite Wires  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS), coated conductor wires based on nanocomposite films containing self-assembled, insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumnar defects have previously been reported to exhibit enhanced vortex pinning. Here, we report on microstructural design via control of BZO nanocolumns density in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO)+BZO nancomposite films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc(H, ,T). X-ray diffraction and microstructural examination shows increasing number density of epitaxial BZO nanocolumns in the highly cube-textured YBCO matrix with increasing nominal BZO additions. Transport property measurement reveals that an increase in BZO content upto 4 vol% is required to sustain the highest pinning and Jc performance as the magnetic field increases. By growing thicker, single-layer nanocomposite films (~4 m) with controlled density of BZO columnar defects, the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A/cm at 77 K, self-field and the minimum Ic of 455 A/cm at 65 K and 3 T for all magnetic field orientations were obtained. This is the highest Ic reported to date for films on metallic templates which are the basis for the 2nd generation, coated conductor-based HTS wires.

Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Ahuja, Raj [Waukesha Electric Systems Inc.; Abiade, J. [North Carolina A& T State University

2013-01-01

176

RIGBY SPECIALITY WIRES LIMITED NEW WIRE PRODUCT IS ALL  

E-print Network

RIGBY SPECIALITY WIRES LIMITED NEW WIRE PRODUCT IS ALL WRAPPED UP KTP BENEFITS Knowledge Transfer Partnerships are designed to benefit everyone involved Businesses will acquire new knowledge and expertise KTP WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS TO DEVELOP A NEW MANUFACTURING PROCESS TO WRAP COPPER WIRE IN MICA TAPE, TO THE REQUIRED

Berzins, M.

177

Unique ORNL HTS Program Capabilities ORNL cable test facility  

E-print Network

. In a real- world setting, severe stresses are imposed upon the dielectric insulation and the system is the only one in the U.S., is actively used in collaboration with U.S. superconducting wire and equipment for testing model cables, terminations, subassemblies, components and materials ; Cryogenic temperatures

178

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

179

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

180

One-wire thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

1977-01-01

181

Improved wire chamber  

DOEpatents

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12

182

1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

NONE

1997-04-01

183

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

184

Tungsten Wire & VISAR Goran Skoro  

E-print Network

in parallel (n=20) · Estimated temperature rise in the 0.2 mm diameter tungsten wire (at room temperature radial or/and longitudinal displacement of the wire Issues: Results of calculations -> following pages temperature; for 10m and 30m delay-leg) - flatline Conclusion: We won't see anything here #12;VISAR wire tests

McDonald, Kirk

185

Production of hot-wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.

Dickinson, S. C.

1983-04-01

186

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter

Y. Me-Bar; R. Harel

1996-01-01

187

Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists’ knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not “waiting for HTS”. If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

2012-11-01

188

Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project  

SciTech Connect

Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American Electric Power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 132/13.8 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype with full scale terminations tested at ORNL was conducted prior to the manufacture and installation of the AEP triaxial cable. These prototypes were used to demonstrate the crucial operating conditions including steady state operation at the 3000 Arms design current, high voltage operation, high voltage withstand and 110 kV impulse, and overcurrent fault capability. A summary of the results from the thermal analysis and testing conducted by Ultera and ORNL will be presented. Some analysis of the cable thermal-hydraulic response based on the testing that were used to determine some of the cable cryogenic system requirements are also presented.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL

2007-01-01

189

Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils  

SciTech Connect

Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

Peter K. F. Hwang

2007-10-22

190

Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

2014-05-01

191

Developing scientific confidence in HTS-derived prediction models: lessons learned from an endocrine case study.  

PubMed

High throughput (HTS) and high content (HCS) screening methods show great promise in changing how hazard and risk assessments are undertaken, but scientific confidence in such methods and associated prediction models needs to be established prior to regulatory use. Using a case study of HTS-derived models for predicting in vivo androgen (A), estrogen (E), thyroid (T) and steroidogenesis (S) endpoints in endocrine screening assays, we compare classification (fitting) models to cross validation (prediction) models. The more robust cross validation models (based on a set of endocrine ToxCast™ assays and guideline in vivo endocrine screening studies) have balanced accuracies from 79% to 85% for A and E, but only 23% to 50% for T and S. Thus, for E and A, HTS results appear promising for initial use in setting priorities for endocrine screening. However, continued research is needed to expand the domain of applicability and to develop more robust HTS/HCS-based prediction models prior to their use in other regulatory applications. Based on the lessons learned, we propose a framework for documenting scientific confidence in HTS assays and the prediction models derived therefrom. The documentation, transparency and the scientific rigor involved in addressing the elements in the proposed Scientific Confidence Framework could aid in discussions and decisions about the prediction accuracy needed for different applications. PMID:24845243

Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas; Marty, M Sue; Rowlands, J Craig; Patlewicz, Grace; Goyak, Katy O; Becker, Richard A

2014-08-01

192

Magnetic Force Three Wires Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Force Three Wires model investigates the force between long straight current-carrying wires. Initially, the simulation shows a cross-section view of three long straight parallel wires, each on the corner of an equilateral triangle. The wires carry currents that have different magnitudes, and the currents are directed either into or out of the page. The task in this simulation is to rank the wires based on the magnitude of their currents, from largest to smallest. The Magnetic Force Three Wires model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Three_Wires.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. This is part of a collection of similar tutorial simulations created by the author.

Duffy, Andrew

2009-10-20

193

Transport in Quantum Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model to explain the flat and gate voltage independent renormalisations of the conductance quantisation in quantum wires. We model the contact regions themselves as short Luttinger liquids and allow for different Luttinger liquid parameters in the wire and contact regions. By introducing small barriers between the contacts and the leads and using the standard techniques of bosonisation and renormalisation group, we are able to qualitatively reproduce all of the experimental results including the temperature and length dependence. In the presence of a magnetic field, the theory also gives rise to an interesting odd-even effect, with bands with spins parallel to the magnetic field getting renormalised differently from the bands with spins anti-parallel to the magnetic field. This has also been experimentally seen. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 026801 (2001) and cond-mat/0104402].

Rao, Sumathi; Lal, Siddhartha; Sen, Diptiman

2002-03-01

194

Dental Arch Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

1979-01-01

195

Wire chamber gases  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging.

Va'vra, J.

1992-04-01

196

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

197

Wiring for aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

1992-01-01

198

Gaseous wire detectors  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations. Reader should also refer to Ref. 1{endash}4. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Vavra, J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

1998-02-01

199

Understanding Guitar Wiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

2012-08-13

200

Magnetoconductance of quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

2010-03-01

201

Development of 220 V\\/300 A Class Non-Inductive Winding Type Fault Current Limiter Using 2G HTS Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program in Korea being performed from 2004, a non-inductive winding type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is being developed. The target of the second year in phase II of the program is to develop a 220 V\\/300 A class non-inductive winding type SFCL as a prototype for a 13.2 kV\\/630 A

Dong Keun Park; Min Cheol Ahn; Seong Eun Yang; Yong Soo Yoon; Bok-Yeol Seok; Chanjoo Lee; Ho-Myung Chang; Tae Kuk Ko

2007-01-01

202

Characteristics of lift and restoring force in HTS bulk-Application to two-dimensional maglev transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the advantages of magnetic levitation using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk is that stable levitation can be achieved without any control systems. The authors have been investigating the electromagnetic behaviors of an HTS bulk to realize a two-dimensional magnetic levitating transporter without any fixed guides. The characteristics of lift and stability are key parameters to design and optimize

Y. Sanagawa; H. Ueda; M. Tsuda; A. Ishiyama; S. Kohayashi; S. Haseyama

2001-01-01

203

MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006  

E-print Network

MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment LAB/RAK 1/24/2006 Lawrence Bush 2006 January 24 Semi-Automated Cueing of Predator UAV Operators from RADAR Moving Target (MTI) Data MIT Lincoln and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. #12;MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHTS: MTI-UAV Cueing Experiment

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

204

Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

NONE

1996-06-01

205

HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer for 4GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer as a candidate resonator structure of HTS compact power filter for 4GHz band. The electromagnetic simulations on the upper dielectric layer examined the current distributions of the HTS resonators that had TM11 mode resonance of about 4 GHz. By the simulations, it is evaluated that of the maximum current density near the end portion of the disk-shape pattern of the resonator with the thick upper-layered structure decreases by roughly 30-50 percent, as compared with that of the resonator without it. Then, we designed and fabricated the resonator samples with and without the upper dielectrics. The RF power measurement results indicated that the upper dielectric layer leads to an increase in handling power.

Yamanaka, Kazunori; Kai, Manabu; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Teru

2006-06-01

206

Reliability Test of a 1-kW Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Hts Cable Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent progress of a large Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler is reported based on 24/7 operation since August 2008 in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable application at American Electric Power's (AEP) Bixby Road substation in Columbus, OH. The 20-kW pressure wave generator (PWG) has been upgraded to a second generation design. The in-line configured pulse tube coldhead, rated at 1 kW at 77 K, was developed by Praxair. The objective of the continued testing at the HTS cable demonstration facility is to accumulate cryocooler operating hours and demonstrate system reliability. The cryocooler uses a parallel flow from the main vacuum subcooling refrigerator then both flows are supplied to the HTS cable inlet. The cryocooler operation has shown consistent results with satisfactory cooling performance. The field demonstrated thermodynamic efficiency is 15% of Carnot at 72 K.

Chen, R.-L.; Henzler, G. W.; Royal, J. H.; Billingham, J. F.

2010-04-01

207

The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan  

PubMed Central

High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

2014-01-01

208

CERN-SPS Wire Scanner Impedance and Wire Heating Studies  

E-print Network

This article describes a study performed on one of the CERN-SPS vertical rotational wire scanners in order to investigate the breakage of the wire, which occurred on several occasions during operation in 2012. The thermionic emission current of the wire was measured to evaluate temperature changes, and was observed to rise significantly as the wire approached the ultimate LHC beam in the SPS, indicating the possibility of strong coupling between the beam’s electromagnetic field and the wire. Different laboratory measurements, complemented by CST Microwave Studio simulations, have therefore been performed to try and understand the RF modes responsible for this heating. These results are presented here, along with the subsequent modifications adopted on all of the operational SPS wire scanners.

Berrig, OE; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Hamani, M; Kuczerowski, J; Piselli, E; Salvant, B; Sautier, R; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Vuitton, C; Zannini, C

2014-01-01

209

Wire detecting apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-12-31

210

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

211

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

212

Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

2014-09-01

213

Review of wire chamber aging  

SciTech Connect

This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

Va'Vra, J.

1986-02-01

214

Instabilities of electrically exploded wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results summarized in this paper, which have been obtained with thin tungsten, copper, and constantan wires, give further evidence that electromagnetic macroinstabilities may develop near the melting point of thin wires which are heated by the sudden release of electrical energy and lead to their disintegration. At low-energy-input rates, screw-type instabilities develop in all the wire materials used.

Antonios E. Vlasto´s

1973-01-01

215

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

216

Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ˜1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

1999-01-01

217

Texture development in Galfenol wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

2013-05-01

218

Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

2010-06-01

219

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF are three planned NASA missions for infrared astronomy. Each will make significant contributions to the study of exo-zodiacal dust, planetary debris disks, and/or the zodiacal material within our own solar system. These missions and their measurement and scientific capabilities are synopsized. The principal contribution of these missions to this field of study will be to establish and strengthen its intellectual foundations rather than to pinpoint specific targets for planetary searches. This is consistent with their relatively near-term availability. Moreover, this intellectual understanding can assure that subsequent missions approach this subject from a sound scientific perspective which will yield valuable results independent of the success of a particular planet finding strategy. Each of these missions - most urgently WIRE with its Fall, 1998 launch date - would make good use of a list of candidate target stars for exo-zodiacal/planet-finding studies. The preparation of such a list was one of the recommendations of the exo-zodiacal workshop.

Werner, Michael

1998-01-01

220

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2011-07-01

221

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2013-07-01

222

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2012-07-01

223

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2014-07-01

224

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2010-07-01

225

Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

1983-01-01

226

Joint analysis of the Cs2 a3?u+ and 1g (3(3)?1g) states.  

PubMed

Sets of experimental data on the Cs(2) a(3)?(u)(+) and 1(g) (3(3)?(1g)) states, including the bound-bound and bound-free fluorescence spectra, are analyzed simultaneously to produce the potential energy curves of both states in the form of the Morse long range multiparameter function. The attractive branch of the a(3)?(u)(+) state potential is improved relative to the one reported in our earlier work [F. Xie, V. B. Sovkov, A. M. Lyyra, D. Li, S. Ingram, J. Bai, V. S. Ivanov, S. Magnier, and L. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 051102 (2009)], in which the data on this state alone were analyzed. Besides, the new potential of this state also includes the repulsive branch in the range spanned by the bound-free fluorescence spectra. We have not found experimental evidence of the double minimum character of the 3(3)?(1g) state potential, predicted by ab initio calculations, at least up to v = 8. This fact testifies that the upper state observed is better described by the Hund coupling case (c), in which the case (a) electronic basis states are intermixed by the strong spin-orbit interaction. PMID:21766938

Xie, F; Li, Li; Li, D; Sovkov, V B; Minaev, K V; Ivanov, V S; Lyyra, A M; Magnier, S

2011-07-14

227

Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

228

Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast? Bioactivity Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA ToxCast? research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

229

Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

Doernbach, Jay

1990-01-01

230

A control method of excitation winding magnetization for a novel HTS magnetic flux pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of magnetic flux pump is to stabilize magnetic field of superconducting magnets. This paper chiefly presents a kind of control method to magnetize excitation winding and control system design for a novel high temperature superconducting(HTS) magnetic flux pump. The basic structure and operation principle of the flux pump is simply described here. According to a stated magnetizing

Chunli Wu; Fengchao Lv; Ying Chen

2011-01-01

231

1 ATM subcooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with GM-refrigerator for a HTS power transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subcooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with GM-refrigerators was developed. The system was operated successfully in a commercial distribution power grid for three consecutive weeks without additional liquid nitrogen supply. The system consists of two main units. One is a HTS transformer unit and the HTS transformer is installed in a G-FRP cryostat. The other one is a pump unit. The pump unit has a liquid nitrogen pump and two GM-refrigerators of 290 W at 64 K for 50 Hz operation in a stainless steel dewar. The refrigerator cold heads are immersed in liquid nitrogen and produce directly subcooled liquid nitrogen in the pump unit. Those two units are connected by transfer-tubes and 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) subcooled liquid nitrogen is circulated through the system. In the field test, the refrigerators were operated at 60 Hz and it took 12 hours to cool the transformer down to 70 K and 26 hours to 66 K. The refrigerator cold heads were controlled not to be below 64 K during operation. In spite of a heat generation by the HTS transformer, the subcooled liquid nitrogen temperature in the HTS transformer unit was kept lower than 68 K.

Yoshida, S.; Ohashi, K.; Umeno, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Kimura, H.; Tsutsumi, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K.; Bhono, T.; Yagi, Y.

2002-05-01

232

A study on the composite dielectric properties for an HTS cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize the insulation design of a cold dielectric high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable, the composite insulation system has been investigated according to the arrangement of laminated polypropylene paper (LPP) and kraft paper in liquid nitrogen. LPP is a prominent insulating material with a high dielectric strength and low dielectric loss, which has been used previously as a

D. S. Kwag; V. D. Nguyen; S. M. Baek; H. J. Kim; J. W. Cho; S. H. Kim

2005-01-01

233

Demonstration and verification tests of a 500 m HTS cable in the super-ACE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high- Tc superconducting cable (HTS cable) can transmit more power with lower loss than conventional cables. HTS cable is expected to be a compact and economical transmission line to meet the increasing electrical demands of cities. However, some technical problems must be solved to bring the HTS cable into practical use. Demonstration and verification tests of the world’s longest (500 m) HTS cable have been carried out as part of the Super-ACE project. The 500 m cable was a single-core, cold-dielectric type with a small enough diameter to be installed inside a 150 mm cable duct. We have already successfully completed the production and installation required for the field tests at the Yokosuka laboratory of CRIEPI. The test layout included a 10 m high section, an underground section and an offset section for absorbing the thermal contraction, so as to simulate real transmission lines. Over the course of a year, CRIEPI and Furukawa Electric have conducted numerous experiments on the thermo-mechanical behavior and operating characteristics of the cooling system and the electrical and superconducting properties of the cable, both at its rated load and with a fluctuating load and an overload.

Mukoyama, S.; Maruyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Ishii, N.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, H.; Ichikawa, M.; Takahashi, T.; Okamoto, T.; Kimura, A.; Yasuda, K.

2005-10-01

234

sHTS : A Streaming Architecture for Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis Maria Astrinaki1  

E-print Network

provides high flexibility as a speech production model, with a small database footprint. In this work we using speech databases, and generate speech from the trained models. A prominent method in this approachsHTS : A Streaming Architecture for Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis Maria Astrinaki1 , Onur

Dupont, Stéphane

235

High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable  

SciTech Connect

High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL

2007-01-01

236

The current test results for two models of HTS cables on CASAT project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two models of HTS power cables were made and tested. The cable of Nordic Superconductor Technology (NST, Denmark) tape has 4 layers and length of 1 m, and the cable of Vacuumschmelzc (VAC, Germany) tape has 6 layers and length of 5 m. The test of the cables was performed at currents up to 6 kA (AC) and 10 kA

V. E. Sytnikov; P. I. Dolgosheev; M. G. Soloviev; D. I. Belij; L. Nieto; A. Perez; A. Gonzalez; M. Maya; F. Ortiz; C. Falcony; M. Jergel; A. Morales

2003-01-01

237

First Electrical Characterization of Prototype 600 A HTS Twisted-pair Cables at Different Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the development of twisted-pair cables prepared with High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes and their initial tests at 4.2 K in liquid helium at CERN, the cable samples of 2 m lengths were subsequently tested in flowing helium gas at temperatures between 10 K and 77 K at University of Southampton. A cryostat with optimized hybrid HTS current leads was purposely built for the tests up to 2.5 kA. The cryostat has two separate helium flow conduits, each accommodating a twisted pair and allowing independent temperature control. With the completion of the tests on the twisted-pair cables, a 5 m long semi-flexible Nexans cryostat was also set up for the testing of prototype HTS links assembled at CERN. The link, which is optimized for application to the remote powering of LHC 600 A electrical circuits, consists of a compact multi-cable assembly with up to 25 twisted-pair 600 A HTS tapes. The cables are cooled by a forced-flow of helium gas the inlet temperature of which can be changed in order to compare the electrical performance over a range of temperatures. The paper reports on the results of powering tests performed on the individual cables and the integration process for the forthcoming tests of the prototype links.

Yang, Y.; Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Beduz, C.; Ballarino, A.

238

Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

2012-06-01

239

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries  

E-print Network

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted librariesPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, includ- ing a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides

Hammock, Bruce D.

240

Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

241

Industrial Fe-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tapes JL Soubeyroux1  

E-print Network

Industrial Fe-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tapes JL Soubeyroux1 , P Chaudouet2 , A Girard1, 38042 Grenoble, France, 2 LMGP/ Minatec/ Grenoble, France, 3 Imphy Alloys, Imphy, France jean and stabilized between 1050°C to 1100°C, depending on the nickel content of the alloy, higher temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

2014-05-01

243

The effect of cross-section geometry of bonding wire on wire sweep for semiconductor packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire diameter reduction is an effective way to reduce cost, as gold content accounts for the majority of bonding wire costs. Replacing gold wire with copper wire is another way to reduce cost. The advantages of using Cu instead of Au wire are the lower price and the higher electrical conductivity. However, the oxidation problem of copper wire during the

Huang-Kuang Kung; Bo-Wun Huang; Hsiang-Chen Hsu

2010-01-01

244

The Current in a Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

Thompson, Keith

2009-01-01

245

The Tungsten Wire Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten wire 1 mil diameter, when used in a parachute-borne temperature sensor, is in free molecule flow for most of its flight. The heat transfer coefficient for free molecule flow may be found from theory and is directly proportional to the ambient air density. The wire has a time constant <1 sec below 64 km and will therefore quickly arrive

Peter Hyson

1968-01-01

246

Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Rabinowitz, Sandy

2009-01-01

247

Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

2014-09-01

248

An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

1995-01-01

249

Integrating UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) and HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) magnets for x-ray synchrotron based experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating UHV (ultra high vacuum) and superconducting magnets poses special challenges to the magnet designer. A range of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) magnets have been developed for UHV synchrotron beamline applications providing users with compact powerful cryogen-free solutions. Recent examples include HTS magnets for LARIAT (Large Area Rapid Imaging Analytical Tool) [8.5 T with 110 mm warm bore], x-ray scattering experiments at BESSY and LNLS [5-6 T with 110 degrees scattering angle aperture], x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant scattering experiments at ALBA. This paper will focus on the in-UHV HTS magnet installed at ALBA.

Lazi?, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Pooke, D.; Valvidares, S. M.; Pellegrin, E.; Ferrer, S.; Granados, X.; Obradors, X.

2013-03-01

250

Development of important elementary technologies for a 66 kV-class three-phase HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Tc superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to serve as underground power lines supplying electrical power to densely populated cities in the future. TEPCO and Furukawa have developed compact HTS cables that can replace the old cables in their existing ducts under metropolitan Tokyo. To connect HTS cables with actual electrical networks requires confirmation of long-term reliability of the electrical insulation and the ability to withstand accidents caused by short circuit. This report gives the results of our examination of these problems.

Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, S.; Matsuo, K.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Aiba, T.; Takahashi, Y.

2002-10-01

251

Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1-4 vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1-4 vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A cm-1 at 77 K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455 A cm-1 at 65 K and 3 T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates.

Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

2013-08-01

252

Engineering nanocolumnar defect configurations for optimized vortex pinning in high temperature superconducting nanocomposite wires  

PubMed Central

We report microstructural design via control of BaZrO3 (BZO) defect density in high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc, at different fields, H. We find the occurrence of Jc(H) cross-over between the films with 1–4?vol% BZO, indicating that optimal BZO doping is strongly field-dependent. The matching fields, B?, estimated by the number density of BZO nanocolumns are matched to the field ranges for which 1–4?vol% BZO-doped films exhibit the highest Jc(H). With incorporation of BZO defects with the controlled density, we fabricate 4-?m-thick single layer, YBCO + BZO nanocomposite film having the critical current (Ic) of ~1000?A cm?1 at 77?K, self-field and the record minimum Ic, Ic(min), of 455?A cm?1 at 65?K and 3?T for all field angles. This Ic(min) is the largest value ever reported from HTS films fabricated on metallic templates. PMID:23939231

Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

2013-01-01

253

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

254

Development of a 10 m long 1 kA 66/77 kV YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss and a joint with low electrical resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed high-Tc superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes. A 10 mm-wide YBCO tape was divided into five strips using a YAG laser to reduce AC loss. A 0.3 m conductor and a 1 m conductor were fabricated achieving AC losses at 1 kArms and 50 Hz of 0.054 W m-1 and of 0.048 W m-1, respectively. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 0.3 and 1 m conductors, we fabricated a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield. The AC loss in this 10 m HTS conductor was 0.090 W m-1 at 1 kArms and 50 Hz. An HTS cable joint was designed and fabricated that included a three-layer HTS conductor and a one-layer HTS shield. Joint resistance of 5.2 n? for the HTS conductor and that of 10 n? for the HTS shield were achieved. The HTS cable joint was compact and had sufficient withstand voltage properties for 66/77 kV. In addition, we also confirmed the efficiency of joint construction. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS cable was successfully constructed and tested in January 2008. This HTS cable consisted of two 10 m HTS cables and the HTS cable joint. One 10 m HTS cable using HoBCO was made by Sumitomo, and the HTS cable joint and the other 10 m cable using IBAD YBCO were made by Furukawa and Chubu. The electrical resistance of the HTS cable joint was less than 10 n?, and the 20 m HTS cable including the joint withstood an over-current of 31.5 kArms whose duration was 2 s.

Yagi, Masashi; Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Kashima, Naoji; Nagaya, Shigeo; Shiohara, Yuh

2009-08-01

255

Numerical analysis of the effects of the magnetic self-field on the transport properties of a multilayer HTS cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of the magnetic self-field on the transport properties of a multilayer high-Tc superconducting (HTS) cable are investigated by means of two-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) simulations. Analyzed is a three-layer HTS cable, but the developed methods can be used for a different number of layers. The superconductor is described by the nonlinear power-law relation E=Ec(J\\/Jc)n, where

Francesco Grilli; Svetlomir Stavrev; Bertrand Dutoit; Sergio Spreafico

2004-01-01

256

Overview of the underground 34.5 kV HTS power cable program in albany, NY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team consisting of SuperPower, Inc. (HTS systems manufacturer), The BOC Group (global industrial gases company), Sumitomo Electric Industries (cable manufacturer), and Niagara Mohawk (electric utility) is developing a 34.5 kV HTS cable for installation in the distribution network in downtown Albany, NY. Energization is projected for the winter of 2005. The cable will be rated for 800 Arms, with

C. S. Weber; C. T. Reis; A. Dada; T. Masuda; J. Moscovic

2005-01-01

257

Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper rich Cu-Ni alloys have been textured with the RABiTS method in order to get non-magnetic and cost efficient substrates for coated conductor wires. The study is focused on two industrial compositions: Cu55Ni45 (Constantan) and Cu70Ni30. Studies on surface roughness have been done. The effects of annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere) on the grain boundaries deepness were analyzed. Electrolytic polishing was also applied to improve the surface quality. RX pole figures and micro hardness measurements have been achieved on samples annealed up to 950°C. Attention has been paid to the rolling texture and to the annealing processes. The rolling texture has been found to be mainly copper-type (C, S and B contributions). Beginning of recrystallization occurred between 400°C and 600°C and stabilized between 900°C to 950°C, depending on the nickel content of the alloy. Finally both samples, rolled and annealed under the appropriate conditions, have been characterized. Pole figure measurements gave the global in plane and out of plane disorientations of our samples which are in-plane 7.4° and out-plane (RD) 4.3° for both samples. EBSD maps have shown the details of the distribution and have allowed us to quantify the ratio between cubic {100}<001> and twined {122}<21-2> orientations.

Girard, A.; Bruzek, C. E.; Jorda, J. L.; Ortega, L.; Soubeyroux, J. L.

2006-06-01

258

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel cleaved edge overgrowth technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al., 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g, an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al., 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al. 2004). For low densities this structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving the Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering, and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-03-01

259

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel Cleaved Edge Overgrowth (CEO) technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al, 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g., an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al, 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al 2004). For low densities the structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving a Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-04-01

260

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter parts not exploding at all. Only slight deformations occur at their ends. On the boundary between the exploding and nonexploding sections of the wire, such deformations may cause the evolution of an accelerated slug, similar to that of a ``self-forging fragment.'' The phenomenon of the current bypassing metallic parts may offer an explanation to the way the ``segmented diverters'' work on a lightning stricken aircraft radome.

Me-Bar, Y.; Harel, R.

1996-02-01

261

Method of manufacturing superconductor wire  

SciTech Connect

A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

Motowidlo, Leszek

2014-09-16

262

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

ScienceCinema

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-04-09

263

Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

2009-07-30

264

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

SciTech Connect

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-03-03

265

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2012-07-01

266

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2010-07-01

267

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2014-07-01

268

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2013-07-01

269

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2011-07-01

270

Mechanisms of plant resistance to 1 g gravity and hypergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance to the gravitational force is one of two major graviresponses in plants, comparable to gravitropism. We have examined mechanisms of gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. Under hypergravity conditions, the expression of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, was up-regulated in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the level of membrane sterols was kept higher, without influencing the level or composition of other membrane components. Out of sterols, the levels of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides were greatly increased, suggesting the stimulation of sterol raft formation under hypergravity conditions. On the other hand, the expression of the majority of alphaand beta-tubulin genes was up-regulated and the percentage of cells with longitudinal cortical microtubules was increased by hypergravity. Hypergravity also increased the expression of genes encoding gamma-tubulin complex and katanin transiently, whereas it decreased that encoding various microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP65. The role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance was confirmed using Arabidopsis mutants. The analysis with mutants has also revealed that the signal transduction process via sterol rafts is distinct from that via cortical microtubules. These results indicate that membrane sterol rafts and cortical microtubules are deeply and independently involved in maintenance of normal growth capacity against the gravitational force. To confirm that the hypothesis is applicable to plant resistance to 1 g gravity, we will carry out the space experiment. This experiment, termed Resist Wall, is to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the Resist Wall experiment, Arabidopsis mutant strains will be cultivated under microgravity and at 1 g conditions on the ISS up to reproductive stage and phenotypes on growth and development will be compared using video images. Also, we will analyze the levels of gene expression and the cell wall properties of the mutants as well as the wild type, using materials fixed on orbit and collected to earth. The results obtained in this space experiment will also be presented.

Hoson, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sakaki, Takeshi

271

Electromagnetic Design of HTS D-shaped Coils for a Toroidal-type Superconducting Magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High current and magnetic field are essential for achieving MCF (magnetic confinement fusion). Superconducting materials and technology have unique advantages to achieve high magnetic field and large-current transmission. With the commercialization of 2G HTS tapes, they are paid wide attention to in Tokamak magnet application. In order to investigate the feasibility of applying HTS into Tokamak magnets, a toroidal-type magnet has been designed using YBCO tapes by means of FEM analysis combining with Matlab. The effects of the coil number and coil arrangements on the critical current, the maximum parallel magnetic field, the inductance and the storage capacity of the magnet are analyzed. Based on that, key technological points of the electromagnetic design are discussed.

Liu, H.; Deng, X.; Ren, L.; Xu, Y.; He, J.; Tang, Y.

272

A Single-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Horizontally Cooling HTS MRI Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-stage GM type pulse tube cryocooler, model HPT10, has been developed to operate horizontally to meet certain cooling requirements (including applications such as high temperature superconducting (HTS) MRI probe coils, detectors, etc). A rotary valve (with motor) is physically separated from a pulse tube expander through a 2.1 meter stainless steel flexible line. The HPT10 provides 16.0 W at 77 K when operating in a horizontal position and 17.6 W at 77 K when operating in a vertical position, thus demonstrating only small performance degradation when operating horizontally. The HTS probe coil cooled by this type pulse tube cryocooler will significantly improve the image quality of MRI systems.

Wang, C.; Gifford, P. E.

2004-06-01

273

5 GHz HTS power filters with TM-mode microstrip-disk resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For RF wireless applications, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave power filters are desired to satisfy the requirements of higher power handling capability, lower intermodulation distortion (IMD), and dimensions that are more compact. In this report, we propose a 5 GHz HTS band bandpass filter (BPF) that has 2 dual-mode resonators using TM 11-mode microstrip-disk (MD) resonators and waveguide line for electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the MDs. The BPF sample with YBCO films on both sides of an MgO (1 0 0) substrate was fabricated, and their RF characteristics of the S parameters, the power, and 3rd IMD (IMD3) were examined. The filter sample exhibited an IMD3 value less than -70 dBc at 10 W input power, and was estimated the half volume of a conventional 4-pole MD BPF.

Yamanaka, K.; Ishii, M.; Akasegawa, A.; Nakanishi, T.; Baniecki, J. D.; Kurihara, K.

2008-09-01

274

Fabrication of PDA/HTS prototype components. [graphite composites for space shuttle and YF-12 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process was developed for autoclave molding structural poly-(Diels-Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin/HTS graphite composites for short-term 600 F service. The autoclave molding process used to fabricate these composites required a maximum cure temperature of 427 K (400 F) and a maximum molding pressure of 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psig). This process then was adapted to the fabrication of co-cured polyimide sandwich panels consisting of PDA/HTS skins, PDA syntactic foam and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by manufacturing five three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels using the PDA resin. It was concluded from successful evaluation of these prototype units that the PDA resin is suitable for fabrication of components using commercial equipment.

Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

1976-01-01

275

1 mil gold bond wire study.  

SciTech Connect

In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

2013-05-01

276

AC loss properties of a 1 MVA single-phase HTS power transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed and built a single-phase 1 MVA-22\\/6.9 kV HTS transformer with the multi-layered cylindrical windings composed of Bi2223 parallel conductors. In advance of the design, the AC loss induced in the windings was estimated on the basis of the observed results in a strand. A subcooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with the corresponding cooling capacity was developed and attached

M. Iwakuma; K. Funaki; K. Kajikawa; H. Tanaka; T. Bohno; A. Tomioka; H. Yamada; S. Nose; M. Konno; Y. Yagi; H. Maruyama; T. Ogata; S. Yoshida; K. Ohashi; K. Tsutsumi; K. Honda

2001-01-01

277

Surface resistance measurements of HTS films placed inside a cavity with a puck resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibilities of dielectric puck resonators for measuring of the surface resistance of arbitrary shaped pieces of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films, placed inside a copper shielding cavity are discussed. Effect of additional microwave losses, caused by the field perturbation, on the results of the surface resistance measurements is analysed. The problem is investigated experimentally by comparing the results obtained by puck and parallel plate resonator techniques for an YBCO film.

Nurgaliev, T.; Cohen, L. F.; Purnell, A.; HaO, L.; Gallop, J.

2004-04-01

278

FESAC-SP Whyte New HTS superconductors + integrated high-B physics  

E-print Network

, but pulsed due to copper coils Design'parameter' Shippingport2* "Pilot"*Fission* Plant*ca.*1954* ITER3* "Pilot"*Fusion* Plant*ca.*2006* Scale*factor* ITER/Shippingport! Pthermal'(MW)' 236!! 500!! x*2.5! Core 44 3.3 2.5 ARC14 SC-HTS 9.2 3.3 + 230 14 2.2 1.2 FNSF- AT4,7 Copper 5.5 2

279

Ultra-narrowband HTS filter with 2.5-wavelength hairpin resonators in 7 GHz band  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an ultra-narrowband high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filter with a fractional bandwidth of 0.14% in the 7 GHz band. To realize a filter with which a narrow bandwidth and low insertion loss are compatible, resonators with high unloaded Q (Qu) value are required. Hairpin microstrip resonators with 2.5 times wavelength were adopted to suppress the radiation loss and realize

Noritsugu Shiokawa; Hiroyuki Kayano; Mutsuki Yamazaki; Takatoshi Watanabe; Fumihiko Aiga; Tatsunori Hashimoto

2006-01-01

280

Surface resistance measurements of HTS films by means of sapphire dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sapphire dielectric resonator with a copper cylindrical shield and two endplates replaced by high-temperature superconducting (HTS) layers was used for very accurate surface resistance measurements on laser-ablated YBCO films. A system using the TE011 mode has a resonant frequency of about 18.1 GHz and parasitic-loss Q factor of about 120000. It allows 10 mm×10 mm samples to be measured

Jerzy Krupka; Martin Klinger; Matthias Kuhn; A. Baryanyak; Michael Stiller; Johann Hinken; J. Modelski

1993-01-01

281

Electron transport in atomic and molecular wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular electronics involves constructing atomic and molecular junctions in which an atomic chain or a single molecule or small number of molecules are bridged between two electrodes, measuring and understanding the current-voltage response of such junctions. Contacts between the atoms or molecules and the electrodes greatly affect the current-voltage characteristics. Other challenges include how to determine the conductance of single molecules. This dissertation presents a study of single atomic/molecular conductance with modified Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Firstly I describe an electron transport study of atomically-thin Au wires by (1) modulating the electrochemical potential and (2) anion adsorption onto the wire. The potential modulation induces a conductance change around 0.55G0 (G0 = 2e2/h) per V for a wire with conductance quantized near 1G0 in the absence of anion adsorption. However, in the presence of I- adsorption, the conductance changes as much as 1.5G0/V. Second, I present the work of determining single-molecule conductance of various molecules by repeatedly forming thousands of Au-molecule-Au junctions. The molecules tested have either S-atoms or N-atoms on both sides so that they can form Au-S or Au-N bonds chemically to ensure the good contacts. I have determined the tunneling decay constant (betaN) of the N-alkanedithiol molecules to be 1.0 +/- 0.1 per carbon atom and depends on the applied bias very weakly. The forces needed to break down the single N-alkanedithiol molecule junction and the 4,4' bipyridine molecule junction are 1.5 +/- 0.2nN and 0.8 +/- 0.2nN respectively, suggesting that the Au-Au bond broke in the alkanedithiol case while the Au-N bond broke in the 4,4' bipyridine case. I have determined the length and base-pair dependence of the DNA conductance. Electron transport through different base pair DNA molecules decreases exponentially with the number of "AT" base pairs inserted in the G-rich region but inversely proportional to the length of "GC" base pairs. A DNA molecule with mismatch was found to conduct less than its perfectly matched sequences.

Xu, Bingqian

282

Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

Goldsby, Jon C.

2003-01-01

283

HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

2010-06-01

284

Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

2008-02-01

285

Non-destructive evaluation of multilayer conductor using an HTS SQUID gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the ability of detecting defects in multilayer aluminum plates by using an HTS SQUID gradiometer in an unshielded environment. The planar HTS SQUID gradiometer with 1 mm × 1 mm pickup loops and 1 mm baseline was fabricated by using HTS multilayer and ramp-edge junction technologies, and cooled by thermal conduction from a LN 2 cryostat. We tried non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of a structure consisting of 5-10 layers of 2 mm thick aluminum plates with a through hole, which has a shape of slit, 30 mm in length and 0.5 mm in width only in the bottom layer, by changing the frequency of eddy current induced by a double-D type coil. It was found that the observed frequency and depth dependences of the peak gradiometer signal were well fitted by theoretical curves taking account of decay of eddy current and defect-induced magnetic field depending on the distance between the defect and the gradiometer. By employing 200 Hz frequency, the slit in the 10-layer structure could be clearly detected, indicating the ability of detecting defects located in depth more than twenty times larger than the gradiometer baseline.

Kawano, J.; Hato, T.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.

2010-11-01

286

Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

2015-02-01

287

Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

2010-06-01

288

[Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].  

PubMed

Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:24386790

Avram, Elena; St?nil?, Adriana

2013-01-01

289

Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed  

DOEpatents

A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

290

Wires for Shape Memory Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

2014-07-01

291

Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

2011-11-01

292

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

2002-01-01

293

Choice of flexible cryostat for 2.5 km DC HTS cable to be laid in St. Petersburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS tapes production technology has reached the level which allows the manufacture of high-quality cables of long length. In this connection, the issue of creating an HTS power transmission line of some kilometer length had been raised. Pressure loss appears as one of the limiting factors in the circulation of the liquid nitrogen cooling HTS cable placed in a long cryostat. Pressure loss is small in short lines and for this reason did not attract close attention of researchers until recently. Within the framework of the Russian R&D program for HTS power devices, 30 and 200 m AC HTS power transmission lines were created in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and a new 2.5 km 50 MW DC line to be installed in a real city network of St. Petersburg is now at the design and development phase. Pressure loss calculations show the 64/70 mm NEXANS-type corrugated flexible cryostat to be optimal for the cooling channel and the 39/44 mm one - for the return channel. In this case, it is possible to use just one cryopump and one cryocooler to achieve an operational temperature difference of 4-6 K and a pressure drop of 0.1-0.2 MPa in the cooling channel at a flow rate of 20-30 l/min.

Ivanov, Yury V.; Romashov, Maxim A.; Bemert, Sergey E.; Sytnikov, Victor E.

2014-01-01

294

Practical design and operating characteristic analysis of a 10 kW HTS DC induction heating machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional induction heaters have been in operation in metal and related industries with poor energy efficiencies of only 50-60%. Also, the efficiency of atmosphere furnace, one of the various heating facilities for metal billets, is about 20%. Hence, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC induction heating machine to heat a rotating metal billet under uniform magnetic field generated by the 2G HTS magnet with about 80-90% of the system energy efficiency has been researched in this paper. We presented practical design specification, operational characteristics, and temperature distribution on a 10 kW class HTS DC induction heating machine which had been built and tested. The saturated temperature of an HTS no-insulated(NI) coil in the cryostat fabricated with 100 A of the operating current reached 45.9 K and the magnetic field at the centre point between two iron cores measured 0.2 T. The rotating machine for 4.1 kg of the aluminum billet was tested on 1760 rpm of the rated rotating speed. The final temperature of the aluminum billet has risen up to 500 °C for 480 s. The research outcomes are expected to be useful for the design of a large scale HTS DC induction heating machine in industries.

Choi, Jongho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Seokho; Sim, Kideok; Kim, Hae-jong

2014-09-01

295

Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

Bich, George J. (Penn Hills, PA); Gupta, Tapan K. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

296

Illumination system for wire bonding inspection.  

PubMed

A novel lighting system was devised for 3D defect inspection in the wire bonding process. Gold wires of 20 microm in diameter were bonded to connect the integrated circuit (IC) chip with the substrate. Bonding wire defects can be classified as 2D type and 3D type. The 2D-type defects include missed, shifted, or shorted wires. These defects can be inspected from a 2D top-view image of the wire. The 3D-type bonding wire defects are sagging wires, and are difficult to inspect from a 2D top-view image. A structured lighting system was designed and developed to facilitate all 2D-type and 3D-type defect inspection. The devised lighting system can be programmed to turn the structured LEDs on or off independently. Experiments show that the devised illumination system is effective for wire bonding inspection and will be valuable for further applications. PMID:17279128

Perng, Der-Baau; Chou, Cheng-Chuan; Lee, Shu-Ming

2007-02-20

297

Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

1975-01-01

298

Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

Babb, B. D.

1967-01-01

299

Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

Wiley, Gale

1989-01-01

300

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2011-07-01

301

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2012-07-01

302

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2014-07-01

303

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2010-07-01

304

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2010-07-01

305

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2012-07-01

306

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2013-07-01

307

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2014-07-01

308

Lourie-Love No OIT Wiring  

E-print Network

1942 1941 Lourie-Love 1922 1940 58 No OIT Wiring Building Wiring Type Category 3 or Mixed Category Streicker Bridge 63/65/67 Gulick Pavilion Lourie-Love Pavilion Lenz Tennis Center Neuro-Institute Psychology

309

Breakdown testing of wiring insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric strength of potential wiring insulation, recommended by NASA Lewis Research Center to replace existing M81381 (polyimide), was evaluated at high temperature. Results, given in view-graph format, show that their is no dependence of breakdown strength on temperature for the constructions tested and that their was little effect of frequency on the breakdown characteristics.

Laghari, Javaid R.

1994-01-01

310

Wire-Wrap Chatter Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring circuit responds to changes in resistance as little as 0.1 ohm. Has been used to detect defective wire-wrap connections during thermal and vibration tests. Defect is indicated to operator by light-emitting diode and by increase in count on a two-digit display.

Fisch, G. Z.; Borden, T. J.

1982-01-01

311

Flexible substrate for printed wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

1982-01-01

312

Failure mechanisms in wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable attrition of wire rope in service is discussed with an overview of the consequences in terms of inspection and replacement criteria. Details are presented of specific degradation mechanisms observed in three different applications: a mine hoist rope operating on a drum winder, a mooring rope for an offshore structure and a spin-resistant single-fall offshore crane rope. In each

C. R. Chaplin

1995-01-01

313

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

314

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

315

Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

316

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

317

Reusable packaging [for magnet wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reusable packaging has been with the magnet wire industry for 30 years. It has primarily been limited to plastic spools and reels. What had been very apparent over the years is that loss and damage to those reels has been very high. With a large customer base, knowing if the reels and spools have come back has been impossible. Many

L. G. Ditton

1997-01-01

318

Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

Slenski, George

1995-01-01

319

Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

2014-01-01

320

Force on a Current Carrying Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple set up consisting of a current carrying wire and a magnet to explore the forces which enable biomedical imaging. In doing so, students run a current through a wire and then hold magnets in various positions to establish and explore the magnetic force acting on the wire. They move the magnets and change the current in the wire to explore how the force changes.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

321

Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet  

E-print Network

Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

Kirby, GA; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, JC; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Härö, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A

2015-01-01

322

3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications.

Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

2014-04-01

323

Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests  

SciTech Connect

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2014-01-29

324

Balanced 3-Phase Distribution Experiment of a Tri-axial HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables have been studied because of low loss and compactness, compared with conventional copper cables. Three-phase cables are usually composed of three single-phase coaxial cables. Recently, a tri-axial cable, composed of three concentric phases, has been intensively developed, because it has advantages such as reduced amount of HTS tapes, small leakage fields and small heat loss in leak, compared with the three single-phase cables. However, there is an inherent imbalance in the three-phase currents in the tri-axial cable due to the differences in radii of the three-phase current layers. The imbalance of the currents causes additional loss and large leakage field in the cable, and deteriorates the electric power quality. Therefore, we propose a new model which is a tri-axial cable composed of two longitudinal sections with different twist pitches to obtain the solutions of the balanced three-phase currents and homogeneous current distribution in each phase of the tri-axial cable. We derive general equation satisfying both the balanced three-phase currents and homogeneous current distribution, as functions of winding pitches, and finally apply it to the simplest cable. We fabricated and tested a 1m long HTS cable in order to verify the proposed theory that satisfies the balanced distribution. The results demonstrate the theory is right. We also investigate the current distributions along the long tri-axial cable considering the capacitances between the layers in the tri-axial cable.

Hamajima, Takataro; Ozcivan, A. Nuri; Shimoyama, Kazuki; Soeda, Seiji; Hu, Nannan; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Makoto

325

Bi-2212 Wire Porosity Reduction by HIP Processing Reduce porosity in the wire  

E-print Network

Bi-2212 Wire Porosity Reduction by HIP Processing Reduce porosity in the wire Develop method to reduce the porosity Increase Jc of the wire by increasing the density of the BSCCO core, thus increasing standard Bi-2212 heat treatment profile Procedure Quenched Green Wire without HIP treatment ­ Porosity

Weston, Ken

326

30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 56.12053...MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall...

2014-07-01

327

STABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING WIRE IN MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental experiment was carried out to study the motion of superconducting wire under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as applied tension to test superconducting wire, insulating material used at the interface of superconducting wire and base material. The experimental method and the test results are reported in

K. Ruwali; Y. Teramoto; Ohtsu Katata; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama

328

Steam-Resistivity of Wire Insulating Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam is a very harsh environment for insulating materials. It is a combination of water and high temperature and sets the materials prone to hydrolysis. The aim of the study was to find suitable magnet wire and suitable connection wires for a hermetically sealed turbo-generator, which is filled with low- pressure steam. Seven differently insulated wires were tested in hot,

V. Sihvo; J. Pyrhonen

2007-01-01

329

Field measurement of branch circuit wire temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature excursions of residential branch circuit wiring under field conditions were monitored to develop a field data base needed to determine the prevailing conditions in the field and to respond to various assertions that the encapsulation of branch circuit wiring within thermal insulation is a potential hazard. Previous laboratory investigations demonstrated that buried wires, when operated continuously at rated ampacity,

T. K. Falson

1981-01-01

330

The Selection of Coatings for Printed Wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that printed wiring has given rise to a serious surface leakage problem, in contrast to standard wiring where volume leakage is predominant. Suitable insulating coatings are credited with protection against contamination and moisture entry, as well as with control of corona at high altitudes. A coating material suitable for use on printed wiring boards is described

R. Martel; L. Martin

1957-01-01

331

Ion-size effects in HTS cuprates -- dielectric versus magnetic pairing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been exploring the systematic effects of changing ion size on superconducting and normal-state properties of the HTS cuprates. In the model system RA2Cu3Oy (where R = La,, Lu and A=Ba2-xSrx) the maximum Tc in the dome-shaped phase curve can be shifted from 70 to 110 K in the model system. Surprisingly Tc correlates with the dielectric properties and not the magnetic properties. This highlights the fundamental importance of charge fluctuation and dielectric screening in the cuprates and may signal a novel pairing mechanism having its origin with quantized waves of electronic polarization.

Tallon, Jeffery; Mallett, Ben; Ashcroft, Neil

2013-03-01

332

Characterization of Hybrid Ferroelectric/HTS Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the discovery of High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, a diversity of HTS-based microwave components has been demonstrated. Because of their low conductor losses, HTS-based components are very attractive for integration into microwave circuits for space communication systems. Recent advancements have made deposition of ferroelectric thin films onto HTS thin films possible. Due to the sensitivity of the ferroelectric's dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) to an externally applied electric field (E), ferroelectric/superconducting structures could be used in the fabrication of low loss, tunable microwave components. In this paper, we report on our study of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) and Ba(0.08)Sr(0.92)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) ferroelectric/superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. For the (Ba:Sr, 0.50:0.50) epitaxial sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 425 and a loss tangent (tan delta) of 0.040 were measured at 298 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. For the same sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 360 and tan delta of 0.036 were obtained at 77 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. Variations in epsilon(sub r) from 180 to 360 were observed over an applied E range of 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5.62 x 10(exp 4) V/cm with little change in tan delta. However, the range of epsilon(sub r) variation for the polycrystalline (Ba:Sr, 0.08:0.92) sample over 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 4.00 x 10(exp 4) V/cm was only 3.6 percent while tan delta increased markedly. These results indicate that a lack of epitaxy between the ferroelectric and superconducting layers decreases tuning and increases microwave losses.

Winters, M. D.; Mueller, C. H.; Bhasin, K. B.; Miranda, F. A.

1996-01-01

333

Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

1998-12-31

334

Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

2013-08-01

335

Protective relay system for the first demonstration of the HTS cable and the SFCL in live grid in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposed a novel power protection system for the application of 22.9 kV HTS cable and SFCL systems to the Icheon substation in South Korea, and studied the protective coordination of the proposed system using a transient simulation program, PSCAD/EMTDC. Korea Electric Power Cooperation (KEPCO) designed and reconstructed the protection system of the Icheon substation based on the results of this study. The 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable and 22.9 kV, 630 A hybrid SFCL systems have been successfully operated in the live power grid of the Icheon substation since August, 2011.

Lee, Seung Ryul; Yoon, Jaeyoung; Yang, Byeong-mo; Lee, Byongjun

2013-11-01

336

Frequency response in short thermocouple wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

1992-10-01

337

Arc tracking properties of the aging wires in aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern commercial aircraft contains hundreds of miles of wiring. This vastly increased use of wiring, in conjunction with decreased insulation thickness, has increased the incidence of wire-related aircraft safety problems. Due to thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical overstress, the aircraft wiring will be aged and the wire insulation will be decreased. Microscopic cracking occurs in wire insulation as the

Wang Yongxing; Dong Enyuan; Cong Jiyuan; Zou Jiyan; Dieter Koenig

2008-01-01

338

Plunging method for Nd : YAG laser cladding with wire feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wire feeding direction and position, cladding time, and cladding speed on the quality of cladding layer for laser cladding with wire feeding are studied. Experiment results indicate that the wire feeding direction and position are important for wire laser cladding. By adopting the correct wire feeding direction and position, the wire can be plunged into the melt

Jae-Do Kim; Yun Peng

2000-01-01

339

Wire rope and method of making same  

SciTech Connect

A wire rope, particularly a non-twistable wire rope, wherein an annulus of outer strands surrounds a wire rope center with a central strand and one or more annuli of neighboring strands surrounding the central strand. The wires of the strands in the center do not intersect each other. The entire center or at least some of its strands are densified prior to or during application of the outer strands. Alternatively, or in addition to such densification, at least some strands of the center are assembled of wires having an other than circular outline to thereby reduce the combined cross-sectional area of voids in the center.

Verreet, R.

1984-06-19

340

Length-Dependent Resistance of Thin Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of wires with cross-sectional areas of order 1 × 10-11 cm2 and lengths as small as 0.2 ?m have been studied. At temperatures below about 10 K, the resistance of the wires increases with decreasing temperature, as found in previous studies of much longer wires. For wires shorter than about 5 ?m, the resistance rise decreases as the length of the wire is decreased. From these results a characteristic length scale of approximately 0.2 ?m at 1.5 K is found, in good agreement with the current theory.

Masden, J. T.; Giordano, N.

1982-09-01

341

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-01-01

342

Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode  

DOEpatents

A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

2014-03-04

343

Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

2014-05-01

344

Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Build Up Tank for HTS Power Cable Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS power cables are cooled by the forced circulation of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen to remove heat loss and maintain a cryogenic temperature. The refrigeration systems used consist of cryocoolers, a pressure build-up tank, heat exchangers, and circulation pumps. Liquid nitrogen expands or shrinks according to the temperature variation inside the fixed volume of the refrigeration system and the cable cryostat. The system pressure also changes depending on the volume change of the liquid nitrogen. The pressure of the liquid nitrogen should be kept above a certain level to ensure its dielectric strength. In addition, the pressure should be kept below the allowable pressure level considering the mechanical strength of the refrigeration system. To enhance the pressure controllability, external heating and cooling should be possible in the pressure build-up tank. For the precise modeling of the pressure build-up tank, thermal stratification and axial thermal conduction are considered. An analysis of such a refrigeration system is performed using the commercial code 'Sinda/fluint', a comprehensive finite-difference, one-dimensional, lumped parameter tool. This paper presents the transient thermo-hydraulic characteristics and the design directions of an HTS cable refrigeration system according to a variable heat load including pressure build-up tank.

Kim, Dongmin; Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyunman; Kim, Yanghun

345

Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

James, David Randy [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL

2009-01-01

346

Microwave characteristics of interconnects for 4 GHz-band HTS power devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applications of high- Tc superconducting HTS filters with microstrip line structure to microwave power devices in linear operations, it is important not only to achieve handling power sufficient for the devices not to break down, but also to decrease the intermodulation distortion (IMD) as much as possible. One of main causes of the IMD is the pattern of the HTS resonators. Other factors we have considered as a cause of IMD are I/O interconnects and thermal conditions inside a filter package. To clarify these influences, we fabricated and examined the model devices that consisted of a YBCO microstrip disk resonator chip with TM 11 resonant mode, the I/O interconnects with metal electrodes, and packages with and without the introduction of He gas. As the results of the third-order IMD (IMD3) examinations of the model devices for 4 GHz band, it is confirmed that the IMD can be reduced by improving the I/O interconnects and the gas atmosphere inside the power-filter package.

Yamanaka, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Akasegawa, A.

2007-10-01

347

Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

348

Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current × length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A.

Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.

2007-10-01

349

Design and Evaluation of 275 kV-3 kA HTS Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. The cable is expected to be put to practical use as the backbone power line in the future because the capacity of 1.5 GW is about the same as overhead transmission lines. The 30 m cable has been designed on the basis of design values that had been obtained by various voltage tests, AC loss measurement tests, short circuit tests, and other elementary tests. Cable insulation was determined by the design stresses and test conditions based on IEC, JEC (Japan electrical standards), and other HTS demonstrations. This cable was also designed to withstand the short circuit test of 63 kA for 0.6 seconds and to have low losses, including AC loss and dielectric loss of 0.8 W/m at 3kA, 275 kV. Based on the design, a 30 m cable was manufactured, and short samples during this manufacturing process were confirmed to have the designed characteristics. Furukawa Electric prepared a demonstration of the 30 m cable with two terminations and a cable joint. The long-term test under a current of 3 kA, and test voltage determined from 30 years of insulation degradation has been conducted since November 2012 at Shenyang in China.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Jun, T.; Liu, J.; Nakayama, R.; Hayakawa, N.; Wang, X.; Ishiyama, A.; Amemiya, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Saitoh, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

350

Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic field, we utilized a SQUID magnetometer containing ramp-edge junctions with La0.1Er0.95Ba1.95Cu3Oy and SmBa2Cu3Oy electrode layers, which was fabricated by using an HTS multi-layer fabrication technique. To operate the magnetometer stably in a rapidly changing magnetic field, we chose the proper materials for the RF shield of liquid nitrogen (LN2) glass Dewar and cables. The white noise level and the slew rate of the system were measured to be 30 fT Hz-1/2 and 10.5 mT s-1, respectively. The resultant signal-to-noise ratio was higher than that of the previous system and improved the exploration depth, which was successfully demonstrated in field tests. The weight of the Dewar, which retains the LN2 for 17 h, is 2.5 kg. The total weight of our system including the LN2 Dewar, a probe with a flux-locked loop (FLL) circuit, a battery, a receiver, and a 30 m-long cable between the FLL and the receiver is as low as 25.6 kg.

Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Sugisaki, M.; Arai, E.; Tanabe, K.

2013-11-01

351

Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

2012-11-01

352

Critique of Ground Wire Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper consists of three parts, I??Induced Potentials, II??Direct Hits, and III??Other Effects. The work of previous investigators is briefly reviewed, and the limitations of their premises pointed out. Under Part I a generalized theory of ideal ground wires is offered, which takes into account the law of cloud discharge, the distribution of bound charge, and the formation of traveling

L. V. Bewley

1931-01-01

353

Pin Wire Coating Trip Report  

SciTech Connect

A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

Spellman, G P

2004-03-18

354

Dispersion interactions between semiconducting wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion energy between extended molecular chains (or equivalently infinite wires) with nonzero band gaps is generally assumed to be expressible as a pair-wise sum of atom-atom terms which decay as R-6 . Using a model system of two parallel wires with a variable band gap, we show that this is not the case. The dispersion interaction scales as z-5 for large interwire separations z , as expected for an insulator, but as the band gap decreases the interaction is greatly enhanced; while at shorter (but nonoverlapping) separations it approaches a power-law scaling given by z-2 , i.e., the dispersion interaction expected between metallic wires. We demonstrate that these effects can be understood from the increasing length scale of the plasmon modes (charge fluctuations), and their increasing contribution to the molecular dipole polarizability and the dispersion interaction, as the band gaps are reduced. This result calls into question methods which invoke locality assumptions in deriving dispersion interactions between extended small-gap systems.

Misquitta, Alston J.; Spencer, James; Stone, Anthony J.; Alavi, Ali

2010-08-01

355

Research on the Insulation Design of a 154 kV Class HTS Power Cable and Termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 154 kV class high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system Is developing in Korea. For insulation design of this cable, the grading method of insulating paper is proposed. The electrical insulation material has been used two kind of laminated polypropylene paper (LPP) that has different thickness. The use of graded insulation gives improved mechanical bending properties of the cable. Also,

D. S. Kwag; H. G. Cheon; J. H. Choi; H. J. Kim; J. W. Cho; S. H. Kim

2007-01-01

356

HigHligHts and BreaktHrougHs Pauling's rules, in a world of non-spherical atoms  

E-print Network

HigHligHts and BreaktHrougHs Pauling's rules, in a world of non-spherical atoms roBert t. downs tenet of Pauling's Rules, which is that atoms are spheres of a single fixed size.Their analysis provides, explains the older ones. Keywords: Electron density distribution, Paulings rules, non-spherical atoms Jerry

Downs, Robert T.

357

100 kA Record Current for HTS Conductor "A conductor current of 100,000 A is  

E-print Network

conductor is 303 kA for a cable-in-conduit (CIC)-type conductor fabricated in 1990 using LTS strands of Nb differently, this is the world record for current conveyed through a superconductor at a temperature above 4 K twisting and transposition of HTS tapes. "The twisting and transposition techniques are presently regarded

Davis, James C.

358

Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays  

DOEpatents

Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

Horowitz, Seymour M. (6525 Swainland Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Nesbitt, Dale D. (1712 Marin Ave., Berkeley, CA 94707)

1986-01-01

359

The HTS barcode checker pipeline, a tool for automated detection of illegally traded species from high-throughput sequencing data  

PubMed Central

Background Mixtures of internationally traded organic substances can contain parts of species protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). These mixtures often raise the suspicion of border control and customs offices, which can lead to confiscation, for example in the case of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). High-throughput sequencing of DNA barcoding markers obtained from such samples provides insight into species constituents of mixtures, but manual cross-referencing of results against the CITES appendices is labor intensive. Matching DNA barcodes against NCBI GenBank using BLAST may yield misleading results both as false positives, due to incorrectly annotated sequences, and false negatives, due to spurious taxonomic re-assignment. Incongruence between the taxonomies of CITES and NCBI GenBank can result in erroneous estimates of illegal trade. Results The HTS barcode checker pipeline is an application for automated processing of sets of 'next generation’ barcode sequences to determine whether these contain DNA barcodes obtained from species listed on the CITES appendices. This analytical pipeline builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for BLAST matching against the NCBI GenBank reference database and for taxonomic name reconciliation. In a single operation, reads are converted into taxonomic identifications matched with names on the CITES appendices. By inclusion of a blacklist and additional names databases, the HTS barcode checker pipeline prevents false positives and resolves taxonomic heterogeneity. Conclusions The HTS barcode checker pipeline can detect and correctly identify DNA barcodes of CITES-protected species from reads obtained from TCM samples in just a few minutes. The pipeline facilitates and improves molecular monitoring of trade in endangered species, and can aid in safeguarding these species from extinction in the wild. The HTS barcode checker pipeline is available at https://github.com/naturalis/HTS-barcode-checker. PMID:24502833

2014-01-01

360

Global Roads Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): South America  

E-print Network

0 1,000 Km Global Roads Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): South America)/University of Georgia. 2013. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1). Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set

Columbia University

361

Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): Oceania Global Roads  

E-print Network

Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1): Oceania Global Roads GDA 1994 Australia. 2013. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1). Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/groads-global-roads-open-access-v1

Columbia University

362

A minimum column density of 1 g cm22 for massive  

E-print Network

LETTERS A minimum column density of 1 g cm22 for massive star formation Mark R. Krumholz1--have not yet been determined. Here we show that only clouds with column densities of at least 1 g cm22 can- lar initial mass function that it implies, naturally explain the char- acteristic column densities

Ahlers, Guenter

363

Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma.

Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.

2012-10-01

364

Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program  

SciTech Connect

At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

1982-12-01

365

Induced EMF in a coil of wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple set up consisting of a coil of wire and a magnet to visualize induced EMF. First, students move a coil of wire near a magnet and observe the voltage that results. They then experiment with moving the wire, magnet, and a second, current carrying coil. Students connect the coil to a circuit and the current from the induced EMF charges a conductor.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

366

Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

Hunt, James B.

1990-01-01

367

Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

McDaniels, Steven J.

2005-01-01

368

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

2004-01-01

369

Hot-Wire Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by a hot-wire generator at atmospheric pressure using a gold-platinum composite wire. At low gas flow velocities the nanoparticles were found to be agglomerates of partially sintered primary particles. By reducing the tube size via the insertion of a nozzle with a throat diameter of 3 mm, the hot-wire generator was found to produce small (<10

Adam M. Boies; Pingyan Lei; Steven Calder; Weon Gyu Shin; Steven L. Girshick

2011-01-01

370

Proposed silicon wire interleaver structure.  

PubMed

A Ring-resonator Mach-Zehnder interferometer (RR-MZI) optical interleaver structure comprising a ring resonator (RR) and a 3 dB directional coupler is proposed. The interleaver is fabricated with 300 nm x 300 nm silicon wires on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The fabricated interleaver demonstrates a flat-top spectral response, and the measured free spectral range (FSR) is approximately 20 nm. The insertion loss (IL) of the device is approximately -10 dB and the polarization dependent loss (PDL) <5 dB. Both the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. PMID:18545495

Song, Junfeng; Fang, Q; Tao, S H; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

2008-05-26

371

Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

372

MACHINING STABILITY OF WIRE EDM OF TITANIUM.  

E-print Network

??This work presents an experimental investigation of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) of titanium alloy. The outstanding characteristics of titanium alloys such as their compatibility and… (more)

Nourbakhsh, Farnaz

2012-01-01

373

Modeling and measurements of circular and trapezoidal shape HTS coils for electrical machines applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial Flux Electrical Machines (AFEM) with good power-to-weight and diameter-to-length ratio and high efficiency are very attractive for most industrial and power applications. Investigations with both theoretical and experimental methods of ac losses are important for a reliable prediction of dissipation mechanisms in AFEM. In this paper, simulated and measured results for both critical current (Ic) and transport current losses (Ploss), obtained on HTS coils, are reported. To investigate shape effects, double pancake coils with variable turns and shapes have been manufacted. Commercial grade ReBa2Cu3O7-x (Re = Y or rare earths, ReBCO) tape and epoxy resin has been used for coil winding. A magneto-static 2D finite element model (FEM) for the coils cross section, and a lumped model for AC losses estimations, have been implemented. The agreement among measured and simulated results are satisfactory.

Messina, G.; Morici, L.; Besi Vetrella, U.; Celentano, G.; Marchetti, M.; Viola, R.; Sabatino, P.

2014-05-01

374

DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (?Bz/?x, ?Bz/?y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

2014-05-01

375

Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

376

Intermodulation distortion characteristics of a 4 GHz-band HTS microstrip-disk filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the 3rd intermodulation distortion (IMD3) characteristics of high- Tc superconducting (HTS) microstrip TM 11-mode disk filters with conventional and proposed resonator-structures for 4 GHz-band applications. The electromagnetic simulation results implied that the proposed structure had lower IMD3 than the conventional structures. The experimental filter sample designed with a center frequency ( fC) of 4 GHz and bandpass characteristic were prepared using YBCO films on the both sides of MgO(1 0 0) substrates. As the measurement results around 4 GHz band, there is a temperature range for which the IMD3 is less than -50 dBc at 10 W input power.

Yamanaka, Kazunori; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Kai, Manabu; Nakanishi, Teru

2006-10-01

377

Thermodynamic design of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic design of Brayton cryocooler is presented as part of an ongoing governmental project in Korea, aiming at 1 km HTS power cable in the transmission grid. The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling liquid nitrogen from 72 K to 65 K. An ideal Brayton cycle for this application is first investigated to examine the fundamental features. Then a practical cycle for a Brayton cryocooler is designed, taking into account the performance of compressor, expander, and heat exchangers. Commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) is used for simulating the refrigeration cycle with real fluid properties of refrigerant. Helium is selected as a refrigerant, as it is superior to neon in thermodynamic efficiency. The operating pressure and flow rate of refrigerant are decided with a constraint to avoid the freezing of liquid nitrogen

Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, C. W.; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Lim, Ji Hyun; Oh, S. R.; Hwang, Si Dole

2012-06-01

378

Investigation of ablation and implosion dynamics in linear wire arrays  

SciTech Connect

Ablation and implosion dynamics were investigated by optical probing in linear wire arrays of different geometry. Formation of ablation jets begins on the outermost wires. In the beginning of implosion plasma bubbles arise in breaks on the outer wires. Implosion bubbles move to the next wire in the array and hit the plasma column with the speed >250 km/s. Imploding plasma moves to the center of the array cascading from wire to wire. Configuration of magnetic fields in the linear array can be changed by variation of wire spacing. The regimes of ablation and implosion in the wire arrays are found to differ with different wire spacing.

Ivanov, V. V.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Haboub, A.; Sarkisov, G. E.; Presura, R.; Cowan, T. E. [University of Nevada, Reno, 5625 Fox Avenue, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States); Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); University of Nevada, Reno, 5625 Fox Avenue, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States)

2007-03-15

379

Electrical evaluation of the AC losses in a BSCCO cable with an HTS shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, a high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable has a conductor and a shield encircling it. This structure causes electrical evaluation of AC loss in the HTS cable to be very difficult. Thus it is not clear yet. Using two voltage leads attached to the conductor and shield, respectively, we evaluated not only their AC loss but also the cable’s total loss. To experimentally elucidate our electrical evaluation presented in this work, first we measured the total loss of the 100 m/22.9 kV BSCCO cable by calorimetry, especially around 77 K. Besides the same 5 m cable sample as above, another cable model with a thin insulator was also tested electrically, and they were compared with two numerical models: a non-twisted polygon model and a twisted cylinder model. The results show that, according to the insulator thickness between a conductor and a shield, their magnetic interaction becomes very different. For the 100 and 5 m cables, their normalized total AC losses measured from calorimetry and electrical evaluation correspond well to each other, regardless of operating temperatures. Moreover, the numerical analysis shows that the total AC losses measured for the 5 m sample and cable model fit with the numerically calculated ones. Besides, the conductor’s AC losses measured for both the cables agree well with the numerical ones, regardless of their insulator thickness. This is because a conductor in an actual cable is inside a shield, and so does not receive any effect of the shield’s magnetic field. These experimental and theoretical results support the view that our electrical evaluation for the total and conductor losses is reliable. However, unlike the results for the total and conductor losses, the shield’s experimental loss is not in good agreement with any of the theoretical ones from either the non-twisted polygon model or the twisted cylinder model.

Ryu, K.; Li, Z. Y.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-02-01

380

Differences between two definitions of the critical current of HTS coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definition of the critical current of a coil made of anisotropic high temperature superconducting conductor is rather complicated and ambiguous, since the magnetic field generated across the winding can differ considerably in relation to both its magnitude and orientation. Two definitions of the critical current of such coils are discussed. The first definition, very often used in calculations to analyze the current carrying capacity, electric field and power dissipation of individual turns, represents an operating current at which an electric field of 1 ?V cm-1 appears on one turn. The second definition represents an integral approach, and is used in experiments. This definition introduces the critical current of the coil as an operating current at which an average electric field Es, usually 0.1 ?V cm-1, appears on coil terminals. As an example, the distribution of the critical current and electric field of individual turns in the winding of a BSCCO model coil was analyzed. Critical currents of the coil as a function of an external magnetic field parallel with the coil axis were calculated according to both definitions. The results show that the first definition, which characterizes the winding at the local level, is suitable for HTS coils either operating in self-field or in a low external field, because the differences between the critical currents and n-indices of individual turns are considerable. The second criterion is suitable for the HTS coils operating in high fields, i.e. like high field insert coils. The self-field of a high field insert coil is negligible if the external field is high. As a result, the critical currents of all turns are almost identical, and the anisotropy in Ic(B) characteristic plays practically no role. Rather unexpected behavior of the voltage-current characteristic of the model coil is predicted if an external field is applied.

Pitel, Jozef

2013-12-01

381

Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

2009-01-01

382

a Wire Tension Meter for the LHCb Muon Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire tension meter has been developed for the multiwire chambers of the LHCb muon detector. The wire tension is deduced from its mechanical resonance frequency. In the LHCb muon chambers, the wires are electrically connected in group of 14, so that the wire excitation method based on the interaction between a current sent into a wire and an external

A. Buccheri; E. Dané; A. Frenkel; G. Martellotti; A. Medvedkov; A. Pelosi; G. Penso; D. Pinci; G. Pirozzi; M. Dwuznik; A. Kachtchouk; B. Schmidt; G. Felici; C. Forti; V. V. Kulikov; A. Nedosekin

2004-01-01

383

Improving humidity bond reliability of copper bonding wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in Cu wire bonding for LSI interconnection due to cost savings and better electrical and mechanical properties. Conventional bare Cu bonding wires, in general, are severely limited in their use compared to Au wires. A coated Cu bonding wire (EX1) has been developed for LSI application. EX1 is a Pd-coated Cu wire to enhance the bondability.

Tomohiro Uno; Takashi Yamada

2010-01-01

384

The mechanical behavior of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model for simulating the mechanical response of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core is presented. The rope is subjected to both an axial load and an axial torque. In contrast with previous models that consider the effective response of wound strands, the present model fully considers the double-helix configuration of individual wires within the wound

D. Elata; R. Eshkenazy; M. P. Weiss

2004-01-01

385

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section...Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each...

2013-10-01

386

49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 234.239 Section...Maintenance Standards § 234.239 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire...

2010-10-01

387

Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

None

2012-01-01

388

Ultra-flexible biomedical electrodes and wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soft, flexible electrode conforms to body contour during body motion. It is fabricated from an elastomer impregnated with a conductive powder which can be configured into any required shape, including a wire shape to connect the electrode directly to an electrical instrument or to a conventional metallic wire.

Rositano, S. A.

1970-01-01

389

Corrosion and biocompatibility of orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of orthodontic treatments using devices containing nickel and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the average population, biocompatibility studies of these devices have become a topic of major interest. The corrosion behavior of orthodontic wires is a decisive factor determining their biocompatibility. Therefore four nickel–titanium guiding arches, a titanium–molybdenum and a stainless steel wire were

F. Widu; D. Drescher; R. Junker; C. Bourauel

1999-01-01

390

Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

1989-01-01

391

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning  

E-print Network

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning Andreas Thor Winther, Wei Liu, Alberto, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Abstract--Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI cir- cuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length

Nannarelli, Alberto

392

Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics  

DOEpatents

A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (E. Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

1982-01-01

393

Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics  

DOEpatents

A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

1982-01-01

394

Vibrating Wire Loop and the Bohr Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

PASCO scientific1 has designed a vibration apparatus that includes a mechanical driver used to excite vibrations in various systems. One of these is a circular wire loop, which PASCO suggests can be used as a visual representation of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. In this paper we investigate the similarity between the wire loop and the Bohr atom.

Danning Bloom; Dan W. Bloom

2003-01-01

395

Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.  

SciTech Connect

Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

2008-10-01

396

Strength and Fatigue Life of Wire Rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented that predicts the fatigue life of a large diameter wire rope, from test data for small diameter rope. Dimensional analysis and the technique of interpolation and extrapolation are employed. The method is applied first to study size effects on the breaking strength of wire ropes and then to predict fatigue strength. Results are compared with experimental

Chi-Hui Chien; Raymond A. LeClair; George A. Costello

1988-01-01

397

Temperature rise in wire-drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high speeds in the wire-drawing process to meet the demands for increased productivity has a great effect on the heat generated due to plastic deformation and friction between the wire and the drawing tools. Most of the mechanical energy converts to heat and results in temperature rises of the order of hundreds of degrees. This temperature rise

Aly El-Domiaty; Sadek Z. Kassab

1998-01-01

398

Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

399

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

400

Diamond-Coated Wire-Feeding Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hard vacuum-deposited film improves nozzle properties. Tip and bore surfaces of proposed nozzle for feeding wire for gas/tungsten arc welding coated with film of synthetic diamond. Film gives nozzle following advantages: lower friction, thermal conductivity, less wear, electrical isolation of wire from nozzle, and high resistance to corrosion.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

1991-01-01

401

Plastic deformation of 2D crumpled wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected through channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper this packing process is investigated but using plastic wires which give rise to completely irreversible structures of

M A F Gomes; V P Brito; A S O Coelho; C C Donato

2008-01-01

402

Butt welder for fine gage wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device welds fine gage wire 0.001-in. in diameter. It permits welding of thermocouple junctions of the same size with straight sections adjacent to the junctions. Electrode arrangement provides constant pressure on the joint during welding while fully supporting the wires to prevent buckling or movement.

Kabana, W. B.

1970-01-01

403

Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 in the formation of postburn hypertrophic scar (HTS).  

PubMed

Recent data support the involvement of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in the homing of bone marrow-derived stem cells to wound sites during skeletal, myocardial, vascular, lung, and skin wound repair as well as some fibrotic disorders via its receptor CXCR4. In this study, the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in the formation of hypertrophic scar (HTS) following burn injury and after treatment with systemic interferon ?2b (IFN?2b) is investigated. Studies show SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was up-regulated in burn patients, including SDF-1 level in HTS tissue and serum as well as CD14+ CXCR4+ cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In vitro, dermal fibroblasts constitutively expressed SDF-1 and deep dermal fibroblasts expressed more SDF-1 than superficial fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide increased SDF-1 gene expression in fibroblasts. Also, recombinant SDF-1 and lipopolysaccharide stimulated fibroblast-conditioned medium up-regulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell mobility. In the burn patients with HTS who received subcutaneous IFN?2b treatment, increased SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was found prior to treatment which was down-regulated after IFN?2b administration, coincident with enhanced remodeling of their HTS. Our results suggest that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling is involved in the development of HTS by promoting migration of activated CD14+ CXCR4+ cells from the bloodstream to wound sites, where they may differentiate into fibrocyte and myofibroblasts and contribute to the development of HTS. PMID:22092795

Ding, Jie; Hori, Keijiro; Zhang, Rainny; Marcoux, Yvonne; Honardoust, Dariush; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

2011-01-01

404

49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

2011-10-01

405

49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

2013-10-01

406

49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

2010-10-01

407

49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

2012-10-01

408

30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

2013-07-01

409

30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

2014-07-01

410

30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

2011-07-01

411

30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

2012-07-01

412

30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a)...

2010-07-01

413

77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of...of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the...entitled Galvanized Steel Wire from China and Mexico: Investigation Nos....

2012-05-14

414

76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of...injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided...of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective...

2011-05-20

415

Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

1970-01-01

416

Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

1977-01-01

417

30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

2012-07-01

418

30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

2010-07-01

419

30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires...

2011-07-01

420

21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section...4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended...be inserted into fractured jaw bone segments to prevent their...

2011-04-01

421

21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section...4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended...be inserted into fractured jaw bone segments to prevent their...

2013-04-01

422

21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section...4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended...be inserted into fractured jaw bone segments to prevent their...

2014-04-01

423

21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section...4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended...be inserted into fractured jaw bone segments to prevent their...

2010-04-01

424

21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section...4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended...be inserted into fractured jaw bone segments to prevent their...

2012-04-01

425

Unusual Conductance in Cumulene Molecular Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report current-voltage curves and conductance of cumulene molecular wire suspended between Au(111) surfaces via thiolate bonds with full self-consistent ab initio calculation under external bias. The conductance of cumulene wires shows oscillatory behavior depending on the number of carbon atoms. Among all conjugated oligomers, we find that odd-number cumulene wires yield the highest conductance and present ballistic-like transport behavior. The reason has been traced to two factors: high density of state at the Fermi level, and the alignment of molecular orbital closed to Fermi level. Since the conductance depends weakly on applied bias, and the current voltage characteristic is linear under bias region -0.9 to 0.9 V, odd-number cumulene wire is a possible candidate as a near- perfect, ballistic one-dimensional molecular wire.

Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Grigoriev, Anton; Wendin, Göran; Ahuja, Rajeev

2009-03-01

426

Wire-free fixation of jaw fractures.  

PubMed

Stainless steel wire is often used in the management of jaw fractures to provide intraoperative or postoperative intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Wiring of the jaws is time-consuming, a second procedure is needed to remove it, and needlestick injuries occur during placement. We report on 151 consecutive patients who had wire-free fixation of jaw fractures, and outline the value of a system of plastic anchorage points applied to individual teeth in both jaws that allows for wire-free IMF when they are linked by elastics (Rapid IMF, Synthes, PA, USA). A total of 150 successive patients had wire-free fixation of 146 mandibular and 5 maxillary fractures. Ninety-eight were hand-held in occlusion, and 52 were treated using Rapid IMF. There were few complications. PMID:19608310

Cousin, G C S

2009-10-01

427

Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

Colozza, Anthony

2010-01-01

428

Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

Thomas, Walter, III

2006-01-01

429

Intrathoracic migration of a Kirschner wire  

PubMed Central

Kirschner (K) wires can easily migrate, resulting in serious complications. We report a 49-year-old woman who had a rare and late complication related to the migration of K wire. It had been used for left hip replacement 8 years ago. The patient admitted to our hospital with breathing-dependent chest pain and increasing dyspnea for ?2 h. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of a metallic image of ?5–6 cm in the right hemithorax. There was a large hemothorax but no pneumothorax. A right thoracotomy was performed and the wire was removed without complications. Surprisingly, no injury was noted to any intervening abdominal structure intra-operatively. Patients, who are treated with K wire, should be informed of the risk of wire migration and should undergo regular postoperative follow-ups including radiography. PMID:24876333

Özarslan, Fatma; Ar?kan, Osman; Acat, Murat; Ar?kan, Müge; Temel, Volkan

2014-01-01

430

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TRANS-NEPTUNIAN BODIES1 G. M. Bernstein and D. E. Trilling  

E-print Network

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TRANS-NEPTUNIAN BODIES1 G. M. Bernstein and D. E. Trilling Department, Philadelphia, PA 19104; garyb@physics.upenn.edu, trilling@astro.upenn.edu R. L. Allen Department of Physics

Brown, Michael E.

431

Single wire drift chamber design  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

Krider, J.

1987-03-30

432

Excited singlet molecular O2 (1?g) is generated enzymatically from excited carbonyls in the dark  

PubMed Central

In mammalian tissues, ultraweak chemiluminescence arising from biomolecule oxidation has been attributed to the radiative deactivation of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1?g)] and electronically excited triplet carbonyl products involving dioxetane intermediates. Herein, we describe evidence of the generation of O2 (1?g) in aqueous solution via energy transfer from excited triplet acetone. This involves thermolysis of 3,3,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2-dioxetane, a chemical source, and horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-methylpropanal, as an enzymatic source. Both sources of excited carbonyls showed characteristic light emission at 1,270?nm, directly indicative of the monomolecular decay of O2 (1?g). Indirect analysis of O2 (1?g) by electron paramagnetic resonance using the chemical trap 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine showed the formation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. Using [18O]-labeled triplet, ground state molecular oxygen [18O2 (3?g-)], chemical trapping of 18O2 (1?g) with disodium salt of anthracene-9,10-diyldiethane-2,1-diyl disulfate yielding the corresponding double-[18O]-labeled 9,10-endoperoxide, was detected through mass spectrometry. This corroborates formation of O2 (1?g). Altogether, photoemission and chemical trapping studies clearly demonstrate that chemically and enzymatically nascent excited carbonyl generates 18O2 (1?g) by triplet-triplet energy transfer to ground state oxygen O2 (3?g?), and supports the long formulated hypothesis of O2 (1?g) involvement in physiological and pathophysiological events that might take place in tissues in the absence of light. PMID:25087485

Mano, Camila M.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Massari, Júlio; Ronsein, Graziella E.; Martinez, Glaucia R.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Cadet, Jean; Sies, Helmut; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Bechara, Etelvino J. H.; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

433

Experimental Study of the Normal Zone Propagation Velocity in Double-layer 2G-HTS wires by Thermal and Electrical Methods  

E-print Network

anchored to a bulk copper immersed in a separate liquid nitrogen bath, whose temperature was measured by an additional thermocouple connected to a high precision cryogenic digital thermometer. The entire system was controlled using a LabVIEW platform...

Zhong, Z.; Ruiz, H. S.; Lai, L.; Huang, Z.; Wang, W.; Coombs, T.

2014-11-20

434

Lack of Association of the APOL1 G3 Haplotype in African Americans with ESRD.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 variants are strongly associated with progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry. Selection for these variants occurred as a result of protection from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Resequencing of this region in 10 genetically and geographically distinct African populations residing in HAT endemic regions identified eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strong linkage disequilibrium and comprising a novel G3 haplotype. To determine whether the APOL1 G3 haplotype was associated with nephropathy, G1, G2, and G3 SNPs and 70 ancestry informative markers spanning the genome were genotyped in 937 African Americans with nondiabetic ESRD, 965 African Americans with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1029 non-nephropathy controls. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, APOL1 G1/G2 risk (recessive), and global African ancestry, the G3 haplotype was not significantly associated with ESRD (P=0.05 for nondiabetic ESRD, P=0.57 for diabetes-associated ESRD, and P=0.27 for all-cause ESRD). We conclude that variation in APOL1 G3 makes a nominal, if any, contribution to ESRD in African Americans; G1 and G2 variants explain the vast majority of nondiabetic nephropathy susceptibility. PMID:25249559

Palmer, Nicholette D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Lea, Janice P; Okusa, Mark D; Kimberly, Robert P; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I

2014-09-23

435

Calculation of spectroscopic constants and radiative parameters for the A 1?{/u +}- X 1?{/g +} and B 1? u - X 1?{/g +} electronic transitions of the lithium dimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational, rotational, and centrifugal spectroscopic constants; radiative parameters (the Einstein coefficients, oscillator strengths, and Franck-Condon factors); the wave numbers of rotational lines of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions in the systems of bands A 1?{/u +}- X 1?{/g +} (0? v'?20,0? v??37, j'=20,40) and B 1? u - X 1?{/g +}(0? v'?10,0? v??25, j'=0,20,40,50); and the radiative lifetimes for the vibrational-rotational energy levels of excited states of the lithium dimer are calculated. Calculations are carried out on the basis of semiempirical potential curves constructed in this work. The calculated energy parameters and radiative lifetimes are compared to the experimental data and the theoretical values available in the literature.

Smirnov, A. D.

2012-10-01

436

Study - Radiation Shielding Effectiveness of the Prototyped High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) 'Artificial' Magnetosphere for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high temperature superconductor (HTS) is being used to develop the magnets for the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR ) propulsion system and may provide lightweight magnetic radiation shielding to protect spacecraft crews from radiation caused by GCR and SPEs on missions to Mars. A study is being planned to assess the radiation shielding effectiveness of the artificial magnetosphere produced by the HTS magnet. VASIMR is an advanced technology propulsion engine which is being touted as enabling one way transit to Mars in 90 days or less. This is extremely important to NASA. This technology would enable a significant reduction in the number of days in transit to and from Mars and significantly reduce the astronauts exposure to a major threat - high energy particles from solar storms and GCR during long term deep space missions. This paper summarizes the plans for the study and the subsequent testing of the VASIMR technology onboard the ISS slated for 2013.

Denkins, Pamela

2010-01-01

437

Isotropic round-wire multifilament cuprate superconductor for generation of magnetic fields above 30 T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnets are the principal market for superconductors, but making attractive conductors out of the high-temperature cuprate superconductors (HTSs) has proved difficult because of the presence of high-angle grain boundaries that are generally believed to lower the critical current density, Jc. To minimize such grain boundary obstacles, HTS conductors such as REBa2Cu3O7-x and (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x are both made as tapes with a high aspect ratio and a large superconducting anisotropy. Here we report that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) can be made in the much more desirable isotropic, round-wire, multifilament form that can be wound or cabled into arbitrary geometries and will be especially valuable for high-field NMR magnets beyond the present 1 GHz proton resonance limit of Nb3Sn technology. An appealing attribute of this Bi-2212 conductor is that, being without macroscopic texture, it contains many high-angle grain boundaries but nevertheless attains a very high Jc of 2,500 A mm-2 at 20 T and 4.2 K. The large potential of the conductor has been demonstrated by building a small coil that generated almost 2.6 T in a 31 T background field. This demonstration that grain boundary limits to high Jc can be practically overcome underlines the value of a renewed focus on grain boundary properties in non-ideal geometries.

Larbalestier, D. C.; Jiang, J.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Kametani, F.; Scheuerlein, C.; Dalban-Canassy, M.; Matras, M.; Chen, P.; Craig, N. C.; Lee, P. J.; Hellstrom, E. E.

2014-04-01

438

75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-686] In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire; Notice of Commission Determination...States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof,...

2010-09-30

439

In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops of an electroplating solution are placed on the substrate in the regions containing the channels thus formed, then the wires are electrodeposited from the solution onto the exposed portions of the electrodes and into the channels. The electrodeposition is a room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure process. The figure shows an example of palladium wires that were electrodeposited into 1-mm-wide channels between gold electrodes.

Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

2005-01-01

440

Detection of early stage damage in carbon fiber reinforced polymers for aeronautical applications using an HTS SQUID magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We present an experimental characterization of \\u000amultidirectional fibre composites based on eddy current testing using HTS dc \\u000aSQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers. The \\u000acorrelation between the mechanical tolerance of CFRPs with different \\u000athickness and the phase gradient of the magnetic field generated by damage \\u000ais shown. The eddy current based SQUID NDE is used to detect damage not \\u000avisible

C. Bonavolontà; G. Peluso; G. P. Pepe; M. Valentino

2004-01-01

441

Novel Patient Cell-Based HTS Assay for Identification of Small Molecules for a Lysosomal Storage Disease  

PubMed Central

Small molecules have been identified as potential therapeutic agents for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in proteins that result in lysosome dysfunctional. Some small molecules function assisting the folding of mutant misfolded lysosomal enzymes that are otherwise degraded in ER-associated degradation. The ultimate result is the enhancement of the residual enzymatic activity of the deficient enzyme. Most of the high throughput screening (HTS) assays developed to identify these molecules are single-target biochemical assays. Here we describe a cell-based assay using patient cell lines to identify small molecules that enhance the residual arylsulfatase A (ASA) activity found in patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a progressive neurodegenerative LSD. In order to generate sufficient cell lines for a large scale HTS, primary cultured fibroblasts from MLD patients were transformed using SV40 large T antigen. These SV40 transformed (SV40t) cells showed to conserve biochemical characteristics of the primary cells. Using a specific colorimetric substrate para-nitrocatechol sulfate (pNCS), detectable ASA residual activity were observed in primary and SV40t fibroblasts from a MLD patient (ASA-I179S) cultured in multi-well plates. A robust fluorescence ASA assay was developed in high-density 1,536-well plates using the traditional colorimetric pNCS substrate, whose product (pNC) acts as “plate fluorescence quencher” in white solid-bottom plates. The quantitative cell-based HTS assay for ASA generated strong statistical parameters when tested against a diverse small molecule collection. This cell-based assay approach can be used for several other LSDs and genetic disorders, especially those that rely on colorimetric substrates which traditionally present low sensitivity for assay-miniaturization. In addition, the quantitative cell-based HTS assay here developed using patient cells creates an opportunity to identify therapeutic small molecules in a disease-cellular environment where potentially disrupted pathways are exposed and available as targets. PMID:22216298

Ribbens, Jameson; Zheng, Wei; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc; Maegawa, Gustavo H. B.

2011-01-01

442

First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes

A Ballarino; J Fleiter; J Hurte; M Sitko; G Willering

2011-01-01

443

Benchmark of two quench simulation codes for the protection study of an high-field HTS insert dipole  

E-print Network

Research on possibilities in long-term LHC (Large Hadron Collider) upgrade include considerations on replacing the Nb-Ti dipoles with Nb3Sn outserts and inserts made of some high temperature superconductor (HTS) which outperforms conventional superconductors above 20 T. Regarding to this target, the WP7.4 (Very high field insert) in project EuCARD is to construct about 1 m long HTS dipole producing 6 T in background field of 13 T. Since the quench analysis of HTS coils is challenging e.g. due to slow propagation velocities and possibly ambiguous limit between the normal and superconducting state, two different strategies are developed in parallel to analyze the quench of the small prototype insert. The one is based on propagation velocities and the other on solving heat diffusion equation with finite element method. The very first steps of the development include benchmark calculations with the already existing programs for small Nb-Ti solenoid to guarantee similar starting points for the partners. After this...

Stenvall, A; Volpini, G; Mikkonen, R

2010-01-01

444

LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

445

Excitation Spectra of 1D Quantum Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk two different aspects of the excitation spectra of one dimensional (1D) semiconductor quantum wires will be discussed: (1) The nature of collective electronic excitations in 1D quantum wires; and (2) the band gap renormalization and excitonic effects in 1D quantum wires. In the first part, extensive theoretical results using the Bethe ansatz technique, the Lanczos' method, and the diagrammatic many-body theory will be presented for the spectral weight and the mode dispersion of the low-lying elementary electronic excitation spectra in 1D quantum wires with comparison to Raman Scattering experiments in GaAs quantum wires. Based on our detailed analytical and numerical results we conclude that the experimental observations are consistent with the existence of the collective charge density excitation mode, the collective spin density excitation mode, and a (low spectral weight) finite wave vector electron-hole single particle excitation mode (which arises from the finite curvature of the electron energy dispersion in the system). There is no evidence for a singlet spin density excitation mode in our calculations. In the second part, numerical solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for interband excitonic transitions in 1D quantum wires will be presented. An approximate cancellation between self-energy and vertex correction effects is obtained in our calculations, providing an explaination for the experimental observation of an unshifted excitonic peak in highly excited 1D quantum wire lasers.

Wang, Daw-Wei

1998-03-01

446

Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

1986-01-01

447

Behavior of large diameter wire ropes  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews the recent theoretical work of the present authors as regards the prediction of the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing axial/torsional coupling of large diameter wire ropes. The theoretical analysis is based on results from a previously reported orthotropic sheet model which enables one to obtain estimates of the coefficients in the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing the axial/torsional coupling of the constituent spiral strands. The proposed model can (unlike previously available theories for wire ropes) cater for the presence of interwire friction and the various wire rope stiffness coefficients corresponding to both no-slip and full-slip regimes can be calculated. The no-slip regime corresponds to cases when an axially preloaded wire rope experiences cyclic variations of external load which are small enough not to induce initiation of gross interwire slippage within the constituent spiral strands. For sufficiently large values of range/mean axial load ratios, on the other hand, gross interwire slippage takes place and the effects of interwire friction on wire rope stiffness coefficients will be negligibly small compared with the effects due to the force changes in the wires themselves. Theoretical models have been developed for two types of wire ropes, i.e., those with an independent wire rope core (IWRC) or the types with a fiber core: the salient features for both approaches are reviewed with an emphasis on the characteristics of various wire rope constructions. In addition, experimental results from other sources are found to provide encouraging support for the theoretical predictions in a number of areas.

Raoof, M. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom); Kraincanic, I. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

448

In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

2012-01-01

449

Copper Wire Bonding Concerns and Best Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper wire bonding of microelectronic parts has developed as a means to cut the costs of using the more mature technology of gold wire bonding. However, with this new technology, changes in the bonding processes as well as bonding metallurgy can affect product reliability. This paper discusses the challenges associated with copper wire bonding and the solutions that the industry has been implementing. The paper also provides information to enable customers to conduct qualification and reliability tests on microelectronic packages to facilitate adoption in their target applications.

Chauhan, Preeti; Zhong, Z. W.; Pecht, Michael

2013-08-01

450

Electron heating effects in diffusive metal wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the electron heating in metallic diffusive wires of varying length at liquid-helium temperature by measuring the electric noise. The local increase of the electron temperature can be essential already for small currents and is well described by a heat-diffusion equation for the electrons. Depending on the electron thermal conductance and the electron-phonon coupling in the wire, different length regimes are identified. The quantitative knowledge of the electron temperature is important for analysis of nonequilibrium effects involving current heating in mesoscopic wires.

Henny, M.; Birk, H.; Huber, R.; Strunk, C.; Bachtold, A.; Krüger, M.; Schönenberger, C.

1997-08-01

451

Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems  

SciTech Connect

The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

Burden, W.L.

1982-05-07

452

Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

Sawyer, C. R.

1994-01-01

453

Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires, and connectors, Medelius devised the SWR. "It came down to what was affected when a wire is short circuited or opened," he says. "We worked out a few equations based on physical principles." The SWR proved very sensitive, and the technology was patented.

2013-01-01

454

One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques: a historical review.  

PubMed

A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-1942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initially used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly influenced by the change in operative goals and by the introduction of antibiotics. The first versions of the Kirschner wire were hammered through a predrilled hole into the bone, but later on drilling became the standard technique of insertion. Drilling is considered a simple way of implanting, with many advantages, such as percutaneous and atraumatic insertion. However, this technique also has its disadvantages like temperature elevation, resulting in osteonecrosis and heat-related complications. Despite these complications the K-wire is now standard for the treatment of hand fractures, worldwide. PMID:20306956

Franssen, Bas B G M; Schuurman, Arnold H; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

2010-02-01

455

Wire rope research: Analysis of bending fatigue in a 2-inch IWRC wire rope  

SciTech Connect

A unique machine for inducing bending fatigue in wire ropes was built at the US Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Research Center. This machine can produce nine levels of degradation through repetitive cycling of long samples of wire ropes of the types used in the mining industry. This report provides an analysis of the results of the first wire rope to be fatigued on this machine. These results have indicated that as a wire rope accumulates bending cycles, its strength first decreases because of wear and then increases due to cold working of the wires. As the amount of cold working increases, more and more of the embrittled wires break and the strength of the rope decreases rapidly. In this test, application of several of the regulatory retirement criteria to various sections of the rope suggests that there may be some inconsistency among them.

Miscoe, A.J.; McKewan, W.M.

1993-01-01

456

Chemically etched modulation in wire radius for wire array Z-pinch perturbation studies  

SciTech Connect

A technique for manufacturing wires with imposed modulation in radius with axial wavelengths as short as 1 mm is presented. Extruded aluminum 5056 with 15 {mu}m diameter was masked and chemically etched to reduce the radius by {approx}20% in selected regions. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the modulation in radius is a step function with a {approx}10 {mu}m wide conical transition between thick and thin segments, with some pitting in etched regions. Techniques for mounting and aligning these wires in arrays for fast z-pinch experiments will be discussed. Axially mass-modulated wire arrays of this type will allow the study of seeded Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in z pinches, corona formation, wire initiation with varying current density in the wire core, and correlation of perturbations between adjacent wires. This tool will support magnetohydrodynamics code validation in complex three-dimensional geometries, and perhaps x-ray pulse shaping.

Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; McKenney, J.L.; Garrity, J.E.; Lobley, D.K.; Martin, K.L.; Griego, A.E.; Ramacciotti, J.P.; Bland, S.N.; Lebedev, S.V.; Bott, S.C.; Ampleford, D.J.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Rapley, J.; Hall, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2004-11-01

457

Chemically etched modulation in wire radius for wire array Z-pinch perturbation studies.  

SciTech Connect

A technique for manufacturing wires with imposed modulation in radius with axial wavelengths as short as 1 mm is presented. Extruded aluminum 5056 with 15 {micro}m diameter was masked and chemically etched to reduce the radius by {approx}20% in selected regions. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the modulation in radius is a step function with a {approx}10 {micro}m wide conical transition between thick and thin segments, with some pitting in etched regions. Techniques for mounting and aligning these wires in arrays for fast z-pinch experiments will be discussed. Axially mass-modulated wire arrays of this type will allow the study of seeded Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in z pinches, corona formation, wire initiation with varying current density in the wire core, and correlation of perturbations between adjacent wires. This tool will support magnetohydrodynamics code validation in complex three-dimensional geometries, and perhaps x-ray pulse shaping.

Bland, Simon Nicholas (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Lebedev, S. V. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Hall, G. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Ramacciotti, J. P. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Griego, A. E. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Lobley, Dennis Keith (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Martin, K. L. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Ampleford, David J. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); McKenney, John Lee; Bott, S. C. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Garrity, James Emmett (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Jones, B.; Rapley, J. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Deeney, Christopher; Palmer, J. B. A. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK)

2004-06-01

458

Mechanical and electric characteristics of vacuum impregnated no-insulation HTS coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the conduction cooling application, epoxy impregnation is inevitable to enhance the thermal conduction. However, there have been several research results on the delamination problem with coated conductor and the main cause of the delamination is related with the different thermal contraction between epoxy, the insulation layer and the weak conductor. To avoid this problem, the amount of epoxy and insulation layer between conductors should be minimized or removed. Therefore, no insulation (NI) winding method and impregnation after dry winding can be considered to solve the problem. The NI coil winding method is very attractive due to high mechanical/thermal stability for the special purpose of DC magnets by removing the insulation layer. In this paper, the NI coil winding method and vacuum impregnation are applied to a HTS coil to avoid the delamination problem and enhance the mechanical/thermal stability for the conduction cooling application. Through the charging/discharging operation, electric/thermal characteristics are investigated at 77 K and 30 K.

Park, Heecheol; Kim, A.-rong; Kim, Seokho; Park, Minwon; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Taejun

2014-09-01

459

Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator with slit-type heat exchangers for HTS superconducting motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic refrigeration system is one of the indispensable components for cooling superconducting motor or generator. Among various configurations of cryogenic refrigeration system, the on-board refrigeration system is considered to be attractive for compactness and small heat leak. In order to turn this concept into reality, we focus on two essential points; development of the specific structure for on-board refrigeration and optimal design of the refrigerator. Since the on-board refrigeration system should not create unbalanced vibration, the inline Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is considered as a good candidate and more concrete and efficient structure is developed under the design constraints. The dynamic absorber is used to maintain the dynamic stability of the single acting linear compressor. To increase thermal Carnot efficiency with the on-board Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator, slit-type heat exchangers are implemented and flow straighteners are carefully designed by the three-dimensional CFD simulation. The overall configuration of the Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is designed and fabricated by the optimal process. The present on-board refrigerator has the cooling capacity of 7 W at 59.5 K with the Carnot efficiency of 10.9%. According to these experimental results, the pulse tube refrigerator as the on-board refrigeration system possesses a sufficient thermal efficiency despite the restricted design configuration. The on-board refrigeration is considered as a useful method for cooling HTS superconducting motor.

Ki, Taekyung; Jeong, Sangkwon

2011-06-01

460

Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge’s superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.

Ainslie, M. D.; Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T. J.; Coombs, T. A.

2010-11-01

461

Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

2013-01-01

462

Thermosyphon Cooling System for the Siemens 400kW HTS Synchronous Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial GM cryocooler is employed to cool the rotor of the first Siemens 400 kW HTS machine. Excellent thermal connection between cold head and rotor is achieved using a thermosyphon. At the rotor's inner surface the required cooling power is provided by evaporating fluid, that is recondensed at the coldhead. Our configuration allows an easy mechanical decoupling of the stationary cold head and the rotor, using a magnetic liquid rotary seal. In order to shorten cool-down time, a precool to 70 K is done with a thermosyphon filling of nitrogen, while a motor operating temperature of 25 K is reached using neon. Temperature difference between the thermosyphon's cold and warm ends is below 1 K for a heat transfer of 40 W. During operation, a temperature controller stabilizes condenser temperature and hence rotor temperature. The self-regulating cooling system has been operated continuously and without problems since Spring 2001. The machine was also operated with newly developed pulse-tube cryocoolers, that are in development to take benefit of their expected prolonged service intervals.

Frank, M.; Frauenhofer, J.; Gromoll, B.; van Haßelt, P.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumüller, H.-W.; Häfner, H.-U.; Thummes, G.

2004-06-01

463

Analysis of the anisotropic critical current behaviour of HTS coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to generate fields of more than 20 T using pure superconducting magnets, the implementation of HTS coated conductors (CCs) is an option. Amongst the characteristics of the REBCO is its intrinsic anisotropy which means its critical current, Ic, varies as a function of its orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, phi, as well as being dependent on external field, B, and temperature, T. For the design of the high field insert coils for the experimental magnet facility HOMER II, the behaviour of Ic at fields of about 24 T and at phi approximately 80 ° is required. Within our JUMBO facility it is possible to measure the U(I) behaviour of commercial CCs at liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The free bore available is 100 mm at 4.2 K; the applied magnetic field can be varied up to 10 T, and phi can be set between 0 and 180 °. Measurements were carried out on commercially available CCs with emphasis on phi values near to 90 °. The critical current was determined by means of a power law function fitted to the resulting U(I) curves using specially written Matlab® programs. A number of different three dimensional functions were fitted to the measurement data and compared with each other.

Leys, P. M.; Klaeser, M.; Schleissinger, F.; Schneider, Th

2014-05-01

464

Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current ( Ic) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

Yagi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Mukoyama, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

2009-10-01

465

Transient thermal analysis of a tri-axial HTS cable on fault current condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) tri-axial cable, which consists of three concentric phases, was developed as a potential commercial solution for next generation distribution power network. In our previous research, we simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable by solving the heat equation using one-dimension difference method. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer after a fault. However for a long cable system, when middle phase in concentric structure is rated under an over current, accumulated heat from middle phase might continually warm up the liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow by heat transfer even the over current has been stopped. In this research, we improve the numerically calculation which includes the consideration of flowing liquid nitrogen and the heat transfer in both radius and longitudinal directions. A long tri-axial cable system thermal stability is discussed based on the calculation results.

Hu, N.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Song, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

2013-11-01

466

Recent Development Status of Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler for HTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

Hiratsuka, Y.; Nakano, K.; Kato, T.

2014-05-01

467

Development of a coreless HTS synchronous generator operating at sub-cooled liquid nitrogen temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the current design concepts for a 100kW high temperature superconducting synchronous generator currently being designed at the University of Southampton, UK. The new generator will use the same conventional 2-pole 3-phase stator that was used in the HTS synchronous generator previously constructed at Southampton. The windings consist of 18 pancake coils made from BiPb2223 superconducting tape with a nominal current of 180A at 77K, provided by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Tests were performed to determine the mechanical strain limits of the tape. The rotor has no central core, but magnetic pole pieces are used to improve the waveform of the generator. The coils are separated by magnetic diverter rings to reduce the normal field in the tape. The coils and diverter rings are supported by fibreglass formers that extend to the centre of the rotor so that they can be located by the through bolts that hold the stack together. A stainless steel tube encapsulates the rotor to provide a chamber for liquid nitrogen to flood the rotor.

Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Bailey, W.; Beduz, C.; Goddard, K.; Yang, Y.

2008-02-01

468

Results of the test of a pair of 20 kA HTS currents leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being set up by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. CRPP has designed and manufactured a pair of 20 kA current leads for the powering of the outer superconducting coils of the hybrid magnet system. In connection with the test of joints for JT60SA, the current leads were tested at ENEA at low voltage up to a current of 18 kA. The mass flow rates required to cool the current leads at different currents measured in the test are in line with the design calculations. For the sum of the resistances of the warm and cold end copper contacts of the HTS module values of 13 (Lead A) and 11 n? (Lead B) were measured. In addition, the helium flow through the heat exchanger part was stopped at 10 and 12 kA to study the behaviour of the current leads in case of a loss of flow. The time elapsed between stopping of the helium mass flow and the initiation of a quench was found to be 117 s (Lead A) and 125 s (Lead B) compared to a calculated value of 86 s. The lower value obtained by the calculation can be attributed to the lower initial temperatures in the experiment.

Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Affinito, L.; Chiarelli, S.; Freda, R.; Formichetti, A.; Marchetti, M.; Ehmler, H.; Heinrich, J.; Smeibidl, P.

2014-05-01

469

Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1˜3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

2014-01-01

470

Wiring test program insulation material related properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of activities at DASA-RI concerning the testing of wires for manned spacecraft, including test facilities, arc-tracking tests, flammability tests, microgravity tests, and standardization, and outlines future activities.

Reher, Heinz-Josef

1995-01-01

471

Printed wiring board system programmer's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The printed wiring board system provides automated techniques for the design of printed circuit boards and hybrid circuit boards. The system consists of four programs: (1) the preprocessor program combines user supplied data and pre-defined library data to produce the detailed circuit description data; (2) the placement program assigns circuit components to specific areas of the board in a manner that optimizes the total interconnection length of the circuit; (3) the organizer program assigns pin interconnections to specific board levels and determines the optimal order in which the router program should attempt to layout the paths connecting the pins; and (4) the router program determines the wire paths which are to be used to connect each input pin pair on the circuit board. This document is intended to serve as a programmer's reference manual for the printed wiring board system. A detailed description of the internal logic and flow of the printed wiring board programs is included.

Brinkerhoff, C. D.

1973-01-01

472

Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners  

SciTech Connect

This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

2013-06-01

473

Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

2011-07-01

474

Cumulene molecular wire conductance from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first principles calculations of current-voltage characteristics (IVC) and conductance of Au(111):S2 -cumulene- S2:Au(111) molecular wire junctions with realistic contacts. The transport properties are calculated using full self-consistent ab initio nonequilibrium Green’s function density-functional theory methods under external bias. The conductance of the cumulene wires shows oscillatory behavior depending on the number of carbon atoms (double bonds). Among all conjugated oligomers, we find that cumulene wires with odd number of carbon atoms yield the highest conductance with metalliclike ballistic transport behavior. The reason is the high density of states in broad lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels spanning the Fermi level of the electrodes. The transmission spectrum and the conductance depend only weakly on applied bias, and the IVC is nearly linear over a bias region of ±1V . Cumulene wires are therefore potential candidates for metallic connections in nanoelectronic applications.

Prasongkit, J.; Grigoriev, A.; Wendin, G.; Ahuja, Rajeev

2010-03-01

475

t matrix of metallic wire structures  

SciTech Connect

To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

Zhan, T. R., E-mail: phystrzhan@gmail.com; Chui, S. T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2014-04-14

476

Evaluation of Wiring Constructions for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) program to develop lightweight, reliable, and safe wiring insulations for aerospace applications is being performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). As part of this effort, a new wiring construction utilizing high strength PTFE (poly tetrafluoroethylene) as the insulation has been tested and compared with the existing military standard polyimide-based MIL-W-81381 wire construction. Electrical properties which were investigated included ac corona inception and extinction voltages (sea level and 60,000 feet), time/current to smoke, and wire fusing time. The two constructions were also characterized in terms of their mechanical properties of flexural strength, abrasion resistance (23 C and 150 C), and dynamic cut-through (23 C and 200 C). The results obtained in this testing effort are presented and discussed in this paper.

Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Stavnes, Mark W.; Dickman, John E.; Burkhardt, Linda A.; Woodford, Lynn M.; Ide, James R.; Muegge, ED

1994-01-01

477

O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) charge exchange with simple ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X^3? -_g and a1?g states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O2(a1?g) and the cations O+, CO+, Ar+, and N_2^+, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O2 reacting with the atomic ions Ar+, Kr+, Xe+, Cl+, and Br+. The T-shaped orientation of the (X - O2)+ potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b^1? ^+_g. The calculated rate constants for both O_2(X^3? -_g) and O2(a1?g) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O2, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O2(a1?g) are similar to those for O_2(X^3? -_g) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O2(a1?g) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O2 have about the same attractive interactions with ions.

Zió?kowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak

2014-06-01

478

Note: Improved wire-wound heater.  

PubMed

The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats. PMID:25638134

Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

2015-01-01

479

Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at

Jun Qu; Albert J. Shih; Ron O. Scattergood; Samuel B. McSpadden

480

Fabrication of terahertz wire-grid polarizers.  

PubMed

Wire-grid polarizers for terahertz region were fabricated by manufacturing triangular grating using a ruling-based, ultraprecision diamond machining process and replicating the pattern into polymethylpentene (TPX) and cyklo-olefin copolymer (COC) sheets using hot embossing. On top of the imprinted structures, aluminum was evaporated in an oblique angle, forming an aluminum wire grid. The achieved extinction rate was over 150 for TPX polarizers and near 1000 for COC polarizers. PMID:23262530

Partanen, Anni; Väyrynen, Juha; Hassinen, Sami; Tuovinen, Hemmo; Mutanen, Jarkko; Itkonen, Tommi; Silfsten, Pertti; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Kuittinen, Markku; Mönkkönen, Kari; Venäläinen, Tapani

2012-12-10

481

Note: Improved wire-wound heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

2015-01-01

482

Wear mechanisms in a nonrotating wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonrotating wire rope used in mine hoist operations is being examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to determine operative\\u000a wear mechanisms. Typically, bending and loading the ropes during service cause small, localized movements at interwire contacts,\\u000a leading to material loss through wear: The cumulative effect of both material loss by wear and wire breakage by fatigue failure\\u000a accelerates

K. K. Schrems; C. P. Dogan; J. A. Hawk

1995-01-01

483

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

484

Phase Modulation Device Using Amorphous Short Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new phase-modulation device with simple structure and high reliability was constructed using a short amorphous wire. A high-frequency ac current (carrier) and a signal current are simultaneously passed through the wire, which undergoes the large Barkhausen effect when the circumferential flux changes. Highly linear modulation characteristics were obtained up to 0.67¿ using a triangular-wave ac current, passed through tension-annealed

K. Mohri; K. Bushida

1994-01-01

485

‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

486

Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire  

DOEpatents

A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

Harwell, Lane D. (Albuquerque, NM); Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Greene, Donald L. (Corrales, NM); Pressly, Gary A. (Sandia Park, NM)

2000-11-07

487

A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire  

PubMed Central

Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/?Hz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor. PMID:24940865

He, Dongfeng; Shiwa, Mitsuharu

2014-01-01

488

Study of Wire Contact Resistance in Single and Multi-wire Z-Pinch Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact resistance of single and multi-wire array z-pinch has been measured for aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten wires; diameters ranged from 7.5 to 30.5 micron. DC contact resistance in these experiments accounted for approximately 80% of load resistance, and resistance measurements varied from wire-to-wire by up to 15%. These DC measurements show that the resistance is highly dependent on both the wire material and the mass of the wire weights (0.8 g to 3.6 g). Marx pulses of 120 kV, 18 kA, 150 ns risetime were applied to the z-pinch. Wire plasma expansion velocity was measured using a streak camera, and expansion profile of the wires was determined using laser schlieren imaging. Electron temperature of individual wire plasmas is being determined by visible/UV spectra. Results will be presented of several methods being explored to reduce the contact resistance. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Mehlhorn, T. A.