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1

HTS Wire: status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price\\/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion

A. P. Malozemoff; D. T. Verebelyi; S. Fleshler; D. Aized; D. Yu

2003-01-01

2

HTS Wire: status and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

2003-04-01

3

1G versus 2G-comparison from the practical standpoint for HTS power cables use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of HTS conductors are currently available or coming to the worldwide market for use to make different HTS devices. They are known as first generation 1G HTS (usually Bi-2223 systems made with "powder-in-tube" methods) and second generation 2G HTS (coated conductors, usually made on the base of YBCO superconductor). HTS transmission and distribution power cables have been under development for several years worldwide and show strong technical and economic value. Several large projects are underway with lengths of HTS cables varying from 30-100 m up to 650 m. Many of these projects are being conducted in real grid conditions. Recently a transition from using 1G to 2G wire has started for these cable applications and future projects are expected to fully transition to the 2G wire. The question is whether 2G wire has all advantages over its predecessor. In this paper we will compare 1G and 2G HTS tapes for their practical use in HTS power cables. Parameters such as critical current anisotropy, mechanical properties, and resistance to the thermo-cycling have been measured. The results will provide valuable data to observe the benefits of each wire type for HTS power cable applications.

Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Radchenko, I. P.; Polyakova, N. V.

2008-02-01

4

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

5

Industrial Applications of HTS Coils Using DI-BSCCO Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of the HTS coils are rapidly increasing since the Sumitomo's DI-BSCCO HTS wire has been developed and commercialized. This DI-BSCCO wire has almost the same mechanical properties as that of the copper wire while it can load a hundred times current. One of the applications of the HTS coils is the motor for the ship propulsion system. It reduces

T. Okazaki; K. Ohkura; T. Kato; K. Fujino; K. Hayashi; K. Sato

2006-01-01

6

Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire  

SciTech Connect

While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

2009-09-13

7

Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6–7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%.

V. Selvamanickam; Y. Chen; X. Xiong; Y. Xie; X. Zhang; A. Rar; M. Martchevskii; R. Schmidt; K. Lenseth; J. Herrin

2008-01-01

8

SuperPower's YBCO Coated High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Wire and Magnet Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in second-generation (2G) HTS wire and coil technology are presented highlighting the ability of 2G HTS wire to function under demanding operating conditions associated with many applications including linear motors for transportation. The challenges of use in various coil constructions and applications are discussed. The 2G wire architecture of a structural substrate, buffer stack, HTS layer, and stabilization

D. W. Hazelton; V. Selvamanickam

2009-01-01

9

Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (Ic) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree

D. Turrioni; E. Barzi; M. J. Lamm; R. Yamada; A. V. Zlobin; A. Kikuchi

2009-01-01

10

Detection of wire element breakage in power transmission line using HTS-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed the application of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using HTS-SQUID gradiometer to detect wire breakage in compressive conductor joints in overhead transmission line. In this study, we prepare an aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) transmission line with a broken wire. The ends of the ACSR cable were compressed with Al sleeves. An AC current was injected toward into the cable axis by applying AC voltage across the both ends of the sleeves. Then the two-dimensional distribution of magnetic field gradient above the cable was measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. In the case of the compressed ACSR with a wire breakage, the field gradient changed periodically along the spiral of the broken wire. In contrast, such changes did not appear above the ACSR cable without defects. These results suggested the possibility to detect the wire breakage in the compressive conductor joints by this method. We also conducted electromagnetic field simulation to verify the experimental results.

Miyazaki, A.; Hatsukade, Y.; Matsuura, H.; Maeda, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tanaka, S.

2009-10-01

11

Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

12

The Development of Second Generation HTS Wire at American Superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second generation (2G) YBCO high temperature superconductor wire, based on the RABiTS\\/MOD process, is now being produced in continuous lengths at American superconductor (AMSC) using a full-scale, reel-to-reel manufacturing line. AMSC's approach for manufacturing 2G wire is designed around a low-cost, wide-strip technology, in which a 4-cm wide strip is slit into multiple narrower wires, then laminated to metallic stabilizers

Xiaoping Li; Martin W. Rupich; Cornelis L. H. Thieme; M. Teplitsky; Srivatsan Sathyamurthy; E. Thompson; D. Buczek; J. Schreiber; K. Demoranville; J. Lynch; J. Inch; D. Tucker; R. Savoy; S. Fleshler

2009-01-01

13

Thermal conductivity of 2G HTS wires for current lead applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the thermal conductivity of several 2G HTS coated conductor wires produced by AMSC's RABiTSTM\\/MOD processes. The measurements employed a non-steady state method in which the sample is connected to a cold head on one end and a copper block on the other end. The heat capacity of the copper block is used to determine heat flow through

C. Hoffmann; N. Strickland; D. Pooke; J. Gannon; B. Carter; A. Otto

2010-01-01

14

Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

2010-04-01

15

Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

Kennth Marken

2006-08-11

16

MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Fabricate Low-Cost Second Generation HTS Wires  

SciTech Connect

The metal organic deposition (MOD) of buffer layers on RABiTS substrates is considered a potential, low-cost approach to manufacturing high performance Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The typical architecture used by American Superconductor in their 2G HTS wire consists of a Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a reactively sputtered Y2O3 seed layer, YSZ barrier layer and a CeO2 cap layer. This architecture supports critical currents of over 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) with 0.8 mum YBCO films deposited by the TFA-MOD process. The main challenge in the development of the MOD buffers is to match or exceed the performance of the standard vacuum deposited buffer architecture. We have recently shown that the texture and properties of MOD - La2Zr2Ogamma (LZO) barrier layers can be improved by inserting a thin sputtered Y2O3 seed layer and prepared MOD deposited LZO layers followed by MOD or RF sputtered CeO2 cap layers that support MOD-YBCO films with Ic's of 200 and 255 A/cm-width, respectively. Detailed X-ray and microstructural characterizations indicated that MOD - CeO2 cap reacted completely with MOD YBCO to form BaCeOs. However, sputtered CeO2 cap/MOD YBCO interface remains clean. By further optimizing the coating conditions and reducing the heat-treatment temperatures, we have demonstrated an Ic of 336 A/cm with improved LZO layers and sputtered CeO2 cap and exceeded the performance of that of standard vacuum deposited buffers.

Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA

2007-01-01

17

A Study on Wire Ball\\/Pad Open Failure Mechanism of a Multi-Stack Package (MSP) under High Temperature Storage (HTS) Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of a wire ball\\/pad open failure at a gold wire and bonding pad interface of a multi-stack package (MSP) under high temperature storage (HTS) condition, 150 degC, is studied. Failure analysis using FE-SEM (field emission) and FIB-SEM (focused ion beam) was conducted. The analysis revealed that the main factors that contribute to a ball\\/pad failure were the tensile

Se Young Yang; Hyeong-Jik Byun; Sang-Wook Park; Wang-Joo Lee

2007-01-01

18

AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were oriented to face radially inward and radially outward for the inner and outer layers of the cable, respectively, to minimize the spacing between the HTS layers and any effects of the weak substrate magnetism. To verify the calculations and design principles, the model cable was instrumented with potential taps and sensors, including Rogowski coils and Hall probes, to measure the current distribution among layers, voltage - current characteristics and other parameters. AC losses in this cable model have been measured and analyzed by use of digital measurements of current and voltage. At low to intermediate currents, they are in the range of a few tenths of a watt per meter, consistent with the ferromagnetic loss of the substrate. Analysis of the individual contributions of the Ni-W substrate and the superconductor hysteresis loss is given.

Vysotsky, V. S.; Shutov, K. A.; Nosov, A. A.; Polyakova, N. V.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zubko, V. V.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Carter, W. L.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Snitchler, G.

2010-06-01

19

V-I transition and n-value of multifilamentary LTS and HTS wires and cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For low Tc multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb3Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by (?/?c)=(I/Ic)n. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5 T is ~40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb3Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages ~ a few ?V prior to quenching. However, in ``well behaved'' wires, n is ~30-40 at 12 T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced Ic degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high Tc multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2 K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values ~15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

Ghosh, Arup K.

2004-01-01

20

V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.  

SciTech Connect

For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

GHOSH,A.K.

2003-05-25

21

Progress on MOD\\/RABiTS TM 2G HTS wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire has advanced beyond initial laboratory demonstrations and is now focused on developing and testing high critical current conductor designs required for commercial applications. The approach pursued at American Superconductor for 2G wire manufacturing is based on the combination of the RABiTSTM substrate–buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of

M. W. Rupich; W. Zhang; X. Li; T. Kodenkandath; D. T. Verebelyi; U. Schoop; C. Thieme; M. Teplitsky; J. Lynch; N. Nguyen; E. Siegal; J. Scudiere; V. Maroni; K. Venkataraman; D. Miller; T. G. Holesinger

2004-01-01

22

V– I transition and n-value of multifilamentary LTS and HTS wires and cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

For low Tc multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb3Sn, the V–I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by (?\\/?c)=(I\\/Ic)n. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the

Arup K Ghosh

2004-01-01

23

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

1994-09-27

24

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

25

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

2010-06-01

26

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

2010-11-01

27

Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet

M. Ogata; Y. Miyazaki; H. Hasegawa; T. Sasakawa; K. Nagashima

2010-01-01

28

Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting

Masafumi Ogata; Yoshiki Miyazaki; Hitoshi Hasegawa; Takashi Sasakawa; Ken Nagashima

2010-01-01

29

Large HTS Magnet Made by Improved DI-BSCCO Tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) is rapidly progressing and applications of the HTS are also improving. Significant enhancements in Jc in Bi2223 long wires have been achieved. The wires produced by Sumitomo Electric Ind., are named DI-BSCCO (Dynamically Innovative bismuth-based HTS wire). A cryo-cooled high-field high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet, which is made of this DI-BSCCO and has a

K. Ohkura; T. Okazaki; K. Sato

2008-01-01

30

The effects of drawing parameters on sausaging and critical current density of Bi2223\\/Ag HTS wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-2223\\/Ag superconducting wires have been mainly prepared by the powder-in-tube method. Drawing and rolling are the main processes used to increase the core density and wire length. In the fabrication of long wire, especially, the drawing should be precisely controlled to assure the filament homogeneity. In this paper, the influences of drawing die angle, bearing length and reduction ratio on

Hong-Soo Ha; Sang-Soo Oh; Dong-Woo Ha; Sang-Chul Kim; Young-Kil Kwon; Kang-Sik Ryu; Jin-Ho Joo

2001-01-01

31

HTS motors in aircraft propulsion: design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires exhibit high current densities enabling their use in electrical rotating machinery. The possibility of designing high power density superconducting motors operating at reasonable temperatures allows for new applications in mobile systems in which size and weight represent key design parameters. Thus, all-electric aircrafts represent a promising application for HTS motors. The design of such

Philippe J. Masson; Danielle S. Soban; Eric Upton; Jules E. Pienkos; Cesar A. Luongo

2005-01-01

32

Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires  

SciTech Connect

One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

33

HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system  

SciTech Connect

We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

1996-09-01

34

Current limiting characteristics of transformer type HTS superconducting fault current limiter with rewound structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transformer type SCFCL of HTS wire with rewound structure has a primary coil of BSCCO wire connected to a power system and has a secondary coil of also BSCCO wire short-circuited. Both HTS coils were wound co-axially with rewound structure to get longer wire, that is, larger resistance at the normal state. The rewound structure offers greater flexibility in

Y. Shirai; T. Nii; S. Oda; M. Shiotsu

2010-01-01

35

1998 wire development workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

NONE

1998-04-01

36

HTS thick film components for fault current limiter applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault current limiters are potentially one of the first applications of HTS materials in the power engineering field, and both inductive and resistive devices are being actively developed by many groups world-wide. A wide range of HTS materials is being considered for these devices including biaxially textured planar YBCO films, BSCCO silver clad wires, and textured bulk BSCCO and YBCO.

C. Meggs; G. Dolman; T. C. Shields; J. S. Abell; T. W. Button; F. J. Mumford

1999-01-01

37

Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems  

SciTech Connect

The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

Knoll, David

2012-12-31

38

Trial Test of Fully HTS Induction\\/Synchronous Machine for Next Generation Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group has tried to introduce High Temperature Superconducting Technology to electric vehicle (EV) drive motor, and developed High Temperature Superconducting Induction-Synchronous Machine (HTS-ISM). In this paper, 20 kW class HTS-ISM were designed and manufactured with DI-BSCCO wires. First, we developed and tested partial superconducting HTS-ISM (HTS rotor windings with copper stator) for clarification of the performance. We could observe

Daisuke Sekiguchi; Taketsune Nakamura; Shintaro Misawa; Hiroki Kitano; Tetsuji Matsuo; Naoyuki Amemiya; Yoshitaka Ito; Masaaki Yoshikawa; Toshihisa Terazawa; Kozo Osamura; Yoshimasa Ohashi; Nobuo Okumura

2012-01-01

39

Tunable HTS Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tunable HTS program goals are to develop a process, method, or device to tune high-temperature superconductor (HTS) resonant circuits. The process for tuning should preserve the low-loss nature of the s preconducting resonant circuits and be compatible with the operating environment of packaged HTS RF circuitry. Although we were originally developing three technologies to perform this tuning, we have

Joseph E. Mancusi; Mark Roberson

2002-01-01

40

High Field Magnets With HTS Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of high-field magnets using high temperature superconductors (HTS) is a core activity at the NHMFL. Magnet technology based on both YBCO-coated tape conductors and Bi-2212 round wires is being pursued. Two specific projects are underway. The first is a user magnet with a 17 T YBCO coil set which, inside an LTS outsert, will generate a combined field of

H. W. Weijers; U. P. Trociewitz; W. D. Markiewicz; J. Jiang; D. Myers; E. E. Hellstrom; A. Xu; J. Jaroszynski; P. Noyes; Y. Viouchkov; D. C. Larbalestier

2010-01-01

41

Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-?) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

2010-04-01

42

Quench Detection Method of HTS Model Coil Using a Series-Type Thermocouple  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a quench detection method ap- plied to a HTS coil and also discusses the results of tests on an HTS BSCCO wire and an HTS YBCO coil. A series-type thermocouple wasfabricatedtodetectquench,whereseveralthermocoupleswere welded in series. As the series-type thermocouple has many points ofdetection,variationintemperaturewasdetectedateachpointby using thermo-electromotive force. The feasibility of the proposed method was investigated through the quench detection

Daewon Kim; Jin-Geun Kim; A.-Rong Kim; In-Keun Yu; Ki-Deok Sim; Seockho Kim; Jeonwook Cho; Myung-Hwan Sohn

2011-01-01

43

Influence of Proton Irradiation on Angular Dependence of Second Generation (2G)HTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) the quadrupoles in the fragment separator are exposed to very high radiation and heat loads. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are a good candidate for these magnets because they can be used at 30-50 K and tolerate higher heat generation than Nb-Ti magnets. Radiation damage studies of HTS wires are crucial to ensure

Y. Shiroyanagi; G. Greene; R. Gupta; W. Sampson

2011-01-01

44

Influence of Proton Irradiation on Angular Dependence of Second Generation (2G)HTS  

SciTech Connect

In the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) the quadrupoles in the fragment separator are exposed to very high radiation and heat loads. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are a good candidate for these magnets because they can be used at {approx}30-50 K and tolerate higher heat generation than Nb-Ti magnets. Radiation damage studies of HTS wires are crucial to ensure that they will survive in a high radiation environment. HTS wires from two vendors were studied. Samples of 2G HTS wires from SuperPower and American Superconductor (ASC) were irradiated with a 42 {mu}A, 142 MeV proton beam from the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The angular dependence of the critical current was measured in magnetic fields at 77K.

Shiroyanagi, Y.; Greene, G.; Gupta, R.; Sampson, W.

2011-05-01

45

Tunable HTS Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tunable HTS program goals are to develop a process, method, or device to tune high-temperature superconductor (HTS) resonant circuits. The process for tuning should preserve the low-loss nature of the s preconducting resonant circuits and be compatible with the operating environment of packaged HTS RF circuitry. Although we were originally developing three technologies to perform this tuning, we have down selected to the two that offer the greatest potential for high 0 operation, the half-HTS MEMS variable capacitor and the continuously variable inductor. The target application is for this technology is SIGINT applications in the 400 MHz to 3000 MHz frequency band, with potential applications in areas from 20 MHz to 20 GHz. We reached a significant milestone with the demonstration of the continuously variable inductors. In this demonstration we achieved a 23% tuning range, with better than 1 pan in 10,000 resettability, and a 0 of over 1.0,000. These are significant achievements in the area of tunable filters.

Mancusi, Joseph E.; Roberson, Mark

2002-06-01

46

Protection of HTS magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses protection issues for HTS magnet. For protection, the HTS magnet must rely on an active technique. Closed-form expressions of the matrix metal operating current density based on overheating and internal voltage criteria for protection, under very simplifying assumptions, are presented. Perhaps the most important conclusions of these criteria are that: (1) HTS (and LTS) magnets must be wound with composite conductor having a significant portion of its overall cross section occupied by normal metal generally of high electrical conductivity and (2) HTS windings must possess “high” NZP velocities to make the resistive zone occupy as large a fraction of the winding volume as possible. The paper also derives an analytical expression, under another set of simplifying assumptions, to determine the minimum resistive voltage level, dictated by the maximum hot-spot temperature set at 150 K, required to initiate an active protection process. Remarkably, this minimum detection voltage is nearly independent of the matrix metal current density, Iop/Am. For a set of operating parameters used in a numerical example, a computed minimum detection voltage, at Iop/Am = 5 × 104 A/cm2, is ˜30 mV, which, considering it must be discerned in the presence of extraneous voltage signals likely to be present in real world operating conditions, would be non-trivial. To satisfy the overheating criterion at a level of Iop/Am, which keeps the winding overall current density “viable” and at the same time to raise the minimum detection resistive voltage, the winding volume occupied by the resistive state must be expanded. The paper concludes with discussion of challenging new areas of research for protection of HTS magnets.

Iwasa, Yukikazu

2005-10-01

47

Development of an Axial Flux Type PM Synchronous Motor With the Liquid Nitrogen Cooled HTS Armature Windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an axial gap permanent magnet type high temperature superconducting synchronous motor (PMHTSSM) at liquid nitrogen temperature. There are two distinctive differences between this motor and the conventional HTS motors. The permanent magnet is applied to the field, iron cores and HTS wires are used as the armature. The motor has eight field poles, and six armature windings. The

Hidehiko Sugimoto; Teppei Tsuda; Takaya Morishita; Yoshinori Hondou; Toshio Takeda; Hiroyuki Togawa; Tomoya Oota; Kazuya Ohmatsu; Shigeru Yoshida

2007-01-01

48

Design of an Axial Flux Inductor Type Synchronous Motor With the Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Field and Armature HTS Windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid nitrogen cooled axial flux type high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor was designed. This motor is an eight-pole inductor type synchronous motor with six armature windings. The field windings and armature windings are made of the BSCCO HTS wires. We called it inductor type flux control superconducting (IFCS) motor, and its output is 400 kW at the rated

Hidehiko Sugimoto; Teppei Tsuda; Takaya Morishita; Yoshinori Hondou; Toshio Takeda; Hiroyuki Togawa; Tomoya Oota; Kazuya Ohmatsu; Shigeru Yoshida

2007-01-01

49

Quench protection technique for HTS coils with electronic workbench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability and the protection of superconducting applications are very important issues. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is stable than low temperature superconductor (LTS). However, due to the high stability of HTS, HTS coils have complicate behaviors of normal transition - such as a recovery into the superconducting state or thermal runaway - which is determined by the magnitude of disturbance, coil size, the structure of winding wire and cooling condition. In this paper, we propose the quench protection system based on the active power method which can detect the quench by measuring the generating instantaneous active power in HTS coils. And the quench detection circuit adopted a software circuit by LabVIEW which was added a new quench protection technique to the circuit in order to improve its detection performance. Furthermore, it can monitor interior states of HTS coils with acquiring the only coil voltages in real time. To confirm the validity of the suggested technique, the experiments were performed with the hardware circuit for quench detection simultaneously. The experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

Joo, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kadota, T.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Kim, H. M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Jo, Y. S.

2010-11-01

50

Characteristic analysis of solid materials for electrical insulation of HTS magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the successful development of practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires, there have been renewed activities in developing superconducting power equipment. HTS equipment has to be operated in a coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), or cooled by conduction-cooling method such as using Gifford-McMahon (G-M) cryocooler to maintain the temperature below critical level. In this paper, the dielectric strength of

Duck-Kweon Bae; Jong-Man Joung; Seung-Myeong Baek; Chan-Joo Lee; Sang-Jin Lee; Tae-Kuk Ko; Sang-Hyun Kim

2004-01-01

51

Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

None

2007-06-07

52

A Novel Quench Protection Technique for HTS Coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new coil winding method to realize quench-back with an over-current pulse for HTS magnet protection is proposed. The feature of the inter-wire bridged parallel winding (IPW) is that a large inductive voltage and additional eletro-magnetic force on the coil are not generated when the quench-back trigger current is imposed on the coil. A quench-back test was performed with a

Tsuyoshi Wakuda; Yota Ichiki; Minseok Park

2012-01-01

53

Performance of HTS SQUID using resonant coupling of cooled Cu pickup coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed and tested an HTS SQUID magnetometer using resonant coupling of a copper pickup coil cooled at T=77K. The pickup coil was made of a twisted multi-filamentary wire, the so-called Litz wire, to prevent the increase in coil resistance at high frequencies. First, we measured the coil characteristics in the frequency range from DC to 100kHz when the diameter

K. Enpuku; S. Hirakawa; R. Momotomi; M. Matsuo; T. Yoshida

2011-01-01

54

HTS SQUID Magnetometer Using Resonant Coupling of Cooled Cu Pickup Coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and tested an HTS SQUID magne- tometer using the resonant coupling of a copper pickup coil cooled at 77 K. The coil was made of a twisted multi-filamentary wire so as to reduce the ac resistance. We first showed that the ac resistance of the coil became higher than the dc resistance because of the eddy current

K. Enpuku; S. Hirakawa; Y. Tsuji; R. Momotomi; M. Matsuo; T. Yoshida; A. Kandori

2011-01-01

55

Development of new HTS-SQUID and HTS current sensor for HTS-SQUID beam current monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two years ago, a prototype of a highly sensitive beam current monitor with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, that is, an HTS-SQUID monitor, was installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC). As a result, the beam intensity of a sub-?A beam was successfully measured by the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. In fact, the intensity of a sub-?A 40Ar15+ (63 MeV/u) beam was successfully measured with a 500 nA resolution. However, the current resolution of the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor is not sufficient to measure the current of a uranium beam, which is accelerated in a new radioactive isotope (RI) beam facility called "RI Beam Factory" (RIBF). A minimum current resolution of 1 nA is required for the measurement of the uranium beam. Therefore, we are developing a new HTS-SQUID monitor so as to improve the current resolution. This new monitor consists of three parts, the HTS SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, and these parts have been separately developed this year. The high-permeability core that is installed in the two input coils of the HTS-SQUID is an extremely important part in this new HTS-SQUID monitor. A 50-fold improvement in gain was successfully realized using the high-permeability core compared with that obtained without the high-permeability core. Another key factor is the substrate of the HTS current sensor. A MgO ceramic tube was used for the substrate of the HTS current sensor in the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. However, it was difficult to form the bridge circuit using the MgO ceramic substrate in the new HTS-SQUID monitor, because the bridge circuit that magnetically connects the HTS current sensor and the HTS-SQUID has to be three-dimensional. To solve this problem, silver (Ag) of 99.9% purity was adopted for the substrates of the HTS current sensor in the new HTS-SQUID monitor. Then the surfaces of the substrates were coated by a thin layer (70?m) of Bi2-Sr2-Ca1-Cu2-Ox (Bi 2212), which is an HTS material. We report the results of this development.

Watanabe, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Kase, M.; Watanabe, S.; Ikeda, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Yano, Y.

2008-02-01

56

Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much

M. Kikuchi; T. Kato; K. Ohkura; N. Ayai; J. Fujikami; K. Fujino; S. Kobayashi; E. Ueno; K. Yamazaki; S. Yamade; K. Hayashi; K. Sato; T. Nagai; Y. Matsui

2006-01-01

57

Polarized Raman scattering from Bi-based HTS single crystals and its relation to the lattice dynamics of Y-123 compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polarized Raman spectra of Bi-HTS microcrystals with defined orientation of the c-axis and of different Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu composition (including close to 2122 and 2223) were measured at room temperature by means of the Raman microprobe technique. The phonon lines at 635 cm-1 (A1g), 460 cm-1 (B1g, near 300 cm-1 (A1g) and at 115 cm-1(A1g) appear for alll microcrystals, whereas the

Milko N. Iliev; Victor G. Hadjiev

1989-01-01

58

Development and test of an axial flux type PM synchronous motor with liquid nitrogen cooled HTS armature windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an axial gap permanent magnet type superconducting synchronous motor cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN2). The motor includes 8 poles and 6 armature windings. The armature windings are made from BSCCO wire operated at the temperature level between 66K~70K. The design of the rated output is 400kW at 250rpm. Because HTS wires produce AC loss, there are few motors

H Sugimoto; T Morishita; T Tsuda; T Takeda; H Togawa; T Oota; K Ohmatsu; S Yoshida

2008-01-01

59

A New HTS Cable Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HTS cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a real grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)

Takato Masuda; Hiroyasu Yumura; M. Ohya; T. Kikuta; M. Hirose; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito; K. Yamamoto; M. Ikeuchi; R. Ohno

2009-01-01

60

Study of reliability of the HTS tapes in electrical circuit at 77 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the stability of the critical parameters Ic and Tc of commercial HTS wires relative to the application of a transport current of 0.7 Ic for extended periods of time in liquid nitrogen at 77K. The voltage-current characteristics U(I) and critical current value of samples of Bi-2223-based tape (hermetic multi-filamentary in silver matrix and laminated with brass) and Dy-123

E I Demikhov; G N Mikhailova; V P Aksenov; L H Antonova; L D Iskhakova; L N Zherikhina; E A Kostrov; S V Lavrishchev; V S Mikhailov; A V Troitskii; A M Tshovrebov

2008-01-01

61

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

62

HTS Magnet for Maglev Applications (1)— Coil Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an HTS coil for maglev applications. The magnet consists of four persistent current HTS coils and is operated at a rated temperature of 20 K and a rated magnetomotive force of 750 kA for each coil. This paper describes the fabrication and test results of each persistent current HTS coil. The HTS coil consists of 12 single-pancake coils

Kenji Tasaki; Kotaro Marukawa; Satoshi Hanai; Taizo Tosaka; Toru Kuriyama; Tomohisa Yamashita; Yasuto Yanase; Mutsuhiko Yamaji; Hiroyuki Nakao; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Satoshi Hirano; Katsuyuki Kuwano; Takeshi Okutomi; Motoaki Terai

2006-01-01

63

Reliable commercial high temperature superconductor wire for space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are widely considered for large power applications used by industrial end-users and electric utilities. The prominent application areas include power transmission cables, electric motors, generators, current limiters, and transformers. The promising design concepts rely on HTS to be a flexible composite conductor, robust enough to handle an industrial environment. Currently, the most advanced manufacturing method for flexible composite conductor is the Bi-2223-OPIT, used by many organizations. Significant advances in HTS technology have been made, with average critical current performance of 130 A at 77 K which is equivalent to an engineering current density of 15.1 kA/cm2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity from 250 km to 500 km per year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstrations. While this level of quality and quantity enables impressive demonstrations of prototype power applications, it does not fully meet the requirements of commercial economic viability. Therefore, to further decrease wire price to the range of $50/kA-m, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated to the manufacturing of Bi-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km per year. The purpose of this paper is to examine the functional, reliable, and economical aspects of today's HTS materials with an eye towards application in space missions. .

Masur, Lawrence J.; Kellers, Jürgen

2002-01-01

64

The study on improving the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the insulation and lamination of the various metal tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicated quench behaviors. Because of these reasons, it is difficult to expect the self-protection. In this paper, two methods are suggested to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. One is to remove the insulation between turn-turn winding in HTS coils to enhance the thermal and electrical contacts along transverse direction and to increase the whole thermal stability of them. The other is Cu or Brass tapes are wound with HTS tape wire instead of the insulation to improve the thermal, electrical and mechanical stability of the HTS coils. To clarify the quench behaviors of the suggested coils, the normal zone propagation properties of the fabricated non-insulated HTS pancake coils were shown by measured voltage and temperature traces during the quench as a function of the operating temperature. And the characteristics of the normal transition and amount of the shared current to adjacent layers were quantitatively measured by a Hall sensor located at the center of HTS coils to measure the change of the self-magnetic field by operating current. The current sharing behaviors in the non-insulated HTS coil and the coil with Cu tape inserted were observed. The minimum quench energy (MQE) of the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted was the largest in the tested coils. It means that the HTS coil with Cu tape inserted had the highest transient stability against the thermal disturbances among the tested coils and the improvement of self protection abilities was proved.

Kim, S. B.; Kaneko, T.; Saito, A.; Kajikawa, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

2013-01-01

65

Basic Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

66

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

67

Development of HTS Linear Motors for Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear motors deliver excellent performance in rapid positioning applications while practically eliminating the performance-reducing effects of friction, inertia, backlash and wear associated with rotary-to-linear drive mechanisms or maintenance intensive hydraulics. HTS with its properties of high current density at low electric losses is a synergetic fit. A linear motor of asynchronous type utilizing a poly solenoidal stack of HTS double

J. Kellers; P. Behrens; C. Buhrer; J. Muller; J. Wiezoreck

2007-01-01

68

Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1 MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30 K (-243 °C). Influence of an important parameter, synchronous reactance, has been analyzed on the machine performances such as voltage variation and output power during motor and generator operation. The developed motor was also analyzed by three-dimensional electromagnetic FEM (finite element method) to get magnetic field distribution, inductance, electromagnetic stress and so forth. This motor is aimed to be utilized for industrial application such as large motors operating in large plants. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of Neon thermosiphon mechanism and the stator (armature) coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper also describes evaluation of some electrical parameters from performance test results which were obtained at steady state in generator and motor mode of our HTS machine.

Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

2009-06-01

69

Theory of ac loss in power transmission cables with second generation high temperature superconductor wires  

SciTech Connect

While a considerable amount of work has been done in an effort to understand ac losses in power transmission cables made of first generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer in 2G wires reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses, for which a new formula is derived. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two-layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. A formula for the flux transfer losses is also derived with a paramagnetic approximation for the substrate. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

Clem, J.R.; and Malozemoff, A.P.

2010-02-22

70

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

71

A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

2011-11-29

72

Superconducting wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The ...

D. E. Day J. J. Petrovic F. D. Gac C. S. Ray

1991-01-01

73

Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for

S. Fleshler; D. Buczek; B. Carter; P. Cedrone; K. Demoranville; J. Gannon; J. Inch; X. Li; J. Lynch; A. Otto; E. Podtburg; D. Roy; M. Rupich; S. Sathyamurthy; J. Schreiber; C. Thieme; E. Thompson; D. Tucker; K. Nagashima; M. Ogata

2009-01-01

74

Superconducting wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The diameter of the superconducting wires is controlled by the rate at which the glass fiber s are drawn from the

D. E. Day; J. J. Petrovic; F. D. Gac; C. S. Ray

1991-01-01

75

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

76

Superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The diameter of the superconducting wires is controlled by the rate at which the glass fiber s are drawn from the glass tube.

Day, D.E.; Petrovic, J.J.; Gac, F.D.; Ray, C.S.

1991-03-05

77

R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

2010-01-01

78

US effort on HTS power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed.Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation.Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site.Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described.Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

Mehta, S.

2011-11-01

79

High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi–Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in

L. K. Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; K. L. Kovalev; V. T. Penkin; V. N. Poltavets; S. M.-A. Koneev; I. I. Akimov; W. Gawalek; B. Oswald; G. Krabbes

2003-01-01

80

HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

2013-11-01

81

Hts tape-based multi-line current lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an alternative approach to the fabrication of low heat leak high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads designed to supply low currents to devices mounted on cryocoolers operating at a typical temperature of 4K. With the aim of reducing the parasitic wiring heat loads to the coldest stage of a cryocooler, we start with a commercially available YBCO coated conductor; the main task is to pattern the tape into long, narrow lines that show a low thermal conduction in the temperature range from 4K to 50 K. A dicing machine was used to cut the tape to the appropriate geometry. Since the tape is coated with silver, a process involving electro-etching had to be developed to remove the silver coat, to minimize the total thermal conductance. The obtained leads exhibited a critical current lower than suggested by the bulk critical current, but in most cases it was still high enough for our targeted application. Given the thermal properties of the materials used, we have demonstrated low current leads (I ~ 100 mA) with a calculated heat load that is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of optimized normal metal leads.

Merker, Michael; Delmas, Jean; Webber, Robert

2012-06-01

82

Centrifuge advances using HTS magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive magnetic bearings are of increasing technical interest. We performed experiments with centrifugal rotors to analyze gyroscopic forces in terms imbalance, rotor elasticity and damping. Centrifuge rotors need to be operated soft and stable without whirling the sediments. In order to evaluate optimal parameters critical and resonance behaviors are investigated. Eccentricities up 2 mm are safely passed by accelerating test wheels. In a simple model we describe the effect of passing critical rotational speeds. Measurements of bearing properties and wheel performance are presented. We have constructed a first prototype centrifuge designed with a HTS double bearing which operates a titanium rotor safely up to 30000 rpm. A 15 W Stirling cooler serves cryogenics of the YBCO stators. From the experiments design guidelines for centrifugal applications with HTS bearings are given.

Werfel, F. N.; Flögel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Riedel, T.

2001-05-01

83

RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

2004-10-03

84

Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature-superconducting (HTS) bearings have the potential to reduce rotor idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration, Toward this goal, we have developed and tested a flywheel system with 5- to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rim speeds exceeded 400 m\\/s, and stored energies were >80 Wh. Test implementation required technological advances

Thomas M. Mulcahy; John R. Hull; Kenneth L. Uherka; Ralph C. Niemann; Robert G. Abboud; John P. Juna; John A. Lockwood

1999-01-01

85

Designing HTS coils for magnetic circuits  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss some of the main considerations involved in the design of HTS coils to operate in liquid nitrogen and provide ampere-turns for magnetic circuits in general, and then in particular for a small-scale electromagnetic (i.e, attractive) maglev demonstrator. The most important factor affecting design is the sensitive and strongly anisotropic dependence of HTS tape`s critical current on magnetic field. Any successful design must limit the field in the windings, especially components perpendicular to the tape`s surface (radial components in the case of solenoids), to acceptably low levels such that local critical currents nowhere fall below the operating current. This factor is relevant to the construction of HTS coils for all applications. A second important factor is that the presence of an iron magnetic circuit can greatly alter the flux distribution within the coils from that found when they are in free space. FE modelling has been used to calculate accurate field profiles in proposed designs for comparison with short sample I{sub c}(B) data. They present a design for a maglev demonstrator, illustrating how some of the problems, in particular the reduction of radial field components, may be addressed, and describe its predicted performance.

Jenkins, R.G.; Jones, H. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Goodall, R.M. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

1996-07-01

86

Phase II of the Albany HTS Cable Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems are expected to be a solution for improvement of the power grid and three demonstration projects in the real grid are underway in the United States. One of these is the Albany, NY HTS Cable Project, involving the installation and operation of a 350 meter HTS cable system with a capacity of 34.5 kV, 800

H. Yumura; Y. Ashibe; H. Itoh; M. Ohya; M. Watanabe; T. Masuda; C. S. Weber

2009-01-01

87

UN Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the UN Foundation, UN Wire is a new "daily news summary covering the United Nations, global affairs and key international issues." Users interested in the UN or global affairs will find UN Wire an excellent resource for quick, concise accounts of the day's major stories. Each day, UN Wire covers issues such as UN Affairs; Health; Women, Children, and Population; Environment; Trade; Humanitarian Aid; Human Rights; and Peacekeeping. Typical entries include a few short paragraphs and direct links to the original news source and/or related resources. Free registration is required and users can subscribe for free daily email summaries of the headlines. UN Wire should be available for email delivery in complete form in the next few months.

1999-01-01

88

Hts/Adducin controls synaptic elaboration and elimination.  

PubMed

Neural development requires both synapse elaboration and elimination, yet relatively little is known about how these opposing activities are coordinated. Here, we provide evidence Hts/Adducin can serve this function. We show that Drosophila Hts/Adducin is enriched both pre- and postsynaptically at the NMJ. We then demonstrate that presynaptic Hts/Adducin is necessary and sufficient to control two opposing processes associated with synapse remodeling: (1) synapse stabilization as determined by light level and ultrastructural and electrophysiological assays and (2) the elaboration of actin-based, filopodia-like protrusions that drive synaptogenesis and growth. Synapse remodeling is sensitive to Hts/Adducin levels, and we provide evidence that the synaptic localization of Hts/Adducin is controlled via phosphorylation. Mechanistically, Drosophila Hts/Adducin protein has actin-capping activity. We propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Hts/Adducin controls the level, localization, and activity of Hts/Adducin, influencing actin-based synapse elaboration and spectrin-based synapse stabilization. Hts/Adducin may define a mechanism to switch between synapse stability and dynamics. PMID:21435557

Pielage, Jan; Bulat, Victoria; Zuchero, J Bradley; Fetter, Richard D; Davis, Graeme W

2011-03-24

89

High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, ``trapped field'' and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, ``trapped field'' and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

2003-04-01

90

Hts/Adducin Controls Synaptic Elaboration and Elimination  

PubMed Central

Neural development requires both synapse elaboration and elimination, yet relatively little is known about how these opposing activities are coordinated. Here we provide evidence Hts/Adducin can serve this function. We show that Drosophila Hts/Adducin is enriched both pre- and postsynaptically at the NMJ. We then demonstrate that presynaptic Hts/Adducin is necessary and sufficient to control two opposing processes associated with synapse remodeling: 1) synapse stabilization as determined by light level, ultrastructural and electrophysiological assays and 2) the elaboration of actin-based, filopodia-like protrusions that drive synaptogenesis and growth. Synapse remodeling is sensitive to Hts/Adducin levels and we provide evidence that the synaptic localization of Hts/Adducin is controlled via phosphorylation. Mechanistically, Drosophila Hts/Adducin protein has actin-capping activity. We propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Hts/Adducin controls the level, localization and activity of Hts/Adducin, influencing actin-based synapse elaboration and spectrin-based synapse stabilization. Hts/Adducin may define a mechanism to switch between synapse stability and dynamics.

Bulat, Victoria; Zuchero, J. Bradley; Fetter, Richard D.

2011-01-01

91

Stretching Wires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

Urbana-Champaign, University O.

2013-01-04

92

Sr and Pb isotopic composition of five USGS glasses (BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, BCR2G, TB1G, NKT-1G)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sr isotopic compositions and Rb\\/Sr ratios of three USGS glasses (BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, BCR-2G) are identical to those of the original USGS reference materials. NKT-1G and TB-1G give values of 0.70351 and 0.70558, respectively. Pb isotopic ratios were measured by the standard–sample bracketing technique on an MC-ICP-MS, which give results that are comparable in accuracy and reproducibility to double spike analyses.

Marlina Elburg; Pieter Vroon; Bas van der Wagt; Arnaud Tchalikian

2005-01-01

93

HTS resonant technology and its application on induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconducting (HTS) resonant method has been applied to develop an induction heating method. The innovation method has been theoretically proposed with simulation analysis on the influencing factors of heating power and efficiency presented. The results obtained show that the resonant heating method using the HTS technology has the advantages of large heating power and high heating efficiency, which

Xiaoyuan Chen; Jianxun Jin

2009-01-01

94

High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this SBIR Phase 1 project is to establish the feasibility of designing a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscope in order to detect defects, and verify customizations and repairs in MCM substrates. The overall goal of this SBIR program is to market an HTS SQUID microscope dedicated to the inspection of MCM substrates in a manufacturing environment.

1994-10-01

95

HTS microwave devices and subsystems with pulse tube refrigerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new types of pulse tube refrigerators with optimized cooling power of 6 W at 77 K have been designed and fabricated. Experiments show that vibration of the pulse tube refrigerators is at least an order of magnitude smaller than that of Stirling coolers. Two microwave devices, a HTS cavity and a HTS miniature lumped band-stop filter, were integrated with

Yusheng He; Yuan Zhou; Jingtao Liang; Hong Li; Luwei Yang; Wenxiu Zhu; Jinghui Cai; Aisheng He; Zhonglin Gong; Peiheng Wu; Yijun Feng; T. W. Button; P. A. Smith; M. J. Lancaster; F. Wellhofer; C. E. Gough

1999-01-01

96

HTS cable design and evaluation in YOKOHAMA Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTS cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started since FY 2007 in Japan. The target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the live network of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in order to demonstrate its reliability

H. Yumura; M. Ohya; Y. Ashibe; M. Watanabe; T. Minamino; T. Masuda; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kitoh; Y. Noguchi

2010-01-01

97

Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

2008-09-01

98

No Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)|

DeLoughry, Thomas J.

1995-01-01

99

Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

2013-11-01

100

Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

1998-12-22

101

Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

Malozemoff, A. P.

2012-08-01

102

HTS coil development and fabrication. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this subtask (Task 2C) was to develop high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil technology aimed specifically at superconducting generator applications. Bi-2223 tape produced in a separate subtask (Task 2A) was first wound and tested in a small circular coil. This small coil winding experience led the authors to develop a tape strengthening method using a lamination process and to develop a turn insulation method using a paper wrap process. A prototype racetrack coil was wound using 2500 feet of the laminated and insulated Bi-2223 tapes. The racetrack coil was cooled to 20K in a vacuum dewar using a unique closed-cycle helium gas refrigeration system.

Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Ranze, R. [and others

1996-10-01

103

Performance of HTS SQUID using resonant coupling of cooled Cu pickup coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and tested an HTS SQUID magnetometer using resonant coupling of a copper pickup coil cooled at T = 77 K. The pickup coil was made of a twisted multi-filamentary wire, the so-called Litz wire, to prevent the increase in coil resistance at high frequencies. First, we measured the coil characteristics in the frequency range from DC to 100 kHz when the diameter df of the elementary filament of the Litz wire was varied between 0.04 and 0.2 mm. We showed that the coil characteristics at high frequencies can be improved when the diameter df is reduced. Next, we constructed a magnetometer using a pickup coil with an average diameter D = 45 mm and number of turns N = 150. The measured magnetic field noise of the magnetometer was 3.3 fT/Hz1/2 at a resonant frequency of fr = 10.15 kHz. The Q value of the resonant circuit was Q = 153. The experimental results agreed well with the designed value. The obtained high sensitivity of the magnetometer is expected to be useful for its application to low-field NMR.

Enpuku, K.; Hirakawa, S.; Momotomi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, T.

2011-11-01

104

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

105

Recent advances of HTS power application research at IEE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances of high temperature superconductors (HTS) for power applications in the Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE), Chinese academy of Sciences are presented. A 75 meter, 10.5 kV/1.5 kA three phase HTS transmission cable has been successfully demonstrated in a live distribution grid in northwest China. A 10.5 kV/200A bridge-type fault current limiter (FCL) prototype based on Bi-2223 tapes is being tested in a Hunan power plant since August 2005. A 400V/16V/26 kVA three phase HTS transformer was designed, built and tested, and the on site system installation of a 10.5 kV/400V/630 kVA HTS transformer will be finished at Tebian Electric Ltd. soon. In addition, the progress of design and test of SMES is also given.

Ma, Yanwei; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

2006-06-01

106

Installation of pulse tube cryocoolers for cooling of HTS cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, Inc. has provided cooling to the HTS cable at the Bixby Road substation in Columbus, Ohio for the past year. The refrigeration has been supplied by an open-loop liquid nitrogen system. Data collected during system operation indicate that the average heat load from the HTS cable is 1.6 kW and the average total heat load on the system is

M C Johnson; T D Abbott; K B Albaugh; S A Potratz

2008-01-01

107

Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid.Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid

T. Masuda; H. Yumura; M. Ohya; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito

2009-01-01

108

Superconducting wires  

SciTech Connect

The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T/sub c/ superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is attributed to high shear stresses during plastic forming. Composites of superconductor and silver in several configurations have been made with little deleterious effect on the superconducting properties. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B.; Singh, J.P.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lumpp, J.K.; Dusek, J.T.; Goretta, K.C.

1988-06-01

109

Hot-wire anemometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief historical survey of hot-wire anemometry is presented and questions of hot-wire response are investigated, taking into account sensor properties, steady-heat-loss laws, the dynamic response of the wires, the sensitivity coefficients of the wires, the characteristics of a wire of finite length, the spatial resolution of hot wires, and the aerodynamic perturbations of the probes. A description of electronic

G. Comte-Bellot

1976-01-01

110

Role of HTS devices in greenhouse gas emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying high temperature superconductors (HTS) in generators, transformers and synchronous motors it is possible to improve their efficiency. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and thus reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well. The reduction of GHG emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. This environmental viewpoint can accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications if certain efficiency and sufficiently large power range are reached. In this paper, a detailed study about the replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is made in order to find the efficiency level and the power range where HTS becomes competitive. Finland is taken, as an example of an EU country, to present accurate figures of saved electricity. The structure of energy production and consumption was investigated and the emission data from different types of power plants were screened. The potential savings were allocated to the reduced usage of coal. Finally, an expanded view towards the possible emissions reduction gained by superconducting technology in the whole EU is presented. A market penetration model was introduced to investigate the time-scale in which conventional devices can be replaced with HTS devices.

Hartikainen, Teemu; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

2003-08-01

111

Windows: Life after Wire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

Razwick, Jerry

2003-01-01

112

On the performance of HTS microstrip quasi-elliptic function filters for mobile communications application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-loss and high-selective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bandpass filters can enhance performance of mobile communications systems. In this paper, we summarize a recent progress of novel HTS preselect bandpass filters that have been developed for a European research project. The objective of the project is to construct an HTS-based transceiver for mast-mounted DCS1800 base stations. The HTS preselect receive filters

Jia-Sheng Hong; Michael J. Lancaster; Dieter Jedamzik; Robert B. Greed; Jean-Claude Mage

2000-01-01

113

ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS OF HTS CRITICAL CURRENT FOR HIGH FIELD SOLENOIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is in the works at Fermilab to confirm that ionization cooling is an efficient way to shrink the size of a muon beam. This would pave the way for Muon Collider machines, which however require in their last stages of acceleration very high field solenoids. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these magnets using Helium or higher temperature refrigeration. A sample holder was designed to perform critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors under externally applied magnetic fields varying from zero to 90 degree with respect to the c-axis. This was performed in an ample range of temperatures and magnetic field values. A description of the test setup and results for (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO-2223) tapes, and Second Generation HTS in the form of 348 superconductor are presented.

Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Lombardo, V.; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States); Thieme, C. [American Superconductor (AMSC) Westborough, MA, 01581 (United States)

2008-03-03

114

HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

2005-08-01

115

Long length HTS cable with integrated FCL property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past years have shown the growth of bottlenecks in electric power grids, among other reasons caused by the increasing demand of energy in the form of electricity and by the large-scaled integration of renewable sources. As solving of these challenges by means of traditional solutions appears to be more and more problematic, the need for new technology solutions has become apparent. The HTS cable technology demonstrates a great potential in solving of grid congestion issues. In addition to their large power transport capacity and low losses, modern-generation HTS cables also have an integrated fault-current limiting (FCL) property. Applications of such cables in power grids will help to solve fault-current issues when connecting new generators, and dispersed and large-scale renewable sources. As HTS cables, used in current projects, are limited to hundreds of meters in length, they have still not been used for energy transport over long distances. The Dutch DSO Alliander, together with Ultera, is working on the development of a 6 km FCL HTS cable for installation in the Alliander's HV grid. In order to get the low-loss benefits of the HTS technology, a cooling system with a high efficiency is needed. The FCL HTS cable will be cooled by one cooling station at each end of the cable, using a liquid nitrogen coolant. Alliander and Ultera have established and work to achieve technical performance targets believed to be required to realise a 6 km long, 50 kV retrofit system with a power rating of 250 MVA with cooling stations only at the two ends of the cable system. These targets aim to reduce the superconductor's AC loss at a nominal current, reduce the heat leak of the thermally insulating envelope, increase the voltage rating and reduce the friction coefficient of the coolant flow.

Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi

2010-06-01

116

Cryogenic dielectrics and hts power apparatus: research at the university of southampton  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presented two areas of research poignant to the progression of HTS power apparatus design: electromagnetic design and dielectric phenomena. To be accepted into service, HTS power apparatus must be economically competitive and technically viable, which includes the need for reliability. To maximize the potential savings of HTS power equipment, the view taken at Southampton has been to design

David J. Swaffield; Paul L. Lewin; George Chen; Jan Sykulski

2006-01-01

117

Numerical simulation of screening current distribution in HTS tape of high field magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes, especially in-field performance and mechanical strength, have been continuously improved. The HTS tapes have been widely used for high field (>20 T) magnet researches and there are several technical challenges including field attenuation of an HTS magnet by screening currents induced within the HTS tapes. Several publications reported that the screening currents, induced by penetration of self magnetic fields into HTS tapes within an HTS magnet, weakened a field constant of the HTS magnet. The result may demonstrate that the screening current changes an overall current density distribution in HTS tapes and, as a consequence, the generated magnetic field. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the screening current distribution in an HTS tape. This paper reports numerical simulation of the screening current distribution in an HTS tape of high field magnets using 2D finite element method with the E-J characteristic of the HTS tape taken into account. Self magnetic field distribution and its orientation to the HTS tape are also considered to compute critical currents and locally generated electric fields, two key components to figure out the distribution of screening currents.

Itoh, Ryusei; Oga, Yuki; Noguchi, So; Igarashi, Hajime; Ueda, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

118

Stretched Wire Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

2005-09-06

119

Study on magnetic gene transfer using HTS bulk magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to realize local and high-efficient gene expression by suppressing the diffusion of ferromagnetic DNA carriers in a strong magnetic field generated by HTS bulk magnet. DNA-magnetite complexes were prepared as ferromagnetic DNA carrier and the magnetic gene transfer using the DNA carriers was examined. From the results of the simulation and the model experiment, it was shown that the particle diffusion was suppressed within 10 mm in diameter by the magnetic field at 20 mm above the HTS bulk magnet. The results of in vivo experiments showed that the amount of gene expression was significantly increased by magnetic field.

Nakagawa, Kota; Ohaku, Yoshihiro; Tamada, Junya; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Hironori; Nishijima, Shigehiro

2013-11-01

120

Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

1992-01-01

121

Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of HTS wires are summarized, and detailed discussion is provided for developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include: liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines. 25 refs.

Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

1992-08-01

122

c-Axis current flow arises in helically wound wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

c-Axis critical current density of second-generation YBCO wires in HTS cables due to the interaction of current flow with the induced magnetic field. However, the importance of c-axis critical current density (Jc^c) on the overall transport critical current is not clearly understood. We measured the temperature and field dependence of Jc^c using a mesa structure patterned into the YBCO layer of 2^nd-generation HTS tapes. We found, Jc^c --values of ˜ 4 kA/cm^2 at 77 K in self-field, corresponding to an unexpectedly high anisotropy of the critical current density ?=Jc^ab / Jc^ab Jc^c . - Jc^c = 500˜600. We also investigated the effect of pinning microstructures on Jc^c and ?. Our result shows a direct correlation of Jc^c (77 K, sf) and ? to the density of stacking faults. An estimation reveals that the fraction of tape width associated with c-axis current flow grows linearly from 5% to 20% with increasing ? for a typical geometry and could affect the performance of power transmission in HTS cables.

Jia, Ying; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.

2011-03-01

123

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

124

Status of HTS activities at SIEMENS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work on YBa2Cu3O7 (1-2-3) at SIEMENS has established (i) processes for high quality (1-2-3) films on SrTiO3 or on ZrO2 by sputtering or laser evaporation respectively, (ii) a hypersonic spraying process to lay down (1-2-3) thick films on steel tubing, (iii) analytical tools for precise monitoring of the oxygen content in (1-2-3) and for the investigation of the defect structure on an atomic scale in films and bulk material, (iv) test wires of competitive but still moderate current densities, and (v) inductive test methods for homogeneity of films and procedures to form electrical contacts of low resistivity.

Hoenig, H. E.; Behner, H.; Freller, H.; Friedrich, F.; Gieres, G.; Gunzelmann, K. H.; Herkert, W.; Neumüller, H. W.; Schultz, L.; Wilhelm, M.; Wohlleben, K.; Bruchhaus, R.; Eibl, O.; Einzinger, R.; Holubarsch, W.; Schmidt, H.; Szulczyk, A.; Thoener, M.

1988-06-01

125

Processing, Fabrication, and Demonstration of HTS Integrated Microwave Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further measurements of nonlinear distortion in HTS filters were made during this reporting period. Third-order spurious intermodulation products were measured at 77K for one of the channels (center frequency near 4 GHz) in the filterbank made recently fo...

G. R. Wagner

1991-01-01

126

Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

2013-01-01

127

Vibration isolation for space structures using HTS-magnet interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ the HTS-magnet interaction in the mechanical design of a vibration isolator. One common element of space structures is the coupling between multiple substructures or mechanical parts. Often, such coupling needs to provide a transmission of force between the two systems while blocking out the propagation of the vibration energy from one system to the other. A solution to

Jang-Horng Yu; E. Postrekhin; Ki Bui Ma; Wei-Kan Chu; Thomas Wilson

1999-01-01

128

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: lead discovery by miniaturized HTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniaturized high-throughput screening offers great promise for increasing the productivity of the pharmaceutical drug discovery process. By monitoring interactions of single molecules in femtoliter volumes, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) offers the highest potential as the detection technique in the nanoscale. The authors (Appendix A) summarize the current status of practical experiences with FCS assays for HTS and explore the scope

Manfred Auer; Keith J Moore; Franz J Meyer-Almes; Rolf Guenther; Andrew J Pope; Kurt A Stoeckli

1998-01-01

129

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

130

NDE of coated-conductor using HTS SQUID array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using an HTS SQUID array in order to examine rare-earth (RE)-123 HTS coated conductors striated into multi-filamentary lines. The 5-channel HTS SQUID gradiometer array was composed of ramp-edge junctions with LaErBaCuO and SmBaCuO electrode layers, and fabricated by using an HTS multi layer fabrication technique. The planar gradiometers with 1 × 1 mm2 pickup loops and a baseline of 1 mm detected the vertical element of magnetic field gradient induced around defects by an eddy current. The gradiometer array cooled by thermal conduction from a liquid nitrogen bath was placed above the coated conductor on the main stage with a lift-off of about 1.5 mm. A coated conductor was fed from a reel to reel, and cooled blow its Tc by stages connected to Gifford-Mcmahon (GM) coolers. By employing a 3 kHz induction current generating the maximum field of 0.14 mT, we could identify a distribution of defects in a long-length non-striated conductor. Furthermore, we could detect and distinguish three kinds of defects, existence of a spotty normal-state region, electrical short between striated filaments, and delamination of the superconducting layer from the Hastelloy tape for each filamentary superconducting line at a high speed up to 30 m/h.

Hato, T.; Adachi, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Hata, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Machi, T.; Tanabe, K.

2009-10-01

131

Design of the Cryogenic System for 100 MVA HTS Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100 MVA, commercial class high temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer was designed. In this paper the cryogenic system to extract the heat generated at the winding due to the AC loss and the heat penetration through the wall and the current lead and keep the winding temperature under design temperature is presented. The operation temperature is set at 67 K

S. R. Kim; J. Han; W. S. Kim; M. J. Park; S. W. Lee; K. D. Choi

2007-01-01

132

Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

2010-12-01

133

Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs.

Bishop, A.R.

1989-01-01

134

Design challenges and potentials of HTS synchronous motor for Superbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the possibilities of applying high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor to Superbus, an alternative and sustainable type of public transportation developed at TU Delft. Two important factors within the Superbus drive that influence the operating range are weight and efficiency: increasing the weight results in larger roll resistance while the better the efficiency the larger the range.

S. O. Ani; H. Polinder; J. A. Ferreira; J. W. Ockels

2009-01-01

135

Dynamic Stabilization in 1?u-->1?g Excited Nitrogen Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution 1s near-edge spectra of molecular nitrogen and variable size nitrogen clusters obtained using monochromatic synchrotron radiation from the high brilliance BESSY-II storage ring facility are reported. The vibrationally resolved 1?u-->1?g core-to-valence excitation band of clusters shows a distinct redshift of 6+/-1 meV relative to the isolated molecule, but the vibrational structure and linewidths are essentially unchanged. This shift is assigned to dynamic stabilization of 1?u-->1?g excited molecules in clusters, arising from the dynamic dipole moment generated by core-hole localization in the low-symmetry cluster field. This leads to changes in intermolecular interactions compared to the ground-state cluster. Such spectral shifts are expected to occur generally in molecular clusters and in the corresponding condensed phase.

Flesch, R.; Pavlychev, A. A.; Neville, J. J.; Blumberg, J.; Kuhlmann, M.; Tappe, W.; Senf, F.; Schwarzkopf, O.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Rühl, E.

2001-04-01

136

The 1 ?g cosyntropin test in normal individuals: A reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Background: The 1?g cosyntropin test has some advantages over the 250?g test as a test of adrenal function. One of the concerns regarding the 1 ?g test includes stability of the cosyntropin when reconstituted and stored. Classically the 5th percentile responses to cosyntropin in normal individuals have been used to define a normal response. Recent studies have shown that these normative values should be determined for individual assays. Materials and Methods: We performed a 1?g cosyntropin test using reconstituted and refrigerated (4-8° C) cosyntropin in saline solution in 49 non pregnant adults who were apparently healthy and had no exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. The cosyntropin solution was stored for up to 60 days following reconstitution. We analysed the data for any association between duration of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses to cosyntropin administration. Results: The mean ± SD cortisol level at baseline, 30 and 60 min were-12.19 ± 3 ?g/dl, 20.72 ± 2.63 ?g/dl, 16.86 ± 3.33 ?g/dl. The 5th percentile cortisol response at 30 min was 16.5 ?g/dl (16.33 ?g/dl rounded off). The correlation coefficients between number of days of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses at 30 and 60 min were (Spear mans rho = 0.06,-0.24 respectively) (P = 0.69 and 0.41). There were no differences in cortisol values whether the storage was for less than 30 days or more than 30 days (mean difference 0.25 ?g/dl P = 0.44). Conclusion: The 5th percentile normative values determined for our assay is lower than what is currently being used clinically and in research publications. Prolonged refrigerated storage of cosyntropin solution does not affect the validity of the 1 ?g cosyntropin test.

Anantharaman, R.; Menezes, Geraldine; Yusuf, Razif; Ganapathi, B.; Ayyar, S. Vageesh; Srinivasan, R.

2013-01-01

137

Dispersion interaction between crossed conducting wires  

SciTech Connect

We compute the T=0 K Van der Waals (nonretarded Casimir) interaction energy E between two infinitely long, crossed conducting wires separated by a minimum distance D much greater than their radius. We find that, up to a logarithmic correction factor, E{proportional_to}-D{sup -1}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}f({theta}), where f({theta}) is a smooth bounded function of the angle {theta} between the wires. We recover a conventional result of the form E{proportional_to}-D{sup -4}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}g({theta}) when we include an electronic energy gap in our calculation. Our prediction of gap-dependent energetics may be observable experimentally for carbon nanotubes either via atomic force microscopy detection of the Van der Waals force or torque or indirectly via observation of mechanical oscillations. This shows that strictly parallel wires, as assumed in previous predictions, are not needed to see a unique effect of this type.

Dobson, John F.; Gould, Timothy [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia and CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, New South Wales 2301 (Australia); Klich, Israel [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2009-07-15

138

Mechanics of Wire Rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation on the mechanics of wire rope will be divided into two parts: a theory for the static and dynamic response of wire rope, and practical examples in the form of consulting problems with which I have been associated.

George A. Costello

139

Axial Ligand Replacement Mechanism in Heme Transfer from Streptococcal Heme-Binding Protein Shp to HtsA of the HtsABC Transporter.  

PubMed

The heme-binding protein Shp of Group A Streptococcus rapidly transfers its heme to HtsA, the lipoprotein component of the HtsABC transporter, in a concerted two-step process with one kinetic phase. Heme axial residue-to-alanine replacement mutant proteins of Shp and HtsA (Shp(M66A), Shp(M153A), HtsA(M79A), and HtsA(H229A)) were used to probe the axial displacement mechanism of this heme transfer reaction. Ferric Shp(M66A) at high pH and Shp(M153A) have a pentacoordinate heme iron complex with a methionine axial ligand. ApoHtsA(M79A) efficiently acquires heme from ferric Shp but alters the reaction mechanism to two kinetic phases from a single phase in the wild-type protein reactions. In contrast, apoHtsA(H229A) cannot assimilate heme from ferric Shp. The conversion of pentacoordinate holoShp(M66A) into pentacoordinate holoHtsA(H229A) involves an intermediate, whereas holoHtsA(H229A) is directly formed from pentacoordinate holoShp(M153A). Conversely, apoHtsA(M79A) reacts with holoShp(M66A) and holoShp(M153A) in mechanisms with one and two kinetic phases, respectively. These results imply that the Met79 and His229 residues of HtsA displace the Met66 and Met153 residues of Shp, respectively. Structural docking analysis supports this mechanism of the specific axial residue displacement. Furthermore, the rates of the cleavage of the axial bond in Shp in the presence of a replacing HtsA axial residue are greater than that in the absence of a replacing HtsA axial residue. These findings reveal a novel heme transfer mechanism of the specific displacement of the Shp axial residues with the HtsA axial residues and the involvement of the HtsA axial residues in the displacement. PMID:23980583

Ran, Yanchao; Malmirchegini, G Reza; Clubb, Robert T; Lei, Benfang

2013-09-05

140

Corrosion resistant wire for small diameter wire bonding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire bonding is now a major method of interconnection. Over the years, as electronic packages became more technologically advanced, the wire bonders and the wire had to mature at the same rate. Aluminum wire is one of the main components used in wire bonding these electronic devices. In some applications, this aluminum wire must be able to withstand harsh environments,

M. McKeown

1997-01-01

141

Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 °C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable ?'-CuAl2 IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c = 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable ?'-CuAl2 phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and ?'-CuAl2, which can minimize lattice mismatch for ?'-CuAl2 to grow on Cu.

Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du, Yong

2012-12-01

142

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

143

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

144

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in

G. H. Gibson; R. G. Smits; P. H. Eberhard

1982-01-01

145

Study of reliability of the HTS tapes in electrical circuit at 77 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the stability of the critical parameters Ic and Tc of commercial HTS wires relative to the application of a transport current of 0.7 Ic for extended periods of time in liquid nitrogen at 77K. The voltage-current characteristics U(I) and critical current value of samples of Bi-2223-based tape (hermetic multi-filamentary in silver matrix and laminated with brass) and Dy-123 tape (on a Hastelloy C 276 steel substrate with MgO buffer layer) covered with a thin layer of Ag were examined. After 323 hours of applied current the critical current of the Bi-2223 tape decreased substantially and the sample expanded. A reference sample without applied current, but equally immersed in liquid nitrogen for 700 h showed a similar behavior. SEM investigations (JEOL JMS 5910-LV with LINK) revealed a change of the microstructure and the chemical composition of the Bi-2223 tape. The formation of microvoids inside the superconducting phase was discovered in the samples studied. The reason of the reduction of the critical current in Bi-2223 could be caused by the effect known as "bubbling". No changes in the voltage-current characteristics U(I) and the critical current value of the Dy-123 tape, manufactured with an epitaxial deposition technology, were found after applying a current for 400 hours and 1000 hours in liquid nitrogen.

Demikhov, E. I.; Mikhailova, G. N.; Aksenov, V. P.; Antonova, L. H.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Zherikhina, L. N.; Kostrov, E. A.; Lavrishchev, S. V.; Mikhailov, V. S.; Troitskii, A. V.; Tshovrebov, A. M.

2008-02-01

146

Space qualification mechanical tests of HTS filters for satellite application  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters have been designed and constructed for satellite application.\\u000a The filters are actually a superconducting integration of an 8-pole band-pass filter with an adjustable band-stop filter onto\\u000a a single piece of LaAIO3 substrate (with dimension of 0.54520 mm3). Typical results of the filters, i.e., Filters A (made by YBCO) & B (made by TBCCO) will

JianDong Huang; Liang Sun; ShunZhou Li; QingDuan Meng; Qiang Zhang; Fei Li; XueQiang Zhang; ChunGuang Li; AiSheng He; Hong Li; ChangZhi Gu; Qiang Luo; QinFen Sun; XiaoLin Wang; YiFan Sun; ZhiBing Wang; YunFei Wang; Sheng Luo; YuSheng He

2007-01-01

147

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

148

Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American electric power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 138\\/13.2 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype

Jonathan A Demko; I. Sauers; D. R. James; M. J. Gouge; D. Lindsay; M. Roden; J. Tolbert; D. Willen; C. Traeholt; C. T. Nielsen

2007-01-01

149

Advances and prospects of HTS rotating machine development at Siemens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siemens has a long tradition in developing superconducting technology, from the early 60s starting with Helium-cooled LTS magnets till today covering a wide range of potential applications. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can operate at much higher temperature (25-77 K), which has initiated world-wide activities for industrial applications to power engineering. At present superconducting rotating machines are in the focus enabling

G. Nerowski; J. Frauenhofer; G. Ries; W. Nick; H.-W. Neumiiller

2004-01-01

150

Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demagnetized Nd–Fe–B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet

Tetsuo Oka; Tomoki Muraya; Nobutaka Kawasaki; Satoshi Fukui; Jun Ogawa; Takao Sato; Toshihisa Terasawa

151

Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

Sobel, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avrin, W.F. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-12-01

152

Installation and performance test of cooling system for HTS cable in ICHEON substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable systems have many advantages such as high transmission efficiency, high capacity, and low over conventional cables. On the other hand, the reliability and economic efficiency of the HTS cable system has not been verified; therefore, there are not many precedent studies for applying HTS cables on commercial power grids, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has started a project of operating and manufacturing technology for applying 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, and 500 m class HTs cable to the commercial power grid in 2008. LS cable Ltd. has joined this project for designing and manufacturing HTS power cable including the colling system. We have verified the reliability and economic efficiency of the system throughout this real power grid connection project. In this paper, we introduce the design of the colling sytem for the 500 m class HTS cable and summarize the results of its performance testing.

Lim, Ji Hyun; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Oh, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, G. T.; Jang, H. M.; Lee, S. G.; Hwang, Si Dole

2012-06-01

153

Installation of pulse tube cryocoolers for cooling of HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Praxair, Inc. has provided cooling to the HTS cable at the Bixby Road substation in Columbus, Ohio for the past year. The refrigeration has been supplied by an open-loop liquid nitrogen system. Data collected during system operation indicate that the average heat load from the HTS cable is 1.6 kW and the average total heat load on the system is 4.9 kW. In order to more effectively provide HTS cable refrigeration, Praxair has developed a large capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler. Performance testing of prototype and initial production models of the pulse tube coldhead has demonstrated a refrigeration capacity for nitrogen subcooling of 1 kW at 77 K when a 20 kW, dual-opposed pressure wave generator is used to generate acoustic power for the cryocooler. The initial production models of this pulse tube refrigerator are ready for deployment for field testing at Bixby Road. Operation of these pulse tube units will reduce the nitrogen consumption of the open-loop cooling system and data on the reliability and performance of the cryocoolers will be collected.

Johnson, M. C.; Abbott, T. D.; Albaugh, K. B.; Potratz, S. A.

2008-02-01

154

Development of Substrate for RABiTS-based HTS Conductors  

SciTech Connect

During its fifteen years of life, this CRADA has evolved in both scope and purpose. Early efforts to develop high performance bismuth-based powder-in-tube first generation high temperature superconductors (HTS) have shifted toward efforts to understand and develop technologies required to fabricate second generation HTS coated conductors. Since the two original longstanding principal investigators from UT-Battelle and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) are not presently employed by their respective organizations, this final report shall focus primarily on results of the more recent past involving research and development of the deformation and annealing processes required to fabricate metallic substrates for RABiTS-based second generation coated conductors. The specific objectives of this recent work involve the development of OST Ni/3%W tape for HTS coated conductors and include: (a) to improve uniformity of cube texture through control of deformation and annealing parameters, (b) to minimize delamination and other buffer deposition problems through understanding and control of key parameters related to the metal substrate, (c) to ensure that the textured metal substrate allows well textured buffers with no delamination, and (d) to prepared a final report.

None

2009-06-05

155

Development of Hts Microwave Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication, Satellite Receiver and Meteorological Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development in the applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) filters is introduced. Breakthrough had been made in ultra selective band-pass filter with extremely small fractional bandwidth for 3G mobile base stations. Satisfactory results were achieved in the space qualification mechanical tests of the HTS filters. Field trail of the meteorological radar showed that with HTS subsystem the sensitivity and anti-interference ability of the radar were greatly improved.

Li, Hong; He, Aisheng; Li, Shunzhou; Zhang, Xueqiang; Li, Chunguang; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Fei; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi; He, Yusheng

156

Improvements of Current Decay Behavior of HTS Coils in Persistent Current Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the current decay behavior of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils using silver-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes in persistent current operations, the effect of the shielding current on the current decay behavior has been studied for magnetically levitated superconducting coils in internal ring devices. Generally, the current decay behavior of HTS coils is evaluated by the inductance of the HTS

Tsutomu Hemmi; Nagato Yanagi; Kazutaka Seo; Gourab Bansal; Kazuya Takahata; Toshiyuki Mito

2007-01-01

157

1.5 kA Bi2223 HTS current leads for SMES magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.5 kA class Bi-2223 HTS current leads for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) magnets were fabricated and tested. The HTS leads were composed of Bi-2223\\/Ag-1 at%Au tapes fabricated by PIT process and stainless steel former and they were connected to conventional gas-cooled copper leads, Using a calorimetric method, heat input to the liquid helium through the HTS leads was estimated

Hyun-Man Jang; Sang-Soo Oh; Hong-Soo Ha; Jeon-Wook Cho; Dong-Woo Ha; Hae-Jong Kim; Ki-Chul Seong; Young-Kil Kwon; Kang-Sik Ryu; Sang-Hyun Kim

2001-01-01

158

The high voltage problem in the saturated core HTS fault current limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small model of a one-phase saturated core HTS fault current limiter was developed. It consists of an iron core, an AC coil and a DC HTS coil. The HTS coil comprised six 126 turns double-pancakes (ID 70 mm), wound after heat treatment from Bi-2223 multifilamentary tape in Ag matrix. A fault simulation circuit was set up to characterize the

Y. F. He; J. H. Li; X. H. Zong; J. Sun; Y. N. Wang; C. L. Wu; J. X. Wang

2003-01-01

159

Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN2 circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN2 gas–liquid separator.

Y. F. Fan; L. H. Gong; X. D. Xu; L. F. Li; L. Zhang; L. Y. Xiao

2005-01-01

160

Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ??0.7 to 0.8).

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

2000-05-01

161

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

162

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

163

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

164

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

165

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

166

International space station wire program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

May, Todd

1995-11-01

167

Experimental Analysis of Different Type HTS Rings in Fault Current Limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductive type high temperature superconducting fault current limiter (HTS FCL) is one of the forthcoming and progressing applications of HTS, which can make electric power networks more powerful and integrated. In our case a transformer type FCL built up of different types of YBCO and Bi2212 hollow cylinders using a magnetic core with an adjustable air gap was investigated

A. Gyore; S. Semperger; V. Tihanyi; I. Vajda; M. R. Gonal; K. P. Muthe; S. C. Kashyap; D. K. Pandya

2007-01-01

168

Hardware-in-the-Loop Investigation of Rotor Heating in a 5 MW HTS Propulsion Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of particular concern to designers of HTS machines are potential heating effects in the superconducting windings due to AC losses caused by load fluctuations encountered in real-life operating conditions. A 5 MW HTS synchronous prototype ship propulsion motor has been tested extensively under steady-state and dynamic load conditions in the advanced test facility of the Center for Advanced Power Systems

M. Steurer; S. Woodruff; T. Baldwin; H. Boenig; F. Bogdan; T. Fikse; M. Sloderbeck; G. Snitchler

2007-01-01

169

Electrical tuning of passive HTS microwave devices using single crystal strontium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years several groups have fabricated High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin film microwave devices which have included a ferroelectric thin film layer in their design. The electric field dependence of the ferroelectric promises desirable in-situ tuning of the frequency response. Here we present the results of our experiments on the tuning of a coplanar HTS resonator using

I. Wooldridge; C. W. Turner; P. A. Warburton; E. J. Romans

1999-01-01

170

AC losses of HTS tapes and bundles with de-coupling barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastronic Inc. is working on a project for the Ballistic Missile Defence Organization to improve the strength and AC loss characteristics of Bi-based high temperature superconductors (HTS) for AC applications like motors, generators, and transmission cables. High strength, high amperage conductor is made by encapsulating bundles of HTS tapes with a nonsilver sheath. With this technique, Cu-alloy spacers can be

J. W. Lue; M. S. Lubell; M. J. Tomsic

1999-01-01

171

Electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation: moving HTS SQUIDs, inducing field nulling and dual frequency measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that simple, single layer HTS SQUIDs can be used effectively in electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using eddy current techniques in a magnetically unshielded environment. HTS SQUID systems for NDE applications are expected to be small and portable allowing non-stationary measurements to be carried out in the Earth's field above a stationary sample. Here we present application-oriented

C. Carr; D. Mc A. McKirdy; E. J. Romans; G. B. Donaldson; A. Cochran

1997-01-01

172

THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

173

A space-qualified experiment integrating HTS digital circuits and small cryocoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconductors (HTS) promise to achieve electrical performance superior to that of conventional electronics. For application in space systems, HTS systems must simultaneously achieve lower power, weight, and volume than conventional electronics, and meet stringent space qualification and reliability requirements. Most effort to date has focused on passive RF\\/microwave applications. However, incorporation of active microwave components such as amplifiers,

A. Silver; G. Akerling; R. Auten; D. Durand; J. Godden; K.-F. Lan; J. Murduck; R. Orsini; J. Raab; S. Schwarzbek; E. Tward; M. Wire

1996-01-01

174

A Compact Cryocooling System With Subcooled Liquid Nitrogen for Small HTS Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact cryogenic cooling system is developed for small HTS magnets to be continuously refrigerated in subcooled liquid nitrogen at temperatures below 77 K by a cryocooler. This thermal design is particularly useful when electrical insulation and compactness are significant at the same time. HTS elements are immersed in a cylindrical liquid-nitrogen vessel, and a copper band is brazed around

Ho-Myung Chang; Min-Jee Kim; Jung Wook Sim; Bang-Wook Lee; Il-Sung Oh

2008-01-01

175

Analysis of Transient Overvoltage in 220 kV Saturated Core HTS FCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated Core High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Fault Current Limiter (FCL) is one kind of limiters that can work effectively on short-circuit current limitation. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model depending on ac coil of HTS FCL is built for voltage distribution analysis under transient overvoltage. The equivalent circuit components, such as the capacitances and inductances, are calculated by using

Hongli Xiao; Jie Qiu; Shuhong Wang; Qiuhui Zhang; Weizhi Gong; Ying Xin; Jian Guo Zhu; Youguang Guo

2011-01-01

176

The Design of a Lightweight HTS Synchronous Generator Cooled by Subcooled Liquid Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A final design of a dasiacorelesspsila 100 kW HTS synchronous generator, to be built at the University of Southampton is under way. The new generator will use the same conventional 2-pole, 3 phase stator used by for the dasiairon coredpsila generator. The new HTS rotor has no central core and the rotor winding is built with 15 double pancake coils.

Wendell O. S. Bailey; Maitham Al-Mosawi; Yifeng Yang; Kevin Goddard; Carlo Beduz

2009-01-01

177

Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

2013-11-01

178

Towards large scale HTS Josephson detector arrays for THz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and implementation of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction detector array for terahertz (THz) imaging. The array device is made of ten YBa2Cu3Ox?7 (YBCO) step-edge junctions coupled to gold thin-film ring-slot antennas on a MgO substrate. The design and characterization of the detector array in response to a 0.6 THz signal are presented. The development of multi-channel biasing and read-out electronics and the system integration with a commercial cryocooler are also described.

Du, J.; Hellicar, A. D.; Leslie, K. E.; Nikolic, N.; Hanham, S. M.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Foley, C. P.

2013-11-01

179

Characterisation and Control of a Prototype HTS SMES Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.79 kJ prototype high transition temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) device has been constructed. The coil for the prototype has been wound using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) BSCCO-2223 tape. The refrigeration system is a gaseous helium cold head cryocooler used to maintain the SMES coil at a temperature of 30 K, improving the Ic characteristic of the coil by a factor of 4.7 compared to that at 77 K. The SMES device is capable of supplying a 3-phase load during power interruptions, and has been constructed during a program to develop a larger 20 kJ system aimed at industrial applications.

Hawley, C. J.; Cuiuri, D.; Cook, C. D.; Gower, S. A.; Beales, T. P.

2006-06-01

180

Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

Foley, C. P.; Leslie, K. E.; Binks, R. A.; Lam, S. H. K.; Du, J.; Tilbrook, D. L.; Mitchell, E. E.; Macfarlane, J. C.; Lee, J. B.; Turner, R.; Downey, M.; Maddever, A.

2002-12-01

181

The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-11-01

182

Optimal design of thrust force in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed the vertical-type linear reluctance motor (LRM) with HTS bulks cooled in zero-field. The double-sided HTS bulk LRM is propelled contactlessly only by electromagnetic repulsive force from both sides of a double-sided armature guideway. This paper presents optimal thrust force design based on the dependence of thrust on the size of HTS bulk attached to the cage in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM. The thrust force is calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM), taking into account the E J characteristic. Improved HTS bulk LRM which is 1.5 times heavier than the previous cage can be propelled contactlessly in propulsion and guidance simulation.

Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Eguchi, M.

2005-10-01

183

The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-01-01

184

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802...

2009-07-01

185

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003...

2009-07-01

186

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802...

2010-07-01

187

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003...

2010-07-01

188

Long Term Vacuum Maintenance in HTS Equipment without External Pumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices being developed, such as motors, generators, and electric power transmission cables, are intended to replace conventional, room temperature equipment. As such, the cryogenic and vacuum operation of this equipment has to be nearly transparent to ensure market acceptance. The cryostat has to deliver a stable operating temperature requiring little or no maintenance for a period of years. To maintain a nearly constant and low heat load on the refrigeration system, the vacuum must be kept at less than about 7 mPa (5 × 10-5 torr), preferably with no external pumping system. This, in turn, requires the use of low outgassing materials, and adsorbers or getters that can effectively remove the residual gasses in the system. Each particular device differs in the system volume, the materials used, the fabrication and degassing techniques, the operating temperatures of the various components, and the availability and maintenance requirements, necessitating an individual analysis. In this paper, we present a general approach to determining the outgassing properties of typical materials used in HTS devices, the likely gas constituents, techniques for determining adsorber and getter materials and estimating the quantity of such materials needed based on the operating temperature of the device.

Waynert, J. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Jankowski, T. A.; Stewart, J. A.

2004-06-01

189

HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

1999-07-12

190

Restoration and testing of an HTS fault current controller  

SciTech Connect

A three-phase, 1200 A, 12.5 kV fault current controller using three HTS 4 mH coils, was built by industry and tested in 1999 at the Center Substation of Southern California Edison in Norwalk, CA. During the testing, it appeared that each of the three single-phase units had experienced a voltage breakdown, one externally and two internally. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was asked by DOE to restore the operation of the fault current controller provided the HTS coils had not been damaged during the initial substation tests. When the internally-failed coil vacuum vessels were opened it became evident that in these two vessels, a flashover had occurred at the high voltage bus section leading to the terminals of the superconducting coil. An investigation into the failure mechanism resulted in six possible causes for the flashover. Based on these causes, the high voltage bus was completely redesigned. Single-phase tests were successfully performed on the modified unit at a 13.7 kV LANL substation. This paper presents the postulated voltage flashover failure mechanisms, the new high voltage bus design which mitigates the failure mechanisms, the sequence of tests used to validate the new design, and finally, the results of variable load and short-circuit tests with the single-phase unit operating on the LANL 13.7 kV substation.

Waynert, J. A. (Joseph A.); Boenig, H. (Heinrich E.); Mielke, C. H. (Charles H.); Willis, J. O. (Jeffrey O.); Burley, B. L. (Burt L.)

2002-01-01

191

High Performance Superconducting Wire in High Applied Magnetic Fields via Nanoscale Defect Engineering  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3 5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 m thick YBa2Cu3O7? (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm?1 and 65.4 kA cm?2, respectively.

Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL

2008-01-01

192

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

193

Wire Rope Slings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safe working load tables, in metric units, were prepared for the Divisional Accident Prevention Advisory Committee. At the same time an investigation was made into the possibility of preparing a Divisional Standard for wire rope slings. It is recommended ...

P. J. Bramhill

1972-01-01

194

Superconducting wire fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting

W. E. Glad; G. G. Chase

1990-01-01

195

Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

2013-07-01

196

Experimental Studies on Cryogenic System for 22.9 KV Hts Cable Sytem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of high transmission capacity with lower voltage, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system is a very attractive challenge for utilities. However, the concomitant cryogenic system for the HTS cable system is one of the tantalizing problems in the operation. The reliability and maintainability of cryogenic system are the key issues to apply it to the real electric power grid. Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is making an attempt to verify the applicability of the HTS cable system to improve the efficiency of electric power industry. Since May 2006, a 22.9-kV, 50-MVA, 3-phase, 100-m class HTS cable system with an open cooling system has been operated at the KEPCO Gochang test yard. Concurrently, another HTS cable verification test with the same electrical specification and an hybrid cooling system has been carried out by LS Cable (LSC) Ltd in close proximity to the KEPCO's HTS cable system within Gochang test yard. KEPCO conducts the operation of the open cooling system, and is evaluating the hybrid system of LSC with respect to facility performance and usability. This paper compares the cryogenic performance of both HTS cable systems and discusses cooling test results such as step response.

Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Hwang, S. D.

2008-03-01

197

Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac  

SciTech Connect

An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

2011-03-28

198

Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

2011-03-28

199

The electrical characteristics of solid insulators for 154 kV class HTS transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS transformer, without any loss of insulation lifetime due to the reduction in terms of size and weight, can increase the overload capacity, and have some benefits such as the improvement in efficiency, minimization of environmental pollution, and convenient spatial arrangement, which contribute a lot to electric power system operation. However, for practical insulation design of the HTS transformer, it is necessary to establish the research on electrical properties LN2 as well as solid insulators. These solid insulators have been used as main insulations for HTS transformer.In this paper, we discussed breakdown and V-t characteristics of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and pressboard in LN2.

Cheon, H. G.; Choi, J. H.; Pang, M. S.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. H.

2011-11-01

200

A SFCL modeling and application with real HTS material connecting to real time simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a real time simulation method for the SFCL (superconducting fault current limiter) modeling and application with the real HTS (high temperature superconducting) material by using RTDS (real time digital simulator), and the transient phenomenon of SFCL system was analyzed in the simulated utility power network. SFCL components were modeled with the test sample of Bi-2223 and YBCO HTS tape with stabilizer of copper and brass material due the electrical characteristics of SFCL are dominantly dependent on the start of HTS tapes. The results from the simulation analysis proposed by this paper can be a good guideline for the selection of the SFCL material.

Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Ali, M. H.; Kim, A. R.; Lee, S. R.; Yoon, J. Y.; Cho, J.; Sim, K. D.; Kim, S. H.; Yu, I. K.

2008-09-01

201

Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

2012-01-01

202

Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body.

Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2008-09-01

203

Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

204

Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

205

a Global Fit of the X3?-G, A1?G, B1?+G and B3?-U States of the Six Isotopologues of Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global fit of the six isotopologues of the O_2 molecule has been carried out, with the purpose to support the current and future Earth remote sensing missions. All previously available experimental data from the following systems were collected and used in the analysis: the microwave transitions in the X3?-G and A1?G states, the infared transitions from the A1?G - X3?-G, B1?+G - X3?-G, and B1?+G - A1?G systems, the UV transitions from the B3?-U - X3?-G Schumann-Runge system. For the main 16O_2 isotopologue, experimental data are available for the following vibrational states: v=0-18 for X3?-G, v=0-1 for a^1{?}_g, v=0-17 for B1?+G, v=0-17 for B3?-U. A band by band fit was first carried out for these 16O_2 data to check bad measurements, misassigments and calibration problems. Then all these 16O_2 data were fitted with a Dunham-type model. It was found that most 16O_2 data (98%) could be fitted within 3 times experimental accuracies in the band by band fit; the X3?-G, A1?G, B1?+G states could be well reproduced with the Dunham-type model; but the vibrational energies for v=0-17 of B3?-U could not be fitted well with the Dunham-type mode, probably caused by the known perturbations in this state. A band by band fit has been performed for each of the other five minor isotopologues, and a Dunham-type fit is in progress for these data. Eventually data from all the six isotopologues will be simultaneously fitted with a multi-isotopologue Dunham model. We will present the most recent fitting results to date.

Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E.; Drouin, Brian J.; Müller, Holger S. P.

2011-06-01

206

The AC loss of an HTS transformer by 2D and 3D numerical calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the design of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power transformer the AC loss is a critical issue because the energy is dissipated as heat in the low temperature. It is necessary to study the AC losses theoretically and experimentally. For the analysis of AC losses in an HTS power transformer, two-dimensional numerical analysis has been carried out until now. However, AC losses which are calculated by using two-dimensional numerical analysis differ from those using three-dimensional numerical analysis because the geometry of the HTS transformer is not symmetric. AC losses of a 1 MVA-single-phase HTS transformer were calculated using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical analysis. To prove the effectiveness of the calculations, the numerical results were compared with the measured results for a transformer fabricated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? tapes in 2004.

Choi, S.; Park, S. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, W.; Park, C.; Song, J. B.; Lee, H.; Choi, K.; Hahn, S.

2009-10-01

207

Research and Development of Second-Generation HTS Conductors Using Metal, Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this research project is to develop coated conductors with performance characteristics that are necessary for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) devices being developed for military applications. The second objective of this prog...

V. Selvamanickam

2008-01-01

208

Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

2012-10-01

209

Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

Song, Peng; Qu, Timing; Yu, Xiaoyu; Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Han, Zhenghe

2013-11-01

210

Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

2013-11-01

211

Wire brush fastening device  

DOEpatents

A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

Meigs, R.A.

1993-08-31

212

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

213

Wiring and Cabling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to wiring and cabling principles, including transmission lines, computer network and wireless systems, and troubleshooting. The Knowledge Probes allow students to answer open-ended questions covering the content of the module, and the Learning Resources present activities, laboratories, and games to further solidify the material. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for vocational electronics educators as a ready-made classroom introduction to wiring and cabling.

2008-12-08

214

Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to

Zeng Pan; Lu Yong-Jin; Lei Li-Ping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang

2010-01-01

215

The R&D Project of HTS Magnets for the Superconducting Maglev  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes landmarks in the R&D project and the progress of persistent current HTS magnets, which has been in development for the Superconducting Maglev trains since 1999. The first trial HTS magnet is operated with a very small current decay rate of 0.44%\\/day and can be cooled by a cryocooler below 20 K, using a conduction cooling method. The

Motoaki Terai; Motohiro Igarashi; Shigehisa Kusada; Kaoru Nemoto; Toru Kuriyama; Satoshi Hanai; Tomohisa Yamashita; Hiroyuki Nakao

2006-01-01

216

Albany Hts Cable Project Long Term InGrid Operation Status Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems are expected to be a solution for improvement of the power grid and three demonstration projects in the real grid are under way in the United States. One of them is the Albany, NY Cable Project, involving the installation and operation of a 350 meter HTS cable system with a capacity of 34.5kV, 800A, connecting

H. Yumura; T. Masuda; M. Watanabe; H. Takigawa; Y. Ashibe; H. Ito; M. Hirose; K. Sato

2008-01-01

217

HTS Magnetic Field Damper for Short-Term Fluctuations in the Driven-Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are very promising for high-field generation over 25 Tesla, it is difficult to apply them to an NMR magnet because of their low index values and the difficulty caused by superconducting joints. The properties of HTS appear to cause poor magnetic field stability in the persistent-mode operation. Therefore, in this study, a high-field NMR magnet including

A. Otsuka; T. Kiyoshi; S. Matsumoto

2008-01-01

218

Ramp rate dependence of E– I characteristics in Bi2223\\/Ag HTS tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been studying the ramp rate dependence of the E–I characteristics under self-magnetic field in Bi2223\\/Ag HTS tapes at 77 K. In this paper, we have examined an experimental result and a numerical analysis. Experimentally, we applied about 70 A, which is about twice that of the Ic into Bi2223\\/Ag HTS tapes at ramp rates of 14 kA\\/s to

Tsutomu Hemmi; Takashi Okada; Akira Ninomiya; Takeshi Ishigohka; Kazuaki Arai; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Katsuyuki Kaiho; Kiyoshi Kurahashi

2001-01-01

219

Electronic gradiometry for NDE in an unshielded environment with stationary and moving HTS SQUIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in the fabrication of multilayer high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices have led to recent interest in the use of simpler HTS SQUID magnetometers in electronic gradiometers. One application of such systems is electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation. We have developed a prototype two-SQUID system and we present recent results in this paper. We first demonstrate the level of interference suppression by comparing

C. Carr; A. Cochran; J. Kuznik; D. Mc A. McKirdy; G. B. Donaldson

1996-01-01

220

Defect profiles identification of conducting materials using HTS-SQUID gradiometer with multiple frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with a quantitative nondestructive evaluation of conducting materials using high temperature superconducting quantum interference devices (HTS-SQUIDs). A mathematical model of the nondestructive evaluation system is described by a three dimensional eddy current model. The forward analyses using the finite element model are implemented for conducting materials with a depth-varying crack. A computational method based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for recovering internal defect profiles with HTS-SQUID data. .

Kojima, F.; Kawai, R.; Kasai, N.; Hatsukade, Y.

2001-04-01

221

Development of CAD tool for a design of microwave planar HTS filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate design of microwave planar high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters is obtained using a computer-aided design tool, which provides simulation of characteristics of the multicoupled transmission-line structures. The quasi-static spectral-domain method is applied. In order to achieve a good correspondence between measured and simulated filter performance, correct models of the microwave propagation characteristics of HTS planar transmission lines have to be

Irina B. Vendik; Orest G. Vendik; Anatoli N. Deleniv; Vassili V. Kondratiev; Maria N. Goubina; Dmitri V. Kholodniak

2000-01-01

222

HTS Bulk Pole-Field Magnets Motor With a Multiple Rotor Cooled by Liquid Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-Tc superconductor (HTS) rotating machine with melt-textured Gd-123 bulk pole-field magnets was assembled and tested. The axial gap type motor with neither brush\\/slip ring nor iron core was composed of a kind of multiple rotor, i.e., a twinned rotor. On each rotor disk, there are eight Gd-123 HTS bulk magnets. The bulk magnets were cooled down with circulating liquid nitrogen

Hirohisa Matsuzaki; Yousuke Kimura; Eisuke Morita; Hideaki Ogata; Tetsuya Ida; Mitsuru Izumi; Hidehiko Sugimoto; Motohiro Miki; Masahiro Kitano

2007-01-01

223

Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

2009-10-01

224

The high voltage problem in the saturated core HTS fault current limiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small model of a one-phase saturated core HTS fault current limiter was developed. It consists of an iron core, an AC coil and a DC HTS coil. The HTS coil comprised six 126 turns double-pancakes (ID 70 mm), wound after heat treatment from Bi-2223 multifilamentary tape in Ag matrix. A fault simulation circuit was set up to characterize the dynamic properties of the model limiter. The voltages and currents of the AC coil and the DC HTS coil were measured through a computer-based data acquisition system. The tests have shown that the limiter has a fast response and the first current peak can be easily limited, but a high voltage will be induced on the DC HTS coil side during the fault state. This high voltage can badly affect the DC current equipment on the DC HTS coil side. The origin and value of the high voltage can be explained using a transformer model. For a limiter with n1 turns AC coil and n2 turns DC coil, the largest induced voltage will be roughly close to (n2/n1)U, where U is the rated voltage of the limiter. To commercialize this kind of limiter, the high voltage problem must be solved. Some different designs were introduced to lower the induced voltage.

He, Y. F.; Li, J. H.; Zong, X. H.; Sun, J.; Wang, Y. N.; Wu, C. L.; Wang, J. X.

2003-04-01

225

Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

2010-04-01

226

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

227

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

228

NewsWire, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

2002-01-01

229

Basic Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

230

Debate: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

2000-01-01

231

Vibrating Wire Viscometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The damping of transverse vibrations of a wire in a viscous fluid is the basis for a viscometer of high precision and versatility. A solution to the hydrodynamic problem is indicated, and shown to be valid for a wide range of physical parameters. The devi...

J. T. Tough W. D. McCormick J. G. Dash

1964-01-01

232

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

233

Wires by Patchy Particles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

Zhang, Zhenli

2005-01-31

234

Residential Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

Taylor, Mark; And Others

235

Plated Wire Memory Subsystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along ...

K. H. Carpenter

1974-01-01

236

Transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable using a multi-terminal based test-bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current capacity of a power supply limits the experimental environment of higher capacity HTS power cable. Consequently, the transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable is difficult to assess. In this paper, a multi-terminal based test-bed is used to overcome those power supply capacity limitations. A 1 kA class HTS DC power cable was designed and the transient characteristics of the HTS DC power cable were analyzed using the multi-terminal based test-bed. Transient characteristics, such as resistance variation and critical current of the 1 kA class HTS DC power cable were successfully measured using small power sources in the multi-terminal based test-bed. Definitely, the suggested test system overcomes the assessment limits of the HTS power cable's current capacity.

Kim, Jin-Geun; Dinh, Minh-Chau; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

2013-11-01

237

Engineering Nanocolumnar Defect Configurations for Optimized Vortex Pinning in High Temperature Superconducting Nanocomposite Wires  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS), coated conductor wires based on nanocomposite films containing self-assembled, insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumnar defects have previously been reported to exhibit enhanced vortex pinning. Here, we report on microstructural design via control of BZO nanocolumns density in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO)+BZO nancomposite films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc(H, ,T). X-ray diffraction and microstructural examination shows increasing number density of epitaxial BZO nanocolumns in the highly cube-textured YBCO matrix with increasing nominal BZO additions. Transport property measurement reveals that an increase in BZO content upto 4 vol% is required to sustain the highest pinning and Jc performance as the magnetic field increases. By growing thicker, single-layer nanocomposite films (~4 m) with controlled density of BZO columnar defects, the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A/cm at 77 K, self-field and the minimum Ic of 455 A/cm at 65 K and 3 T for all magnetic field orientations were obtained. This is the highest Ic reported to date for films on metallic templates which are the basis for the 2nd generation, coated conductor-based HTS wires.

Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Ahuja, Raj [Waukesha Electric Systems Inc.; Abiade, J. [North Carolina A& T State University

2013-01-01

238

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

239

Approximations to wire grid inductance.  

SciTech Connect

By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

2004-06-01

240

Production of hot-wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.

Dickinson, S. C.

1983-04-01

241

High temperature superconducting composite wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconducting composite wires are fast emerging as a new advanced materials technology. Rapid progress has been made towards demonstrating practical levels of superconducting performance across long lengths of high temperature superconducting composite wire fabricated using a manufacturable process. This progress has allowed a first generation of composite wire products that is driving commercialization of high temperature superconductivity. Recent

G. N Riley; Q Li; L. G Fritzemeier

1999-01-01

242

Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system

Xueqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng He; Yuehui Wang; Tao Duan; Guizhen Wang; Yan Zhang; Chunguang Li; Qiang Zhang; Hong Li; Yusheng He

2010-01-01

243

Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

Zhang, Xueqiang; He, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuehui; Duan, Tao; Wang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hong; He, Yusheng

2010-02-01

244

Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

2001-04-01

245

Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

2010-04-01

246

Magnetic properties of Ni-based substrates for HTS tape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni-W alloys are used as the substrate in the manufacture of HTS tape via the RABiTSTM process. Theoretical work has shown that the ferromagnetism in a substrate can affect the ac losses in the superconductor. This occurs in part because of the increased magnetic permeability, which alters the magnetic induction in the superconductor and thereby the loss. Magnetic hysteretic loss in the substrate is an additional contribution to overall ac loss. We report measurements of both permeability and magnetic loss as a function of frequency and magnetic induction for the standard alloy Ni-5W as well as composite substrates incorporating non-magnetic Ni-W alloys. The measurements are done using ac susceptibility at 77 K, at frequencies up to 104 Hz and inductions in the range 1-150 mT. It is shown how to use these results to predict total ac loss in isolated superconducting tape and wound coils. Some important magnetic parameters cannot be obtained with sufficient accuracy using a SQUID or vibrating sample magnetometer, since the size of a sample is limited in these measurements. This makes the demagnetizing factor large enough to degrade the accuracy of a permeability measurement.

Claassen, J. H.; Thieme, C. L. H.

2008-10-01

247

Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

248

Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45-500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N - number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

2013-03-01

249

Novel quantum wire infrared photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes novel semiconductor quantum wire infrared photodetectors in the long- and very long-wavelength regions. The infrared photodetectors are based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wires and have the potential for higher operational temperature, increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced dark current, wider spectral range and sensitivity to normal incident radiation. The quantum wire IR detectors are implemented using a nonlithographic nanostructure fabrication technique that is capable of producing large arrays of semiconductor quantum wires of a variety of materials and on different substrates. This paper describes the operational principles, the design procedure as well as the implementation of the quantum wire photodetectors.

Das, Biswajit; Singaraju, Pavan

2005-01-01

250

Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists' knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators.However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not "waiting for HTS". If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

2012-11-01

251

Test results of a 30-m HTS cable pre-demonstration system in Yokohama project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting cable demonstration project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization has started since FY 2007 in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a live grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. A demonstration site has been decided to Asahi substation which is located in Yokohama. The cable length will be decided to between 200 and 300 m depending on a site configuration. Various preliminary tests such as critical current, ac losses, fault current loading, mechanical tests, have been conducted by using short core samples in order to confirm a HTS cable design and a cable-to-cable joint structure. From these test results, a HTS cable, a joint and a termination have been designed to meet the required specifications. To verify their performances before the installation of the HTS cable system in Yokohama, a 30-m HTS cable was manufactured and various sample tests were conducted as shipping test. The critical current of the HTS conductor and shield were 6.1 kA and 7.1 kA, respectively. The AC loss was 0.83 W/m/ph at 2 kArms, 60 Hz. As withstand voltage tests, AC 90 kV for 3 h and lightning impulse at ±385 kV were applied to cable core, successfully. These test results has confirmed that the 30-m cable had good properties as designed and satisfied the required specifications. After the success of the shipping tests, the 30-m HTS cable pre-demonstration system has been installed at SEI factory. The cable system will be operated and checked the various performances in this summer.

Yumura, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Ohya, M.; Itoh, H.; Watanabe, M.; Yatsuka, K.; Masuda, T.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kitoh, Y.; Noguchi, Y.

2010-11-01

252

Vibronic coupling effects in the low-energy 1 2B1 g and 2 2B1 g states of the C 10H 8+ radical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrational structure of the 1 2Au ( D0)?1 2B1 g ( D3) and 1 2Au ( D0)?2 2B1 g ( D4) bands in the absorption spectrum of the naphthalene cation is studied in terms of vibronic coupling theory. The model calculations supported by the FORS MCSCF type computations show that the vibrational structure of the 1 2Au ( D0)?1 2B1 g ( D3) band observed at ca. 21000 cm -1 is due to Franck-Condon and vibronic interactions introduced by the totally symmetric modes in the 1 2B1 g ( D3) and 2 2B1 g ( D4) states of the naphthalene cation. The strongest vibronic effect was found to arise in four modes with the ground state frequencies: ?1=514 cm -1 (CCC bending), ?2=725 cm -1 (skeletal breathing), ?5=1413 cm -1 (CC stretching) and ?7=1604 cm -1. On the other hand, the band-shape corresponding to the 1 2Au ( D0)?2 2B1 g ( D4) transition located at ca. 25000 cm -1 is very slightly affected by the vibronic coupling. For this transition the vibrational structure is predominately due to FC activity of ?1=514 cm -1, ?2=725 cm -1 and ?3=1037 cm -1 modes of the naphthalene cation. The estimates suggest that certain anomalies observed in the (weak) absorption bands of many cations and anions might be attributed to a competition between the vibronic coupling and Franck-Condon effects.

Andruniow, Tadeusz; Pawlikowski, Marek

1998-09-01

253

Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper rich Cu-Ni alloys have been textured with the RABiTS method in order to get non-magnetic and cost efficient substrates for coated conductor wires. The study is focused on two industrial compositions: Cu55Ni45 (Constantan) and Cu70Ni30. Studies on surface roughness have been done. The effects of annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere) on the grain boundaries deepness were analyzed. Electrolytic polishing

A Girard; C E Bruzek; J L Jorda; L Ortega; J L Soubeyroux

2006-01-01

254

Understanding Guitar Wiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

2012-08-13

255

Bilayer microviscosity changes due to O 2( 1?g) peroxidation in lipid vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photooxidation O 2( 1?g) of single-bilayer vesicles is shown to cause major changes in the microviscosity of the bilayer. Rotational fluorescence depolarisation was used to follow the changes as a function of the extent of O 2( 1?g) produced in the vesicle samples. Egg yolk lecithin (52% unsaturation), dimyristoyl and dioleoyl lecithins were studied.

Dearden, S. J.; Hunter, T. F.; Philp, J.

1981-08-01

256

Transport characteristics of the 100 m KEPCO HTS cable system for balanced three-phase currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a 100 m, 22.9 kV/50 MVA high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable system was installed at the Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO) in 2005, a long-term test has been performed. In this paper, the transport characteristics of the KEPCO HTS cable system were examined by the electrical and calorimetric methods. To analyze the shield current in this system, an equivalent circuit model for the KEPCO HTS cable was suggested, and the calculated shield current compared with the measured one.The results show that the electrically measured total loss, which includes the AC and ohmic losses, corresponds well with the loss measured from the calorimetric method. The measured AC loss of the HTS cable is proportional to the 2.5th power of transport current, and four times larger than the conductor loss calculated from the monoblock model. This is because the conductor’s geometry in the HTS cable is not identical to a cylindrical superconductor in the monoblock model, its temperature rises due to a thick insulator, and the shield loss is included in the measured AC loss. In addition, the measured AC resistance of the current-lead is constant regardless of transport current, particularly in the low current region. Finally, the shield current calculated from our equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the measured one.

Li, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. H.; Choi, B. J.; Ryu, K.; Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

2010-11-01

257

Case studies of minimizing nonspecific inhibitors in HTS campaigns that use assay-ready plates.  

PubMed

Identifying chemical lead matter by high-throughput screening (HTS) has been a common practice in early stage drug discovery. Evolution of small-molecule library composition to include more drug-like molecules with desirable physical chemical properties combined with improving assay technologies has vastly enhanced the capability of HTS. However, HTS campaigns can still be plagued by false positives arising from nonspecific inhibitors. The generation of assay-ready plates has permitted an incremental advancement to the speed and efficiency of HTS but has the potential to enhance the occurrence of nonspecific inhibitors. A subtle change in the order of reagent addition to the assay-ready plates can greatly alleviate false-positive inhibition. Our case studies with six different kinase and protease targets reveal that this type of inhibition affects targets regardless of enzyme class and is unpredictable based on protein construct or inhibitor chemical scaffold. These case studies support a model where a diversity set of compounds should be tested first for hit rates as a function of order of addition, carrier protein, and relevant mechanistic studies prior to launch of the HTS campaign. PMID:21940710

Liu, Yichin; Beresini, Maureen H; Johnson, Adam; Mintzer, Robert; Shah, Kinjalkumar; Clark, Kevin; Schmidt, Stephen; Lewis, Cristina; Liimatta, Marya; Elliott, Linda O; Gustafson, Amy; Heise, Christopher E

2011-09-22

258

Characterization of pinning stability of HTS Gd123 bulks by using a pulsed-field magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconductor (HTS) Gd-bulks are used for field-pole magnets of rotating machines. We have conducted a study of pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) for the bulks to be magnetized alternatively on the rotor. Performances of HTS bulks have been qualified on the basis of the field-cooling magnetization (FCM). HTS bulks are a kind of crystals containing lots of tiny crystals boundaries. It is difficult to find comparable data between PFM and FCM results, mainly because of the different pinning stability through both processes. We need to assess an effective method of characterization for the flux pinning stability under PFM. We compared two HTS bulks: one shows a flux flow and relatively small trapped flux while the other is magnetized with a little flux instability and a large integrated trapped flux. These Gd123 bulks are 100 mm in diameter and 20 mm in thickness. After applying PFM at the liquid nitrogen temperature, we measured the trapped field density distribution and introduced a new parameter representing the trapped flux instability at each position on the surface of the bulk. We propose a way of visualization of the flux pinning instability of the HTS bulks.

Taguchi, R.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

2010-06-01

259

MScreen: An Integrated Compound Management and High Throughput Screening (HTS) Data Storage and Analysis System  

PubMed Central

High-throughput screening (HTS) has historically been used by the pharmaceutical industry to rapidly test hundreds of thousands of compounds to identify potential drug candidates. More recently, academic groups have used HTS to identify new chemical probes or small interfering RNA (siRNA) that can serve as experimental tools to examine the biology or physiology of novel proteins, processes, or interactions. HTS presents a significant challenge with the vast and complex nature of data generated. This report describes MScreen, a web-based, open-source cheminformatics application for chemical library and siRNA plate management, primary HTS and dose-response data handling, structure search, and administrative functions. Each project in MScreen can be secured with passwords or shared in an open information environment which enables collaborators to easily compare data from many screens, providing a useful means to identify compounds with desired selectivity. Unique features include compound, substance, mixture, and siRNA plate creation and formatting; automated dose-response fitting and quality control (QC); and user, target, and assay method administration. MScreen provides an effective means to facilitate HTS information handling and analysis in the academic setting so that users can efficiently view their screening data and evaluate results for follow-up.

Jacob, Renju T.; Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Kirchhoff, Paul D.; Sherman, David H.; Neubig, Richard R.

2013-01-01

260

Parametric study for the cooling of high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of cooling of a binary HTS 20 kA current lead (CL) operating between 4.5 and 300 K has been carried out. Assuming that the HTS module is conduction-cooled, two cooling options for the copper heat exchanger (HEX) part of the CL have been considered, i.e. (1) cooling with a single flow of gaseous helium and (2) cooling with two flows of gaseous helium. The ideal refrigerator power required to cool the whole HTS CL has been calculated for both cooling scenarios and different values of input parameters and the thermodynamic optimization has been performed for both cooling options. The obtained results indicate that the cooling Option 2 cannot provide significant savings of the refrigerator power, as compared to the Option 1. However, it has been observed that at the same helium inlet temperature the temperature at the warm end of the HTS part, and the resulting number of HTS tapes, can be reduced in the Option 2 with respect to the Option 1.

Lewandowska, Monika; Wesche, Rainer

2013-01-01

261

O2 (a1?g,v=0) and O2(b1?g+, v=0) Products Following O2(A 3 ? u+) Excitation and O2 Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation of the Herzberg states of O2 close to the dissociation limit and the resulting flow of energy down the various O2 manifolds is a surrogate for the 3-body atom recombination process. Previous SRI studies have shown that laser excitation of the O2( A3? u+) state to the v=7,8 levels followed by O2 collisions results in production of O2(b1?g+, v=10-15) and O2(a1?g,v=15-20), along with prompt production of O2 molecules in the v=0 levels of the b1?g+ and a1?g states.(1) The transient vibrationally-excited populations have been probed with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). In this work we perform quantitative studies of the two v=0 populations, to evaluate their yields in the levels from which they radiate in the atmosphere. Yields are determined by comparison with products from an ozone/oxygen system, and with this information it will ultimately be possible to convert the atmospheric v=0 emission intensities to O-atom densities. 1) K.S. Kalogerakis et al., EOS Transactions, 81, F944 (2000). We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres program.

Cosby, P. C.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

2001-12-01

262

Randomized comparative study of 0.5 and 1 g of cefodizime (HR 221) versus 1 g of cefotaxime for acute uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.  

PubMed Central

Uncomplicated urogenital and concomitant oropharyngeal gonorrhea in 424 male and female patients was treated in a randomized comparative study with 0.5 g of cefodizime (89 men and 54 women), 1 g of cefodizime (87 men and 52 women), or 1 g of cefotaxime (86 men and 56 women). The cure rates were 100% for men and women in the group given 0.5 g of cefodizime, 100% for men and women in the group given 1 g of cefodizime, and 99% for men and 100% for women in the group given 1 g of cefotaxime. The MICs of cefodizime and cefotaxime for the isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ranged from 0.004 to 0.06 micrograms/ml. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated before treatment in 15% and after treatment in 13% of all patients. Side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, genital candidiasis, and pain at the site of injection, developed in 4% of the patients given cefodizime. Side effects, such as vertigo, genital candidiasis, fatigability, and diarrhea, developed in 4% of the patients treated with cefotaxime. In both groups of patients, the side effects were mild and transient. Cefodizime and cefotaxime are safe and effective agents in the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.

van der Willigen, A H; Wagenvoort, J H; Schalla, W O; Knapp, J S; Boot, J M; Heeres-Weststrate, P L; Michel, M F; van Klingeren, B; Stolz, E

1988-01-01

263

BiAxial Strain Response of Structural Materials and Superconducting NB3SN Wires at 295 K, 7 K, and 4 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extensometer capable of measuring diametral strains during axial loading of structural materials and superconducting composite wires has been developed. Using this new transducer it is possible to determine both the averaged axial strain and the transverse strain. The diametral extensometer with a mass of around 1 g is foreseen to be clamped onto the wire inside the averaging

A. Nyilas; K. P. Weiss

2008-01-01

264

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

265

Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

NONE

1996-06-01

266

Characteristics of lift and restoring force in HTS bulk-Application to two-dimensional maglev transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the advantages of magnetic levitation using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk is that stable levitation can be achieved without any control systems. The authors have been investigating the electromagnetic behaviors of an HTS bulk to realize a two-dimensional magnetic levitating transporter without any fixed guides. The characteristics of lift and stability are key parameters to design and optimize

Y. Sanagawa; H. Ueda; M. Tsuda; A. Ishiyama; S. Kohayashi; S. Haseyama

2001-01-01

267

Segregation effects in GdAlO/sub 3/; Cr/sup +3/ growth by HTS and CZ  

SciTech Connect

The effective segregation coefficient of Cr/sup +3/ in GdAlO/sub 3/ single crystals growth by high-temperature solutions (HTS) and Czochralski methods is determined. Through HTS experiments, the authors verify the dopant concentration influence in the segregation process. The effect on solvent composition in the segregation coefficient is also verified.

Andreeta, J.P.; Hernandes, A.C.; Gallo, N.J.H. (Departamento de Fisica e Ciencia dos Materias, Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (BR))

1989-01-01

268

Cancer and virus leads by HTS, chemical design and SEA data mining.  

PubMed

A variety of medicinal chemistry approaches can be used for the identification of hits, generation of leads and to accelerate the development of drug candidates. The Emory Chemical and Biology Discovery Center (ECBDC) has been an active participant in the NIH's high-throughput screening (HTS) endeavor to identify potent small molecule probes for poorly studied proteins. Several of Emory's projects relate to cancer or virus infection. We have chosen three successful examples including discovery of potent measles virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, development of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) blockers and identification of angiogenesis inhibitors using transgenic Zebrafish as a HTS model. In parallel with HTS, a unique component of the Emory virtual screening (VS) effort, namely, substructure enrichment analysis (SEA) program has been utilized in several cases. PMID:19807668

Thepchatri, Pahk; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Prussia, Andrew; Li, Lian; Sneed, Blossom; Plemper, Richard K; Fu, Haian; Liotta, Dennis C; Snyder, James P; Dingledine, Raymond; Sun, Aiming

2009-01-01

269

Controller design and test results for a four axis HTS coil based Maglev system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controller design and experimental results are reported in this paper for a four axis high temperature superconductivity (HTS) coil based electromagnetic levitation (Maglev) system. The HTS coils are made of Bi2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes. It has been experimentally proved that the designed controller works satisfactorily, although the physical parameters of a HTS coil based electromagnet (HTSEM) vary significantly with the frequency of the input voltage. A performance comparison has also been made between the classical lead-lag compensator and the modern H loop-shaping controller. It becomes clear that robust control theories are capable of providing a controller with better performances, which is in a good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, it implies that the particular parameter variation characteristics can be simply dealt with by the available robust control theories that are naturally existent in a HTSEM.

Zhou, Tong; Xing, Hua-Wei

2007-04-01

270

Reliability Test of a 1-kW Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Hts Cable Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent progress of a large Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler is reported based on 24/7 operation since August 2008 in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable application at American Electric Power's (AEP) Bixby Road substation in Columbus, OH. The 20-kW pressure wave generator (PWG) has been upgraded to a second generation design. The in-line configured pulse tube coldhead, rated at 1 kW at 77 K, was developed by Praxair. The objective of the continued testing at the HTS cable demonstration facility is to accumulate cryocooler operating hours and demonstrate system reliability. The cryocooler uses a parallel flow from the main vacuum subcooling refrigerator then both flows are supplied to the HTS cable inlet. The cryocooler operation has shown consistent results with satisfactory cooling performance. The field demonstrated thermodynamic efficiency is 15% of Carnot at 72 K.

Chen, R.-L.; Henzler, G. W.; Royal, J. H.; Billingham, J. F.

2010-04-01

271

Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) suffic

Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

2012-06-30

272

Cellular HTS assays for pharmacological characterization of Na(V)1.7 modulators.  

PubMed

Ion channels are challenging targets in the early phases of the drug discovery process, especially because of the lack of technologies available to screen large numbers of compounds in functionally relevant assays. The electrophysiological patch-clamp technique, which is the gold standard for studying ion channels, has low throughput and is not amenable to screening large numbers of compounds. However, for random high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds against ion channel targets, a number of functional cellular assays have become available during the last few years. Here we use the sodium channel NaV1.7 stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and compare three HTS assays-a Li flux atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) assay, a fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIP, Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) membrane potential assay, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based membrane potential assay-to an automated electrophysiological assay (the Ionworks HT [Molecular Devices] platform) and characterize 11 known NaV inhibitors. Our results show that all three HTS assays are suitable for identification of NaV1.7 inhibitors, but as an HTS assay the Li-AAS assay is more robust with higher Z' values than the FLIPR and FRET-based membrane potential assays. Furthermore, there was a better correlation between the Ionworks assay and the Li-AAS assay regarding the potency of the NaV inhibitors investigated. This paper describes the first comparison between all the HTS assays available today to study voltage-gated NaVs, and the results suggest that the Li-AAS assay is more suited as a first HTS assay when starting an NaV drug discovery campaign. PMID:18078380

Trivedi, Shephali; Dekermendjian, Kim; Julien, Ronald; Huang, Jian; Lund, Per-Eric; Krupp, Johannes; Kronqvist, Robert; Larsson, Olof; Bostwick, Robert

2008-04-01

273

Design and feasibility test of unshielded HTS-SQUID system for magnetocardiogram diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a composite-type HTS-SQUID gradiometer using four magnetometers. One serves as a detector for both the magnetocardio signal and environmental noise signal, and remaining three are references for the noise canceling. An adaptive filtering algorithm was applied to compensation procedure to an automatic operation. We thus fabricated an unshielded HTS-SQUID gradiometer by installing all components in a specially designed package. With digital filtering and simple integration for only 20 s interval, a smooth magnetocardiogram curve was obtained. In addition, the adaptive filtering algorithm worked well and improved the noise-to-signal ratio.

Sakuta, K.; Fujii, T.; Ogawa, K.; Tamai, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tonouchi, M.; Itozaki, H.; Nagaishi, T.; Kamitani, F.

2002-10-01

274

The development of a Roebel cable based 1 MVA HTS transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent experimental results in a continuing program to develop a 1 MVA demonstration transformer that employs HTS Roebel cable for the high current windings. The electrical design parameters of the transformer are presented, including the configuration of the specially developed Roebel cable. This paper discusses estimation of the cable Ic from measured Ic(B) data for samples of the strands, AC loss minimization using flux diverters, proving the suitability of the polyimide insulation scheme to withstand the effects of a high voltage impulse and modelling and experimental verification of the fault current limiting behaviour expected from the HTS conductor.

Staines, Michael; Glasson, Neil; Pannu, Mohinder; Thakur, Kailash P.; Badcock, Rod; Allpress, Nathan; D'Souza, Premal; Talantsev, Evgueni

2012-01-01

275

In vitro characterization of the ?-thalassemia point mutation HBA2:c.95+1G>A [IVS-I-1(G>A) (?2)].  

PubMed

The ?-thalassemias are a group of disorders occurring as a result of decreased synthesis of ?-globin chains, most commonly due to deletions of ?-globin genes. Detection of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) caused by point mutations has increased during the past few years and more than 70 different point mutations have been reported for the ?1- and ?2-globin genes. The mutation at the splice donor site of the first intervening sequence [IVS-I-1 (G>A)] of the ?2-globin gene, HBA2:c.95+1G>A, is thought to cause a thalassemic phenotype by interfering with and preventing the normal splicing of pre-mRNA. We developed an in vitro expression system to study ?-globin gene point mutations at the molecular and cellular levels. The expression vector carrying the HBA2:c.95+1G>A mutation (?2G(IVS-I-1G>A)) was created using site-directed mutagenesis of a wild type (WT) construct of the ?2-globin gene (?2G(2034WT)). Gene expression experiments in human bladder carcinoma 5637 cells were carried out using sequence verified WT and mutated clones. Complementary DNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed normal ?2-globin transcripts from cells transfected with the WT vector, but aberrant transcripts from cells transfected with the mutated vector carrying the splice donor site mutation. In the presence of the G>A mutation, normal splicing does not occur, and a cryptic splice site 49 bp upstream of the normal site is used. The translation of this product produces a premature termination codon, thus resulting in a thalassemic phenotype. PMID:21967524

Qadah, Talal; Finlayson, Jill; Ghassemifar, Reza

2011-10-03

276

Introduction to the P1003.1g and CPI-C Network Application Programming Interfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous network application programming interfaces (APIs) have been developed to assist programmers in developing distributed applications. Both IEEE P1003.1g and Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C) are examples of network APIs. The r...

K. Olsen

1995-01-01

277

46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam...fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, a blowdown valve...fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, and a blowdown...

2010-10-01

278

46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam...fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, a blowdown valve...fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, and a blowdown...

2009-10-01

279

Development of 2-liter 6-cylinder gasoline engines, Toyota 1G engine series  

SciTech Connect

The 1G engine series consists of four types of 2-lite, in-line, 6-cylinder gasoline engines for passenger cars, with different performance characteristics to meet diversified market demands. These engines have been put into mass production. The original engine - 1G-EU - is a compact and light weight 2-valve OHC engine with the maximum power 77 kW/5200 rpm. The 1G-GEU is a 4-valve DOHC engine developed on the basis of the 1G-EU engine, with a higher performance and a higher power of 103 kW/6200 rpm. The 1G-GZEU is a mechanical supercharging type engine based on the 1G-GEU, with a remarkably improved performance in the low and medium engine speed ranges, and the highest power of 118 kW/6000 rpm. The 1G-GTEI is a turbocharging type engine also based on the 1G-GEU, with a markedly improved performance in the medium and high speed ranges, and the high power of 136 kW/6200 rpm. A number of new technologies were introduced on development of these engines. Major technological innovations include Toyota variable induction system, Roots-type supercharging system and twin turbocharging system, which are effective not only for the improvement of performance but also for the enhancement of response. Two mass dampers are also installed at the crankshaft pulley in order to reduce the vibration of crankshaft, and to increase the engine rotation speed capability.

Kimbara, Y.; Konishi, M.; Mayumi, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yasunaga, K.

1987-01-01

280

Asteroseismology "on a WIRE"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide-field Infra Red Explorer (WIRE) was launched in March 1999. Its main mission failed due to loss of coolant, but the 52 mm aperture star camera was used for asteroseismology. A few results are already published, but other bright variable stars were observed as well. Here we present an overview of the preliminary results and detailed period analyses on WIRE data of massive main-sequence pulsators. The period of the ? Scuti star ? Cas could be easily recovered. In an almost uninterrupted observing run of 17 days on the 16 Msolar star ? Crucis (Mimosa) multiperiodicity could be found in the light variations of this ? Cephei variable. Ground-based photometry so far revealed only one period for this star. Although the amplitudes are small (3, 2.7 and 0.6 millimag for the dominant modes), the periods are in perfect agreement with the results of a recent line profile study of this star. Indications of more periods, including a previously suggested one, are present. The results obtained during this unintentional and unadapted asteroseismology project are extremely promising. They show only a tiny fraction of the outcome of a fully adapted asteroseismological mission like Eddington.

Cuypers, J.; Aerts, C.; Buzasi, D.; Catanzarite, J.; Conrow, T.; Laher, R.

2002-01-01

281

The Current in a Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

Thompson, Keith

2009-01-01

282

Dry reclamation of wire scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering plastic from plastic insulated wire scrap involving separating the plastic from short segments of the wire by agitating the segments in a heated dry powder medium until the metal is released from the plastic insulation, separating the metal from the plastic insulation leaving at least 0.5 percent by weight of the powder intermixed with the plastic

Scalco

1976-01-01

283

Plastic properties of crumpled wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter we study nonlinear irreversible mechanical properties of crumpled wires in a large interval of deformations. Power laws connecting the geometrical and mechanical variables for this kind of disordered system are examined. Critical exponents are obtained from experiments and from scaling arguments. The behaviour of crumpled wires and crumpled surfaces are compared.

M. A. F. Gomes; F. F. Lima; V. M. Oliveira

1991-01-01

284

Aircraft wiring program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR\\/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Rex Beach

1995-01-01

285

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. S...

R. Kasturi O. I. Camps

2002-01-01

286

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-11-01

287

Flying hot-wire anemometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flying hot-wire arrangement has been developed for the measurement of the velocity characteristics of the flow around airfoils, and particularly in regions where negative values of instantaneous velocity occur. The mechanism and signal processing system are described and appraised by comparing stationary and flying wire measurements obtained in the trailing edge region of a flap at an angle of

B. E. Thompson; J. H. Whitelaw

1984-01-01

288

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. (General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA))

1990-09-01

289

Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

1990-05-01

290

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

291

Microwave transmission measurements through wire array photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the microwave transmission between 12.4 and 18.0 GHz through wire arrays formed into two dimensional square lattices. One array made of copper wire 0.16 mm in radius consisted of five rows by 21 columns having a lattice constant of 5.15 mm. This array exhibited a pass band above 15 GHz, in good agreement with the calculated plasma frequency found from an expression for the permittivity^1 derived in the long wavelength limit. A second array was made with wire of radius 18 microns and lattice constant 0.8 mm. This array was filled with dielectric loaded with powdered magnetite. A sample of this metamaterial 5.8 mm thick and with no externally applied magnetic field exhibited a pass band above 16 GHz. Implications for creating metamaterials with a negative index of refraction from wire arrays embedded in a magnetic host will be discussed. ^1G. Dewar, in Complex Mediums III: Beyond Linear Isotropic Dielectrics, Akhlesh Lakhtakai, Graeme Dewar, Martin W. McCall, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4806, 156-166 (2002).

Dewar, Graeme; Souther, Nathan; Johnson, Michael

2008-03-01

292

Development of quench protection system for HTS coils by active power method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, HTS coils have been developed for electric power apparatuses. In superconducting coils, local and excessive joule heating may give damage to the superconducting windings when a quench occurs and therefore it is essential that the quench is detected quickly and precisely so that the coils can be safely discharged. Resistive voltage measurement method is universally used for the quench

N. Nanato; Y. Tsumiyama; S. B. Kim; S. Murase; K.-C. Seong; H.-J. Kim

2007-01-01

293

Characteristics of Contactless Power Transfer for HTS Coil Based on Electromagnetic Resonance Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a operating characteristics of contactless power transfer (CPT) system from normal conducting coil to HTS coil based on the electromagnet resonance coupling. The basic principle is that two separate coils with same resonance frequency are possible to form a resonant system based on high frequency magnetic coupling and exchange energy in a high efficiency. The CPT technique

Dae Wook Kim; Yoon Do Chung; Hyoung Ku Kang; Yong Soo Yoon; Tae Kuk Ko

2012-01-01

294

Partial discharge activity in electrical insulation for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses electrical insulation characteristics of liquid nitrogen (LN2) \\/ polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system for the practical electrical insulation design of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Partial discharge (PD) inception, propagation and breakdown (BD) characteristics under ac voltage application were obtained and discussed at atmospheric and pressurized conditions. Experimental results were analyzed quantitatively and revealed that

H. Okubo; H. Kojima; F. Endo; K. Sahara; R. Yamaguchi; N. Hayakawa

2008-01-01

295

Influence of current distribution on conductor performance in coaxial multi-layer HTS conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simulation method based on magnetic flux conservation between two filaments of adjacent layers to estimate current distribution in coaxial multi-layer HTS conductor. Using this method, we have demonstrated homogeneous current distribution and verified that current distribution was controllable directly by the conductor parameters of layer radius, twisting pitch and twisting direction. Although it has been considered

M. Tsuda; A. K. M. Alamgir; Y. Ito; T. Harano; N. Harada; T. Hamajima; M. Ono; H. Takano

2002-01-01

296

HTS in the new millennium: the role of pharmacology and flexibility.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, high throughput screening (HTS) has become the focal point for discovery programs within the pharmaceutical industry. The role of this discipline has been and remains the rapid and efficient identification of lead chemical matter within chemical libraries for therapeutics development. Recent advances in molecular and computational biology, i.e., genomic sequencing and bioinformatics, have resulted in the announcement of publication of the first draft of the human genome. While much work remains before a complete and accurate genomic map will be available, there can be no doubt that the number of potential therapeutic intervention points will increase dramatically, thereby increasing the workload of early discovery groups. One current drug discovery paradigm integrates genomics, protein biosciences and HTS in establishing what the authors refer to as the "gene-to-screen" process. Adoption of the "gene-to-screen" paradigm results in a dramatic increase in the efficiency of the process of converting a novel gene coding for a putative enzymatic or receptor function into a robust and pharmacologically relevant high throughput screen. This article details aspects of the identification of lead chemical matter from HTS. Topics discussed include portfolio composition (molecular targets amenable to small molecule drug discovery), screening file content, assay formats and plating densities, and the impact of instrumentation on the ability of HTS to identify lead chemical matter. PMID:11274895

Landro, J A; Taylor, I C; Stirtan, W G; Osterman, D G; Kristie, J; Hunnicutt, E J; Rae, P M; Sweetnam, P M

297

Experimental study on the double-evaporator thermosiphon for cooling HTS (high temperature superconductor) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic thermosiphons is an efficient heat transfer device between a cryocooler and a thermal load that is to be cooled. This paper presents an idea of thermosiphon which contains two vertically-separated evaporators. This unique configuration of the thermosiphon is suitable for the purpose of cooling simultaneously two superconducting bearings of the HTS (high temperature superconducting) flywheel system at the

Junghyun Lee; Junseok Ko; Youngkwon Kim; Sangkwon Jeong; Taehyun Sung; Younghee Han; Jeong-Phil Lee; Seyong Jung

2009-01-01

298

Design and testing of the HTS bearing for a 10 kWh flywheel system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flywheels are of interest for a wide range of energy storage applications, from support of renewable resources to distributed power applications and uninterruptible power systems (UPS) (Day et al 2000 Proc. EESAT 2000 (Orlando, FL, Sept. 2000)). The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings for such systems has significant advantages for applications requiring large amounts of energy to be stored

A C Day; M Strasik; K E McCrary; P E Johnson; J W Gabrys; J R Schindler; R A Hawkins; D L Carlson; M D Higgins; J R Hull

2002-01-01

299

HTS dc SQUIDs for eddy current NDE in an unshielded environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of flaws beside fasteners in aircraft structures is increasingly becoming an area where HTS SQUIDs can be successfully applied. Here, we present noise measurements of MgO bicrystal SQUIDs obtained in an unshielded environment and with the SQUIDs in motion. We describe eddy current NDE experiments using these SQUIDs to detect first and second layer flaws in simulated aircraft

C Carr; E. J Romans; J. C Macfarlane; C. M Pegrum; G. B Donaldson

1997-01-01

300

The properties of HTS Josephson junctions and DC SQUIDs fabricated on MgO bicrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated HTS Josephson Junctions and DC SQUIDs using MgO bicrystals and YBCO thin films grown by PLD. The electrical and noise properties of the junctions have been measured. The SQUIDs have been designed and fabricated for use in our NDE programme. For this reason, their performance in unshielded environments is discussed here

E. J. Romans; T. G. Henrici; C. Carr; J. C. MacFarlane; C. M. Pegrum; G. B. Donaldson

1997-01-01

301

Analysis of Magnetic Field and Discharge Plasma for HTS Magnetron Sputtering Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetron sputtering apparatus with high magnetic field could be used to fabricate special films. In order to investigate the typical plasma distribution of high field magnetron and further improve the film quality, a newly HTS (high temperature superconductivity) rectangular planar magnetron with racetrack type coil is proposed. The magnetic field in the discharge space is calculated by finite element

Qingquan Qiu; Liye Xiao; Tianbin Huang; Guomin Zhang; Xiaohang Li

2010-01-01

302

Non Destructive Evaluation of Advanced Composite Materials for Aerospace Application Using HTS SQUIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advantage of a HTS SQUID magnetometer in NDE applications is represented by its unrivalled magnetic flux sensitivity down to very low frequencies, which allows the detection of weak magnetic field variations due to defects also in materials characterized by a very low electrical conductivity. The imaging obtained by means of the magnetic flux variations can be an useful

C. Bonavolonta; M. Valentino; G. Peluso; A. Barone

2007-01-01

303

The Cryogenics of a Thermosiphon-Cooled HTS MRI Magnet—Assembly and Component Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The team at GE Global Research presents cryo- assembly and component test results of a high-temperature super- conducting (HTS) limb size magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using Sumitomo's DI-BSCCO tape conductor, under an NIH research grant. The goal is to investigate the thermosiphon be- havior for different MRI operating modes, validating the cryogenic robustness of this cooling approach and its

W. Stautner; M. Xu; E. T. Laskaris; G. Conte; P. S. Thompson; C. van Epps; K. Amm

2011-01-01

304

A vHTS approach for the identification of beta-adrenoceptor ligands.  

PubMed

Using a vHTS based on a pharmacophore alignment on known beta3-adrenoceptor ligands, a set of intriguing beta-adrenoceptor ligands was identified, optimization of which resulted in a selective and potent human beta2-AR antagonist. PMID:20434333

Tasler, Stefan; Baumgartner, Roland; Aschenbrenner, Andrea; Ammendola, Astrid; Wolf, Kristina; Wieber, Tanja; Schachtner, Josef; Blisse, Marcus; Quotschalla, Udo; Ney, Peter

2010-04-09

305

Tests results of 2-kWh flywheel using passive PM and HTS bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Toward demonstrating the potential of flywheel energy storage that use HTS's and permanent magnets (PM's) as passive rotor bearings, a flywheel system was developed and tested with a 165-kg cylindrical carbon- and glass-fiber rotor to rim speeds of 400 m/...

T. M. Mulcahy J. R. Hull K. L. Uherka R. A. Abboud J. Juna

2000-01-01

306

Mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system with robot arm and active shielding using fluxgate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot-arm-based mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system was developed for inspection of advanced structures such as hydrogen fuel cell tanks. In order to realize stable operation of HTS-SQUID exposed in Earth’s field and robot arm’s noise without flux trapping, flux jumping and unlocking during motion, a new active magnetic shielding (AMS) technique using fluxgate was introduced. The high sensitive fluxgate, which could measure magnetic field of up to several 10 ?T, was mounted near an HTS-SQUID gradiometer on the robot arm to measure the ambient noise and feed back its output to a compensation coil, which surrounded both SQUID and fluxgate to cancel the ambient noise around them. The AMS technique successfully enabled the HTS-SQUID gradiometer to be moved at 10 mm/s by the robot arm in unshielded environment without flux trapping, jumping and unlocking. Detection of hidden slots in multi-layer composite-metal structures imitating the fuel cell tank was demonstrated.

Hatsukade, Y.; Yotsugi, K.; Tanaka, S.

2008-09-01

307

Improvement of sensitivity of multisample biological immunoassay system using HTS SQUID and magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have developed a prototype magnetic immunoassay system using a high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to investigate the performance and usability of the magnetic immunoassay. In this study, we improved the immunoassay system to heighten the sensitivity of the immunoassay measurement. To reduce the SQUID-to-sample distance, we introduced a structure to compensate for thermal shrinkage

A. Tsukamoto; K. Saitoh; N. Sugita; H. Kuma; Y. Sugiura; S. Hamaoka; N. Hamasaki; K. Enpuku

2006-01-01

308

Calibration and testing of a HTS tensor gradiometer for underwater UXO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the problem of discarded military munitions and unexploded ordnance in the marine environment, we have developed a highly sensitive tensor gradiometer based on HTS materials. The main motivation for this work is to enhance and improve the ability to detect, localise and characterise small projectiles (typically > 40 mm calibre) where conventional magnetic surveying techniques fail to deliver

Shane T. Keenan; Dave Clark; Klye. R. Blay; Keith Leslie; Cathy P. Foley; Stephen Billings

2011-01-01

309

Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

2008-02-01

310

Fabrication of SQUID chip for large planer gradiometer using HTS coated conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated a large high-Tc superconducting (HTS) SQUID gradiometer with a baseline length of 130 mm for geophysical application. It consists of an HTS-SQUID gradiometer chip with an integrated input coil and a large pickup coil made of an HTS coated conductor (CC). In this work, fabrication of the chip containing ramp-edge Josephson junctions and multilayer structures is reported. An MgO(1 0 0) substrate with a size of 15 × 15 mm2 was used. The half area of the substrate was occupied by gold pads for connection with an HTS-CC. A directly-coupled thin-film gradiometer with a baseline length of 7 mm was prepared in the remained half area. SmBCO and La-doped ErBCO having Tc's around 90 K were used for base- and counter-electrodes, respectively. A 5.5-turn input coil made of La-doped ErBCO was formed on the thin-film pickup coil made of SmBCO. The fabricated gradiometer chip was operated by supplying electrical current through the input coil, but modulation corresponding to only three flux quanta was observed in the V-? curve. We found that the critical current density of the thin-film pickup coil was insufficient. We speculated that the rather wide pickup coil was not fully oxygenated. After longer annealing treatment, the number of modulation peaks in the V-? curve was significantly increased.

Adachi, S.; Tsukamoto, A.; Oshikubo, Y.; Hato, T.; Tanabe, K.

2013-01-01

311

Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast? Bioactivity Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA ToxCast? research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

312

Improved controller for High Temperature Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (HTS-SMES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel controller for a high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) that can ensure (a) fast return of energy to the superconducting coil under constant current mode and (b) a constant and sinusoidal input supply current irrespective of the varying load demand with and without harmonics. A special feature of this controller is its ability to

Darmawan Sutanto; M. V. Aware

2009-01-01

313

Design of HTS Linear Induction Motor using GA and the Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) for optimal design of a High Temperature Superconducting Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM). The design procedure is much different from that of traditional Linear Induction Motors (LIMs). First, the GA method is used to produce a series of optimal design data. The product of efficiency

Jia Zhao; Wei Zhang; Jin Fang; Zhongping Yang; Trillion Q. Zheng; Youmei Liu

2010-01-01

314

Peculiarities on voltage - current characteristics of HTS tapes at overloading conditions cooled by liquid nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro - technical devices are considered as the most prospective use for high temperature superconductors. For such devices the overload currents due to faults in grids are the operational reality. In these cases the fault currents may forcibly go to superconductors being sometimes dozens times more than the critical currents of HTS. Overloads are the working modes for fault current

V S Vysotsky; S S Fetisov; V E Sytnikov

2008-01-01

315

Sintered wire cathode  

DOEpatents

A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

Falce, Louis R. (San Jose, CA); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2009-06-09

316

Nano-storage wires.  

PubMed

We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

2013-07-19

317

Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

2010-11-01

318

displayHTS: a R package for displaying data and results from high-throughput screening experiments.  

PubMed

The R package displayHTS implements recently developed methods and figures for displaying data and hit selection results in high-throughput screening (HTS) experiments. It generates not only certain useful distinctive graphics such as the plate-well series plot, plate image and dual-flashlight plot but also other commonly used figures such as volcano plot and plate correlation plot. These figures are critical for visualizing the data and displaying important features of HTS data and hit selection results. PMID:23396118

Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas; Zhang, Zhaozhi

2013-02-08

319

An approach for electrical self-stabilization of high-temperature superconducting wires for power applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical and thermal stability of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires/tapes are essential in applications involving efficient production, distribution, and storage of electrical energy. We have developed a conductive buffer layer structure composed of bilayer La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Ir on a textured Ni-W alloy metal tape to functionally shunt the HTS layer to the underlying substrate. The key feature is the Ir layer, which serves as a barrier to both inward diffusion of oxygen and outward diffusion of metal substrate cations during fabrication. Electrical and microstructural property characterizations of YBa2Cu3O7-? films on short prototype conductors demonstrate self-field critical current density values, Jc, exceeding 2×106 A/cm2 at 77 K and excellent electrical coupling to the underlying metal substrate, with no unwanted insulating oxide interfaces. Implementing this approach in power technologies would significantly increase the engineering current density of the conductor and reduce overall process costs.

Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.; Zhai, H. Y.; Gapud, A. A.; Leonard, K. J.; Martin, P. M.; Goyal, A.; Thompson, J. R.; Christen, D. K.

2004-10-01

320

Double Resonance Excitation of the Rubidium Dimer : the 2 ^{1}?_g State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a series of optical-optical double resonance experiments with one or two cw Ti:sapphire lasers, to excite the 2 ^{1}?_g state of Rb_2, recording infrared fluorescence from 2 ^{1}?_g on a Fourier transform spectrometer. Fluorescence from the lower vibrational levels of 2 ^{1}?_g (T_e = 22069.56 cm^{-1}) is dominated by transitions to the B ^{1}?_u state studied by Amiot and Vergès. Vibrational and rotational relaxation from laser-pumped levels v' < 15 now give a rather complete description around the potential minimum of the 2 ^{1}?_g state, completing the observations for 6 ? v ? 50 reported by Han et al last year. Fluorescence from v' > 35, occurs also to the 0^+ components of the A ^{1}?_u^+ ˜ b ^{3}?_u complex. Fitting all available 2 ^{1}?_g ? B ^{1}?_u data for ^{85}Rb_2 and ^{85}Rb^{87}Rb (several thousand transitions) has also given an improved description of the bottom of the B ^{1}?_u state potential well. The 2 ^{1}?_g state correlates at long-range with Rb 5s + Rb 4d ^2D_{3/2} atoms, giving a dissociation energy of 1279.6 cm^{-1}. Most new data lie below v = 45, 250 cm^{-1} below this dissociation threshold. Amiot and Vergès, {Chem. Phys. Lett.} {294} 91-98 (1997) X. Han et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. {538} 1-4 (2011) A.-R.Allouche, M. Aubert-Frécon, {J. Chem. Phys} {136} 37-41 (2012)

Drozdova, Anastasia; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Wannous, Ghassan; Crozet, Patrick; Ross, Amanda J.

2013-06-01

321

Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper rich Cu-Ni alloys have been textured with the RABiTS method in order to get non-magnetic and cost efficient substrates for coated conductor wires. The study is focused on two industrial compositions: Cu55Ni45 (Constantan) and Cu70Ni30. Studies on surface roughness have been done. The effects of annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere) on the grain boundaries deepness were analyzed. Electrolytic polishing was also applied to improve the surface quality. RX pole figures and micro hardness measurements have been achieved on samples annealed up to 950°C. Attention has been paid to the rolling texture and to the annealing processes. The rolling texture has been found to be mainly copper-type (C, S and B contributions). Beginning of recrystallization occurred between 400°C and 600°C and stabilized between 900°C to 950°C, depending on the nickel content of the alloy. Finally both samples, rolled and annealed under the appropriate conditions, have been characterized. Pole figure measurements gave the global in plane and out of plane disorientations of our samples which are in-plane 7.4° and out-plane (RD) 4.3° for both samples. EBSD maps have shown the details of the distribution and have allowed us to quantify the ratio between cubic {100}<001> and twined {122}<21-2> orientations.

Girard, A.; Bruzek, C. E.; Jorda, J. L.; Ortega, L.; Soubeyroux, J. L.

2006-06-01

322

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel cleaved edge overgrowth technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al., 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g, an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al., 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al. 2004). For low densities this structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving the Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering, and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-03-01

323

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel Cleaved Edge Overgrowth (CEO) technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al, 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g., an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al, 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al 2004). For low densities the structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving a Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-04-01

324

Singlet oxygen (1?g)-mediated oxidation of cellular and subcellular components: ESR and AFM assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a comprehensive in vitro study of the photo-oxidative stress on different biomolecular and cellular targets generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n, a novel, fullerene-based and water-soluble sensitizer of singlet oxygen (1?g). The photodynamic efficiency of fullerol C60(OH)n was checked by using a singlet oxygen scavenger, TMP-OH, and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, which was capable of detecting the resulting paramagnetic product, TEMPOL. ESR was also used to monitor the conformation changes occurring in the spin-labelled protein, T4L lysozyme, which was exposed to the photo-oxidative stress in solutions containing fullerol C60(OH)n. Finally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to monitor changes in the local elastic properties of living and glutaraldehyde-fixed cells (neurons) exposed to the toxic action of 1?g generated in the presence of fullerol C60(OH)n. Remarkably, the Young's modulus values measured for both living and fixed neurons revealed a pronounced drop as a function of exposure to the toxic action of 1?g. Thus, our ESR and AFM results bring evidence that the multi-hydroxylated fullerene is an efficient 1?g-generator in aqueous media and might be implemented as a photosensitizer for performing oxidations in biological systems.

Vileno, Bertrand; Lekka, Malgorzata; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Marcoux, Pierre; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Kasas, Sandor; Catsicas, Stefan; Graczyk, Alfreda; Forró, László

2005-05-01

325

Overview of Facility 1 and 1G. East corner of Facility ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Facility 1 and 1G. East corner of Facility 1 to the left side of shot. Wooden bridge connecting Facility 1 and 1C in view. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Administration Office Annex--Southeast Extension, Avenue E between Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

326

Binding of aflatoxin B 1 , G 1 and M to plasma albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aflatoxins B1, G1 and their metabolites exist in the systemic blood as protein conjugate. This conjugation is specific to plasma albumin and proceeds enzymatically by liver and kidney cells. The aflatoxin-albumin conjugate is permanent and the conjugation is an irreversible one. This may interpret the acute liver damage of animal ingested a single dose of aflatoxin (3, 4). The

A. Y. Nassar; S. E. Megalla; H. M. Abd El-Fattah; A. H. Hafez; T. S. El-Deap

1982-01-01

327

Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and ? G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at ? G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and ? G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at ? G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at ? G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary. PMID:21319014

Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

2009-12-20

328

Structure-Based Modulators of B1 G-Protein Coupled Receptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a method for identifying modulators of B1 G-protein coupled receptors. The present invention also relates to a method for identifying an antagonist or agonist of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2). The p...

G. C. R. Royappa J. E. Rivier M. H. Perrin R. Riek W. W. Vale

2005-01-01

329

Military Potential Test of a UH-1( )/AH-1G Flight and Ground Idle Stop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives were to determine: (1) If an accurately positioned throttle is necessary on the T53-L-11/13 engines to avoid hot starts. (2) Whether the UH-1( )/AH-1G flight and ground idle stop provides accurate throttle positioning for a flight idle and for ...

1968-01-01

330

Coupling of the As A1g phonon to magnetism in iron pnictides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom are strongly entangled in iron superconductors. A neat consequence of this entanglement is the behavior of the A1g As-phonon resonance in the different polarization symmetries of Raman spectroscopy when undergoing the magnetostructural transition. In this work, we show that the observed behavior could be a direct consequence of the coupling of the phonons with the electronic excitations in the anisotropic magnetic state. We discuss this scenario within a five-orbital tight-binding model coupled to phonons via the dependence of the Slater-Koster parameters on the As position. We identify two qualitatively different channels of the electron-phonon interaction: a geometrical one related to the Fe-As-Fe angle ? and another one associated with the modification upon As displacement of the Fe-As energy integrals pd? and pd?. While both mechanisms result in a finite B1g response, the behavior of the phonon intensity in the A1g and B1g Raman polarization geometries is qualitatively different when the coupling is driven by the angle or by the energy integral dependence. We discuss our results in view of the experimental reports.

García-Martínez, N. A.; Valenzuela, B.; Ciuchi, S.; Cappelluti, E.; Calderón, M. J.; Bascones, E.

2013-10-01

331

Accurate calibration of resistance ratios between 1 M? and 1 G? using series resistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As shown in high-resistance key comparisons carried out by the Consultative Committee for Electricity and Magnetism (CCEM), Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) and European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET), the accuracy of 10 M? and 1 G? resistances depends on ratio values between the reference resistance and unknown resistance and the accuracy of the reference resistance, which is determined with a quantized Hall resistance standard. This paper presents a method for calibrating 10:1 ratios in a high-resistance bridge using series resistors simply and accurately. By applying the 10:1 ratio errors determined using the presented method, the combined relative standard uncertainty for 1 G? resistance measurements using a modified Wheatstone bridge was estimated to be on the 1 × 10-6 level. The method was also applied to 1 G? resistance measurements using a direct-current comparator resistance bridge. It was found that the 1 G? resistances determined by the two bridges agreed within 2.4 × 10-6 ?/?. We expect that the presented method can also be used to calibrate arbitrary resistance ratios.

Yu, Kwang Min; Ihm, G.

2011-11-01

332

AT1G36390 IS HIGHLY CONSERVED, AND MAY PLAY A ROLE IN SHOOT DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract:At1g63690 was identified as a gene expressed preferentially in the shoots of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) as shown by hybridizing labeled shoot vs leaf cDNA populations from leafy spurge to Arabidopsis cDNA arrays. Subsequent expression analysis of this gene demonstrated that it was expre...

333

Holographic Interferometry of Exploding Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short pulse (2 nsec) ruby laser has been used to make holographic interferograms of exploding-wire events. At atmospheric pressure the interferograms exhibit both shock waves and ionization. In a vacuum the vaporization and subsequent ionization of the ...

J. L. Seftor

1973-01-01

334

Cad. Of Masks and Wiring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algorithms are discussed for application in computerized design of monolithic integrated circuit masks and wiring. A simple minimum-distance model is generalized so that the outcome is an abstract model. A short introduction to notions in graph theory is ...

M. C. Vanlier R. H. J. M. Otten

1974-01-01

335

Hoists, Chain and Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engineering Test Procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating the technical performance and characteristics of Hoists (Chain and Wire Rope Types), and for determining their suitability for service use by the U. S. Army. (Author)

1970-01-01

336

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)|

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

337

Fly-by-Wire Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to fly-by-wire and an outline of state-of-the-art fly-by-wire techniques. An outline of the philosophy of fly-by-wire flight control systems is given, the evolution of fly-by-wire is ...

J. P. Sutherland

1967-01-01

338

New Bonding Wire for Fine Pitch Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years the trend in bonding wire applications has been characterized by the minimisation of assembling components, and has in turn led to thinner wire and finer pad and pitch size. In particular for gold bonding thinner wire means less expense for precious metal. The requirements for such small wire diameters can only partially be met by

E. Milke; T. Mueller; A. Bischoff

2007-01-01

339

Theorems and extensions of single wire replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the theorems and extensions of single alternative wire that attempts to replace one wire by another wire without changing the logic functionality. The wire replacement technique has been successfully applied to achieve logic optimization and routability improve- ment. However, there still exist several fundamental problems that have not been addressed such as whether the algorithm

Shih-chieh Chang; Zhong-zhen Wu

2001-01-01

340

Postlayout logic restructuring using alternative wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a layout-driven synthesis approach for field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's). The approach attempts to identify alternative wires and alternative functions for wires that cannot be routed due to the limited routing resources in FPGA. The alternative wires (in the logic level) that can be routed through less congested areas substitute the unroutable wires without changing

Shih-chieh Chang; Kwang-ting Cheng; Nam-Sung Woo; Malgorzata Marek-sadowska

1997-01-01

341

An investigation on wire wear in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of cutting parameters on wire electrode wear was investigated experimentally in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The experiments were conducted under different settings of pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric fluid pressure. Brass wire of 0.25mm diameter and AISI 4140 steel of 10mm thickness were used as tool and workpiece material. It

Nihat Tosun; Can Cogun

2003-01-01

342

Molecular-scale metal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel technique employing material deposition into nanometer-scale stencils for the fabrication of continuous wires with precisely controlled widths below 10nm. These molecular-scale metallic structures allow the examination of localization and conductance fluctuations at new length and temperature scales. This study reports measurements of continuous AuPd alloy wires with diameters as small as 3nm and lengths greater than

D. Natelson; R. L. Willett; K. W. West; L. N. Pfeiffer

2000-01-01

343

Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

2009-07-30

344

Purcell effect in wire metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the enhancement of spontaneous emission in wire metamaterials. We analyze the dependence of the Purcell factor on the wire dielectric constant for both electric and magnetic dipole sources and find an optimal value of the dielectric constant for maximizing the Purcell factor for the electric dipole. We obtain analytical expressions for the Purcell factor and also provide estimates for the Purcell factor in realistic structures operating in both microwave and optical spectral ranges.

Poddubny, Alexander N.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

2013-01-01

345

Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions.

Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

2008-02-15

346

Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their

Larry J. Oesterle; W. Craig Shellhart; Stacy Henderson

2001-01-01

347

Hardware-In-the-Loop Experiments with a 5 MW HTS Propulsion Motor at Florida State University's Power Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects unique to the emerging high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machinery technology, such as increased AC losses in the HTS winding of the rotor circuit due to low frequency load changes, requires advanced experimental methods for R&D testing and, eventually, type testing. Therefore, this paper describes a novel 5 MW rated hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test facility established at the center

M. Steurer; S. Woodruff; H. Boenig; F. Bogdan; M. Sloderbeck

2007-01-01

348

Overview of the underground 34.5 kV HTS power cable program in albany, NY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team consisting of SuperPower, Inc. (HTS systems manufacturer), The BOC Group (global industrial gases company), Sumitomo Electric Industries (cable manufacturer), and Niagara Mohawk (electric utility) is developing a 34.5 kV HTS cable for installation in the distribution network in downtown Albany, NY. Energization is projected for the winter of 2005. The cable will be rated for 800 Arms, with

C. S. Weber; C. T. Reis; A. Dada; T. Masuda; J. Moscovic

2005-01-01

349

Properties of high-strength beryllium wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The ultimate strength of beryllium wire with a purity of 99.96–99.99% is lower than that of wire from commercial beryllium; it increases from 54 to 90 kgf\\/mm2 as the diameter of the wire is reduced from 1.3 to 0.19 mm. The strength of annealed wire is independent of the diameter. The ductility is high for wire of high purity beryllium.2.Mechanical

G. S. Koshkarev; G. E. Pletenetskii; A. I. Pikalov; G. F. Tikhinskii

1980-01-01

350

The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

Kim, S. B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

2013-11-01

351

An effective model for fast computation of current distribution in operating HTS tapes from magnetic field measurements in non-destructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computation of the current distribution of superconducting devices is an important topic in the understanding of the behavior of superconducting materials, in the development of their applications and in testing the quality of the materials. The most successful technique to measure the currents is based on mapping the magnetic field in the surface of the superconducting sample during or after a magnetization process. Models for solving the inverse problem have been developed based on different techniques. The inversion technique based on considering the currents as the result of a distribution of magnetic moments has been tested for many years in the description of the currents in bulks, giving a useful tool for their characterization, including junctions and porous samples. The restriction of this technique to closed loops of currents does not allow its application to the exploration of superconducting wires. Specific considerations developed for this technique have, however, allowed extension of the technique to the study of HTS tapes in a simple and fast way that can be applied to the exploration of long tapes to determine the current distribution ‘on the fly’. In this work we report on the model and the procedure to perform the calculation of currents on tapes carrying current. The specific application to the detection of defects that do not affect the ability to carry current, such as longitudinally centered scratches, is experimentally tested. Details of the application of the method for long tapes are also reported.

Amorós, J.; Carrera, M.; Granados, X.

2012-10-01

352

HTS electrical machines with BSCCO/Ag composite plate-shaped rotor elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work relates to the investigation of electrical machines having advanced BSCCO/Ag-sheathed elements which are being produced by the well-known technology ``powder in tube''. That foliate HTS material is being considered to be used in three types of electric machines: reluctance and hysteresis motors and synchronous machines with ``trapped magnetic flux''. Depending on the thickness, quantity of BSCCO layers and filling factor they are being produced as thin and thick ones. Several small-scale experimental models of the above-mentioned types were developed and tested in liquid nitrogen. The output power rating of reluctance motors with thin and thick HTS elements are 3 and 4 kW respectively. ``Trapped field'' machine was tested in generator mode for open circuit operation. The value of obtained magnetic flux density in the air gap is 0.8 T.

Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Akimov, I. I.; Dew-Hughes, D.

2002-08-01

353

The study on stress-cone based on HTS cable terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research aims at improving the performance of 35 kV class stress-cone for HTS cable terminal. Firstly, the equivalent circuit model of a stress-cone is constructed for simulation. The relation between the sag voltage of each layer can be characterized by structural and material parameters, such as the stress-cone's plate length, plate radius, insulating material thickness and dielectric constant. Secondly, the simulation based on ANSYS is developed for analyzing the electric field of stress cone of HTS cable terminal, by altering the length of step and insulation material parameter of stress cone, we get the voltage of each plate layer, horizontal electric field and vertical electric field, and the influence of stress-cone parameter on stress cone electric field is analyzed.

Wu, C. Y.; Fang, J.; Huang, X. H.; Lu, W. J.; Li, D.; Guo, L. J.

2013-01-01

354

HTS by NMR of combinatorial libraries: a fragment-based approach to ligand discovery.  

PubMed

Fragment-based ligand design (FBLD) approaches have become more widely used in drug discovery projects from both academia and industry, and are even often preferred to traditional high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds (>10(5)). A key advantage of FBLD approaches is that these often rely on robust biophysical methods such as NMR spectroscopy for detection of ligand binding, hence are less prone to artifacts that too often plague the results from HTS campaigns. In this article, we introduce a screening strategy that takes advantage of both the robustness of protein NMR spectroscopy as the detection method, and the basic principles of combinatorial chemistry to enable the screening of large libraries of fragments (>10(5) compounds) preassembled on a common backbone. We used the method to identify compounds that target protein-protein interactions. PMID:23352136

Wu, Bainan; Zhang, Ziming; Noberini, Roberta; Barile, Elisa; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard A; Pasquale, Elena B; Pellecchia, Maurizio

2013-01-24

355

Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, You-He

2010-03-01

356

Mixed cryogen cooling systems for HTS power applications: A status report of progress in Korea University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cooling system employing a solid cryogen (SC), such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was recently reported for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) applications. However, thermal contact between the SC and the HTS can be degraded by repeated overcurrent runs, resulting in 'thermal dry-out'. Novel cryogens, SC with small amounts of liquid cryogen, have been suggested to overcome this problem. Such cooling systems rely on the small amount of liquid cryogen to facilitate heat exchange so as to fully exploit the heat capacity of the solid cryogen. This paper presents a description and summary of recent activities at Korea University related to cooling systems employing mixed cryogens of solid-liquid nitrogen, solid argon-liquid nitrogen, and solid nitrogen-liquid neon.

Song, Jung-Bin; Lee, Haigun

2012-12-01

357

Parameter identification of the complete-moving-hysteresis model for HTS steel  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an extension to soft magnetic materials of the identification method of the CMH model which was originally introduced for medium hard magnetic materials. The proposed Preisach function for HTS steel, a soft magnetic material, is normal in the interaction field and is assumed to be lognormal in the critical field. Although the Preisach function is not symmetrical, the logarithm of the operative Preisach function is. However, the moving parameter, [alpha], can not be obtained by finding the value that removes this asymmetry because of the presence of apparent reversible magnetization and the lognormal nature of the Preisach function. All the Preisach parameters can be obtained using the major curve and the virgin curve only. For HTS steel, the squareness is 0.004, indicating a small irreversible magnetization component. The coercivity is 8.6 Oe; whereas the remanence coercivity is an order of magnitude larger, namely 123.5 Oe.

Kahler, G.R.; Della Torre, E.; Vajda, F. (George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Inst. for Magnetics Research)

1994-11-01

358

Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

2011-06-01

359

A practical microwave subsystem of HTS filter integrated with coaxial pulse tube refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulse tube refrigerator is a competitive new technology for cooling HTS microwave devices because it involves no moving parts at low temperature. A new Chebyshev type 8-pole band-pass filter with bandwidth about 1GHz at 5.6 GHz was designed and fabricated on a 20 × 20 × 0.5 mm LaAlO3 substrate. Integrated with a coaxial pulse tube refrigerator, the filter

Tiefeng Shi; Hong Li; Aisheng He; Taiping Zhang; Luwei Yang; Yuan Zhou; Yongwei Sun; Mong He; Yueliang Zhou; Yusheng He

2000-01-01

360

Feasibility of a Short-Period Superconducting Undulator Using 2G HTS Tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible

Suk Hong Kim; Charles L. Doose; Mark S. Jaski; Matthew T. Kasa

2011-01-01

361

Studies on the high temperature superconductor (HTS)\\/metal\\/polymer dielectric interconnect structure for packaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HTS\\/metal\\/low dielectric constant polymer dielectric hybrid interconnect structure was fabricated using high density interconnect (HDI) copper\\/polyimide processing techniques. Nondegraded superconducting properties, Jc of over 1 MAcm-2 and Tc of 88 K, were obtained using optimum processing conditions. A 0.6 ?m-thick YBCO film was coevaporated on LaAlO3 substrate, annealed, patterned, and Au contact pads were deposited. A siloxane polyimide (SPI)

Kyung W. Paik; Antonio Mogro-Campero

1994-01-01

362

High temperature sol–gel insulation coatings for HTS magnets and their adhesion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the adhesion properties of sol–gel insulation coatings with silver tape substrates using a mini-tensile-testing for HTS magnets. The sol–gel coatings were produced using solutions of Zr, Mg, Y, Ce, In and Sn based organometallic compounds. The growth mechanism of these coatings on Ag and AgMg sheathed Bi-2212 superconducting tapes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive

E. Celik; E. Avci; Y. S. Hascicek

2000-01-01

363

AC Loss Characteristics of Stacked Conductors Composed of HTS Coated Conductors With Magnetic Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTS coated conductors (CC's) with substrates of magnetic materials such as Ni-alloys are expected to be promising for practical applications because Ni-alloys are well-texturized by simple processes and production costs of the conductors are significantly reduced. In the former works, it was shown by experiments that HoBaCuO-123 CC's with Ni-alloy substrates exhibit higher AC transport current losses than CC's with

O. Tsukamoto; A. K. M. Alamgir; M. Liu; D. Miyagi; K. Ohmatsu

2007-01-01

364

A demonstration HTS base station sub-system for mobile communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration sub-system for mobile communications was developed. In this system, a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip bandpass filter on r-plane sapphire substrate was designed to have a quasi-elliptic function response, which was aimed at covering the whole receive band of DCS 1800 base station, i.e. 1710-1785 MHz. This filter was then integrated with a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a

Hong Li; Yusheng He; Aisheng He; Shunzhou Li; Chunguang Li; Lingwen Yan; Jingtao Liang; Wenxiu Zhu; Yuan Zhou; Jiasheng Hong; M. J. Lancaster

2002-01-01

365

Concepts for using trapped-flux HTS in motors and generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the expected performance of a brushless motor/generator that uses trapped-flux (TF) bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to provide magnetomotive force, where the stator windings are used to create the TF. A key feature is the use of dysprosium (Dy) for the stator and rotor cores. We also examine methods to energize TF in HTS for generators used in pulsed-power applications.

Hull, John R.; Strasik, Michael

2013-01-01

366

Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase)

Asko Uri; Marje Lust; Angela Vaasa; Darja Lavogina; Kaido Viht; Erki Enkvist

2010-01-01

367

Recent Progress in Second-Generation HTS Conductor Scale-Up at SuperPower  

Microsoft Academic Search

YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) second-generation (2G) HTS conductors have been produced in lengths over 300 m in pilot scale facilities established at SuperPower. High throughput pilot-scale manufacturing has been demonstrated with tape speeds at or above 30 m\\/h of 12 mm wide tape (corresponding to 90 m\\/h of 4 mm wide conductor) in all steps. A 322 m long conductor with a

V. Selvamanickam; Y. Chen; X. Xiong; Y. Y. Xie; J. L. Reeves; X. Zhang; Y. Qiao; K. P. Lenseth; R. M. Schmidt; A. Rar; D. W. Hazelton; K. Tekletsadik

2007-01-01

368

In silico ADMET traffic lights as a tool for the prioritization of HTS hits.  

PubMed

The need for in silico characterization of HTS hit structures as part of a data-driven hit-selection process is demonstrated. A solution is described in the form of an in silico ADMET traffic light and PhysChem scoring system. This has been extensively validated with in-house data at Bayer, published data, and a collection of launched small-molecule oral drugs. PMID:16991174

Lobell, Mario; Hendrix, Martin; Hinzen, Berthold; Keldenich, Jörg; Meier, Heinrich; Schmeck, Carsten; Schohe-Loop, Rudolf; Wunberg, Tobias; Hillisch, Alexander

2006-11-01

369

A Compact HTS 5 kWh\\/250 kW Flywheel Energy Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) are expected to contribute to uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and power quality tasks significantly. We present design and the component results of a compact 5 kWh\\/250 kW HTS flywheel whereby the rotor will be totally magnetically stabilized. The design is optimized for highly integrated functionality of rotor body, generator\\/motor and bearings. The heart of the

Frank N. Werfel; Uta Floegel-Delor; Thomas Riedel; Rolf Rothfeld; Dieter Wippich; Bernd Goebel; Gerhard Reiner; Niels Wehlau

2007-01-01

370

Development of a 630 kVA Three-Phase HTS Transformer With Amorphous Alloy Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes design and operation of a three-phase HTS power transformer with capacity of 630 kVA operated in liquid nitrogen of 77 K for primary\\/secondary voltages of 10.5 kV\\/0.4 kV. The windings were wound by hermetic stainless steel-enforced multifilamentary Bi2223\\/Ag tapes. The structures of primary and secondary windings are solenoid and double-pancake respectively. Cryostat is made from electrical insulating

Yinshun Wang; Xiang Zhao; Junjie Han; Huidong Li; Ying Guan; Qing Bao; Liye Xiao; Liangzhen Lin; Xi Xu; Naihao Song; Fengyuan Zhang

2007-01-01

371

Introduction of China's first live grid installed HTS power cable system  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's first HTS power cable project was started in the second half of 2002 and on site system installation was finished at Puji Substation of China Southern Power Grid in March, 2004. This cable system consists of three 33.5 m, 35 kV\\/2 kArms cables, six terminations, and a closed cycle liquid nitrogen cooling station. The conductors of the cables were

Ying Xin; Bo Hou; Yanfang Bi; Haixia Xi; Yong Zhang; Anlin Ren; Xicheng Yang; Zhenghe Han; Songtao Wu; Huaikuang Ding

2005-01-01

372

Development of a coreless HTS synchronous generator operating at sub-cooled liquid nitrogen temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current design concepts for a 100kW high temperature superconducting synchronous generator currently being designed at the University of Southampton, UK. The new generator will use the same conventional 2-pole 3-phase stator that was used in the HTS synchronous generator previously constructed at Southampton. The windings consist of 18 pancake coils made from BiPb2223 superconducting tape with

M K Al-Mosawi; W Bailey; C Beduz; K Goddard; Y Yang

2008-01-01

373

Pros and cons of radical cystectomy in the treatment of T1G3 bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

The management of T1G3 (or high-grade T1) bladder cancer poses a challenging clinical dilemma to the urologist. There are good data supporting bladder conservative therapy with repeat transurethral resection and administration of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy but this must include maintenance regimens since only maintenance BCG has been shown to decrease tumor recurrence and progression. Concern over worse survival with a delay in definitive therapy has prompted many to recommend immediate cystectomy for T1G3 disease. Ultimately, the decision needs to be individualized and although certain pathologic factors (T1b disease, early recurrence or progression within three months of BCG therapy, lymphovascular invasion and variant histology) are prognostic of progressive disease, no definitive risk factors for tumor progression have been identified.

Agarwal, Piyus K.; Kamat, Ashish M.

2008-01-01

374

B1g-like pairing states in two-leg ladder iron superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the recent report of superconductivity in Fe-based ladder materials, we study the pairing state of a multiorbital t-J model defined on two-leg ladders using the standard mean-field theory. We find that the superconducting order parameters change sign between the dxz and dyz orbitals in most of the phase diagram. By analogy with the two-dimensional Fe planes, we conclude that the leading pairing channel of this state belongs to the B1g symmetry class, which is distinct from the common s± gap with A1g symmetry. By smoothly interpolating from planes into ladders, we show that a first-order transition occurs between these two competing phases when the dimension of the system is reduced.

Lv, Weicheng; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

2013-09-01

375

The X1?g+ ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The A1?u+ - X1?g+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X1?g+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.

Knöckel, H.; Rühmann, S.; Tiemann, E.

2013-03-01

376

The X(1)?g(+) ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The A(1)?u(+) - X(1)?g(+) UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X(1)?g(+) have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results. PMID:23485290

Knöckel, H; Rühmann, S; Tiemann, E

2013-03-01

377

Toxicity of Chitinase-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD1 (G) toward Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fifty isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their ability to produce chitinase using colloidal chitin agar as the primary plating medium. Of 14 strains that produced chitinase, B. thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki HD-1(G) was identified as the highest chitinase producer and selected for further study. This bacterium produced the highest amount of chitinase (19.3 mU\\/ml) when it was cultivated

Chanpen Wiwat; Saranya Thaithanun; Somsak Pantuwatana; Amaret Bhumiratana

2000-01-01

378

Integrated ultraviolet sensor system with on-chip 1 G? transimpedance amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output current delivered by photo-diodes with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) responsivity is in most cases small, thus requiring an interface circuit with high current gain. Generally, this is achieved using discrete components. This integrated system includes a 1G? transimpedance stage and an IC-compatible UV photo-diode on a single chip. The industrial application motivating this work is flame detection for combustion

Daniel Bolliger; Piero Malcovati; Andreas Haberli; Henry Baltes; Pasqualina Sarro; F. Maloberti

1996-01-01

379

Correlation bounds for polynomials over f0;1g1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a unifled treatment of the state-of-the-art on the fundamental chal- lenge of exhibiting explicit functions that have small correlation with low-degree poly- nomials over f0;1g. It discusses long-standing results and recent developments, related proof techniques, and connections with pseudorandom generators. It also suggests sev- eral research directions. given by the sum of the 4 monomials x1x2;x2;x3; and

Emanuele Viola

380

Optimization of a condensed-neon cooling system for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below Tc. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.

Felder, B.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

2010-06-01

381

The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

2012-12-01

382

Operational Experience of the World's First Transmission Level Voltage Hts Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cables have attracted extensive interest in recent years due to their potential for high power density. With funding support from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the world's first transmission voltage level HTS power cable has been designed, fabricated and permanently installed in Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The HTS cable was successfully commissioned on April 22, 2008 and has been in operation since then. The three phase cable is 600 meter long and was designed to carry 574 MVA at a voltage of 138 kV. The project is being led by American Superconductor (AMSC). The team is comprised of Nexans, Air Liquide and LIPA. This paper describes the operational experience of the cable and refrigeration system since energization. A detailed description of various events and lessons learned over the course of operation is presented. The cable system performance is compared before and after more than one year of in-grid operation. In addition, the status and progress of the recently awarded LIPA II project is included.

Maguire, J. F.; Yuan, J.; Schmidt, F.; Soika, R.; Bratt, S.; King, C.; McNamara, J.; Welsh, T. E.

2010-04-01

383

Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ~1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

2010-04-01

384

Results of KEPCO HTS cable system tests and design of hybrid cryogenic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the compatibility as a power utility facility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) had installed a 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 100 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system. Using the HTS cable, various tests have been performed to investigate electrical and thermo-mechanical properties. Since 2005, a series of thermal cycle tests between liquid nitrogen (LN2) and ambient temperatures have been conducted using a vacuum-pump driven open-loop cryogenic system with a capacity of 3 kW. In the tests, although the open-loop cryogenic system was reliable to operate the HTS cable system, it was not effective in economic view point because LN2 consumption was larger than expected. In order to secure against unexpected emergencies and solve the problem of LN2 consumption, a hybrid cryogenic system was designed and installed. A stirling cryocooler was employed and combined with the open-loop cryogenic system. Considering the average heat load at rated condition, the cooling capacity of the cryocooler was determined to 4 kW at 77 K. In this paper, results of performance tests and the design of the hybrid cooling system are presented.

Lim, J. H.; Sohn, S. H.; Yang, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Choi, H. O.

2010-11-01

385

Inhomogeneity effects in HTS coated conductors used as resistive FCLs in medium voltage grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For resistive fault current limiters (RFCLs) based on high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CCs), inhomogeneity, in terms of critical current and geometrical imperfections such as stabilizer and substrate thicknesses, plays a very important role and it may limit the penetration of such devices into the electrical market. This paper presents an electrothermal model, developed in SimPowerSystem™, able to describe the transient response of HTS-CC candidates with different degrees of inhomogeneity, both in terms of critical current and of stabilizer thickness. Critical current inhomogeneity has been modeled with Gaussian distributions. The layer thicknesses used in the simulations have been chosen by fitting the temperature dependence of real tape resistances. Our approach considers relative inhomogeneity positions as well as thermal conduction along the HTS-CC length. The model is tuned using experimental measurements made on ReBaCuO coated conductors. A new dynamical thermal calibration of the model is proposed using finite element method calculations. Inhomegeneity effects with different possible faults (e.g. three phase and single phase short-circuit) are presented.

Colangelo, Daniele; Dutoit, Bertrand

2012-09-01

386

AdHTS: a high-throughput system for generating recombinant adenoviruses.  

PubMed

The need for efficient high-throughput gene delivery system for mammalian cells is rapidly increasing with the growing request for functional genomics studies and drug discoveries in various physiologically relevant systems. However, plasmid-based gene delivery has limitations in transfection efficiency and available cell types. Viral vectors have great advantages over plasmid-based vectors, but construction of recombinant viruses remains to be a big hurdle for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a rapid and simple high-throughput system for constructing recombinant adenoviruses which have been used as efficient gene delivery tools in mammalian systems in vitro and in vivo. By combining Gateway-based site-specific recombination with Terminal protein-coupled adenovirus vector, the adenovirus high-throughput system (AdHTS) generates multiple recombinant adenoviruses in 96-well plates simultaneously without the need for additional cloning or recombination in bacteria or mammalian cells. The AdHTS allows rapid and robust cloning and expression of genes in mammalian cells by removing shuttle vector construction, bacterial transformation, or selection and by minimizing effort in plaque isolation. By shortening the time required to convert whole cDNA library into desired viral vector constructs, the AdHTS would greatly facilitate functional genomics and proteomics studies in various mammalian systems. PMID:23063969

Choi, Eun-Wook; Seen, Dong-Seung; Song, Yong Bhum; Son, Ho-Sun; Jung, Neon-Cheol; Huh, Won-Ki; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Kim, Kyungjin; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Tae Gyu

2012-10-09

387

Development of a HTS SQUID module for use with an external pickup coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed HTS SQUID modules applicable to various systems, such as nondestructive evaluation and low-field NMR/MRI systems. The SQUID module consists of a directly coupled HTS planar gradiometer and a HTS multi-turn input coil, which are fabricated on separate substrates and stacked with a flip-chip configuration. Two types of input coils, 26-turns and 59-turns, are fabricated. The SQUID module is mounted on a printed circuit board with large electrodes for soldering to the external pickup coil. The mutual inductances between the input coil and SQUID varied from 0.5 to 2.3 nH, depending on the number of turns of the input coil and the inductance of the SQUID. The SQUID modules with an external pickup coil made of normal metal showed a lower cut-off frequency of 45 Hz and a field noise as low as 35 fT Hz-1/2 (>4 kHz).

Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Enpuku, K.

2013-01-01

388

Current distribution and re-distribution in HTS cables made from 2nd generation tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current redistribution in carpet-stack cables made from 2nd generation HTS tapes is investigated. In the carpet stack geometry tapes are stacked with their broad faces parallel to each other to build up a cable. Current redistribution in HTS cables is complex because the built-in insulation layer in each tape prevents effective current transfer between tapes. A method of shunting the tapes using periodically distributed superconducting bridges is investigated to improve current transfer, avoiding the need to solder the cable together. We calculate the mutual inductance between different tapes in a cable, and the effective resistance/transconductance for representative cable configurations. The effective time constants for current transfer and current redistribution are then calculated under different assumptions. We show that periodic shunting of the tapes using distributed superconducting bridges is an attractive method to achieve uniform current distribution in a HTS cable. The solution is flexible, and the performance of the system can be optimized by changing the width of shunt and/or the distance between shunts.

Bromberg, L.; Takayasu, M.; Michael, Philip; Minervini, J. V.; Dietz, Anthony

2012-06-01

389

Fabrication and characterization of YBCO/INSULATOR/YBCO multilayers for HTS-MCM applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic building block for a HTS-MCM i.e., a YBCO/INSULATOR/YBCO multilayer has been successfully fabricated and characterized. Other than high frequency properties most of the important properties have been thoroughly investigated. The processing difficulties arising during fabrication and the consequences of each process on the superconducting properties of both YBCO layers have also been studied. In order to fabricate the S/I/S structures we used two methods The first method utilized the conventional method for depositing the dielectric at high temperatures. The resulting properties of both YBCO layers using this technique were not suitable for HTS-MCM applications. In the second method, we used the recently developed ion beam assisted deposition technique to deposit the biaxially aligned YSZ layers at room temperatures on any template. The IBAD YSZ layer deposition technique coupled with a novel method to deposit thick crack free rf-sputtered SiOsb2 (developed by Dr. R. G. Florence) interlayer allowed for the successful fabrication of the YBCO/YSZ/SiOsb{2sp-}/YSZ/YBCO multilayer on single crystal substrates. Later on a new technique was also developed whereby crack free PECVD SiOsb2 layers could be used. The top YBCO layer showed good crystalline quality comparable to those of other published results. We also observed a degradation in the properties of top YBCO microbridges running over step edges arising out of the bottom YBCO layer which was also patterned into microbridges. In the case where both top and bottom layers were patterned into meander lines the top layer YBCO exhibited semiconducting behavior. In short we have demonstrated that the properties of the top and bottom YBCO layer properties are good enough for prototype HTS-MCM applications. Our results also indicate that a planarization process has to be developed to prevent degradation of the properties of the top YBCO layer. The last hurdle in building the HTS-MCM would be in developing the via etch process for interconnecting the two YBCO layer interconnects. Finally by implementing the IMPs design the prototype HTS-MCM will be a reality.

Afonso, Joao Sergio

390

Increase in cell-surface localization of parathyroid hormone receptor by cytoskeletal protein 4.1G  

PubMed Central

The cell-surface localization of GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) has emerged as one of critical factors of the GPCR-mediated signal transduction. It has been reported that the C-termini of GPCRs contain the sequences for sorting the receptors to cell surface. In the present study, we have searched for proteins that interact with the C-terminus of PTH (parathyroid hormone)/PTH-related protein receptor (PTHR) by using the yeast two-hybrid system, and identified a cytoskeletal protein 4.1G (generaltype 4.1 protein) as an interactant with the C-terminus. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both PTHR and 4.1G were co-localized on plasma membranes, when they were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. When 4.1G or the C-terminal domain of 4.1G (4.1G-CTD), a dominant-negative form of 4.1G, was co-expressed with PTHR in COS-7 cells, 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD, facilitated the cell-surface localization of PTHR, determined by cell-surface biotinylation assay. PTH-(1–34) caused phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 in PTHR-expressed cells mainly mediated through EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor. The phosphorylation was enhanced by the expression of 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD. PTH-(1–34) elevated [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration) independent of EGF receptor activation, and the elevation was enhanced by the expression of 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD. These data indicate that 4.1G facilitates the cell-surface localization of PTHR through its interaction with the C-terminus of the receptor, resulting in the potentiation of PTHR-mediated signal transduction.

2005-01-01

391

Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies.

Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Olivan, Sara; Munoz, Maria J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vazquez, Pilar; Esteban-Perez, Jesus; Garcia-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

2012-01-01

392

Binding of aflatoxin B1, G1 and M to plasma albumin.  

PubMed

The aflatoxins B1, G1 and their metabolites exist in the systemic blood as protein conjugate. This conjugation is specific to plasma albumin and proceeds enzymatically by liver and kidney cells. The aflatoxin-albumin conjugate is permanent and the conjugation is an irreversible one. This may interpret the acute liver damage of animal ingested a single dose of aflatoxin (3,4). The existence of bound aflatoxin-albumin in the systematic blood could be considered as one factor of low excretions of aflatoxins and their metabolites in urine (5,6,7). PMID:6811900

Nassar, A Y; Megalla, S E; El-Fattah, H M; Hafez, A H; El-Deap, T S

1982-07-23

393

Proposed plan for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan is issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for SRS remedial activities, and with concurrence by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G) (K BPOP) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and to solicit public comments on the preferred alternative.

Palmer, E.

1997-06-01

394

Initiation of Explosives by Exploding Wires. IV. Effect of Wire Length on the Initiation of PETN by Exploding Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of wire length on the initiation of PETN by exploding platinum wires was investigated using a one microfarad capacitor charged to 2000 volts as the energy source. The energy density deposited in the wire was found to increase with decreasing wi...

H. S. Leopold

1964-01-01

395

Fermi Nesting between Atomic Wires with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual interplay between superlattice structures, band filling factors, and spin-orbit coupling results in a highly correlated electronic spin and charge state found for an array of atomic Pb wires grown on Si(557). By means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the spin texture close to the Fermi surface was found to be alternating and equidistant; thus, Fermi nesting occurs in between bands with the same spin helicity, giving rise to spin-polarized charge-density waves in the direction across the wires. An out-of-phase superposition of both Rashba channels is manifested by an extraordinary large Rashba splitting of ?k0=0.2Å-1=g/2, where g is a reciprocal lattice vector defined by the interwire distance and fits into the model of spin-density waves in antiferromagnetically ordered chain structures. The implications towards spin-polarized transport along the wires will be discussed.

Tegenkamp, C.; Lükermann, D.; Pfnür, H.; Slomski, B.; Landolt, G.; Dil, J. H.

2012-12-01

396

Shock Pressure Determination in Detonator Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-resolution microstreak photographs were used to record shock waves from water-immersed, exploding detonator wires. Shock velocities were read directly from the photographs, and pressures were computer from known Hugoniot data. Wires were gold or alum...

A. M. Frank G. R. Gathers

1989-01-01

397

Investigation of Helicopter Wire Strike Protection Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In-flight wire strikes pose a serious threat to low-level helicopter operations. Tests were conducted to determine the suitability for U. S. Army helicopter applications of the Canadian Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS), developed by Bristol Aerospace ...

L. T. Burrows

1980-01-01

398

Nickel Contaminated Titanium Weld Wire Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on ...

G. R. Coffin R. L. Sumstine

1979-01-01

399

49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.838 Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt...

2011-10-01

400

46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire....

2012-10-01

401

Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

Wiley, Gale

1989-01-01

402

Process for manufacturing stranded copper wire  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Oxidation of stranded copper wire during high temperature coating with non-melt-fabricable tetrafluoroethylene polymer is substantially prevented by subjecting the wire to a nonoxidizing atmosphere during heating immediately prior to and during coating.

Ross; John A. (Wallingford, PA)

1981-11-10

403

Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

Bich, George J. (Penn Hills, PA); Gupta, Tapan K. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

404

The Isvr Constant Temperature Hot Wire Anemometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles of hot wire anemometer operation are summarized. The design, specifications, and applications for the constant temperature hot wire and hot film anemometer system are discussed. Information is provided on probe construction with selected re...

P. O. A. L. Davies J. Mason

1974-01-01

405

Printed Wiring Assembly and Interconnection Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents reliability prediction models for printed wiring assemblies, solderless wrap assemblies, wrapped and soldered assemblies, and discrete wiring assemblies w/electroless deposited PTH for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-217. Collected field failur...

D. W. Coit

1981-01-01

406

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled âSafety Rules for the Installation and...

2013-07-01

407

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled âSafety Rules for the Installation and...

2013-07-01

408

Wire Assembly for Electrically Conductive Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wire assembly for electrically conductive circuits, the assembly comprising a circuit conductor wire having a coating of insulative material thereon, a shielding foil wrapped at least partially around the coating and having a leg portion extending outwa...

W. T. Schneider

1992-01-01

409

Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schrödinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

Singh, Mahi R.

2009-03-01

410

Resistivity of inhomogeneous superconducting wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the contribution of quantum phase fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter to the low-temperature resistivity ?(T) of a dirty and inhomogeneous superconducting wire. In particular, we account for random spatial fluctuations of arbitrary size in wire thickness. For a typical wire thickness above the critical value for a superconductor-insulator transition, phase-slip processes can be treated perturbatively. We use a memory formalism approach, which underlines the role played by a weak violation of conservation laws in the mechanism for generating finite resistivity. Our calculations yield an expression for ?(T) , which exhibits a smooth crossover from a homogeneous to a “granular” limit upon increase of T , controlled by a “granularity parameter” D characterizing the size of thickness fluctuations. For extremely small D , we recover the power-law dependence ?(T)˜T? obtained by unbinding quantum phase slips. However in the strongly inhomogeneous limit, the exponent ? is modified and the prefactor is exponentially enhanced. We examine the dependence of the exponent ? on an external magnetic field applied parallel to the wire. Finally, we show that the power-law dependence at low T is consistent with a series of experimental data obtained in a variety of long and narrow samples, which earlier studies have attempted to fit by an exponential trial function. The values of ? extracted from the data, and the corresponding field dependence, are consistent with known parameters of the corresponding samples.

Pai, G. Venketeswara; Shimshoni, E.; Andrei, N.

2008-03-01

411

Terminating Wire to Microminiature Connectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contains a discussion of a new technique to simultaneously terminate wires to a whole row of contacts on a microminiature connector. The system, which has been named Solder-Pak, utilizes radiation cross-linked, heat-shrinkable sleeves, each cont...

J. S. Scarborough

1967-01-01

412

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

413

Method of Producing Fine Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invention consists of a method of obtaining thin wire, for Ex., of the diameter of 0.001 mm, by drawing a bimetallic billet with subsequent scouring of the outer surface which is distinguished by the fact that for the purpose of getting a constant section...

L. A. Lysenko N. S. Agushevich

1964-01-01

414

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

415

Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom  

SciTech Connect

We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

2004-09-24

416

REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical…

Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

417

Wire assembly for electrically conductive circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wire assembly for electrically conductive circuits is described. The assembly is comprised of a circuit conductor wire having a coating of insulative material thereon, a shielding foil wrapped at least partially around the coating and having a leg portion extending outwardly from the coating, a shield conductor wire fixed to the shielding foil, and an insulative outer layer enclosing the shielding foil and the shield conductor wire.

Schneider, Walter T.

1992-04-01

418

On Wires Holding a Handful of Electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

When analyzing reliability, wires have in most cases been ignored, with gates (and devices) taking the lion’s share. With\\u000a scaling, this “only computing fails” approach is not going to be accurate enough as communication (wires) will also start to err. Trying to do justice to wires, this paper details a statistical failure analysis of wires following on the few papers

Valeriu Beiu; Walid Ibrahim; Rafic Z. Makki

2009-01-01

419

A study on the improvement of protective relay system for the utility application of HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the analysis and improvement of protective relay systems are performed with respect to HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable applied in a model power system. The over current relay and differential relay with proposed new decision making algorithm are implemented under a couple of fault conditions, a single line-to-ground fault and three phase short circuit. According to the analysis results, there is not a particular aspect for the protection system of HTS power cable, but the impedance variation of HTS power cable should be taken into account under the fault conditions. In the case of the differential relay system, the induced current ratio based fault detection scheme is proposed and applied for the bus to bus connection of HTS power cable protection. The circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm well. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide more useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems.

Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Park, I. K.; Lee, S. R.; Park, J. D.; Kwon, Y. K.; Yu, I. K.

2009-10-01

420

Peroxynitrite does not decompose to singlet oxygen (1?gO2) and nitroxyl (NO?)  

PubMed Central

According to Khan et al. [Khan, A. U., Kovacic, D., Kolbanovskiy, A., Desai, M., Frenkel, K. & Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2984–2989], peroxynitrite (ONOO?) decomposes after protonation to singlet oxygen (1?gO2) and singlet oxonitrate (nitroxyl, 1NO?) in high yield. They claimed to have observed nitrosyl hemoglobin from the reaction of NO? with methemoglobin; however, contamination with hydrogen peroxide gave rise to ferryl hemoglobin, the spectrum of which was mistakenly assigned to nitrosyl hemoglobin. We have carried out UV–visible and EPR experiments with methemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide-free peroxynitrite and find that no NO? is formed. With this peroxynitrite preparation, no light emission from singlet oxygen at 1270 nm is observed, nor is singlet oxygen chemically trapped; however, singlet oxygen was trapped when hydrogen peroxide was also present, as previously described [Di Mascio, P., Bechara, E. J. H., Medeiros, M. H. G., Briviba, K. & Sies, H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 355, 287–289]. Quantum mechanical and thermodynamic calculations show that formation of the postulated intermediate, a cyclic form of peroxynitrous acid (trioxazetidine), and the products 1NO? and 1?gO2 requires Gibbs energies of ca. +415 kJ?mol?1 and ca. +180 kJ?mol?1, respectively. Our results show that the results of Khan et al. are best explained by interference from contaminating hydrogen peroxide left from the synthesis of peroxynitrite.

Martinez, Glaucia R.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Augusto, Ohara; Briviba, Karlis; Sies, Helmut; Maurer, Patrick; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.

2000-01-01

421

Study of Holding Power of Wire Rope Clips in a Wire Rope Loop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of tests performed on 3/8, 1/2, and 5/8 inch independent wire rope core (IWRC) wire rope, and 3/8, 1/2, and 5/8 inch fiber core wire rope. The test samples consisted of end-over-end wire rope loops held together with vario...

E. Jackson D. Skoneczka

1978-01-01

422

Developments in the Manufacture of Copper Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers interesting developments in the manufacture of copper wire and contains a description of a copper rod and wire mill designed to meet the new requirements. It also includes a brief survey of the copper rolling and wire drawing art at the time the investigation was started; a summary of tests made in varying the practise in rod

John R. Shea; Samuel McMullan

1927-01-01

423

Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

Van Horn, Royal

2001-01-01

424

Last Progress in Underwater Electrical Wire Explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the investigation of the underwater electrical wire explosions using a high power nanosecond timescale generator are reported. The spectroscopic analysis of the emitted radiation has unveiled no evidence for the formation of shunting plasma channel. The latter appears in vacuum and gas wire explosions and causes to the seizure of energy deposition into an exploding wire material.

Alon Grinenko; Arkady Sayapin; Sergey Efimov; Alexander Fedotov; Yakov E. Krasik

2008-01-01

425

Technology update II: Wire systems diagnostics & prognostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aviation industry is gradually realizing some of the benefits from wire husbandry as they include it in their maintenance programs. Individual operators are also beginning to incorporate both zonal visual inspection procedures and advanced diagnostic tooling practices into their maintenance programs. Visual inspection, although only 25% effective is being used to check for wire contamination, combustibles and wire degradation

Christopher Teal; Bill Larsen

2003-01-01

426

Stress Analysis of Wire Hoist Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis is presented for the static and dynamic response of wire rope in deep-shaft mining operations. Expressions for the stresses in the individual wires of complex wire ropes are derived, and specific results for simple strands are prese...

1983-01-01

427

The Early History of Insulated Copper Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1800s galvanometers could be constructed with the fine gauges of silk-covered copper or silver wires produced for decorative purposes, but when Faraday was making his classic electrical experiments in 1831 he needed a sturdier gauge of copper wire. Bare copper wire was available in many diameters for mechanical applications, but coils for electromagnetic investigations had to be

Allan A. Mills

2004-01-01

428

Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)|

Van Horn, Royal

2001-01-01

429

Fano resonances in nested wire media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interaction of electromagnetic waves with two nested parallel metallic wire arrays, such that the unit cell of the structure has two inequivalent parallel wires. We develop a formalism to solve scattering problems using effective medium methods and prove that the electromagnetic coupling of the two sets of wires may result in the emergence of sharp Fano resonances.

Fernandes, David E.; Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Hanson, George W.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

2013-07-01

430

Three-Wire Static Strain Gage Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention utilizes a static strain gage which is connected in a three wire-configuration to a Wheatstone bridge to provide a temperature compensated strain output. A three wire switching arrangement is utilized to wire the strain gage in one s...

W. F. Bridges

1982-01-01

431

Locating Hidden Hazards in Electrical Wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous electrical wiring has been identified as an area of critical national and international concern. Faulty and improperly installed electrical wiring is a leading cause of fires in homes and commercial buildings. Wiring is also responsible for numerous problems in consumer product safety, vehicular safety\\/reliability, safety of nuclear facilities, reliability of power distribution systems, reliability of communication systems, and others.

Paul K. Kuhn

2006-01-01

432

Detection of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency using 1 ?g adrenocorticotropic hormone test.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine the incidence of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in patients with septic shock using a 1 ?g corticotropin (ACTH) test and to describe their clinical outcomes. We retrospectively identified 219 consecutive patients with septic shock assessed for CIRCI with a 1 ?g ACTH test. Standardized testing involved plasma cortisol measurements at baseline (T0) and at 30 min (T30) and 60 min (T60) after ACTH administration. The maximal increase in cortisol (? max) was calculated as the difference between T0 and the highest cortisol value at T30 or T60. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency was defined as ? max less than 9 ?g/dL after ACTH administration. The mean age of the cohort was 63.0 ± 15.8 years, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 26.3 ± 8.1, 85.6% were mechanically ventilated, and the mean number of organ failures was 3.0 ± 1.2. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency was diagnosed in 70.8% of patients. Twenty-eight-day mortality was highest in patients with baseline cortisol greater than 65 ?g/dL (62.5%) and in those with baseline cortisol 34 ?g/dL or greater and ? max less than 9 ?g/dL (50.0%). There was no difference in mortality in patients with and without CIRCI (53.9% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.08). Corticosteroids were administered to 69.4% of patients for 5.3 ± 3.6 days. For patients with CIRCI, intensive care unit mortality was similar for those who received corticosteroids compared with those who did not (46.0% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.166). The incidence of CIRCI based on 1 ?g ACTH was high in this septic shock cohort. The highest mortality rates were observed in patients with high baseline cortisol and in those who failed to respond appropriately to ACTH. The administration of corticosteroids was not associated with a reduction in mortality. PMID:23324883

Burry, Lisa; Little, Anjuli; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta

2013-02-01

433

Measurements and simulations of the ablation stage of wire arrays with different initial wire sizes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of 20 mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays with different initial wire sizes were made on the 20 MA Sandia Z facility. Radiographic measurements of each wire array, taken at the same point in the current during the wire ablation stage, show systematic differences. A detailed comparison of the radiography and self-emission data with simulations and analytic models suggests that a variation in the mass ablation rate with wire size may be responsible.

Sinars, D.B.; Cuneo, M.E.; Yu, E.P.; Jones, B.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Porter, J.L.; Wenger, D.F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Lebedev, S.V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Cochrane, K.R. [Ktech Corporation, 1300 Eubank Boulevard SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); MacFarlane, J.J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)

2006-04-15

434

Bond reliability under humid environment for coated copper wire and bare copper wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in Cu wire bonding for LSI interconnection due to cost savings and better electrical and mechanical properties. Conventional bare Cu bonding wires, in general, are severely limited in their use compared to Au wires. A coated Cu bonding wire (EX1) has been developed for LSI application. EX1 is a Pd-coated Cu wire to enhance the bondability.Bond

Tomohiro Uno

2011-01-01

435

Ion-size effects in HTS cuprates -- dielectric versus magnetic pairing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been exploring the systematic effects of changing ion size on superconducting and normal-state properties of the HTS cuprates. In the model system RA2Cu3Oy (where R = La,, Lu and A=Ba2-xSrx) the maximum Tc in the dome-shaped phase curve can be shifted from 70 to 110 K in the model system. Surprisingly Tc correlates with the dielectric properties and not the magnetic properties. This highlights the fundamental importance of charge fluctuation and dielectric screening in the cuprates and may signal a novel pairing mechanism having its origin with quantized waves of electronic polarization.

Tallon, Jeffery; Mallett, Ben; Ashcroft, Neil

2013-03-01

436

Critical current density enhancement in rolled multifilament Bi-2223 HTS composites  

SciTech Connect

At 77 K and self-field, we report transport critical density (J{sub c}) of 58 kA/cm{sup 2} in rolled 19 and 85 filament Bi-2223 HTS tapes. For an 85-filament tape with transport J{sub c} of 50 kA/cm{sup 2}, transport J{sub c} of greater than 80 kA/cm{sup 2} electrical performance, increasing the number of the strong links between the 2223 colonies is believed to be the most important factor. Microstructure studies on these samples suggest that there is still great potential for further J{sub c} enhancement.

Li, Q.; Riley, G.N. Jr.; Parrella, R.D. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

437

The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS.  

SciTech Connect

With one firm offering to provide SMES with HTS current leads and several other entities developing flywheels with bearings that incorporate bulk ReBaCuO, the progress made toward meeting their technical goals appears promising. Another question needs attention from the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) community: 'Will technical success yield equipment that will sell?' Here, we recall what is being done and review issues touching on the specifications for equipment that customers might want. These specifications pose technical challenges that have received little attention from the community.

Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

2002-08-01

438

Single-phase ac losses in prototype HTS conductors for superconducting power transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The authors report single-phase ac loss measurements on 8, 4, and 3-layer, multi-strand, HTS prototype conductors for power transmission lines. They use both calorimetric and electrical techniques. The agreement between the two techniques suggests that the interlayer current distribution in one-meter long conductors are representative of those in long conductors. The losses for the 8 and 4-layer conductors are in rough agreement, with the 8-layer losses being somewhat lower. The 3-layer conductor losses are substantially higher--probably due to unbalanced azimuthal currents for this configuration.

Daney, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boenig, H.J.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gherardi, L.; Coletta, G. [Pirelli Cavi SpA (Italy)

1998-12-01

439

Wire rope and method of making same  

SciTech Connect

A wire rope, particularly a non-twistable wire rope, wherein an annulus of outer strands surrounds a wire rope center with a central strand and one or more annuli of neighboring strands surrounding the central strand. The wires of the strands in the center do not intersect each other. The entire center or at least some of its strands are densified prior to or during application of the outer strands. Alternatively, or in addition to such densification, at least some strands of the center are assembled of wires having an other than circular outline to thereby reduce the combined cross-sectional area of voids in the center.

Verreet, R.

1984-06-19

440

USGS GSD-1G: A Geological Reference Glass for in situ Elemental and Isotopic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the drawback of synthetic calibration materials for microanalysis of geological samples, the USGS prepared basaltic GS reference glasses, which are doped with many trace elements in similar abundances. The GSD-1G glass is of special interest, because the trace elements have appropriate concentrations of about 50 ?g/g. Meanwhile first analytical results have been published which all agree very well. The GeoReM preferred values (http://georem.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de) have therefore a high level of confidence. For in situ isotope analysis an increasing need exists for well characterized reference glasses to satisfy the requirements for new LA-ICP-MS and SIMS applications. We have therefore determined the isotopic composition of Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd and Pb in GSD-1G by high-precision bulk and microanalytical techniques (Table 1). To check isotopic homogeneity, three different glass splits were analyzed. The highly precise ?11B, ?44/40Ca, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb values are indistinguishable within uncertainty limits indicating isotopic homogeneity. Small Pb isotopic heterogeneities between splits are detected in the TIMS triple spike data but not resolved in the LA-ICP-MS Pb data due to the larger uncertainty, a factor of 10 greater than that of TIMS. Nevertheless, the mean LA-ICP-MS 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb agree well with the TIMS data. ?29Si and ?30Si were determined by LA-MC-ICP-MS using a femtosecond laser. The ?7Li and Li concentration (43.8 ?g/g) values obtained by MC-ICP-MS also agree well with previously published MC-ICP-MS, TIMS and SIMS Li isotopic data analyzed on different splits (30.3‰ Jochum et al. (2006); 31.14, 31.7, 31.3‰ Kasemann et al. (2005)) and the GeoReM preferred Li concentration (43 ?g/g) indicating isotopic and elemental homogeneity of Li in GSD-1G. Table 1: Compilation of isotope data of USGS GSD-1G reference glass. ?7Li(‰ LSVEC): 30.4 using MC-ICP-MS ?11B(‰ NIST951: 10.07; 9.80; 10.74 using TIMS ?29Si(‰ NIST8546): -0.080 using LA-MC-ICP-MS ?30Si(‰ NIST8546): -0.224 using LA-MC-ICP-MS ?44/40Ca(‰ NIST915a): 0.79; 0.90; 0.89 using TIMS 87Sr/86Sr: 0.709396; 0.709403; 0.709403 using TIMS 143Nd/144Nd: 0.511513; 0.511514; 0.511515 using TIMS 206Pb/204Pb: 19.578; 19.579; 19.578 using TIMS-triple spike 207Pb/204Pb: 15.7436; 15.7446; 15.7459 using TIMS-triple spike 208Pb/204Pb: 38.906; 38.910; 38.916 using TIMS-triple spike 207Pb/206Pb: 0.80416; 0.80515; 0.80424 using TIMS-triple spike 208Pb/206Pb: 1.9872; 1.9873; 1.9876 using TIMS-triple spike 207Pb/206Pb: 0.8042 using LA-ICP-MS 208Pb/206Pb: 1.987 using LA-ICP-MS

Jochum, K. P.; Wilson, S. A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R. L.; Stoll, B.; Tonarini, S.

2008-12-01

441

Free-Vibration Characteristics of a Large Split-Blanket Solar Array in a 1-G Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods for studying the free vibration characteristics of a large split blanket solar array in both a 0-g and a 1-g cantilevered configuration are presented. The 0-g configuration corresponds to an in-orbit configuration of the array; the 1-g configu...

F. J. Shaker

1976-01-01

442

Microplasmas: physics and application to the production of singlet oxygen O2(a^1?g)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplasmas refer to electric discharges created in very small geometries able to operate in DC mode at high pressure without glow to arc transition. The recent and considerable interest in microplasmas is due to their unique properties in term of discharge stability and power loading. A microplasma configuration which has proven to be stable at atmospheric pressure and up to a power density of some 100 kW/cm3 is the Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) developed by Schoenbach and coworkers. MHCDs are created by applying a voltage between two closely spaced hollow electrodes separated by a dielectric layer. The thickness of the dielectric and the diameter of the hole are both on the order of some 100's microns. These MHCDs can be used as plasma cathodes for generating a diffuse discharge between the MHCD cathode and a third positively-biased electrode placed some distance away. This is the so-called Micro Cathode Sustained Discharge (MCSD) configuration, which can be operated as a non self-sustained discharge. In that mode, the MCSD appears as a unique tool for producing, at high pressure, large fluxes of O2(a^1?g) metastable states which cannot be efficiently produced in classical self-sustained discharges. Based on experimental works performed by our group and on modeling studies done by Pitchford and coworkers at Toulouse University, this paper summarizes the properties of the plasmas generated by the MHCD and the MCSD, with an emphasis on the new fascinating opportunities for the production of O2(a^1?g) metastable states by electrical discharges in high pressure rare gas-oxygen mixtures.

Puech, V.

2008-04-01

443

Biomonitoring human exposure to organohalogenated substances by measuring urinary chlorophenols using a high-throughput screening (HTS) immunochemical method.  

PubMed

The widespread contamination of the environment by persistent organochlorinated substances is well-known. High-throughput immunochemical methods may improve routine assessment of the exposure of the population to these chemicals by analyzing urinary biomarkers. Trichlorophenols (TCP) have often been considered as biomarkers of many organochlorinated compounds. With the aim to assess exposure of the population to these substances a high-throughput immunosorbent solid-phase extraction (HTS-IS-SPE) procedure coupled to ELISA for simultaneous analyses of 2,4,6-TCP immunoreactivity equivalents (2,4,6-TCP-IR equiv) in multiple hydrolyzed urine samples has been developed. Around 100 urine samples can be processed simultaneously with an inter- and intraassay precision lower than 23% CV and a limit of detection of 0.3 microg L(-1). The analyses by HTS-IS-SPE-ELISA and HTS-IS-SPE-GC/MS of urine samples (N = 117) collected from three different population groups point to a broad exposure of the Catalonian population to organohalogenated substances including the recently emerging organobrominated pollutants. Environment and edible products seem to be the most likely sources of exposure, since excretion of 2,4,6-TCP-IR equiv has been found to be independent from the occupational sector. An excellent correlation was observed between the 2,4,6-TCP-IR equiv determined by HTS-IS-SPE-ELISA and the concentrations measured by HTS-IS-SPE-GC/MS (R2 = 0.912). The results show that immunochemical screening methods, based on the quantification of urinary biomarkers, can be excellent tools for exposure assessment. The HTS-IS-SPE-ELISA presented here has proved to be efficient, precise, accurate, rapid, and specific, which opens up the possibility for a broad variety of applications where routine testing of large number of samples is required. PMID:16646491

Nichkova, Mikaela; Marco, M Pilar

2006-04-01

444

Magnetic shielding effects of the superposition of a ferromagnetic cylinder over an HTS cylinder: magnetic shielding dependence on the air gap between the BPSCCO and soft-iron cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal magnetic shielded vessels can be realized by making use of a high-critical temperature superconductor (HTS). Use of such shielding does not, however, generally satisfy the maximum shielded magnetic flux density Bs required of an HTS vessel for practical applications. The present authors have improved the value of Bs by the superposition of a ferromagnetic cylinder over an HTS cylinder,

Atsushi Omura; Masafumi Oka; Kazuya Mori; Mineo Itoh

2003-01-01

445

SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

2007-08-01

446

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-11-01

447

Protective relay system for the first demonstration of the HTS cable and the SFCL in live grid in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposed a novel power protection system for the application of 22.9 kV HTS cable and SFCL systems to the Icheon substation in South Korea, and studied the protective coordination of the proposed system using a transient simulation program, PSCAD/EMTDC. Korea Electric Power Cooperation (KEPCO) designed and reconstructed the protection system of the Icheon substation based on the results of this study. The 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable and 22.9 kV, 630 A hybrid SFCL systems have been successfully operated in the live power grid of the Icheon substation since August, 2011.

Lee, Seung Ryul; Yoon, Jaeyoung; Yang, Byeong-mo; Lee, Byongjun

2013-11-01

448

The transmaxillary K-wire.  

PubMed Central

The transmaxillary K-wire is a simple, fast, safe, and effective technique for the fixation of unstable tractured malar bones. Combined with other techniques such as interdental fixation it simplifies and provides the fixation of the Le Fort II fracture or osteotomy and certain osteotomies used for facial advancement. The technique of insertion is described and illustrated. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Silverton, J. S.; Bostwick, J.; Jurkiewicz, M. J.

1978-01-01

449

Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon photonic wire evanescent field (PWEF) waveguide sensors have a very high intrinsic response to molecular adsorption.\\u000a This response arises from the high refractive index contrast and small size of these waveguides, which in combination cause\\u000a much of the electric field to be localized to a thin layer adjacent to the waveguide surface. We describe the basic theory\\u000a of PWEF

S. Janz; A. Densmore; D.-X. Xu; P. Waldron; J. Lapointe; J. H. Schmid; T. Mischki; G. Lopinski; A. Delâge; R. McKinnon; P. Cheben; B. Lamontagne

2009-01-01

450

Taut Wire Straightedge Reversal Artifact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and test of an artifact for the measurement of machine straightness error motion is presented. The artifact is\\u000a specifically designed for measuring straightness on machines equipped with video probe sensors. The artifact utilizes a taut\\u000a wire and can be easily measured using reversal, or error separation, techniques. The reversal mathematics is presented along\\u000a with an analysis of the

James G. Salsbury; Robert J. Hocken

451

Wire diameter and length effects on wire sweep performance of multi-tier copper and gold wire bonding in plastic ball grid array packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the semiconductor packaging industry continues to lower its manufacturing costs, concerted efforts in the supply chain focusing on using copper (Cu) as wire bond interconnects has intensified to an unprecedented level. In our previous study we showed that Cu wire has significantly higher wire sweep compared to gold (Au) wire after molding. In this study, wire sweep performance was

Serene Teh Seoh Hian; Foong Chee Seng; Teng Seng Kiong; Navas Khan Oratti Kalandar

2011-01-01

452

Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim

2013-04-01

453

HTS Flywheel from R&D to Pilot Energy Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5 kWh / 250 kW engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed and assembled in a joint project ATZ with L-3 Magnet- Motor Corp. The 0.6 t rotor is magnetically stabilized between a 1 ton magnetic HTS bearing on top and a new PM bearing. Based on the measured bearing load (max. 10000 N), Stiffness (3-4 kN/mm axial, 1.8 kN/mm radial) and rotor eigenfrequency (~ 6.5 Hz) optimum operating conditions are obtained. For industrial use the flywheel periphery is described and evaluated. A comparison and evaluation showed, both the composite rotor as well the HTS magnetic bearing are utilized more efficient in systems with larger energy storage capacity. This can provide UPS function as well as power quality (load levelling) economically and correspond to industrial requirements and demands. In a third phase starting in 2009 the parameters for larger energy storage capacity 25 - 50 kWh are calculated, investigated and the basic elements studied.

Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Rothfeld, R.

2010-06-01

454

Ramp rate testing of an HTS high gradient magnetic separation magnet  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on the ramp rate testing of a prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) magnet. HGMS magnets are ramped from full field to zero field to clean the separation matrix. The time spent ramping the magnet is unavailable for processing and must therefore be kept to a minimum. Existing commercial low temperature superconducting HGMS magnets are immersed in a liquid helium bath and are designed to ramp from zero to full current in one minute. The HTS magnet in the system is conductively cooled and operates in a vacuum at a temperature of approximately 30 K. Heat generated during ramping is not as readily removed from the conductively cooled magnet as a bath cooled magnet. To verify that the conductive cooling can adequately remove heat generated during ramping they recorded magnet temperatures and voltages while ramping at rates of up to 4.8 A/second. The magnet can accommodate ramps from zero to 100 A (1.6 Tesla) in 21 seconds with no degradation in performance. The average magnet temperature rises a maximum of 1 K during ramping. Using temperatures recorded during ramps they have made rough estimates of the ac losses generated in the magnet.

Daugherty, M.A.; Roth, E.W.; Daney, D.E.; Hill, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.

1997-11-01

455

Calculated E-I characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil and to use it as the base for a more sophisticated coil design criteria. We developed an algorithm and a Matlab program for calculating distributions of the current density, magnetic field and electric field in HTS solenoids made of pancakes, considering the inhomogeneous current density distribution inside the anisotropic tape. I-V curves of several Bi-2223 coils are calculated and good agreeement of the calculated and measured critical currents, IC, and indexes, n, are attained. One can utilize the program in the coil design choosing his own criteria of coil's critical current, e.g., 1) The average electric field 10-4 V/m over the coil, 2) The electric field 10-4 V/m at the weak point of the coil, 3) The energy dissipation in the entire coil, 4) Distribution of local energy dissipation.

Adanny, Y.; Wolfus, Y.; Friedman, A.; Kopansky, F.; Yeshurun, Y.; Bar-Haim, Z.; Ron, Z.; Pundak, N.

2006-06-01

456

Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic field, we utilized a SQUID magnetometer containing ramp-edge junctions with La0.1Er0.95Ba1.95Cu3Oy and SmBa2Cu3Oy electrode layers, which was fabricated by using an HTS multi-layer fabrication technique. To operate the magnetometer stably in a rapidly changing magnetic field, we chose the proper materials for the RF shield of liquid nitrogen (LN2) glass Dewar and cables. The white noise level and the slew rate of the system were measured to be 30 fT Hz-1/2 and 10.5 mT s-1, respectively. The resultant signal-to-noise ratio was higher than that of the previous system and improved the exploration depth, which was successfully demonstrated in field tests. The weight of the Dewar, which retains the LN2 for 17 h, is 2.5 kg. The total weight of our system including the LN2 Dewar, a probe with a flux-locked loop (FLL) circuit, a battery, a receiver, and a 30 m-long cable between the FLL and the receiver is as low as 25.6 kg.

Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Sugisaki, M.; Arai, E.; Tanabe, K.

2013-11-01

457

Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

2010-06-01

458

Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

1980-11-04

459

Studies on the production of O2(a1?g, ? = 0) and O2(b1?g+, ? = 0) from collisional removal of O2(A3?u+, ?? = 6–10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of two metastable O2 species, O2(a1?g, ? = 0) and O2(b1?g+, ? = 0), from collisional removal of O2(A3?u+) by O2 and N2 is investigated at a temperature of 240 K. A state-selective two-laser technique is used, in which the output of the first laser excites ground-state O2 molecules to a specific vibrational level (6 ? ?? ? 10)

Dušan A. Pejakovi?; Richard A. Copeland; Philip C. Cosby; Tom G. Slanger

2007-01-01

460

A minimum column density of 1 g cm(-2) for massive star formation.  

PubMed

Massive stars are very rare, but their extreme luminosities make them both the only type of young star we can observe in distant galaxies and the dominant energy sources in the Universe today. They form rarely because efficient radiative cooling keeps most star--forming gas clouds close to isothermal as they collapse, and this favours fragmentation into stars of one solar mass or lower. Heating of a cloud by accreting low-mass stars within it can prevent fragmentation and allow formation of massive stars, but the necessary properties for a cloud to form massive stars-and therefore where massive stars form in a galaxy--have not yet been determined. Here we show that only clouds with column densities of at least 1 g cm(-2) can avoid fragmentation and form massive stars. This threshold, and the environmental variation of the stellar initial mass function that it implies, naturally explain the characteristic column densities associated with massive star clusters and the difference between the radial profiles of Halpha and ultraviolet emission in galactic disks. The existence of a threshold also implies that the initial mass function should show detectable variation with environment within the Galaxy, that the characteristic column densities of clusters containing massive stars should vary between galaxies, and that star formation rates in some galactic environments may have been systematically underestimated. PMID:18305539

Krumholz, Mark R; McKee, Christopher F

2008-02-28

461

Fish Otolith Growth in 1g and 3g Depends on the Gravity Vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) as well as calcium (Ca) content of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were determined after a long-term stay at hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge). Both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g-control specimens and the absolute amount of otolith-Ca was diminished. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was markedly decreased. In the course of another experiment, larvae were raised in aquarium hatch baskets, from which one was placed directly above aeration equipment, which resulted in random water circulation shifting the fish around (``shifted'' specimens). The lapillar asymmetry of the ``stationary'' specimens showed a highly significant increase during early development when larvae were forced to lay on their sides due to their prominent yolk-sacs. In later developmental stages, when they began to swim freely, a dramatic decrease in lapillar asymmetry was apparent. Taken together with own previous findings according to which otolith growth stops after vestibular nerve transection, the results presented here suggest that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector, obviously involving a feedback loop between the brain and the inner ear

Anken, R. H.; Werner, K.; Breuer, J.; Rahmann, H.

462

Direct interaction of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS and myomegalin in the retina.  

PubMed

The human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined hereditary deaf-blindness. USH is genetically heterogeneous with at least 11 chromosomal loci assigned to 3 clinical types, USH1-3. We have previously demonstrated that all USH1 and 2 proteins in the eye and the inner ear are organized into protein networks by scaffold proteins. This has contributed essentially to our current understanding of the function of USH proteins and explains why defects in proteins of different families cause very similar phenotypes. We have previously shown that the USH1G protein SANS (scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and SAM domain) contributes to the periciliary protein network in retinal photoreceptor cells. This study aimed to further elucidate the role of SANS by identifying novel interaction partners. In yeast two-hybrid screens of retinal cDNA libraries we identified 30 novel putative interacting proteins binding to the central domain of SANS (CENT). We confirmed the direct binding of the phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP), a Golgi associated protein synonymously named myomegalin, to the CENT domain of SANS by independent assays. Correlative immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses showed a co-localization of SANS and myomegalin in mammalian photoreceptor cells in close association with microtubules. Based on the present results we propose a role of the SANS-myomegalin complex in microtubule-dependent inner segment cargo transport towards the ciliary base of photoreceptor cells. PMID:21767579

Overlack, Nora; Kilic, Dilek; Bauss, Katharina; Märker, Tina; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin; Wolfrum, Uwe

2011-07-13

463

A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization  

SciTech Connect

A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method of choice. We then give an overview of the measurement system showing how the vibrating wire is positioned onto the quadrupole axis, how the wire position detectors locate the wire relative to tooling balls without touching the wire, and how the tooling ball positions are all measured. The novel feature of this system is the vibrating wire which we discuss in depth. We analyze the wire dynamics and calculate the expected sensitivity of the system. The note should be an aid in debugging the system by providing calculations to compare measurements to.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

464

Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma.

Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.

2012-10-01

465

Speaker-Independent HMM-based Speech Synthesis System — HTS2007 System for the Blizzard Challenge 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an HMM-based speech synthesis system developed by the HTS working group for the Blizzard Chal- lenge 2007. To further explore the potential of HMM-based speech synthesis, we incorporate new features in our conven- tional system which underpin a speaker-independent approach: speaker adaptation techniques; adaptive training for HSMMs; and full covariance modeling using the CSMAPLR transforms.

Junichi Yamagishi; Heiga Zen; Tomoki Toda; Keiichi Tokuda

2007-01-01

466

Influence of experimental methods on crossing in magnetic force-gap hysteresis curve of HTS maglev system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crossing in magnetic levitation force-gap hysteresis curve of melt high-temperature superconductor (HTS) vs. NdFeB permanent magnet (PM) was experimentally studied. One HTS bulk and PM was used in the experiments. Four experimental methods were employed combining of high/low speed of movement of PM with/without heat insulation materials (HIM) enclosed respectively. Experimental results show that crossing of the levitation force-gap curve is related to experimental methods. A crossing occurs in the magnetic force-gap curve while the PM moves approaching to and departing from the sample with high or low speed of movement without HIM enclosed. When the PM is enclosed with HIM during the measurement procedures, there is no crossing in the force-gap curve no matter high speed or low speed of movement of the PM. It was found experimentally that, with the increase of the moving speed of the PM, the maximum magnitude of levitation force of the HTS increases also. The results are interpreted based on Maxwell theories and flux flow-creep models of HTS.

Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie; Dang, Qiaohong; Wang, Jiasu

2010-12-01

467

Development of 66 kV/6.9 kV 2 MV A prototype HTS power transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the technology of the producing a HTS magnet for the power transformer. Three subjects have been mainly studied, high voltage technologies, large current and low AC loss technologies and sub-cooling system technologies to establish the technology of 66 kV/6.9 kV 10 MV A class HTS power transformer. In order to verify the validity of elemental technologies, such as high voltage technologies, large current and low AC loss technologies and sub-cooling system technologies, single-phase 2 MV A class 66 kV/6.9 kV prototype HTS transformer was manufactured and tested. In the load loss (AC loss) measurement, it was obtained that the measured value of 633 W was almost corresponding to the calculated value of 576 W at the rated operation of 2 MV A. Moreover, the breakdown was not found all voltage withstand test. These test results indicate that elemental technologies were established for the development of 66 kV/6.9 kV 10 MV A class HTS power transformer.

Bohno, T.; Tomioka, A.; Imaizumi, M.; Sanuki, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yasukawa, Y.; Ono, H.; Yagi, Y.; Iwadate, K.

2005-10-01

468

Cooling performance of hybrid refrigerant of solid nitrogen and small amount of neon for the purpose of HTS power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated cooling performance of a hybrid refrigerant of solid nitrogen and small amount of neon by using a short sample of Bi-2223\\/Ag tape as a cooling target. Solid nitrogen is expected as a heat capacitor for HTS applications operated below triple point temperature of nitrogen, and we have proposed in our previous study a method for overcoming the

K. Higashikawa; T. Nakamura

2009-01-01

469

Properties of a prototype Bi-based HTS composite with a high resistivity sheath for resistive fault current limiting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype Bi-2223 based composite conductors have been fabricated to provide inherent passive fault current limiting functionality in devices. An HTS insert strand possessing a high resistivity sheath (HRS) was laminated to two metallic strips to provide additional capacity to absorb the heat generated during a fault. Sheath resistivities up to 45 times that of pure Ag were achieved. We summarize

Robert C. Diehl; Steven Fleshler; Ralph Mason; Craig Christopherson; Ken DeMoranville; R. Harnois; A. Otto; E. Serres; J. O. Willis; H. J. Boenig; J. B. Schillig

2001-01-01

470

Analysis of the effect of a saturable-core HTS fault current limiter on the circuit breaker transient recovery voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis of transient recovery voltage (TRV) under the presence of a saturable-core high temperature superconducting fault current limiter (HTS FCL). Calculations are performed for the case when an equivalent air core reactor that provides comparable fault current limitation as the FCL is inserted in the line. Simulations are performed using different approaches that comprise the direct

J. Lopez-Roldan; A. C. Price; F. De La Rosa; F. Moriconi

2011-01-01

471

Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.  

PubMed

We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed. PMID:16138359

Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

2005-12-15

472

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

473

Effluent Based Characterization of Aerospace Wiring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a wire insulation characterization method under development, which identifies the relative molecular weight and binding energy of effluents given off during wire heating and is aimed at nondestructively assessing wire insulation degradation. An overview of how this technique can be used to monitor wire insulation emissions is presented. A series of measurements made on wire specimens (MIL-W-22759/11-20) with polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®) insulation is presented. A change of up to 55% in the emission concentration of a particular effluent was observed by repeated heating the wire specimens. Temperature measurements of the conductor and insulation were correlated to effluent emission concentrations. A basis for the changes in effluent concentration is also presented and leads to a determination of binding energies and associated time constants.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.

2004-02-01

474

On Wire Failures in Microelectronic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, over 95% of the manufactured packages are still being wire-bonded. Due to the ongoing trend of miniaturization, material changes, and cost reduction, wire-bond-related failures are becoming increasingly important. Different finite-element (FE) techniques are explored for their ability to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the wire embedded in the electronic package. The developed nonlinear and parametric FE models are

Willem D. van Driel; Richard B. R. van Silfhout; G. Q. Zhang

2009-01-01

475

Hot-Wire Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by a hot-wire generator at atmospheric pressure using a gold-platinum composite wire. At low gas flow velocities the nanoparticles were found to be agglomerates of partially sintered primary particles. By reducing the tube size via the insertion of a nozzle with a throat diameter of 3 mm, the hot-wire generator was found to produce small (<10

Adam M. Boies; Pingyan Lei; Steven Calder; Weon Gyu Shin; Steven L. Girshick

2011-01-01

476

Dynamic simulation of wire rope with contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a dynamic simulation of a wire rope involving both contacts with a winch drum and hydraulic systems using the finite\\u000a element method. Rapid winch operation often causes disorderly winding of the wire rope, which is an important quality problem.\\u000a Dynamic simulation is, therefore, required for design of the hydraulic winch system on construction machinery. The wire rope\\u000a is

Etsujiro Imanishi; Takao Nanjo; Takahiro Kobayashi

2009-01-01

477

Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over

Richard B. Harty; Robert G. Brengle