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Sample records for 1p 1d 2s

  1. Chromosome 1p36 in migraine with aura: association study of the 5HT(1D) locus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Miles D; Noble-Topham, Sandra; Percy, Maire E; Andrade, Danielle M; Ebers, George C

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) may share some but not all risk factors with other forms of migraine. As common migraine without aura (MO) has been associated with the chromosome 1p36 locus, we tested its involvement in MA by using two-point parametric linkage analysis to analyze 64 multiplex MA families. A logarithm of the odds score of 1.9 was suggestive of chromosome 1p36 linkage to MA. The transmission disequilibrium test analysis was then performed in 79 nuclear families with one MA parent and one MA offspring. We identified the presence of genetic association at chromosome 1p36 with MA (P=0.045, Bonferroni corrected): the locus encoding the 5HT(1D) receptor gene. Although these data suggest that the 1p36 locus may protect against MA, consistent with the role of the 5HT(1D) receptor in migraine treatment with triptan drugs, the study is subject to the limitations associated with studying a small number of affected families. As a result, we contrast evidence suggesting that the chromosome 1p36 locus is strongly MO associated with our finding that 1p36 has a more limited contribution to MA in the families we analyzed. Further work using a genome-wide association study approach in familial typical migraine, consisting of those affected by MO or MA, will serve to further distinguish how and why MA differs from MO. PMID:22107845

  2. Static and dynamic properties of the quasi-1D Heisenberg antiferromagnets AgVP 2S 6 ( S=1) and AgCrP 2S 6 ( S = 3/2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payen, C.; Mutka, H.; Soubeyroux, J. L.; Molinié, P.; Colombet, P.

    1992-02-01

    Differences in behaviour between the two quasi-1D Heisenberg antiferromagnets AgVP 2S 6 ( S=1) and AgCrP 2S 6 ( S = 3/2) have been evidenced by susceptibility measurements, neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering. The results obtained for the S=1 compound are consistent with Haldane's conjecture as well as existing numerical results. The S = 3/2 compound behaves conventionally above the 3D ordering temperature ( TN=20 K).

  3. Antisite Defects in Layered Multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-06

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. We carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as the potential applications inmore » 2-D electronics.« less

  4. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) attenuates reactive oxygen species formation and inhibits cell death: implications for otoprotective therapy

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Deron R.; Reolo, Marie J. Y.; Peh, Yee Xin; Wang, Wei; Lee, Chang-Wook; Rivera, Rich; Paterson, Ian C.; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2−/− knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. PMID:27080739

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) attenuates reactive oxygen species formation and inhibits cell death: implications for otoprotective therapy.

    PubMed

    Herr, Deron R; Reolo, Marie J Y; Peh, Yee Xin; Wang, Wei; Lee, Chang-Wook; Rivera, Rich; Paterson, Ian C; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2(-/-) knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. PMID:27080739

  6. A Quantum State-Resolved Insertion Reaction: O((1)D) + H(2)(J = 0) --> OH((2) product operator product operator product operator, v, N) + H((2)S).

    PubMed

    Liu; Lin; Harich; Schatz; Yang

    2000-09-01

    The O((1)D) + H(2) --> OH + H reaction, which proceeds mainly as an insertion reaction at a collisional energy of 1.3 kilocalories per mole, has been investigated with the high-resolution H atom Rydberg "tagging" time-of-flight technique and the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method. Quantum state-resolved differential cross sections were measured for this prototype reaction. Different rotationally-vibrationally excited OH products have markedly different angular distributions, whereas the total reaction products are roughly forward and backward symmetric. Theoretical results obtained from QCT calculations indicate that this reaction is dominated by the insertion mechanism, with a small contribution from the collinear abstraction mechanism through quantum tunneling. PMID:10968786

  7. Spectroscopy and isotope shifts of the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2}-4s5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} repumping transition in magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate a repumping scheme for magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms. It is based on excitation of the 4s3d{sup 1}D{sub 2}-4s5p{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 672 nm with an extended cavity diode laser. The effect of the repumping is approximately a factor of three increase in trap lifetime and a doubling of the trapping efficiency from a Zeeman slowed thermal beam. Added to this, the 672-nm laser repumps atoms from an otherwise dark state to yield an overall increase in detected fluorescence signal from the magneto-optic trap (MOT) of more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we report isotope shift measurements of the 672-nm transition, for the first time, for four naturally occurring even isotopes. Using available charge radii data, the observed shifts, extending up to 4.3 GHz, display the expected linear dependence in a King plot analysis. The measured shifts are used to determine the isotope shifts of the remaining {sup 41,43,46}Ca isotopes. These might be of interest where less abundant isotopes are used enabling isotope selective repumping, resulting in enhanced trapping and detection efficiencies.

  8. O1, P1, N2 models of the global ocean tide on an elastic earth plus surface potential and spherical harmonic decompositions for M2, S2, and K1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The models of M2, S2, and K1 presented in Parke and Hendershott (1980) are supplemented with models of O1, P1, and N2. The models satisfy specified elevation boundary conditions and are generated by fighting a small number of test functions to island data. Maps are presented of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each new component. Maps of the tidal potential seen by an observer fixed to the surface of the solid earth are also presented for all six constituents. Spherical harmonic coefficients up to order four and the rms magnitude of the coefficients to order fifteen are presented for each constituent. The rms magnitudes of the P1 and K1 coefficients normalized by their respective equilibrium amplitudes are compared to determine the effect of the diurnal core resonance.

  9. Instability of the 2S electron bubbles.

    PubMed

    Grinfeld, Pavel; Kojima, Haruo

    2003-09-01

    The 2S electron bubble placed in liquid helium has been previously believed to be spherical. We show that the 2S bubble is morphologically unstable at pressures above -1.23 bars. The 2S state being known to be radially unstable at pressures below -1.33 bars, the result leaves only a very narrow pressure range in which it can be found in a spherical configuration. Our stability analysis indicates that the 2S bubble is unstable against perturbations proportional to any of the third spherical harmonics Y(3m). Our numerical simulations show that there exist nonspherical stable configurations, such as the ones Maris and Konstantinov predicted for the 1P, 1D, and 2P electron bubbles and confirmed experimentally for the 1P. We believe that the 2S bubbles can also be produced and that our prediction will yield itself to experimental verification. PMID:14525485

  10. A new potential energy surface for the H2S system and dynamics study on the S(1D) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiuchuang; He, Di; Chen, Maodu

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a new global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state (1A‧) of H2S based on 21,300 accurate ab initio energy points over a large configuration space. The ab initio energies are obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson correction using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. The neural network method is applied to fit the PES, and the root mean square error of fitting is small (1.68 meV). Time-dependent wave packet studies for the S(1D) + H2(X1Σg+) → H(2S) + SH(X2Π) reaction on the new PES are conducted to study the reaction dynamics. The calculated integral cross sections decrease with increasing collision energy and remain fairly constant within the high collision energy range. Both forward and backward scatterings can be observed as expected for a barrierless reaction with a deep well on the PES. The calculated integral cross sections and differential cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. A new potential energy surface for the H2S system and dynamics study on the S((1)D) + H2(X(1)Σg(+)) reaction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiuchuang; He, Di; Chen, Maodu

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state ((1)A') of H2S based on 21,300 accurate ab initio energy points over a large configuration space. The ab initio energies are obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson correction using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. The neural network method is applied to fit the PES, and the root mean square error of fitting is small (1.68 meV). Time-dependent wave packet studies for the S((1)D) + H2(X(1)Σg(+)) → H((2)S) + SH(X(2)Π) reaction on the new PES are conducted to study the reaction dynamics. The calculated integral cross sections decrease with increasing collision energy and remain fairly constant within the high collision energy range. Both forward and backward scatterings can be observed as expected for a barrierless reaction with a deep well on the PES. The calculated integral cross sections and differential cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26435516

  12. A new potential energy surface for the H2S system and dynamics study on the S(1D) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jiuchuang; He, Di; Chen, Maodu

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state (1A′) of H2S based on 21,300 accurate ab initio energy points over a large configuration space. The ab initio energies are obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson correction using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. The neural network method is applied to fit the PES, and the root mean square error of fitting is small (1.68 meV). Time-dependent wave packet studies for the S(1D) + H2(X1Σg+) → H(2S) + SH(X2Π) reaction on the new PES are conducted to study the reaction dynamics. The calculated integral cross sections decrease with increasing collision energy and remain fairly constant within the high collision energy range. Both forward and backward scatterings can be observed as expected for a barrierless reaction with a deep well on the PES. The calculated integral cross sections and differential cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26435516

  13. Singlet-triplet energy splitting between 1D and 3D (1s2 2s nd), n = 3, 4, 5, and 6, Rydberg states of the beryllium atom (9Be) calculated with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-11-01

    Accurate variational nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical calculations are performed for the five lowest 1D and four lowest 3D states of the 9Be isotope of the beryllium atom. All-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions are used in the calculations and their nonlinear parameters are optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the Hamiltonian used in the calculations. The singlet-triplet energy gaps between the corresponding 1D and 3D states, are reported.

  14. Absolute cross sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the dipole-allowed transitions 3s2 1S-->3s3p 1P in Cl5+ and 3s 2S-->3p 2P in Cl6+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurić, N.; Bannister, M. E.; Derkatch, A. M.; Griffin, D. C.; Krause, H. F.; Popović, D. B.; Smith, A. C.; Wallbank, B.; Dunn, G. H.

    2002-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the dipole-allowed transitions 3s2 1S-->3s3p 1P in Cl5+ and 3s 2S-->3p 2P in Cl6+ near the excitation thresholds are reported. Absolute cross sections are measured using the merged electron-ion beams energy-loss technique. The intermediate-coupling frame-transformation R-matrix method is used to obtain theoretical cross sections. The total cross sections, for the transitions studied in both ions, exhibit resonance structures near threshold. There is excellent agreement between theory and experiment with respect to both the shape and the magnitude of the cross section for the 3s 2S-->3p 2P transition in Cl6+. For Cl5+, structures and trends in both the present R-matrix calculation and the previous calculation of Baluja and Mohan [J. Phys. B 20, 831 (1987)] agree well with the experimental results. However, the magnitudes of the theoretical cross sections for Cl5+ are significantly smaller than the measured cross section, which has been corrected for metastable contamination.

  15. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Valerie K; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. PMID:26345236

  16. Carboxyarabinitol-1-P phosphatase of Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kobza, J.; Moore, B.d.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The activity of carboxyarabinitol-1-P (CA1P) phosphatase was detected in clarified stromal extracts by the generation of {sup 14}C-carboxyarabinitol from {sup 14}C-CA1P. Carboxyribitol-1-P dependent activity was 3% of the CA1P dependent activity, indicating the enzyme was specific for CA1P. Inclusion of DTT in the assay was required for maximum velocity, but it appears that the enzyme is not regulated by thioredoxin in vivo. Activity o f the CA1P phosphatase was stimulated by RuBP, NADPH and FBP, though the latter two metabolites were required at nonphysiological concentrations in order to achieve significant stimulation. Contrary to a previous report on purified tobacco enzyme, ATP stimulated the CA1P phosphatase activity. In the presence of 1 mM RuBP or ATP, rates of 2 or 3 {mu}mol mg{sup {minus}1} Chl h{sup {minus}1}, respectively, were observed at 1 mM CA1P. These rates were 3-4 fold higher than the rate observed in the absence of effectors and are 2-4 times the in vivo rate of degradation of CA1P during dark/light transitions. The rates from bean were about 7 fold higher than rates reported for the enzyme from tobacco. Changes in the levels of ATP and RuBP associated with dark/light transitions could modulate the enzyme activity in vivo, but it remains to be established if this is the only mechanism for the required regulation of the enzyme.

  17. Role of Plc1p in regulation of Mcm1p-dependent genes

    PubMed Central

    Guzinska, Katarzyna; Varghese, Roger; Vancura, Ales

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (Plc1p encoded by PLC1 gene) and several inositol polyphosphate kinases represent a nuclear pathway for synthesis of inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) that are involved in several aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism, including transcriptional regulation. Plc1p-produced InsP3 is phosphorylated by Ipk2p/Arg82p to yield InsP4/InsP5. Ipk2p/Arg82p is also a component of ArgR-Mcm1p complex that regulates transcription of genes involved in arginine metabolism. The role of Ipk2p/Arg82p in this complex is to stabilize the essential MADS box protein Mcm1p. Consequently, ipk2Δ cells display reduced level of Mcm1p and attenuated expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. Since plc1Δ cells display aberrant expression of several groups of genes, including genes involved in stress response, the objective of this study was to determine whether Plc1p also affects expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. We report here that not only ipk2Δ, but also plc1Δ cells display decreased expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. However, Plc1p is not involved in stabilization of Mcm1p and affects transcription of Mcm1p-dependent genes by a different mechanism, probably involving regulation of chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:19459978

  18. J-2S rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilja, J. O.; Briley, G. L.; Murphy, T. H.

    1993-06-01

    The principal design characteristics and features of the J-2S rocket engine, developed as a simpler and more robust version of the J-2 engine, are described. The J-2S is a 265,000-lb vacuum thrust engine that delivers 436 sec vacuum thrust with a nozzle expansion ratio of 40 and operates at a chamber pressure of 1,200 psi. The most unique feature of the J-2S is that it incorporates a main chamber tap-off cycle which eliminates the need for a gas generator. Another simplification for the J-2S is the adoption of a centrifugal fuel turbopump to replace the J-2's axial turbopump. A schematic of the J-2S, engine test results, and performance options are presented.

  19. Measurement of absolute cross sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.

  20. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W.S.; Rauch, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient's survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient's survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells. In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation. PMID:26887055

  1. Vought F4U-1D Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Vought F4U-1D Corsair: In February and March of 1945 this Corsair was examined in the NACA's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel at Langley Field. The F4U-1D has rockets mounted on its wings for this test. After installation and during testing, the wings would be lowered to their flight position.

  2. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: Exposing the hidden lyase☆

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Julie D.; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves asamuscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C2–3, resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22750505

  3. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    SciTech Connect

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  4. Measurements of branching fractions for electromagnetic transitions involving the χbJ(1P) states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Tarbert, C. M.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Hietala, J.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Brisbane, S.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Spradlin, P.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Pearson, L. J.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Randrianarivony, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Sun, W. M.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Libby, J.

    2011-03-01

    Using (9.32, 5.88) million Υ(2S,3S) decays taken with the CLEO III detector, we obtain five product branching fractions for the exclusive processes Υ(2S)→γχb0,1,2(1P)→γγΥ(1S) and Υ(3S)→γχb1,2(1P)→γγΥ(1S). We observe the transition χb0(1P)→γΥ(1S) for the first time. Using the known branching fractions for B[Υ(2S)→γχbJ(1P)], we extract values for B[χbJ(1P)→γΥ(1S)] for J=0, 1, 2. In turn, these values can be used to unfold the Υ(3S) product branching fractions to obtain values for B[Υ(3S)→γχb1,2(1P)] for the first time individually. Comparison of these with each other and with the branching fraction B[Υ(3S)→γχb0] previously measured by CLEO provides tests of relativistic corrections to electric dipole matrix elements.

  5. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  6. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  7. Cometary gas relations 1P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos R.

    Photographic and photoelectric observations of comet 1P/Halley's ionised gas coma from CO+ at 4,250 Å and neutral gas coma from CN at 3,880 Å were part of the Bochum Halley Monitoring Program, conducted at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, from February 17 to April 17, 1986. In this spectral range it is possible to see the continuum formation, motion and expansion of plasma and neutral gas structures. To observe the morphology of these structures, 32 CO+ photos (glass plates) from comet 1P/Halley obtained by means of an interference filter have been analysed. They have a field of view of 28.6 × 28.6 degrees and were obtained from March 29 to April 17, 1986 with exposure times between 20 and 120 minutes. All photos were digitised with a PDS 2020 GM microdensitometer. After digitisation, the data were reduced to relative intensities, and those with proper calibrations were also converted to absolute intensities, expressed in terms of column densities. The CO+ absolute intensity values still contain the continuum intensity. To calculate the CO+ column density it is necessary to subtract this continuum intensity. The relations between CO+ and CN in average column density values (NCO+/NCN) are 11.6 for a circular diaphragm with average diameter (Φ) of 6.1 arcminutes which corresponds to a distance from the nucleus (ρ) equal to 6.3 × 104 km; 20.0 for Φ = 7.1 arcminutes and ρ = 7.3 × 104 km; 8.1 for Φ = 8.5 arcminutes and ρ = 8.7 × 104 km; 35.6 for Φ = 11.9 arcminutes and ρ = 1.2 × 105 km; and 31.3 for Φ = 16.7 arcminutes and ρ = 1.7 × 105 km. These values are in perfect agreement with the data for short distances (ρ from 3.9 × 103 to 1.2 × 104 km) and small slit diameters (Φ from 0.4 to 1.2 arcminutes). With the use of diaphragms with large diameters it is possible to get some information about the outer coma of the comet (in this paper, from 60,000 until 170,000 km away from the nucleus). At these distances, the CO+ column density

  8. Electron-impact excitation of the n 1P levels of helium - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, David C.; Csanak, George; Trajmar, Sandor; Register, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    New experimental electron-energy-loss data have been used to extract differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the 2 1P level, and for the overlapping (3 1P, 3 1D, 3 3D) levels of helium, at 30-, 50-, and 100-eV incident electron energies. First-order many-body theory (FOMBT) has been used to calculate the differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the n 1P (n = 2,...,6) levels of helium by electron impact, for incident electron energies from threshold to 500 eV. Detailed comparisons between these two new sets of data are made as well as comparisons with appropriate published experimental and theoretical results. A simple scaling relationship is derived from the FOMBT results for n = 2,...,6 that provides differential and integral cross sections for all symmetry final levels of helium with n = 6 or greater.

  9. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  11. Coalescence phenomena in 1D silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Alvarez, M.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Gutiérrez-Wing, M. T.; Henk, M. C.; Negulescu, I. I.; Rusch, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    Different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures synthesized by a PVP assisted reaction in ethylene glycol at 160 °C were studied experimentally and theoretically. Analysis by TEM and HRTEM shows different defects found on the body of these materials, suggesting that they were induced by previous coalescence processes in the synthesis stage. TEM observations showed that irradiation with the electron beam eliminates the boundaries formed near the edges of the structures, suggesting that this process can be carried out by the application of other means of energy (i.e. thermal). These results were also confirmed by theoretical calculations by Monte Carlo simulations using a Sutton-Chen potential. A theoretical study by molecular dynamics simulation of the different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures is presented, showing a surface energy driven sequence followed to form the final coalesced structure. Calculations were made at 1000-1300 K, which is near the melting temperature of silver (1234 K). Based on these results, it is proposed that 1D nanostructures can grow through a secondary mechanism based on coalescence, without losing their dimensionality.

  12. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26631556

  13. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M.

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. The IPP gene is assigned to human chromosome 1p32-1p22

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Yeh, A.; Huang, R.C.C. ); Jabs, E.W.; Li, Xiang ); Dracopoli, N.C. )

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation and characterization of a novel mouse gene that is promoted by an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) LTR and is expressed in placental tissue (mouse IAP-promoted placenta gene, Ipp). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies using inbred strains and recombinant inbred (RI) mice, we have established the linkage between the Ipp gene and several loci on distal mouse chromosome 4. In this publication, we report the partial sequence of a human cDNA clone isolated from a human placental library that has 83% identity to the 3[prime]region of the Ipp cDNA. For human chromosome mapping, two 20-base oligonucleotides within the homologous region were used as primers for polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to chromosome-specific DNAs from two somatic cell hybrid panels and several hybrid cell lines carrying breakpoints on human chromosome 1p. We have assigned this human homolog of the Ipp (IPP) gene to chromosome 1 at 1p32-1p22, based on analysis of PCR products. With this assignment, the homology between mouse chromosome 4 and human chromosome 1 is maintained (5). 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  16. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  17. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  18. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  19. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells by S1P1 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Tölle, M; Klöckl, L; Wiedon, A; Zidek, W; van der Giet, M; Schuchardt, M

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Lysophospholipid interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphat (S1P) receptors results in eNOS activation in different cells. In endothelial cells, eNOS activation via S1P1 or S1P3 was shown controversially. The aim of this study is to investigate the meaning of both S1P receptors for eNOS activation in human endothelial cells. Therefore, several S1P1 and S1P3 agonists in combination with antagonists and specific RNAi approach were used. eNOS activation was measured in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via DAF2-DA-based fluorescence microscopy. For investigation of the signaling pathway, agonists/antagonist studies, RNAi approach, Luminex™ multiplex, and Western Blot were used. In HUVEC, both the S1P1 agonist AUY954 as well as the S1P1,3 agonist FTY720P induced eNOS activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other S1P1 agonists activated eNOS to a lesser extent. The AUY954-induced eNOS activation was blocked by the S1P1 antagonist W146, the combination of W146 and the S1P3 antagonist CAY10444 and the S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by CAY10444 indicating the meaning of S1P1 for the AUY954-induced eNOS activation. The FTY720P-induced eNOS activation was blocked only by the combination of W146 and CAY10444 and the combined S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by W146 or CAY10444 indicating the importance of both S1P1 and S1P3 for FTY720-induced eNOS activation. These results were confirmed using specific siRNA against S1P1 and S1P3. The S1P1,3 activation results in Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation of eNOS via phosphorylation at serine(1177) and dephosphorylation at threonine(495). Beside former investigations with rather unspecific S1P receptor activation these data show potent selective S1P1 activation by using AUY954 and with selective S1P receptor inhibition evidence was provided that both S1P1 and S1P3 lead to downstream activation of eNOS in

  20. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  1. Determinants of Swe1p Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, John N.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Bardes, Elaine S. G.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Swe1p, the sole Wee1-family kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is synthesized during late G1 and is then degraded as cells proceed through the cell cycle. However, Swe1p degradation is halted by the morphogenesis checkpoint, which responds to insults that perturb bud formation. The Swe1p stabilization promotes cell cycle arrest through Swe1p-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc28p until the cells can recover from the perturbation and resume bud formation. Swe1p degradation involves the relocalization of Swe1p from the nucleus to the mother-bud neck, and neck targeting requires the Swe1p-interacting protein Hsl7p. In addition, Swe1p degradation is stimulated by its substrate, cyclin/Cdc28p, and Swe1p is thought to be a target of the ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30 acting with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34p. The basis for regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unclear, and in order to elucidate that regulation we have dissected the Swe1p degradation pathway in more detail, yielding several novel findings. First, we show here that Met30p (and by implication SCFMet30) is not, in fact, required for Swe1p degradation. Second, cyclin/Cdc28p does not influence Swe1p neck targeting, but can directly phosphorylate Swe1p, suggesting that it acts downstream of neck targeting in the Swe1p degradation pathway. Third, a screen for functional but nondegradable mutants of SWE1 identified two small regions of Swe1p that are key to its degradation. One of these regions mediates interaction of Swe1p with Hsl7p, showing that the Swe1p-Hsl7p interaction is critical for Swe1p neck targeting and degradation. The other region did not appear to affect interactions with known Swe1p regulators, suggesting that other as-yet-unknown regulators exist. PMID:12388757

  2. Study of di-pion Bottomonium Transitions and Search for the h_b(1P) State

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-12-09

    We study inclusive di-pion decays using a sample of 108 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(3S) events recorded with the BABAR detector. We search for the decay mode {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}h{sub b} (1P) and find no evidence for the bottomonium spin-singlet state h{sub b}(1P) in the invariant mass distribution recoiling against the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system. Assuming the h{sub b}(1P) mass to be 9.900 GeV/c{sup 2}, we measure the upper limit on the branching fraction {Beta}[{Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}h{sub b}(1P)] < 1.2 x 10{sup -4}, at 90% confidence level. We also investigate the {chi}{sub bJ}(2P) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {chi}{sub bJ}(1P), {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{Upsilon}(2S), and {Upsilon}(2S) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{Upsilon}(1S) di-pion transitions and present an improved measurement of the branching fraction of the {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{Upsilon}(2S) decay and of the {Upsilon}(3S) - {Upsilon}(2S) mass difference.

  3. Roles for lysophospholipid S1P receptors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kyoko; Chun, Jerold

    2011-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been highlighted by the efficacy of FTY720 (fingolimod), which upon phosphorylation can modulate S1P receptor activities. FTY720 has become the first oral treatment for relapsing MS that was approved by the FDA in September 2010. Phosphorylated FTY720 modulates four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4), and S1P(5)) at high affinity. Studies in human MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have revealed that FTY720 exposure alters lymphocyte trafficking via sequestration of auto-aggressive lymphocytes within lymphoid organs, representing the current understanding of its mechanism of action. These effects primarily involve S1P(1), which is thought to attenuate inflammatory insults in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, FTY720's actions may involve direct effects on S1P receptor-mediated signaling in CNS cells, based upon the known expression of S1P receptors in CNS cell types relevant to MS, access to the CNS through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and in vitro studies. These data implicate lysophospholipid signaling--via S1P(1) and perhaps other lysophospholipid receptors--in therapeutic approaches to MS and potentially other diseases with immunological and/or neurological components. PMID:20979571

  4. The yeast acyltransferase Sct1p regulates fatty acid desaturation by competing with the desaturase Ole1p

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Cedric H.; Vittone, Elisa; Scherer, Max; Houweling, Martin; Liebisch, Gerhard; Brouwers, Jos F.; de Kroon, Anton I.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fatty acid unsaturation, that is, the ratio of unsaturated versus saturated fatty acyl chains, determines membrane fluidity. Regulation of expression of the fatty acid desaturase Ole1p was hitherto the only known mechanism governing the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report a novel mechanism for the regulation of fatty acid desaturation that is based on competition between Ole1p and the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase Sct1p/Gat2p for the common substrate C16:0-CoA. Deletion of SCT1 decreases the content of saturated fatty acids, whereas overexpression of SCT1 dramatically decreases the desaturation of fatty acids and affects phospholipid composition. Whereas overexpression of Ole1p increases desaturation, co-overexpression of Ole1p and Sct1p results in a fatty acid composition intermediate between those obtained upon overexpression of the enzymes separately. On the basis of these results, we propose that Sct1p sequesters C16:0-CoA into lipids, thereby shielding it from desaturation by Ole1p. Ta­king advantage of the growth defect conferred by overexpressing SCT1, we identified the acyltransferase Cst26p/Psi1p as a regulator of Sct1p activity by affecting the phosphorylation state and overexpression level of Sct1p. The level of Sct1p phosphorylation is increased when cells are supplemented with saturated fatty acids, demonstrating the physiological relevance of our findings. PMID:22323296

  5. 1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume

    We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  6. Understanding 1D Electrostatic Dust Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, C. M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatically-dominated dust motion has been hypothesized since the Lunar Horizon Glow was observed by the Surveyor spacecraft. The hypothesized occurence of this phenomenon was naturally extended to asteroids due to their small gravities. Additionally, it has been suggested that the dust ponds observed on Eros by the NEAR mission may be created by electrostatically-dominated dust transport. Previous attempts to numerically model dust motion on the Moon and Eros have been stymied by poorly understood dust launching mechanisms. As a result, the initial velocity and charge of dust particles used in numerical simulations may or may not have any relevance to the actual conditions occurring in situ. It has been seen that properly tuned initial states (velocity and charge) result in dust particles levitating above the surface in both 1D and 2D simulations. Levitation is of interest to planetary scientists since it provides a way to quickly redistribute the surface dust particles over a body. However, there is currently no method to predict whether or not a certain initial state will result in levitation. We have developed a method to provide constraints on the initial states that result in levitation as a function of dust particle size and central body gravity. Additionally, our method can be applied to several models of the plasma sheath. Thus, we limit the guesswork involved in determining which initial conditions result in levitation. We provide a more detailed understanding of levitation phenomena couched in terms of the commonly recognized spring-mass system. This method of understanding dust motion removes the dependency on the launching mechanism, which remains fraught with controversy. Once a feasible dust launching mechanism is identified (be it micrometeoroid bombardment or electrostatic lofting), our method will allow the community to quickly ascertain if dust levitation will occur in situ or if it is simply a numerical artifact. In addition to

  7. Controlling H{sub 2}S emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    With its signature rotten egg smell, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is not only odorous, but corrosive and toxic, too. It is produced naturally, by the anaerobic decomposition of sulfur-bearing materials, and synthetically, by a host of chemical process operations, including hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization and coking. Many processes have been developed to convert H{sub 2}S to innocuous forms, such as elemental sulfur and sulfates. Selecting the best one depends on the overall composition and variability of the gas stream, the concentration of H{sub 2}S present, and the absolute quantity of H{sub 2}S to be removed. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of seven H{sub 2}S removal systems. Described are: the Claus process, chemical oxidants, caustic scrubbers, adsorption, H{sub 2}S scavengers, amine absorption units, and liquid-phase oxidation systems.

  8. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  9. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  10. Structural Characterization of Tip20p and Dsl1p, Subunits of the Dsl1p Vesicle Tethering Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.; Ren, Y; Jeffrey, P; Hughson, F

    2009-01-01

    Multisubunit tethering complexes are essential for intracellular trafficking and have been proposed to mediate the initial interaction between vesicles and the membranes with which they fuse. Here we report initial structural characterization of the Dsl1p complex, whose three subunits are essential for trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Crystal structures reveal that two of the three subunits, Tip20p and Dsl1p, resemble known subunits of the exocyst complex, establishing a structural connection among several multisubunit tethering complexes and implying that many of their subunits are derived from a common progenitor. We show, moreover, that Tip20p and Dsl1p interact directly via N-terminal alpha-helices. Finally, we establish that different Dsl1p complex subunits bind independently to different ER SNARE proteins. Our results map out two alternative protein-interaction networks capable of tethering COPI-coated vesicles, via the Dsl1p complex, to ER membranes.

  11. Prediction of (1)P Rydberg energy levels of beryllium based on calculations with explicitly correlated Gaussians.

    PubMed

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-01-14

    Benchmark variational calculations are performed for the seven lowest 1s(2)2s np ((1)P), n = 2...8, states of the beryllium atom. The calculations explicitly include the effect of finite mass of (9)Be nucleus and account perturbatively for the mass-velocity, Darwin, and spin-spin relativistic corrections. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. Basis sets of up to 12,500 optimized Gaussians are used. The maximum discrepancy between the calculated nonrelativistic and experimental energies of 1s(2)2s np ((1)P) →1s(2)2s(2) ((1)S) transition is about 12 cm(-1). The inclusion of the relativistic corrections reduces the discrepancy to bellow 0.8 cm(-1). PMID:24437871

  12. Lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} atomic state of radium.

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Kentucky

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45) {mu}s using cold {sup 226}Ra atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is populated from the decay of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence {sup 1}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}S{sub 0}. The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of 20 715.598(6) cm{sup -1} is obtained.

  13. Human serotonin 1D receptor is encoded by a subfamily of two distinct genes: 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta.

    PubMed Central

    Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R

    1992-01-01

    The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658

  14. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O'Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  15. Familial partial duplication (1)(p21p31)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoechstetter, L.; Soukup, S.; Schorry, E.K.

    1995-11-20

    A partial duplication (1)(p21p31), resulting from a maternal direct insertion (13,1) (q22p21p31), was found in a 30-year-old woman with mental retardation, cleft palate, and multiple minor anomalies. Two other affected and deceased relatives were presumed to have the same chromosome imbalance. Duplication 1p cases are reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Control of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Sia, R A; Bardes, E S; Lew, D J

    1998-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a cell cycle checkpoint coordinates mitosis with bud formation. Perturbations that transiently depolarize the actin cytoskeleton cause delays in bud formation, and a 'morphogenesis checkpoint' detects the actin perturbation and imposes a G2 delay through inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p. The tyrosine kinase Swe1p, homologous to wee1 in fission yeast, is required for the checkpoint-mediated G2 delay. In this report, we show that Swe1p stability is regulated both during the normal cell cycle and in response to the checkpoint. Swe1p is stable during G1 and accumulates to a peak at the end of S phase or in early G2, when it becomes unstable and is degraded rapidly. Destabilization of Swe1p in G2 and M phase depends on the activity of Cdc28p in complexes with B-type cyclins. Several different perturbations of actin organization all prevent Swe1p degradation, leading to the persistence or further accumulation of Swe1p, and cell cycle delay in G2. PMID:9822611

  17. Crystal Structure of the Yeast Nicotinamidase Pnc1p

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Taylor, Alexander B.; McAlister-Henn, Lee; Hart, P. John

    2007-01-01

    The yeast nicotinamidase Pnc1p acts in transcriptional silencing by reducing levels of nicotinamide, an inhibitor of the histone deacetylase Sir2p. The Pnc1p structure was determined at 2.9 Å resolution using MAD and MIRAS phasing methods after inadvertent crystallization during the pursuit of the structure of histidine-tagged yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Pnc1p displays a cluster of surface histidine residues likely responsible for its co-fractionation with IDH from Ni2+-coupled chromatography resins. Researchers expressing histidine-tagged proteins in yeast should be aware of the propensity of Pnc1p to crystallize, even when overwhelmed in concentration by the protein of interest. The protein assembles into extended helical arrays interwoven to form an unusually robust, yet porous superstructure. Comparison of the Pnc1p structure with those of three homologous bacterial proteins reveals a common core fold punctuated by amino acid insertions unique to each protein. These insertions mediate the self-interactions that define the distinct higher order oligomeric states attained by these molecules. Pnc1p also acts on pyrazinamide, a substrate analog converted by the nicotinamidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis into a product toxic to that organism. However, we find no evidence for detrimental effects of the drug on yeast cell growth. PMID:17382284

  18. Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.

    2000-11-01

    An updated thermodynamic database for Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3 sulfides and sulfosalts applicable to temperatures above 119°C is developed to calculate phase relations for polybasite-pearceite- and fahlore-bearing assemblages. It is based on pre-existing and new constraints on activity-composition, Ag-Cu and As-Sb partitioning, and other relations, and on experiments (200-300°C, evacuated silica tubes) conducted to define the stability of the polybasite-pearceite [(Ag 1- x,Cu x) 16(Sb 1- y,As y) 2S 11] + ZnS sphalerite assemblage with respect to assemblages containing (Ag,Cu) 2S sulfides coexisting with (Cu, Ag) 10Zn 2(Sb,As) 4S 13 fahlore sulfosalts. It was found that the thermodynamics of mixing of bcc- and hcp-(Ag,Cu) 2S solutions, which are fast-ion conductors, may be described by using site multiplicities of metals α Ag,Cu > 2 and temperature-dependent regular solution parameters. We obtained estimates for the Gibbs energies of formation for Ag 16Sb 2S 11 and Cu 16Sb 2S 11 polybasite endmembers from the simple sulfides (Ag 2S, Cu 2S, and Sb 2S 3) of -30.79 and -4.07 kJ/gfw at 200°C, and -32.04 and -0.59 kJ/gfw at 400°C, respectively, that are about one half kJ/gfw more positive and about 6 kJ/gfw more negative than those estimated by Harlov and Sack (1995b). The corresponding estimates for formation energies of Ag 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 and Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 fahlores (-20.29 and -105.29 kJ/gfw at 200°C and -23.72 and -105.76 kJ/gfw at 400°C) are comparable to, and roughly 110 kJ/gfw more positive than, the corresponding estimates of Ebel and Sack (1994). We also determined that the Gibbs energies of the As-Sb exchange reactions: 1/4Ag 10Zn2Sb4S13+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+1/4Ag 10Zn2As4S13Sb-fahlorepearceitepolybasiteAs-fahlore and Ag3SbS3+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+Ag3AsS3pyrargyritepearceitepolybasiteproustite are, respectively, 8.75 and 0.40 kJ/gfw in the range 150-350°C, and these predictions are consistent with As-Sb partitioning relations

  19. ILC2s and fungal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26117252

  20. ILC2s and fungal allergy.

    PubMed

    Kita, Hirohito

    2015-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4(+) T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26117252

  1. Measurement of the χ b (3 P) mass and of the relative rate of χ b1(1 P) and χ b2(1 P) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Lespinasse, M.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-10-01

    The production of χ b mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of =7 and 8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1. The χ b mesons are identified through their decays to ϒ(1 S) γ and ϒ(2 S) γ using photons that converted to e + e - pairs in the detector. The relative prompt production rate of χ b1(1 P) and χ b2(1 P) mesons is measured as a function of the ϒ(1 S) transverse momentum in the χ b rapidity range 2.0 < y <4.5. A precise measurement of the χ b (3 P) mass is also performed. Assuming a mass splitting between the χ b1(3 P) and the χ b2(3 P) states of 10.5 MeV/c2, the measured mass of the χ b1(3 P) meson is

  2. Channel specific rate constants for reactions of O(1D) with HCl and HBr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Wells, J. R.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The absolute rate coefficients and product yields for reactions of O(1D) with HCl(1) and HBr(2) at 287 K are presently determined by means of the time-resolved resonance fluorescence detection of O(3P) and H(2S) in conjunction with pulsed laser photolysis of O3/HX/He mixtures. Total rate coefficients for O(1D) removal are found to be, in units of 10 to the -10th cu cm/molecule per sec, k(1) = 1.50 + or - 0.18 and k(2) 1.48 + or - 0.16; the absolute accuracy of these rate coefficients is estimated to be + or - 20 percent.

  3. Regulation of DCIS to invasive breast cancer progression by Singleminded-2s (SIM2s).

    PubMed

    Scribner, K C; Behbod, F; Porter, W W

    2013-05-23

    Singleminded-2s (SIM2s) is a member of the bHLH/PAS family of transcription factors and a key regulator of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. SIM2s is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells and downregulated in human breast cancer. Loss of Sim2s causes aberrant mouse mammary ductal development, with features suggestive of malignant transformation, whereas overexpression of SIM2s promotes precocious alveolar differentiation in nulliparous mouse mammary glands, suggesting that SIM2s is required for establishing and enhancing mammary gland differentiation. To test the hypothesis that SIM2s regulates tumor cell differentiation, we analyzed SIM2s expression in human primary breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) samples and found that SIM2s is lost with progression from DCIS to invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Using a MCF10DCIS.COM progression model, we have shown that SIM2s expression is decreased in MCF10DCIS.COM cells compared with MCF10A cells, and reestablishment of SIM2s in MCF10DCIS.COM cells significantly inhibits growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of SIM2s-MCF10DCIS.com tumors showed that SIM2s promoted a more differentiated tumor phenotype including the expression of a broad range of luminal markers (CSN2 (β-casein), CDH1 (E-cadherin), and KER18 (keratin-18)) and suppressed genes associated with stem cell maintenance and a basal phenotype (SMO (smoothened), p63, SLUG (snail-2), KER14 (keratin-14) and VIM (vimentin)). Furthermore, loss of SIM2s expression in MCF10DCIS.COM xenografts resulted in a more invasive phenotype and increased lung metastasis likely due to an increase in Hedgehog signaling and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Together, these exciting new data support a role for SIM2s in promoting human breast tumor differentiation and maintaining epithelial integrity. PMID:22777354

  4. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  5. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  6. Spectroscopic and Biochemical Characterization of Heme Binding to Yeast Dap1p and Mouse PGRMC1p+

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Thompson, Alisha M.; Oh, Eric; Shi, Xiaoli; Goldbeck, Robert A.; Zhiwu, Zhu; Vulpe, Chris; Holman, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    Yeast damage associated response protein (Dap1p) and mouse progesterone receptor membrane component-1 protein (mPGRMC1p) belong to a highly conserved class of putative membrane-associated progesterone binding proteins (MAPR), with Dap1p and inner zone antigen (IZA), the rat homologue of mPGRMC1p, recently being reported to bind heme. While primary structure analysis reveals similarities to the cytochrome b5 motif, neither of the two axial histidines responsible for ligation to the heme are present in any of the MAPR proteins. In the current paper, EPR, MCD, CD, UV-vis and general biochemical methods have been used to characterize the nature of heme binding in both Dap1p and a His-tagged, membrane anchor-truncated mPGRMC1p. As isolated, Dap1p is a tetramer which can be converted to a dimer upon addition of 150 mM salt. The heme is non-covalently attached, with a maximal, in vitro, heme loading of approximately 30%, for both proteins. CD and fluorescence spectroscopies indicate a well ordered structure, suggesting the low heme loading is probably not due to improperly folded protein. EPR confirmed a five coordinate, high-spin, ferric resting state for both proteins, indicating one axial amino acid ligand, in contrast to the six coordinate, low-spin, ferric state of cytochrome b5. The MCD spectrum confirmed this conclusion for Dap1p and indicated the axial ligand is most likely a tyrosine and not a histidine, nor a cysteine, however an aspartic acid residue could not be conclusively ruled out. Potential axial ligands, which are conserved in all MAPR’s, were mutated (Y78F, D118A and Y138F) and purified to homogeneity. The mutants Y78F and D118A were found to bind heme, however, Y138F did not. This result is consistent with the MCD data and indicates that Tyr138 is most likely the axial ligand to the heme in Dap1p. PMID:16342963

  7. Measurement of psi2S radiative decays.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Diao, L Y; Deng, Z Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, J H; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, Fang; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, Jian Liu Q; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Lou, Y C; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Olsen, S L; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, C P; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

    2007-07-01

    Using 14 x 10(6) psi(2S) events accumulated at the BESII detector, we report first measurements of branching fractions or upper limits for psi(2S) decays into gammapp, gamma2(pi+pi-), gammaKS0K+pi-+c.c., gammaK+K-pi+pi-, gammaK*0K-pi++c.c., gammaK*0K*0, gammapi+pi-pp, gamma2(K+K-), gamma3(pi+pi-), and gamma2(pi+pi-)K+K- with the invariant mass of hadrons below 2.9 GeV/c2. We also report branching fractions of psi(2S) decays into 2(pi+pi-)pi0, omegapi+pi-, omegaf2(1270), b1+/-pi-/+, and pi02(pi+pi-)K+K-. PMID:17678148

  8. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  9. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  10. Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1p36, and clinical characterization of the syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1200-12. Epub 2003 Apr 8. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Lahortiga I, Vázquez I, Belloni E, Román JP, Gasparini P, Novo FJ, Zudaire I, Pelicci PG, Hernández JM, Calasanz ...

  11. TVENT1P. Gas-Dynamic Transients Flow Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.

    1987-09-01

    TVENT1P predicts flows and pressures in a ventilation system or other air pathway caused by pressure transients, such as a tornado. For an analytical model to simulate an actual system, it must have (1) the same arrangement of components in a network of flow paths; (2) the same friction characteristics; (3) the same boundary pressures; (4) the same capacitance; and (5) the same forces that drive the air. A specific set of components used for constructing the analytical model includes filters, dampers, ducts, blowers, rooms, or volume connected at nodal points to form networks. The effects of a number of similar components can be lumped into a single one. TVENT1P contains a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, changing the resistance of dampers and filters, and providing a filter model to handle very high flows. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Component properties are varied using time functions. The filter model is not used by the code unless it is specified by the user. The basic results of a TVENT1P solution are flows in branches and pressures at nodes. A postprocessor program, PLTTEX, is included to produce the plots specified in the TVENT1P input. PLTTEX uses the proprietary CA-DISSPLA graphics software.

  12. 2D-photochemical model for forbidden oxygen line emission for comet 1P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cessateur, G.; De Keyser, J.; Maggiolo, R.; Rubin, M.; Gronoff, G.; Gibbons, A.; Jehin, E.; Dhooghe, F.; Gunell, H.; Vaeck, N.; Loreau, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O(1S) and O(1D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm, 630 nm, and 636.4 nm, in case of the comet 1P/Halley. The presence of O2 within cometary atmospheres, measured by the in-situ ROSETTA and GIOTTO missions, necessitates a revision of the usual photochemical models. Indeed, the photodissociation of molecular oxygen also leads to a significant production of oxygen in excited electronic states. In order to correctly model the solar UV flux absorption, we consider here a 2D configuration. While the green to red-doublet ratio is not affected by the solar UV flux absorption, estimates of the red-doublet and green lines emissions are, however, overestimated by a factor of two in the 1D model compared to the 2D model. Considering a spherical symmetry, emission maps can be deduced from the 2D model in order to be directly compared to ground and/or in-situ observations.

  13. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  14. Comparative enzymology of (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine and (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamate

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Kung, Hank F.; Li, Jianyong; Ploessl, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer cells have a strong requirement for glutamine. As an aid for understanding this phenomenon the 18F-labeled 2S,4R stereoisomer of 4-fluoroglutamine [(2S,4R)4-FGln] was previously developed for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). In the present work, comparative enzymological studies of unlabeled (2S,4R)4-FGln and its deamidated product (2S,4R)4-FGlu were conducted as an adjunct to these PET studies. Our findings are as follows: Rat kidney preparations catalyze the deamidation of (2S,4R)4-FGln. (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are substrates of various aminotransferases. (2S,4R)4-FGlu is a substrate of glutamate dehydrogenase, but not of sheep brain glutamine synthetase. The compound is, however, a strong inhibitor of this enzyme. Rat liver cytosolic fractions catalyze a γ-elimination reaction with (2S,4R)4-FGlu, generating α-ketoglutarate. Coupling of a deamidase reaction with this γ- elimination reaction provides an explanation for the previous detection of 18F− in tumors exposed to [18F](2S,4R)4-FGln. One enzyme contributing to this reaction was identified as alanine aminotransferase, which catalyzes competing γ-elimination and aminotransferase reactions with (2S,4R)4-FGlu. This appears to be the first description of an aminotransferase catalyzing a γ-elimination reaction. The present results demonstrate that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are useful analogues for comparative studies of various glutamine- and glutamate-utilizing enzymes in normal and cancerous mammalian tissues, and suggest that tumors may metabolize (2S,4R)4-FGln in a generally similar fashion to glutamine. In plants, yeast and bacteria a major route for ammonia assimilation involves the consecutive action of glutamate synthase plus glutamine synthetase (glutamate synthase cycle). It is suggested that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu will be useful probes in studies of ammonia assimilation by the glutamate synthase pathway in these organisms. Finally, glutamine

  15. A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Treebak, Jonas T; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Andersen, Marianne A; Nielsen, Thomas S; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Gjesing, Anette P; Zierath, Juleen R; Linneberg, Allan; Wu, Xueli; Sun, Guangqing; Jin, Xin; Al-Aama, Jumana; Wang, Jun; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Pedersen, Oluf; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben

    2014-08-14

    The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (β = 3.8 mmol l(-1), P = 2.5 × 10(-35)) and serum insulin (β = 165 pmol l(-1), P = 1.5 × 10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.18 mmol l(-1), P = 1.1 × 10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (β = -8.3 pmol l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6 × 10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (β = 0.43 mmol l(-1), P = 5.3 × 10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of

  16. Structural and electronic features of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Koji; Mitsui, Akio; Mori, Masahiro; Onodera, Yohei; Shiotani, Shinya; Koyama, Yukinori; Orikasa, Yuki; Murakami, Miwa; Shimoda, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-02-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses used as solid electrolytes are modeled by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data. The ratio of PSx polyhedral anions based on the Raman spectroscopic results is reflected in the glassy structures of the 67Li2S-33P2S5, 70Li2S-30P2S5, and 75Li2S-25P2S5 glasses, and the plausible structures represent the lithium ion distributions around them. It is found that the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra increases at a high Li2S content, and the free volume around PSx polyhedra decreases. It is conjectured that Li+ ions around the face of PSx polyhedra are clearly affected by the polarization of anions. The electronic structure of the DFT/RMC model suggests that the electron transfer between the P ion and the bridging sulfur (BS) ion weakens the positive charge of the P ion in the P2S7 anions. The P2S7 anions of the weak electrostatic repulsion would causes it to more strongly attract Li+ ions than the PS4 and P2S6 anions, and suppress the lithium ionic conduction. Thus, the control of the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra without the electron transfer between the P ion and the BS ion is expected to facilitate lithium ionic conduction in the above solid electrolytes.

  17. Structural and electronic features of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Koji; Mitsui, Akio; Mori, Masahiro; Onodera, Yohei; Shiotani, Shinya; Koyama, Yukinori; Orikasa, Yuki; Murakami, Miwa; Shimoda, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-01-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses used as solid electrolytes are modeled by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data. The ratio of PSx polyhedral anions based on the Raman spectroscopic results is reflected in the glassy structures of the 67Li2S-33P2S5, 70Li2S-30P2S5, and 75Li2S-25P2S5 glasses, and the plausible structures represent the lithium ion distributions around them. It is found that the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra increases at a high Li2S content, and the free volume around PSx polyhedra decreases. It is conjectured that Li+ ions around the face of PSx polyhedra are clearly affected by the polarization of anions. The electronic structure of the DFT/RMC model suggests that the electron transfer between the P ion and the bridging sulfur (BS) ion weakens the positive charge of the P ion in the P2S7 anions. The P2S7 anions of the weak electrostatic repulsion would causes it to more strongly attract Li+ ions than the PS4 and P2S6 anions, and suppress the lithium ionic conduction. Thus, the control of the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra without the electron transfer between the P ion and the BS ion is expected to facilitate lithium ionic conduction in the above solid electrolytes. PMID:26892385

  18. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  19. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  20. 60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  1. A third major locus for autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia maps to 1p34.1-p32.

    PubMed Central

    Varret, M; Rabès, J P; Saint-Jore, B; Cenarro, A; Marinoni, J C; Civeira, F; Devillers, M; Krempf, M; Coulon, M; Thiart, R; Kotze, M J; Schmidt, H; Buzzi, J C; Kostner, G M; Bertolini, S; Pocovi, M; Rosa, A; Farnier, M; Martinez, M; Junien, C; Boileau, C

    1999-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), one of the most frequent hereditary disorders, is characterized by an isolated elevation of LDL particles that leads to premature mortality from cardiovascular complications. It is generally assumed that mutations in the LDLR and APOB genes account for ADH. We identified one large French pedigree (HC2) and 12 additional white families with ADH in which we excluded linkage to the LDLR and APOB, implicating a new locus we named "FH3." A LOD score of 3.13 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained at markers D1S2892 and D1S2722. We localized the FH3 locus to a 9-cM interval at 1p34.1-p32. We tested four regional markers in another set of 12 ADH families. Positive LOD scores were obtained in three pedigrees, whereas linkage was excluded in the others. Heterogeneity tests indicated linkage to FH3 in approximately 27% of these non-LDLR/non-APOB ADH families and implied a fourth locus. Radiation hybrid mapping located four candidate genes at 1p34.1-p32, outside the critical region, showing no identity with FH3. Our results show that ADH is genetically more heterogeneous than conventionally accepted. PMID:10205269

  2. A third major locus for autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia maps to 1p34.1-p32.

    PubMed

    Varret, M; Rabès, J P; Saint-Jore, B; Cenarro, A; Marinoni, J C; Civeira, F; Devillers, M; Krempf, M; Coulon, M; Thiart, R; Kotze, M J; Schmidt, H; Buzzi, J C; Kostner, G M; Bertolini, S; Pocovi, M; Rosa, A; Farnier, M; Martinez, M; Junien, C; Boileau, C

    1999-05-01

    Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), one of the most frequent hereditary disorders, is characterized by an isolated elevation of LDL particles that leads to premature mortality from cardiovascular complications. It is generally assumed that mutations in the LDLR and APOB genes account for ADH. We identified one large French pedigree (HC2) and 12 additional white families with ADH in which we excluded linkage to the LDLR and APOB, implicating a new locus we named "FH3." A LOD score of 3.13 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained at markers D1S2892 and D1S2722. We localized the FH3 locus to a 9-cM interval at 1p34.1-p32. We tested four regional markers in another set of 12 ADH families. Positive LOD scores were obtained in three pedigrees, whereas linkage was excluded in the others. Heterogeneity tests indicated linkage to FH3 in approximately 27% of these non-LDLR/non-APOB ADH families and implied a fourth locus. Radiation hybrid mapping located four candidate genes at 1p34.1-p32, outside the critical region, showing no identity with FH3. Our results show that ADH is genetically more heterogeneous than conventionally accepted. PMID:10205269

  3. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  4. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  5. Mso1p regulates membrane fusion through interactions with the putative N-peptide-binding area in Sec1p domain 1.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marion; Chernov, Konstantin; Turakainen, Hilkka; Wohlfahrt, Gerd; Pajunen, Maria; Savilahti, Harri; Jäntti, Jussi

    2010-04-15

    Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) family proteins regulate SNARE complex function in membrane fusion through their interactions with syntaxins. In addition to syntaxins, only a few SM protein interacting proteins are known and typically, their binding modes with SM proteins are poorly characterized. We previously identified Mso1p as a Sec1p-binding protein and showed that it is involved in membrane fusion regulation. Here we demonstrate that Mso1p and Sec1p interact at sites of exocytosis and that the Mso1p-Sec1p interaction site depends on a functional Rab GTPase Sec4p and its GEF Sec2p. Random and targeted mutagenesis of Sec1p, followed by analysis of protein interactions, indicates that Mso1p interacts with Sec1p domain 1 and that this interaction is important for membrane fusion. In many SM family proteins, domain 1 binds to a N-terminal peptide of a syntaxin family protein. The Sec1p-interacting syntaxins Sso1p and Sso2p lack the N-terminal peptide. We show that the putative N-peptide binding area in Sec1p domain 1 is important for Mso1p binding, and that Mso1p can interact with Sso1p and Sso2p. Our results suggest that Mso1p mimics N-peptide binding to facilitate membrane fusion. PMID:20181830

  6. 1D Measurement of Sodium Ion Flow in Hydrogel After a Bath Concentration Jump.

    PubMed

    Roos, R W; Pel, L; Huinink, H P; Huyghe, J M

    2015-07-01

    NMR is used to measure sodium flow driven by a 1D concentration gradient inside poly-acrylamid (pAA) hydrogel. A sodium concentration jump from 0.5 M NaCl to 0 M NaCl is applied at the bottom of a cylindrical pAA sample. The sodium level and hydrogen level are measured as a function of time and position inside the sample for 5 days. Then a reversed step is applied, and ion flow is measured for another 5 days. During the measurement, the cylindrical sample is radially confined and allowed to swell in the axial direction. At the same time, sodium and moisture in the sample are measured on a 1D spatial grid in the axial direction. A quadriphasic mixture model (Huyghe and Janssen in Int J Eng Sci 35:793, 1997) is used to simulate the results and estimate the diffusion coefficient of sodium and chloride. The best fit results were obtained for D[Formula: see text] cm(2)/s and D[Formula: see text] cm(2)/s, at 25 degrees centigrade. Different time constants were observed for swelling and deswelling. PMID:25786888

  7. S1P metabolism in cancer and other pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Weng In

    2010-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate was discovered to function as a lipid mediator and regulator of cell proliferation. Since that time, sphingosine 1-phosphate has been shown to mediate a diverse array of fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, vascular maturation and lymphocyte trafficking. Sphingosine 1-phosphate acts primarily via signaling through five ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors. Intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate molecules are transported extracellularly and gain access to its cognate receptors for autocrine and paracrine fashion and for signaling at distant sites reached through blood and lymphatic circulation systems. Intracellular pools of sphingosine 1-phosphate available for signaling are tightly regulated by three enzymes that include sphinosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatase. Alterations in S1P levels as well as the enzymes involved in its synthesis and catabolism have been observed in many types of malignancy. These enzymes are being evaluated for their role in mediating cancer formation and progression, as well as their potential to serve as targets of anti-cancer therapeutics. In this review, the impact of sphingosine 1-phosphate, its cognate receptors, and the enzymes of sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolism on cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, cellular transformation, invasion, angiogenesis and hypoxia in relation to cancer biology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20167244

  8. MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shunta; Kodaka, Manami; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Hata, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase with an inverted arrangement of protein-protein interaction domains (MAGI)2 (also called synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM), atrophin-1-interacting protein 1, activin receptor-interacting protein 1) is a scaffold protein that binds a wide variety of receptors, cell adhesion molecules and signalling molecules. It also interacts with other scaffold proteins and adaptors, and forms a protein network that supports cell junctions. As it is highly expressed in brain, the study on its roles in synaptic organization initially preceded. However, mounting evidence indicates that MAGI2/S-SCAM functions as a tumour suppressor and plays essential roles to maintain the integrity of cell structures in non-neuronal tissues. We review the articles regarding to MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain and discuss future perspectives for the research of MAGI family proteins. PMID:25637633

  9. Skp1p and the F-Box Protein Rcy1p Form a Non-SCF Complex Involved in Recycling of the SNARE Snc1p in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Galan, Jean-Marc; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Seol, Jae Hong; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Deshaies, Raymond J.; Riezman, Howard; Peter, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    Skp1p–cullin–F-box protein (SCF) complexes are ubiquitin-ligases composed of a core complex including Skp1p, Cdc53p, Hrt1p, the E2 enzyme Cdc34p, and one of multiple F-box proteins which are thought to provide substrate specificity to the complex. Here we show that the F-box protein Rcy1p is required for recycling of the v-SNARE Snc1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rcy1p localized to areas of polarized growth, and this polarized localization required its CAAX box and an intact actin cytoskeleton. Rcy1p interacted with Skp1p in vivo in an F-box-dependent manner, and both deletion of its F box and loss of Skp1p function impaired recycling. In contrast, cells deficient in Cdc53p, Hrt1p, or Cdc34p did not exhibit recycling defects. Unlike the case for F-box proteins that are known to participate in SCF complexes, degradation of Rcy1p required neither its F box nor functional 26S proteasomes or other SCF core subunits. Importantly, Skp1p was the only major partner that copurified with Rcy1p. Our results thus suggest that a complex composed of Rcy1p and Skp1p but not other SCF components may play a direct role in recycling of internalized proteins. PMID:11287615

  10. Invasive filamentous growth of Candida albicans is promoted by Czf1p-dependent relief of Efg1p-mediated repression.

    PubMed Central

    Giusani, Angela D; Vinces, Marcelo; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2002-01-01

    Filamentation of Candida albicans occurs in response to many environmental cues. During growth within matrix, Efg1p represses filamentation and Czf1p relieves this repression. We propose that Czf1p interacts with Efg1p, altering its function. The complex regulation of filamentation may reflect the versatility of C. albicans as a pathogen. PMID:11973327

  11. Mso1p Regulates Membrane Fusion through Interactions with the Putative N-Peptide–binding Area in Sec1p Domain 1

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marion; Chernov, Konstantin; Turakainen, Hilkka; Wohlfahrt, Gerd; Pajunen, Maria; Savilahti, Harri

    2010-01-01

    Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) family proteins regulate SNARE complex function in membrane fusion through their interactions with syntaxins. In addition to syntaxins, only a few SM protein interacting proteins are known and typically, their binding modes with SM proteins are poorly characterized. We previously identified Mso1p as a Sec1p-binding protein and showed that it is involved in membrane fusion regulation. Here we demonstrate that Mso1p and Sec1p interact at sites of exocytosis and that the Mso1p–Sec1p interaction site depends on a functional Rab GTPase Sec4p and its GEF Sec2p. Random and targeted mutagenesis of Sec1p, followed by analysis of protein interactions, indicates that Mso1p interacts with Sec1p domain 1 and that this interaction is important for membrane fusion. In many SM family proteins, domain 1 binds to a N-terminal peptide of a syntaxin family protein. The Sec1p-interacting syntaxins Sso1p and Sso2p lack the N-terminal peptide. We show that the putative N-peptide binding area in Sec1p domain 1 is important for Mso1p binding, and that Mso1p can interact with Sso1p and Sso2p. Our results suggest that Mso1p mimics N-peptide binding to facilitate membrane fusion. PMID:20181830

  12. Remove H/sub 2/S selectively

    SciTech Connect

    Mortko, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Innovative Selexol process schemes improve H/sub 2/S selectivity and overall CO/sub 2/ recovery for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Two such schemes, based on use of the Selexol Process show very good economics versus a conventional configuration even at modest CO/sub 2/ product values. These alternate schemes offer two different approaches to enhancing selectivity. One approach illustrates the tremendous effect on plant economics resulting from a small increase in CO/sub 2/ recovery. The other illustrates that CO/sub 2/ recovery levels approaching 99% are not only technically feasible but also economically viable even at very modest CO/sub 2/ product values. The feed gas chosen for evaluation is a typical southwestern Wyoming sour natural gas containing nearly 66% CO/sub 2/, 5% H/sub 2/S, and approximately 8% nitrogen with no hydrocarbons other than methane. Desired products are CO/sub 2/ for use in EOR, H/sub 2/S for sulfur recovery and methane as a product sales gas. Excess nitrogen in the methane sales gas stream is rejected to atmosphere. The Selexol Solvent Process is an excellent choice for treating this gas considering the need for selective acid gas removal, the high acid gas partial pressures and the absence of any ''heavy ends'' in the feed gas.

  13. RNA binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production and stress tolerance by controlling Gpd1p activity during winemaking.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Helena; Sepúlveda, Ana; Picazo, Cecilia; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol is a key yeast metabolite in winemaking because it contributes to improve the organoleptic properties of wine. It is also a cellular protective molecule that enhances the tolerance of yeasts to osmotic stress and promotes longevity. Thus, its production increases by genetic manipulation, which is of biotechnological and basic interest. Glycerol is produced by diverting glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (coded by genes GPD1 and GPD2). Here, we demonstrate that RNA-binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production by controlling Gpd1p activity. Its deletion does not alter GPD1 mRNA levels, but protein levels and enzymatic activity increase, which explains the higher intracellular glycerol concentration and greater tolerance to osmotic stress of the pub1∆ mutant. PUB1 deletion also enhances the activity of nicotinamidase, a longevity-promoting enzyme. Both enzymatic activities are partially located in peroxisomes, and we detected peroxisome formation during wine fermentation. The role of Pub1p in life span control depends on nutrient conditions and is related with the TOR pathway, and a major connection between RNA metabolism and the nutrient signaling response is established. PMID:26846624

  14. Polar discontinuities and 1D interfaces in monolayered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gordillo, Rafael; Pruneda, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Interfaces are the birthplace of a multitude of fascinating discoveries in fundamental science, and have enabled modern electronic devices, from transistors, to lasers, capacitors or solar cells. These interfaces between bulk materials are always bi-dimensional (2D) 'surfaces'. However the advent of graphene and other 2D crystals opened up a world of possibilities, as in this case the interfaces become one-dimensional (1D) lines. Although the properties of 1D nanoribbons have been extensively discussed in the last few years, 1D interfaces within infinite 2D systems had remained mostly unexplored until very recently. These include grain boundaries in polycrystalline samples, or interfaces in hybrid 2D sheets composed by segregated domains of different materials (as for example graphene/BN hybrids, or chemically different transition metal dichalcogenides). As for their 2D counterparts, some of these 1D interfaces exhibit polar characteristics, and can give rise to fascinating new physical properties. Here, recent experimental discoveries and theoretical predictions on the polar discontinuities that arise at these 1D interfaces will be reviewed, and the perspectives of this new research topic, discussed.

  15. The Morphogenesis Checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cell Cycle Control of Swe1p Degradation by Hsl1p and Hsl7p

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, John N.; Longtine, Mark S.; Sia, Rey A. L.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Bardes, Elaine S. G.; Pringle, John R.; Lew, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Wee1 family kinase Swe1p is normally stable during G1 and S phases but is unstable during G2 and M phases due to ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. However, perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton lead to a stabilization and accumulation of Swe1p. This response constitutes part of a morphogenesis checkpoint that couples cell cycle progression to proper bud formation, but the basis for the regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unknown. Previous studies have identified a protein kinase, Hsl1p, and a phylogenetically conserved protein of unknown function, Hsl7p, as putative negative regulators of Swe1p. We report here that Hsl1p and Hsl7p act in concert to target Swe1p for degradation. Both proteins are required for Swe1p degradation during the unperturbed cell cycle, and excess Hsl1p accelerates Swe1p degradation in the G2-M phase. Hsl1p accumulates periodically during the cell cycle and promotes the periodic phosphorylation of Hsl7p. Hsl7p can be detected in a complex with Swe1p in cell lysates, and the overexpression of Hsl7p or Hsl1p produces an effective override of the G2 arrest imposed by the morphogenesis checkpoint. These findings suggest that Hsl1p and Hsl7p interact directly with Swe1p to promote its recognition by the ubiquitination complex, leading ultimately to its destruction. PMID:10490630

  16. Nitric oxide reactivity of [2Fe-2S] clusters leading to H2S generation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Camly T; Williard, Paul G; Kim, Eunsuk

    2014-08-27

    The crosstalk between two biologically important signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), proceeds via elusive mechanism(s). Herein we report the formation of H2S by the action of NO on synthetic [2Fe-2S] clusters when the reaction environment is capable of providing a formal H(•) (e(-)/H(+)). Nitrosylation of (NEt4)2[Fe2S2(SPh)4] (1) in the presence of PhSH or (t)Bu3PhOH results in the formation of (NEt4)[Fe(NO)2(SPh)2] (2) and H2S with the concomitant generation of PhSSPh or (t)Bu3PhO(•). The amount of H2S generated is dependent on the electronic environment of the [2Fe-2S] cluster as well as the type of H(•) donor. Employment of clusters with electron-donating groups or H(•) donors from thiols leads to a larger amount of H2S evolution. The 1/NO reaction in the presence of PhSH exhibits biphasic decay kinetics with no deuterium kinetic isotope effect upon PhSD substitution. However, the rates of decay increase significantly with the use of 4-MeO-PhSH or 4-Me-PhSH in place of PhSH. These results provide the first chemical evidence to suggest that [Fe-S] clusters are likely to be a site for the crosstalk between NO and H2S in biology. PMID:25113815

  17. Association kinetics of wild- and mutant-type Ynd1p in relation to quality of grown crystals.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kanzaki, Noriko; Kubota, Tomomi

    2006-12-14

    The intermolecular interaction and association dynamics of the Ynd1p protein were investigated using dynamic and time-resolved static light scattering measurements. The mutual diffusion coefficients of wild- and mutant-type (a single amino acid substitution) Ynd1p monomer were measured in 50 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer with 5 mM MnCl2 and 7.5% (v/v) ethylene glycol. Both translational diffusion coefficients at a zero protein concentration were (40.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(-12) m2/s at 20 degrees C and a pH of 7.0, so the hydrodynamic radius of the monomers was 4.1 +/- 0.1 nm. The measured intermolecular interaction between monomers, however, showed that the mutant-type Ynd1p had a stronger attractive force. Time-resolved static light scattering measurements showed that the association of mutant-type Ynd1p yielded a larger number of aggregates than that of wild-type Ynd1p. The time dependence of aggregate gyration radius differed between the two types. Fractal dimension analysis using scattering intensity data suggested that the inner structure of the aggregates changed from loose to rigid with time. Although this phenomenon is common for wild and mutant types, the differences in the number of aggregates yielded in the initial stages and in the intermolecular interaction affected the quality of the final grown crystals. That is, single crystals of Ynd1p grew in the mutant-type protein solution and polycrystals of Ynd1p grew in the wild-type protein solution. PMID:17149908

  18. Usa1p Is Required for Optimal Function and Regulation of the Hrd1p Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Ubiquitin Ligase*

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Sarah M.; Hampton, Randolph Y.

    2010-01-01

    Usa1p is a recently discovered member of the HRD ubiquitin ligase complex. The HRD pathway is a conserved route of ubiquitin-dependent, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of numerous lumenal (ERAD-L) and membrane-anchored (ERAD-M) substrates. We have investigated Usa1p to understand its importance in HRD complex action. Usa1p was required for the optimal function of the Hrd1p E3 ubiquitin ligase; its loss caused deficient degradation of both membrane-associated and lumenal proteins. Furthermore, Usa1p functioned in regulation of Hrd1p by two mechanisms. First, Hrd1p self-degradation, which serves to limit the levels of uncomplexed E3, is absolutely dependent on Usa1p and the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain of Usa1p. We found that Usa1p allows Hrd1p degradation by promoting trans interactions between Hrd1p molecules. The Ubl domain of Usa1p was required specifically for Hrd1p self-ubiquitination but not for degradation of either ERAD-L or ERAD-M substrates. In addition, Usa1p was able to attenuate the activity-dependent toxicity of Hrd1p without compromising substrate degradation, indicating a separate role in ligase regulation that operates in parallel to stability control. Many of the described actions of Usa1p are distinct from those of Der1p, which is recruited to the HRD complex by Usa1p. Thus, this novel, conserved factor is broadly involved in the function and regulation of the HRD pathway of ERAD. PMID:19940128

  19. Probing 1D super-strongly correlated dipolar quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; de Palo, S.; Orignac, E.; Pedri, P.; Chiofalo, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) dipolar quantum gases are characterized by a very special condition where super-strong correlations occur to significantly affect the static and dynamical low-energy behavior. This behavior is accurately described by the Luttinger Liquid theory with parameter K < 1. Dipolar Bose gases are routinely studied in laboratory with Chromium atoms. On the other hand, 1D realizations with molecular quantum gases can be at reach of current experimental expertises, allowing to explore such extreme quantum degenerate conditions which are the bottom line for designing technological devices. Aim of the present contribution is to focus on the possible probes expected to signal the reach of Luttinger-Liquid behavior in 1D dipolar gases.

  20. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.

    2013-10-01

    The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).

  2. Nanodamage and Nanofailure of 1d Zno Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peifeng; Yang, Ya; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials include nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods etc. The extensive applied fields and excellent properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials can meet the requests of the electronic and electromechanical devices for "smaller, faster and colder", and would be applied in new energy convention, environmental protection, information science and technology, biomedical, security and defense fields. While micro porous, etching pits nanodamage and brittle fracture, dissolving, functional failure nanofailure phenomena of 1D ZnO nanomaterials and nanodevices are observed in some practical working environments like illumination, currents or electric fields, external forces, and some chemical gases or solvents. The more important thing is to discuss the mechanism and reduce or prohibit their generation.

  3. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum.

  4. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  5. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  6. Energy calculation of 2s2 1S, 2p2 1D, 3s2 1S, 3p2 1D, 3d2 1G, 4p2 1D, 4d2 1D, 4f2 1I doubly excited states using a new wave function to four terms for 2 ≤ Z ≤ 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sow, B.; Sow, M.; Gning, Y.; Traore, A.; Ndao, A. S.; Wague, A.

    2016-06-01

    Calculation of the energy levels of atoms and ions with 2 ≤ Z ≤ 15 are carried out in this paper using a Hyllerass approximation. The method used is one of Screen Constant by Nuclear Charge Unit to calculate the total energy of two-electron atomic systems in ground and different doubly excited states. Employing a new wave function including correlation, we were able to calculate excited states (nl)2 (n ≤ 4). The Comparison of these results with the ones of other methods shows a good agreement.

  7. Gas relations in comet 1P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    Photographic and photoelectric observations of comet 1P/Halley's ionised gas coma from CO+ and neutral gas coma from CN were part of the Bochum Halley Monitoring Program, conducted at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, from February 17 to April 17, 1986. In this spectral range it is possible to see the continuum formation and expansion of plasma and neutral gas structures. To observe the morphology of these structures, 32 CO+ photos from comet 1P/Halley obtained by means of an interference filter have been analysed. The data were reduced to relative intensities, and those with proper calibrations were also converted to absolute intensities, expressed in terms of column densities. The relations between CO+ and CN in average column density values are 11.6 for a circular diaphragm with an average diameter (Φ) of 6.1 arcminutes which corresponds to a distance from the nucleus (ρ) equal to 6.3 × 104 km. These values are in perfect agreement with the data for short distances and small slit diameters. With the use of diaphragms with large diameters it is possible to get some information about the outer coma of the comet. At these distances, the CO+ column density changes only due to the geometrical dilution, because the CO+ parent molecules are already photoionised or photodissociated.

  8. Molecular Oxygen in Oort Cloud Comet 1P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Schwehm, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O2, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O2/H2O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O2 is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O2 abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species.

  9. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  10. Glass structure and electrical conductivity in (As2S3 1-x (Ag2S)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, C.; Chen, P.; Novita, D.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized titled glasses in the 0 < x < 0.16 range, and have examined them in modulated DSC experiments. The starting materials, As2S3 and Ag2S lumps, were reacted in evacuated fused quartz tubings, and glasses synthesized by water-quench of homogenized melts. Thermal measurements used a TA instruments model 2920 operated at 3 C/min scan rate and 1 C/100s modulation rate. Preliminary results reveal a single glass transition in the 0 < x < 0.05 range, which steadily decrease from a value of 210 C at x = 0 to 182 C near x = 0.05. In contrast, bimodal glass transitions are observed at x > 0.09, with one Tg(1) near 167 C and the second, Tg(2) near 186 C, and with the endotherm associated with Tg(1) steadily increasing with x. Non-reversing enthalpies associated with Tgs are found to steadily decrease in the 0 < x < 0.09 range, to nearly vanish in the 0.10 < x < 0.12 range and to increase thereafter ( x > 0.12).These findings suggest that glasses at low x ( < 0.09) are Stressed- rigid, those at x > 0.12 Floppy while those in between in the Intermediate phase^1. The present results correlate well with earlier^2 electrical conductivity results in suggesting the possibility of an elastic origin to the conductivity thresholds in solid electrolyte glasses. 1. P. Boolchand, D.Georgiev and B. Goodman, J.Opto & Adm. Mater. 3, 703 (2001). 2. E.A. Kazakova and Z.U.Borisova, Fiz. Khim.Stekla 6, 424(1980).

  11. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  12. NEW FEATURES OF HYDRUS-1D, VERSION 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes new features in version 3.0 of HYDRUS-1D, released in May 2005, as compared to version 2.1. The new features are a) new approaches to simulate preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport, b) a new hysteresis module that avoids the effects of pumpin...

  13. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  14. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  15. 1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1

  16. Novel Protein Kinases Ark1p and Prk1p Associate with and Regulate the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cope, M.Jamie T.V.; Yang, Shirley; Shang, Ching; Drubin, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Ark1p (actin regulating kinase 1) was identified as a yeast protein that binds to Sla2p, an evolutionarily conserved cortical actin cytoskeleton protein. Ark1p and a second yeast protein, Prk1p, contain NH2-terminal kinase domains that are 70% identical. Together with six other putative kinases from a number of organisms, these proteins define a new protein kinase family that we have named the Ark family. Lack of both Ark1p and Prk1p resulted in the formation of large cytoplasmic actin clumps and severe defects in cell growth. These defects were rescued by wild-type, but not by kinase-dead versions of the proteins. Elevated levels of either Ark1p or Prk1p caused a number of actin and cell morphological defects that were not observed when the kinase-dead versions were overexpressed instead. Ark1p and Prk1p were shown to localize to actin cortical patches, making these two kinases the first signaling proteins demonstrated to be patch components. These results suggest that Ark1p and Prk1p may be downstream effectors of signaling pathways that control actin patch organization and function. Furthermore, results of double-mutant analyses suggest that Ark1p and Prk1p function in overlapping but distinct pathways that regulate the cortical actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10087264

  17. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  18. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Milka; Hinojosa, Marcela; Trombly, Daniel; Morin, Violeta; Stein, Janet; Stein, Gary; Javed, Amjad; Gutierrez, Soraya E.

    2016-01-01

    RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX), is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5’UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription. PMID:26901859

  19. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Milka; Hinojosa, Marcela; Trombly, Daniel; Morin, Violeta; Stein, Janet; Stein, Gary; Javed, Amjad; Gutierrez, Soraya E

    2016-01-01

    RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX), is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5'UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription. PMID:26901859

  20. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  1. The effect of the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P on multipotent stromal cells--new opportunities in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Jeleń, Marta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Grzesiak, Jakub; Meissner, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) belong to a family of bioactive sphingolipids that act as important extracellular signaling molecules and chemoattractants. This study investigated the influence of S1P and C1P on the morphology, proliferation activity and osteogenic properties of rat multipotent stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs). We show that S1P and C1P can influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), each in a different manner. S1P stimulation promoted the formation of cellular aggregates of BMSCs and ASCs, while C1P had an effect on the regular growth pattern and expanded intercellular connections, thereby increasing the proliferative activity. Although osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced by the addition of S1P, the effectiveness of osteoblast differentiation was more evident in BMSCs, particularly when biochemical and molecular marker levels were considered. The results of the functional osteogenic differentiation assay, which includes an evaluation of the efficiency of extracellular matrix mineralization (SEM-EDX), revealed the formation of numerous mineral aggregates in BMSC cultures stimulated with S1P. Our data demonstrated that in an appropriate combination, the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P may find wide application in regenerative medicine, particularly in bone regeneration with the use of MSCs. PMID:26110483

  2. The checkpoint-dependent nuclear accumulation of Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p is important for tolerance to chronic replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Sofía; Manjón, Elvira; García, Patricia; Sunnerhagen, Per; Sánchez, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors control many aspects of cell morphogenesis by turning on Rho-GTPases. The fission yeast exchange factor Rgf1p (Rho gef1) specifically regulates Rho1p during polarized growth and localizes to cortical sites. Here we report that Rgf1p is relocalized to the cell nucleus during the stalled replication caused by hydroxyurea (HU). Import to the nucleus is mediated by a nuclear localization sequence at the N-terminus of Rgf1p, whereas release into the cytoplasm requires two leucine-rich nuclear export sequences at the C-terminus. Moreover, Rgf1p nuclear accumulation during replication arrest depends on the 14-3-3 chaperone Rad24p and the DNA replication checkpoint kinase Cds1p. Both proteins control the nuclear accumulation of Rgf1p by inhibition of its nuclear export. A mutant, Rgf1p-9A, that substitutes nine serine potential phosphorylation Cds1p sites for alanine fails to accumulate in the nucleus in response to replication stress, and this correlates with a severe defect in survival in the presence of HU. In conclusion, we propose that the regulation of Rgf1p could be part of the mechanism by which Cds1p and Rad24p promote survival in the presence of chronic replication stress. It will be of general interest to understand whether the same is true for homologues of Rgf1p in budding yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:24478458

  3. Hyperfine structures of the nd /sup 1/D(n = 3 - 8) states of /sup 3/He I

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.L.; Streif, V.F.; Berry, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the beam-foil quantum beat method to measure the hyperfine structure separations F = 3/2 - 5/2 of the 1snd /sup 1/D states (n = 3 - 8) of /sup 3/He I. We observed the single frequency modulated decay curves of the 1s2p /sup 1/P - 1snd /sup 1/D transitions for times after excitation up to 50 ns, corresponding to 4 to 5 modulation periods. The frequencies obtained (with a precision of 2 to 5%) are compared with other experiments and theory. The frequencies are determined mainly by the singlet-triplet energy separations and mixing factors for the He I D-states. The results agree with the same parameters obtained from other recent level-crossing measurements in strong magnetic field mixing of the singlet-triplet states.

  4. Prediction of {sup 1}P Rydberg energy levels of beryllium based on calculations with explicitly correlated Gaussians

    SciTech Connect

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-01-14

    Benchmark variational calculations are performed for the seven lowest 1s{sup 2}2s np ({sup 1}P), n = 2…8, states of the beryllium atom. The calculations explicitly include the effect of finite mass of {sup 9}Be nucleus and account perturbatively for the mass-velocity, Darwin, and spin-spin relativistic corrections. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. Basis sets of up to 12 500 optimized Gaussians are used. The maximum discrepancy between the calculated nonrelativistic and experimental energies of 1s{sup 2}2s np ({sup 1}P) →1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2} ({sup 1}S) transition is about 12 cm{sup −1}. The inclusion of the relativistic corrections reduces the discrepancy to bellow 0.8 cm{sup −1}.

  5. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  6. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  7. Sec1p and Mso1p C-terminal tails cooperate with the SNAREs and Sec4p in polarized exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Aro, Nina; Chernov, Konstantin G.; Nyman, Tuula; Jäntti, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p has a C-terminal tail that is missing in its mammalian homologues. Here we show that deletion of the Sec1p tail (amino acids 658–724) renders cells temperature sensitive for growth, reduces sporulation efficiency, causes a secretion defect, and abolishes Sec1p-SNARE component coimmunoprecipitation. The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay results suggest that, in the SNARE-deficient sso2–1 Δsso1 cells, Mso1p, a Sec1p binding protein, helps to target Sec1p(1–657) lacking the C-terminal tail to the sites of secretion. The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1–657) targeting. We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud. This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. PMID:21119007

  8. Sec1p and Mso1p C-terminal tails cooperate with the SNAREs and Sec4p in polarized exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Aro, Nina; Chernov, Konstantin G; Nyman, Tuula; Jäntti, Jussi

    2011-01-15

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p has a C-terminal tail that is missing in its mammalian homologues. Here we show that deletion of the Sec1p tail (amino acids 658-724) renders cells temperature sensitive for growth, reduces sporulation efficiency, causes a secretion defect, and abolishes Sec1p-SNARE component coimmunoprecipitation. The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay results suggest that, in the SNARE-deficient sso2-1 Δsso1 cells, Mso1p, a Sec1p binding protein, helps to target Sec1p(1-657) lacking the C-terminal tail to the sites of secretion. The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1-657) targeting. We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud. This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. PMID:21119007

  9. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  10. A Bayesian Algorithm for Reading 1D Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James

    2010-01-01

    The 1D barcode is a ubiquitous labeling technology, with symbologies such as UPC used to label approximately 99% of all packaged goods in the US. It would be very convenient for consumers to be able to read these barcodes using portable cameras (e.g. mobile phones), but the limited quality and resolution of images taken by these cameras often make it difficult to read the barcodes accurately. We propose a Bayesian framework for reading 1D barcodes that models the shape and appearance of barcodes, allowing for geometric distortions and image noise, and exploiting the redundant information contained in the parity digit. An important feature of our framework is that it doesn’t require that every barcode edge be detected in the image. Experiments on a publicly available dataset of barcode images explore the range of images that are readable, and comparisons with two commercial readers demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm. PMID:20428491

  11. Morphodynamics and sediment tracers in 1-D (MAST-1D): 1-D sediment transport that includes exchange with an off-channel sediment reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piégay, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Bed material transported in geomorphically active gravel bed rivers often has a local source at nearby eroding banks and ends up sequestered in bars not far downstream. However, most 1-D numerical models for gravel transport assume that gravel originates from and deposits on the channel bed. In this paper, we present a 1-D framework for simulating morphodynamic evolution of bed elevation and size distribution in a gravel-bed river that actively exchanges sediment with its floodplain, which is represented as an off-channel sediment reservoir. The model is based on the idea that sediment enters the channel at eroding banks whose elevation depends on total floodplain sediment storage and on the average elevation of the floodplain relative to the channel bed. Lateral erosion of these banks occurs at a specified rate that can represent either net channel migration or channel widening. Transfer of material out of the channel depends on a typical bar thickness and a specified lateral exchange rate due either to net channel migration or narrowing. The model is implemented using an object oriented framework that allows users to explore relationships between bank supply, bed structure, and lateral change rates. It is applied to a ∼50-km reach of the Ain River, France, that experienced significant reduction in sediment supply due to dam construction during the 20th century. Results are strongly sensitive to lateral exchange rates, showing that in this reach, the supply of sand and gravel at eroding banks and the sequestration of gravel in point bars can have strong influence on overall reach-scale sediment budgets.

  12. Radiative properties of α-ZnAl 2S 4:V spinel type single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, S.; Boulon, G.; Kulyuk, L.; Sushkevich, K.

    2011-12-01

    The absorption and luminescent properties of α-ZnAI 2S 4:V spinel type crystals in the temperature range 10-300 K are investigated. The spectra are assigned to the electronic transitions of trivalent vanadium ions located in octahedral sites. It is shown that at low temperatures the three main components of the revealed IR luminescence spectra are caused by the 1A 1g( 1G)→ 1E g( 1D), 1T 2g( 1D), 3T 2g( 3F)→ 3T 1g( 3F), and 1E g( 1D)→ 3T 1g( 3F) transitions. The observed dependencies of the emission components intensities on temperature are explained assuming that there is a phonon assisted tunnelling between 3T 2g( 3F) and 1E g( 1D) states. On temperature rise, the 3T 2g( 3F)→ 3T 1g( 3F) vibronic transitions suppress other emission channels, which leads to the enhancement of the integral luminescence intensity and to the broadening of the spectrum centred at λ=1.4 μm.

  13. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  14. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-03-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films.

  15. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  16. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  17. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

  18. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  19. Induction of intranuclear membranes by overproduction of Opi1p and Scs2p, regulators for yeast phospholipid biosynthesis, suggests a mechanism for Opi1p nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Miki; Oshima, Ayaka; Noguchi, Tetsuko; Kagiwada, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes is suppressed by the Opi1p negative regulator. Opi1p enters into the nucleoplasm from the nuclear membrane to suppress the gene expression under repressing conditions. The binding of Opi1p to the nuclear membrane requires an integral membrane protein, Scs2p and phosphatidic acid (PA). Although it is demonstrated that the association of Opi1p with membranes is affected by PA levels, how Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p is unknown. Here, we found that fluorescently labelled Opi1p accumulated on a perinuclear region in an Scs2p-dependent manner. Electron microscopic analyses indicated that the perinuclear region consists of intranuclear membranes, which may be formed by the invagination of the nuclear membrane due to the accumulation of Opi1p and Scs2p in a restricted area. As expected, localization of Opi1p and Scs2p in the intranuclear membranes was detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Biochemical analysis showed that Opi1p recovered in the membrane fraction was detergent insoluble while Scs2p was soluble, implying that Opi1p behaves differently from Scs2p in the fraction. We hypothesize that Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p after targeting to the nuclear membrane, making it possible to be released from the membrane quickly when PA levels decrease. PMID:26590299

  20. Leptin Reduces the Expression and Increases the Phosphorylation of the Negative Regulators of GLUT4 Traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1), a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001) in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001) and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004) in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively) mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037) mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. PMID:22253718

  1. Conical-intersection quantum dynamics of OH(A2Σ+) + H(2S) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamallo, Pablo; Akpinar, Sinan; Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    We present the conical-intersection quantum dynamics of the nonreactive quenching (NQ) OH(A2Σ+) + H'(2S) → OH(X2Π) + H'(2S), exchange (X) OH(A2Σ+) + H'(2S) → OH'(A2Σ+) + H(2S), exchange-quenching (XQ) OH(A2Σ+) + H'(2S) → OH'(X2Π) + H(2S), and reaction (R) OH(A2Σ+) + H'(2S) → O(1D) + H2( {Xsideset{1}{g+}{Σ}}) collisions. We obtain initial-state-resolved reaction probabilities, cross sections, and rate constants by considering OH in the ground vibrational state and in the rotational levels j0 = 0, 1, 2, and 5. Coupled-channel real wavepackets (WPs) on the tilde Xsideset{1}{^'{A} and tilde Bsideset{1}{^'{A} coupled electronic states are propagated by using the Dobbyn and Knowles diabatic potential surfaces and coupling [A. J. Dobbyn and P. J. Knowles, Mol. Phys. 91, 1107 (1997), 10.1080/002689797170842 and A. J. Dobbyn and P. J. Knowles, Faraday Discuss. 110, 207 (1998)], 10.1039/FD110207, and performing asymptotic or flux analysis. NQ is the preferred product channel, followed by XQ, R, and X. Moreover, the nonadiabatic quenching processes account for more than 80% of the total rate constants. WP snapshots show a reaction mechanism in good agreement with reaction probabilities. NQ, XQ, and R cross sections, and NQ rate constants decrease with the collision energy and j0, whereas the X reactivity increases, and XQ and R rates are nearly constant with j0. In general, quantum rate constants are smaller than experimental or quasiclassical data.

  2. The Photometric lightcurve of Comet 1P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, Allison N.; Schleicher, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is considered an important object for a number of reasons. Not only is it the first-identified and brightest periodic comet, being the only periodic comet visible to the naked eye at every apparition, but in 1986 Halley became the first comet to be imaged by fly-by spacecraft. The NASA-funded International Halley Watch (IHW) directly supported the spacecraft by providing narrowband filters for groundbased photometric observations, and until the arrival of Hale-Bopp (1995 O1), Halley was the subject of the largest groundbased observational campaign in history. Following considerable controversy regarding its rotation period, it was eventually determined to be in complex rotation -- the first comet to be so identified. While the overall brightness variations of the coma repeated with a period of about 7.4 days, the detailed period and shape of the lightcurve constantly evolved. The determination of the specific characteristics of each of the two components of its non-principal axis rotational state has remained elusive.To resolve this situation we have now incorporated all of the narrowband photometry, taken by 21 telescopes from around the world and submitted to the IHW archive, to create the most complete homogeneous lightcurve possible. Using measurements of three gas species and the dust, the lightcurve was investigated and found to alternate between a double- and triple-peaked shape, with no single feature being present throughout the entire duration of our dataset (316 days). The apparent period as a function of time was extracted and seen to vary in a step-wise manner between 7.27 and 7.60 days. Taken together, these results were used to produce a synthetic lightcurve revealing Halley's behavior even when no data were available. Details of this and other results, to be used to constrain future detailed modeling, will be presented. This research is supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  3. Htm1p-Pdi1p is a folding-sensitive mannosidase that marks N-glycoproteins for ER-associated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Chang; Fujimori, Danica Galonić; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2016-07-12

    Our understanding of how the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery efficiently targets terminally misfolded proteins while avoiding the misidentification of nascent polypeptides and correctly folded proteins is limited. For luminal N-glycoproteins, demannosylation of their N-glycan to expose a terminal α1,6-linked mannose is necessary for their degradation via ERAD, but whether this modification is specific to misfolded proteins is unknown. Here we report that the complex of the mannosidase Htm1p and the protein disulfide isomerase Pdi1p (Htm1p-Pdi1p) acts as a folding-sensitive mannosidase for catalyzing this first committed step in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We reconstitute this step in vitro with Htm1p-Pdi1p and model glycoprotein substrates whose structural states we can manipulate. We find that Htm1p-Pdi1p is a glycoprotein-specific mannosidase that preferentially targets nonnative glycoproteins trapped in partially structured states. As such, Htm1p-Pdi1p is suited to act as a licensing factor that monitors folding in the ER lumen and preferentially commits glycoproteins trapped in partially structured states for degradation. PMID:27357682

  4. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  5. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  6. Spatial coherence of polaritons in a 1D channel

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I. G.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2013-01-15

    We analyze time evolution of spatial coherence of a polariton ensemble in a quantum wire (1D channel) under constant uniform resonant pumping. Using the theoretical approach based on the Lindblad equation for a one-particle density matrix, which takes into account the polariton-phonon and excitonexciton interactions, we study the behavior of the first-order coherence function g{sup 1} for various pump intensities and temperatures in the range of 1-20 K. Bistability and hysteresis in the dependence of the first-order coherence function on the pump intensity is demonstrated.

  7. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  8. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  9. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  10. Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  12. Validation of 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Parisot, A.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of electromagnetic current distribution on the aperture between the two regions. The plasma enters the formalism via a surface impedance matrix for this reason any plasma model can be used. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. The suite, called TOPICA, has been used in the design of various ICRF antennas and also for the performance prediction of the ALCATOR C-MOD D and E antenna. An extensive set of comparisons between measured and simulated antenna parameters during ALCATOR C-MOD operation will be presented.

  13. Engineered atom-light interactions in 1D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael J.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Yu, Su-Peng; Goban, Akihisa; Muniz, Juan A.; Hood, Jonathan D.; Norte, Richard; McClung, Andrew C.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Lee, Jae Hoon; Peng, Lucas; Painter, Oskar; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of Γ1 D /Γ' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where Γ1 D (Γ') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. This work was supported by the IQIM, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support from the Moore Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program, the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, the DoD NSSEFF program, NSF, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech.

  14. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  15. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Agonists Mediate Pro-fibrotic Responses in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 Receptors and Smad-independent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  16. Cargo sequences are important for Som1p-dependent signal peptide cleavage in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haobo; Luo, Wentian; Green, Neil; Fang, Hong

    2004-09-17

    The inner membrane protease (IMP) has two catalytic subunits, Imp1p and Imp2p, that exhibit nonoverlapping substrate specificity in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The IMP also has at least one noncatalytic subunit, Som1p, which is required to cleave signal peptides from a subset of Imp1p substrates. To understand how Som1p mediates Imp1p substrate specificity, we addressed the possibility that Som1p functions as a molecular chaperone, which binds to specific substrates and directs them to the catalytic site. Our results show that cargo sequences attached to the signal peptide are important for Som1p-dependent presequence cleavage; however, no specific cargo sequence is required. Indeed, we show that a substrate normally destined for Imp2p is cleaved in a Som1p-dependent manner when the substrate is directed to Imp1p. These results argue against the notion that Som1p is a molecular chaperone. Instead, we propose that the cargo of some Imp1p substrates can assume a conformation incompatible with presequence cleavage. Som1p could thus act through Imp1p to improve cleavage efficiency early during substrate maturation. PMID:15254042

  17. Ceramide signalling impinges on Sit4p and Hog1p to promote mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in Isc1p-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor; Medeiros, Tânia C; Vilaça, Rita; Pereira, Andreia T; Chaves, Susana R; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Costa, Vítor

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria function as the powerhouses of the cell for energy conversion through the oxidative phosphorylation process. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria promotes a bioenergetic crisis and cell death by apoptosis. Yeast cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase type 2, exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and shortened lifespan associated with the accumulation of specific ceramide species and activation of the PP2A-like protein phosphatase Sit4p and of the Hog1p kinase. Here, we show that isc1Δ cells display hyperactivation of mitophagy that is suppressed by downregulating Sit4p, Hog1p or the TORC1-Sch9p pathway. Notably, isc1Δ cells also have high levels of Dnm1p associated with unbalanced mitochondrial fission, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation, and DNM1 deletion suppressed the oxidative stress sensitivity and shortened lifespan of isc1Δ cells. Moreover, Isc1p and Dnm1p physically interact, suggesting a possible regulatory role for Isc1p in mitochondrial dynamics. Overall, our work demonstrates that Isc1p-mediated ceramide signalling regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in yeast with impact on mitochondrial function and lifespan. Since ceramides have been implicated in ageing and diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, our findings suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting ceramide signalling may improve mitochondrial function and human healthspan. PMID:26079297

  18. The selective utilization of substrates in vivo by the phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes Ept1p and Cpt1p in yeast.

    PubMed

    Boumann, Henry A; de Kruijff, Ben; Heck, Albert J R; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2004-07-01

    In yeast, the aminoalcohol phosphotransferases Ept1p and Cpt1p catalyze the final steps in the CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline routes leading to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. To determine how these enzymes contribute to the molecular species profiles of PE and PC in vivo, wild-type, cpt1Delta, and ept1Delta cells were pulse labeled with deuterated ethanolamine and choline. Analysis of newly synthesized PE and PC using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PE and PC produced by Ept1p and Cpt1p have different species compositions, demonstrating that the enzymes consume distinct sets of diacylglycerol species in vivo. Using the characteristic phospholipid species profiles produced by Ept1p and Cpt1p as molecular fingerprints, it was also shown that in vivo CDP-monomethylethanolamine is preferentially used as substrate by Ept1p, whereas CDP-dimethylethanolamine and CDP-propanolamine are converted by Cpt1p. PMID:15225629

  19. Magnetic behavior of some 1D Cu chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Roger D.; Gomez-García, Carlos J.; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of three 1D copper(II) salts are reported. The compound Cu(14ane)Cu(N 3) 4 contains alternating site chains with weak FM coupling with J/k=0.635 K . Magnetization studies are reported on Cu(TIM)CuCl 4, an alternating site, alternating FM/AFM exchange system with J FM/k=29.7 K and J AFM/k=-8.66 K. (HPy) 2Cu 3Cl 8.2H 2O contains FM chains composed of alternating Cu 2Cl 62- dimers and CuCl 2(H 2O) 2 monomers, with intradimer coupling J 1/k=17.35 K and dimer-monomer coupling J 2/k=1.93 K .

  20. Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tolar, Jr., D R; Ferguson, J M

    2004-01-06

    In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ({und r}) and angular ({und {Omega}}) dependences on the angular flux {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}. Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable ({mu}) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S{sub N} equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S{sub N} algorithms.

  1. Electron Energy Levels in the 1D-2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Sanjeev, Kumar; Thomas, Kalarikad; Creeth, Graham; English, David; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Jones, Geraint

    Using GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures we have investigated the behaviour of electron energy levels with relaxation of the potential confining a 2D electron gas into a 1D configuration. In the ballistic regime of transport, when the conductance shows quantized plateaux, different types of behaviour are found according to the spins of interacting levels, whether a magnetic field is applied and lifting of the momentum degeneracy with a source-drain voltage. We have observed both crossing and anti-crossing of levels and have investigated the manner in which they can be mutually converted. In the presence of a magnetic field levels can cross and lock together as the confinement is altered in a way which is characteristic of parallel channels. The overall behaviour is discussed in terms of electron interactions and the wavefunction flexibility allowed by the increasing two dimensionality of the electron distribution as the confinement is weakened. Work supported by UK EPSRC.

  2. Directed enzymatic activation of 1-D DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sudhanshu; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; LaBean, Thomas H; Reif, John

    2015-02-24

    The tile assembly model is a Turing universal model of self-assembly where a set of square shaped tiles with programmable sticky sides undergo coordinated self-assembly to form arbitrary shapes, thereby computing arbitrary functions. Activatable tiles are a theoretical extension to the Tile assembly model that enhances its robustness by protecting the sticky sides of tiles until a tile is partially incorporated into a growing assembly. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified version of the Activatable tile assembly model. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous assembly of protected DNA tiles where a set of inert tiles are activated via a DNA polymerase to undergo linear assembly. We then demonstrate stepwise activated assembly where a set of inert tiles are activated sequentially one after another as a result of attachment to a growing 1-D assembly. We hope that these results will pave the way for more sophisticated demonstrations of activated assemblies. PMID:25625898

  3. Robust recognition of 1D barcodes using Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinell, John; Bian, Peng; Bian, Long Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for the recognition of 1D barcodes using the Hough transform, which is highly robust regarding the typical degraded image. The algorithm addresses various typical image distortions, such as inhomogeneous illumination, reflections, damaged barcode or blurriness etc. Other problems arise from recognizing low quality printing (low contrast or poor ink receptivity). Traditional approaches are unable to provide a fast solution for handling such complex and mixed noise factors. A multi-level method offers a better approach to best manage competing constraints of complex noise and fast decode. At the lowest level, images are processed in gray scale. At the middle level, the image is transformed into the Hough domain. At the top level, global results, including missing information, is processed within a global context including domain heuristics as well as OCR. The three levels work closely together by passing information up and down between levels.

  4. Axion string dynamics I: 2+1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Leesa M.; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    If the axion exists and if the initial axion field value is uncorrelated at causally disconnected points, then it should be possible to predict the efficiency of cosmological axion production, relating the axionic dark matter density to the axion mass. The main obstacle to making this prediction is correctly treating the axion string cores. We develop a new algorithm for treating the axionic string cores correctly in 2+1 dimensions. When the axionic string cores are given their full physical string tension, axion production is about twice as efficient as in previous simulations. We argue that the string network in 2+1 dimensions should behave very differently than in 3+1 dimensions, so this result cannot be simply carried over to the physical case. We outline how to extend our method to 3+1D axion string dynamics.

  5. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  7. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  8. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  9. The role of Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA repair enzymes Apn1p and Uve1p in the base excision repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tanihigashi, Haruna; Yamada, Ayako; Igawa, Emi; Ikeda, Shogo . E-mail: ikeda@dbc.ous.ac.jp

    2006-09-08

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites is mainly initiated by AP lyase activity of DNA glycosylase Nth1p. In contrast, the major AP endonuclease Apn2p functions by removing 3'-{alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde ends induced by Nth1p, rather than by incising the AP sites. S. pombe possesses other minor AP endonuclease activities derived from Apn1p and Uve1p. In this study, we investigated the function of these two enzymes in base excision repair (BER) for methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) damage using the nth1 and apn2 mutants. Deletion of apn1 or uve1 from nth1{delta} cells did not affect sensitivity to MMS. Exogenous expression of Apn1p failed to suppress the MMS sensitivity of nth1{delta} cells. Although Apn1p and Uve1p incised the oligonucleotide containing an AP site analogue, these enzymes could not initiate repair of the AP sites in vivo. Despite this, expression of Apn1p partially restored the MMS sensitivity of apn2{delta} cells, indicating that the enzyme functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase to remove 3'-blocked ends. Localization of Apn1p in the nucleus and cytoplasm hints at an additional function of the enzyme other than nuclear DNA repair. Heterologous expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of Apn1p completely restored the MMS resistance of the nth1{delta} and apn2{delta} cells. This result confirms a difference in the major pathway for processing the AP site between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae cells.

  10. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  11. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  12. Isotope Shifts and Hyperfine Structure in Calcium 4snp1P1 and 4snf F Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, P.; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Nortershauser, Wilfried; Wendt, K.

    2000-06-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure have been measured in 4snp 1P1 and 4snf F Rydberg states for all stable calcium isotopes and the radioisotope 41Ca using high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Triple-resonance excitation via 4s2 1S0 --- 4s4p 1P1 --- 4s4d 1D2 --- Rydberg State was followed by photoionization with a CO2 laser and mass selective ion detection. Isotope shifts for the even-mass isotopes have been analyzed to derive specific mass shift and field shift factors. The apparent isotope shifts for 41Ca and 43Ca exhibit anomalous values that are n-dependent. This is interpreted in terms of hyperfine-induced fine structure mixing, which becomes very pronounced when singlet-triplet fine structure splitting is comparable to the hyperfine interaction energy. Measurements of fine structure splittings for the predominant isotope 40Ca have been used as input parameters for theoretical calculation of the perturbed hyperfine structure. Results obtained by diagonalizing the second-order hyperfine interaction matrices agree very well with experimentally observed spectra.

  13. A Complex Containing RNA Polymerase II, Paf1p, Cdc73p, Hpr1p, and Ccr4p Plays a Role in Protein Kinase C Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Meiping; French-Cornay, Delores; Fan, Hua-ying; Klein, Hannah; Denis, Clyde L.; Jaehning, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    Yeast contains at least two complex forms of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), one including the Srbps and a second biochemically distinct form defined by the presence of Paf1p and Cdc73p (X. Shi et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1160–1169, 1997). In this work we demonstrate that Ccr4p and Hpr1p are components of the Paf1p-Cdc73p-Pol II complex. We have found many synthetic genetic interactions between factors within the Paf1p-Cdc73p complex, including the lethality of paf1Δ ccr4Δ, paf1Δ hpr1Δ, ccr4Δ hpr1Δ, and ccr4Δ gal11Δ double mutants. In addition, paf1Δ and ccr4Δ are lethal in combination with srb5Δ, indicating that the factors within and between the two RNA polymerase II complexes have overlapping essential functions. We have used differential display to identify several genes whose expression is affected by mutations in components of the Paf1p-Cdc73p-Pol II complex. Additionally, as previously observed for hpr1Δ, deleting PAF1 or CDC73 leads to elevated recombination between direct repeats. The paf1Δ and ccr4Δ mutations, as well as gal11Δ, demonstrate sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents, rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by sorbitol, and reduced expression of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis. This unusual combination of effects on recombination and cell wall integrity has also been observed for mutations in genes in the Pkc1p-Mpk1p kinase cascade. Consistent with a role for this novel form of RNA polymerase II in the Pkc1p-Mpk1p signaling pathway, we find that paf1Δ mpk1Δ and paf1Δ pkc1Δ double mutants do not demonstrate an enhanced phenotype relative to the single mutants. Our observation that the Mpk1p kinase is fully active in a paf1Δ strain indicates that the Paf1p-Cdc73p complex may function downstream of the Pkc1p-Mpk1p cascade to regulate the expression of a subset of yeast genes. PMID:9891041

  14. Identification of H2S3 and H2S produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuka; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Lefer, David; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved. PMID:26437775

  15. A shunt pathway limits the CaaX processing of Hsp40 Ydj1p and regulates Ydj1p-dependent phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Emily R; Cheng, Michael; Zhao, Peng; Kim, June H; Wells, Lance; Schmidt, Walter K

    2016-01-01

    The modifications occurring to CaaX proteins have largely been established using few reporter molecules (e.g. Ras, yeast a-factor mating pheromone). These proteins undergo three coordinated COOH-terminal events: isoprenylation of the cysteine, proteolytic removal of aaX, and COOH-terminal methylation. Here, we investigated the coupling of these modifications in the context of the yeast Ydj1p chaperone. We provide genetic, biochemical, and biophysical evidence that the Ydj1p CaaX motif is isoprenylated but not cleaved and carboxylmethylated. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ydj1p-dependent thermotolerance and Ydj1p localization are perturbed when alternative CaaX motifs are transplanted onto Ydj1p. The abnormal phenotypes revert to normal when post-isoprenylation events are genetically interrupted. Our findings indicate that proper Ydj1p function requires an isoprenylatable CaaX motif that is resistant to post-isoprenylation events. These results expand on the complexity of protein isoprenylation and highlight the impact of post-isoprenylation events in regulating the function of Ydj1p and perhaps other CaaX proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15899.001 PMID:27525482

  16. Working with "H2S": facts and apparent artifacts.

    PubMed

    Wedmann, Rudolf; Bertlein, Sarah; Macinkovic, Igor; Böltz, Sebastian; Miljkovic, Jan Lj; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin; Filipovic, Milos R

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule with physiological endpoints similar to those of nitric oxide (NO). Growing interest in its physiological roles and pharmacological potential has led to large sets of contradictory data. The principle cause of these discrepancies can be the common neglect of some of the basic H2S chemistry. This study investigates how the experimental outcome when working with H2S depends on its source and dose and the methodology employed. We show that commercially available NaHS should be avoided and that traces of metal ions should be removed because these can reduce intramolecular disulfides and change protein structure. Furthermore, high H2S concentrations may lead to a complete inhibition of cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and superoxide generation, which should be considered when discussing the biological effects observed upon treatment with high concentrations of H2S. In addition, we provide chemical evidence that H2S can directly react with superoxide. H2S is also capable of reducing cytochrome c(3+) with the concomitant formation of superoxide. H2S does not directly react with nitrite but with NO electrodes that detect H2S. In addition, H2S interferes with the Griess reaction and should therefore be removed from the solution by Cd(2+) or Zn(2+) precipitation prior to nitrite quantification. 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) is reduced by H2S, and its use should be avoided in combination with H2S. All these constraints must be taken into account when working with H2S to ensure valid data. PMID:24932545

  17. Modeling of H2S migration through landfill cover materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Powell, Jon; Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-01-15

    The emission of H2S from landfills in the United States is an emergent problem because measured concentrations within the waste mass and in ambient air have been observed at potentially unsafe levels for on-site workers and at levels that can cause a nuisance and potentially deleterious health impacts to surrounding communities. Though recent research has provided data on H2S concentrations that may be observed at landfills, facility operators and landfill engineers have limited predictive tools to anticipate and plan for potentially harmful H2S emissions. A one-dimensional gas migration model was developed to assist engineers and practitioners better evaluate and predict potential emission levels of H2S based on four factors: concentration of H2S below the landfill surface (C0), advection velocity (v), H2S effective diffusion coefficient (D), and H2S adsorption coefficient of landfill cover soil (μ). Model simulations indicated that H2S migration into the atmosphere can be mitigated by reducing H2S diffusion and advection or using alternative cover soils with a high H2S adsorption coefficient. Laboratory column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the four parameters on H2S migration in cover soils and to calculate the adsorption coefficient of different cover materials. The model was validated by comparing results with laboratory column experiments. Based on the results, the laboratory column provides an effective way to estimate the H2S adsorption coefficient, which can then be incorporated into the developed model to predict the depth of cover soil required to reduce emitted H2S concentrations below a desired level. PMID:24316799

  18. 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain of some integrals is employed that permits to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain (rectangular or triangular) basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used in

  19. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  20. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  1. Spectral functions of 1D Peierls and Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Johannes

    1998-03-01

    We construct the spectral function of the Luther-Emery model which describes one-dimensional Peierls and Mott insulators with a spin resp. charge gap, using symmetries and known limits and equivalences to other models. For the Peierls insulator, we find a true singularity with interaction dependent exponents on the gapped spin dispersion and a finite maximum depending on the magnitude of the spin gap, on a charge dispersion shifted by Δ_σ, as well as strong shadow bands with the same functional form as the main bands. For 1D Mott insulators, one or two singularities with universal inverse-square-root singularities are found depending on whether the charge velocity is larger or smaller than the spin velocity. The shadow band has a single singularity on the renormalized charge dispersion. These results could apply to the description of photoemission experiments in systems like K_0.3 Mo O_3, TTF-TCNQ, or Sr Cu O_2.

  2. 1D X-ray Beam Compressing Monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Korytar, D.; Dobrocka, E.; Konopka, P.; Zaprazny, Z.; Ferrari, C.; Mikulik, P.; Vagovic, P.; Ac, V.; Erko, A.; Abrosimov, N.

    2010-04-06

    A total beam compression of 5 and 10 corresponding to the asymmetry angles of 9 deg. and 12 deg. is achieved with V-5 and V-10 monochromators, respectively, in standard single crystal pure germanium (220) X-ray beam compressing (V-shaped) monochromators for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. A higher 1D compression of X-ray beam is possible using larger angles of asymmetry, however it is achieved at the expense of the total intensity, which is decreased due to the refraction effect. To increase the monochromator intensity, several ways are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Linearly graded germanium rich Ge{sub x}Si{sub (1-x)} single crystal was used to prepare a V-21 single crystal monochromator with 15 deg. asymmetry angles (compression factor of 21). Its temperature gradient version is discussed for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. X-ray diffraction measurements on the graded GeSi monochromator showed more than 3-times higher intensity at the output compared with that of a pure Ge monochromator.

  3. Graphs on uniform points in [0,1]d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Martin J. B.; Russo, Ralph P.; Yang, King J.

    1995-06-01

    Statistical problems in pattern or structure recognition for a random multidimensional point set may be addressed by variations on the random graph model of Erdos and Renyui. The imposition of graph structure with a variable edge criterion on a large random point set allows a search for signature quantities or behavior under the given distributional hypothesis. The work is motivated by the question of how to make statistical inferences from sensed mine field data. This article describes recent results obtained in the following special cases. On independent random points U1,...,Un distributed uniformly on [0,1]d, a random graph Gn(x) is constructed in which two distinct such points are joined by an edge if the l(infinity )-distance between them is at most some prescribed value 0 = 2.

  4. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  5. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals. PMID:26525702

  6. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals.

  7. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  8. Enhanced H2S gas-sensing properties of Pt-functionalized In2Ge2O7 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changhyun; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-02-01

    In2Ge2O7 one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures were synthesized using an evaporation technique. The morphology, crystal structure, and sensing properties of the In2Ge2O7 nanostructures functionalized with Pt to H2S gas at 100 ∘C were examined. The diameters and lengths of the 1D nanostructures were a few tens of nanometers and up to a few hundreds of micrometers, respectively. Pt nanoparticles with diameters of a few tens of nanometers were distributed over the In2Ge2O7 nanowires. Gas sensors fabricated from the multiple networked In2Ge2O7 nanowires functionalized with Pt exhibited enhanced electrical responses to H2S gas compared to the uncoated In2Ge2O7 nanowires. The responses of the nanowires were improved 240, 234, and 225 fold at H2S concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 ppm, respectively. The enhanced electrical response of the Pt-functionalized In2Ge2O7 nanowire sensor to H2S gas can be attributed to a combination of the spillover effect and the enhanced chemisorption, as well as the dissociation of the gas.

  9. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  10. H2S and Blood Vessels: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomedical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been fully recognized in the cardiovascular system as well as in the rest of the body. In blood vessels, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is a major H2S-producing enzyme expressed in both smooth muscle and endothelium as well as periadventitial adipose tissues. Regulation of H2S production from CSE is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational mechanisms in blood vessels. In smooth muscle cells, H2S regulates cell apoptosis, phenotypic switch, relaxation and contraction, and calcification. In endothelial cells, H2S controls cell proliferation, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. H2S interacts with nitric oxide and acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S generated from periadventitial adipose tissues acts as an adipocyte-derived relaxing factor and modulates the vascular tone. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of the CSE/H2S system in various blood vessel diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aortic aneurysm. The important roles signaling in the cardiovascular system merit further intensive and extensive investigation. H2S-releasing agents and CSE activators will find their great applications in the prevention and treatment of blood vessel-related disorders. PMID:26162830

  11. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  12. Multiple functions of the vacuolar sorting protein Ccz1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman-Sommer, Marta; Migdalski, Andrzej; Rytka, Joanna; Kucharczyk, Roza . E-mail: roza@ibb.waw.pl

    2005-04-01

    The CCZ1 (YBR131w) gene encodes a protein required for fusion of various transport intermediates with the vacuole. Ccz1p, in a complex with Mon1p, is a close partner of Ypt7p in the processes of fusion of endosomes to vacuoles and homotypic vacuole fusion. In this work, we exploited the Ca{sup 2+}-sensitivity of the ccz1{delta} mutant to identify genes specifically interacting with CCZ1, basing on functional multicopy suppression of calcium toxicity. The presented results indicate that Ccz1p functions in the cell either in association with Mon1p and Ypt7p in fusion at the vacuolar membrane, or-separately-with Arl1p at early steps of vacuolar transport. We also show that suppression of calcium toxicity by the calcium pumps Pmr1p and Pmc1p is restricted only to the subset of mutants defective in vacuole morphology. The mechanisms of Ca{sup 2+}-pump-mediated suppression also differ from each other, since the action of Pmr1p, but not Pmc1p, appears to require Arl1p function.

  13. Gene expression profiling of 1p35-36 genes in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Novikov, Eugene; Monteiro, Marta; Gruel, Nadège; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Loriod, Béatrice; Nguyen, Catherine; Delattre, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    Deletion of the chromosome 1p36 region is a frequent abnormality in neuroblastoma. To gain further insights into the role of this alteration in oncogenesis, we have constructed a specific cDNA microarray representing most known genes and ESTs from the 1p35-36 region and analysed the expression profiles of 15 neuroblastoma cell lines and 28 neuroblastoma tumours. Hierarchical clustering using expression levels of 320 cDNAs from 1p35-36 separated localized or 4S cases without 1p deletion from advanced stages and cell lines. Supervised learning classification enabled to predict reliably the status of chromosome 1p according to its expression profile. Around 15% of the genes or ESTs presented a significantly decreased expression in samples with 1p deletion as compared to 1p-normal samples suggesting that 1p deletion results in a gene dosage effect on a subset of genes critical for the development of 1p-deleted neuroblastoma. Several genes presumed to have functions in neural differentiation (CDC42, VAMP3, CLSTN1), signal transduction in neural cells (GNB1) and cell cycle regulation (STMN1, RPA2, RBAF600, FBXO6, MAD2L2) exhibited a decreased expression in samples presenting 1p deletion. The identification of such genes provides baseline information for further studies to elucidate how these genes could individually or collectively play a critical role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:15195138

  14. Synthesis and properties of a few 1-D cobaltous fumarates

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Sanchay J.; Das, Birinchi K.

    2012-08-15

    Metal fumarates are often studied in the context of metal organic framework solids. Preparation, structure and properties of three cobalt(II) fumarates, viz. [Co(fum)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 1, [Co(fum)(py){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 2, and [Co(fum)(4-CNpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 3 (fum=fumarate, py=pyridine, 4-CNpy=4-cyanopyridine) are described. All three are chain polymers involving bridging fumarato ligands between each pair of octahedral Co(II) centres, but while the first one is zigzag in structure, the latter two are linear. Indexed powder X-ray diffraction patterns, solid state electronic spectra and magnetic properties of the species are reported. Thermal decomposition behaviour of the compounds suggests that they may be suitable as precursors to make Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} via pyrolysis below 600 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Structure and properties of three chain-polymeric cobalt(II) fumarates are described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fumarate bridged 1-D coordination polymers of cobalt(II) are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While Co(II) fumarate pentahydrate is zigzag, the species having both pyridine and water as co-ligands are linear in structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prominent lines in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns have been indexed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition of the species yields Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the final product.

  15. Dynamical functions of a 1D correlated quantum liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Bozi, D.; Penc, K.

    2008-10-01

    The dynamical correlation functions in one-dimensional electronic systems show power-law behaviour at low energies and momenta close to integer multiples of the charge and spin Fermi momenta. These systems are usually referred to as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. However, near well defined lines of the (k,ω) plane the power-law behaviour extends beyond the low-energy cases mentioned above, and also appears at higher energies, leading to singular features in the photoemission spectra and other dynamical correlation functions. The general spectral-function expressions derived in this paper were used in recent theoretical studies of the finite-energy singular features in photoemission of the organic compound tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) metallic phase. They are based on a so-called pseudofermion dynamical theory (PDT), which allows us to systematically enumerate and describe the excitations in the Hubbard model starting from the Bethe ansatz, as well as to calculate the charge and spin object phase shifts appearing as exponents of the power laws. In particular, we concentrate on the spin-density m\\rightarrow 0 limit and on effects in the vicinity of the singular border lines, as well as close to half filling. Our studies take into account spectral contributions from types of microscopic processes that do not occur for finite values of the spin density. In addition, the specific processes involved in the spectral features of TTF-TCNQ are studied. Our results are useful for the further understanding of the unusual spectral properties observed in low-dimensional organic metals and also provide expressions for the one- and two-atom spectral functions of a correlated quantum system of ultracold fermionic atoms in a 1D optical lattice with on-site two-atom repulsion.

  16. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  17. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  18. A novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus (DFNB47) maps to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Santos, Regie Lyn P; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Chahrour, Maria H; Pham, Thanh L; Wajid, Muhammad; Hijab, Nadine; Wambangco, Michael; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Yan, Kai; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) displays extensive genetic heterogeneity. Autosomal recessive (AR) forms of prelingual HI account for approximately 75% of cases with a genetic etiology. A novel AR non-syndromic HI locus (DFNB47) was mapped to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3, in two distantly related Pakistani kindreds. Genome scan and fine mapping were carried out using microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.7 at markers D2S1400 and D2S262. The three-unit support interval was bounded by D2S330 and D2S131. The region of homozygosity was found within the three-unit support interval and flanked by markers D2S2952 and D2S131, which corresponds to 13.2 cM according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map. This region contains 5.3 Mb according to the sequence-based physical map. Three candidate genes, KCNF1, ID2 and ATP6V1C2 were sequenced, and were found to be negative for functional sequence variants. PMID:16261342

  19. A novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus (DFNB47) maps to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Santos, Regie Lyn P.; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Chahrour, Maria H.; Pham, Thanh L.; Wajid, Muhammad; Hijab, Nadine; Wambangco, Michael; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Yan, Kai; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) displays extensive genetic heterogeneity. Autosomal recessive (AR) forms of prelingual HI account for ~75% of cases with a genetic etiology. A novel AR non-syndromic HI locus (DFNB47) was mapped to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3, in two distantly related Pakistani kindreds. Genome scan and fine mapping were carried out using microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.7 at markers D2S1400 and D2S262. The three-unit support interval was bounded by D2S330 and D2S131. The region of homozygosity was found within the three-unit support interval and flanked by markers D2S2952 and D2S131, which corresponds to 13.2 cM according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map. This region contains 5.3 Mb according to the sequence-based physical map. Three candidate genes, KCNF1, ID2 and ATP6V1C2 were sequenced, and were found to be negative for functional sequence variants. PMID:16261342

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  2. SCCRO3 (DCUN1D3) Antagonizes the Neddylation and Oncogenic Activity of SCCRO (DCUN1D1)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guochang; Stock, Cameron; Bommeljé, Claire C.; Weeda, Víola B.; Shah, Kushyup; Bains, Sarina; Buss, Elizabeth; Shaha, Manish; Rechler, Willi; Ramanathan, Suresh Y.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cullin-RING type ubiquitination E3 ligases is regulated by neddylation, a process analogous to ubiquitination that culminates in covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to cullins. As a component of the E3 for neddylation, SCCRO/DCUN1D1 plays a key regulatory role in neddylation and, consequently, cullin-RING ligase activity. The essential contribution of SCCRO to neddylation is to promote nuclear translocation of the cullin-ROC1 complex. The presence of a myristoyl sequence in SCCRO3, one of four SCCRO paralogues present in humans that localizes to the membrane, raises questions about its function in neddylation. We found that although SCCRO3 binds to CAND1, cullins, and ROC1, it does not efficiently bind to Ubc12, promote cullin neddylation, or conform to the reaction processivity paradigms, suggesting that SCCRO3 does not have E3 activity. Expression of SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO-promoted neddylation by sequestering cullins to the membrane, thereby blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO transforming activity. The inhibitory effects of SCCRO3 on SCCRO-promoted neddylation and transformation require both an intact myristoyl sequence and PONY domain, confirming that membrane localization and binding to cullins are required for in vivo functions. Taken together, our findings suggest that SCCRO3 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the neddylation activity of SCCRO. PMID:25349211

  3. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  4. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes. PMID:26423286

  5. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  6. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS+/− mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS+/− mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  7. Differential transcriptional regulation by mouse single-minded 2s.

    PubMed

    Metz, Richard P; Kwak, Hyeong-Il; Gustafson, Tanya; Laffin, Brian; Porter, Weston W

    2006-04-21

    Single-minded 1 and 2 are unique members of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim family as they are transcriptional repressors. Here we report the identification and transcriptional characterization of mouse Sim2s, a splice variant of Sim2, which is missing the carboxyl Pro/Ala-rich repressive domain. Sim2s is expressed at high levels in kidney and skeletal muscle; however, the ratio of Sim2 to Sim2s mRNA differs between these tissues. Similar to full-length Sim2, Sim2s interacts with Arnt and to a lesser extent, Arnt2. The effects of Sim2s on transcriptional regulation through hypoxia, dioxin, and central midline response elements are different than that of full-length Sim2. Specifically, Sim2s exerts a less repressive effect on hypoxia-induced gene expression than full-length Sim2, but is just as effective as Sim2 at repressing TCDD-induced gene expression from a dioxin response element. Interestingly, Sim2s bind to and activates expression from a central midline response element-controlled reporter through an Arnt transactivation domain-dependent mechanism. The differences in expression pattern, protein interactions, and transcriptional activities between Sim2 and Sim2s may reflect differential roles each isoform plays during development or in tissue-specific effects on other protein-mediated pathways. PMID:16484282

  8. Two types of nanoparticle-based bio-barcode amplification assays to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-1 p24 antigen is a major viral component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) which can be used to identify persons in the early stage of infection and transmission of HIV-1 from infected mothers to infants. The detection of p24 is usually accomplished by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with low detection sensitivity. Here we report the use of two bio-barcode amplification (BCA) assays combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. Method A pair of anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used in BCA assays to capture HIV-1 p24 antigen in a sandwich format and allowed for the quantitative measurement of captured p24 using PCR and gel electrophoresis. The first 1 G12 mAb was coated on microplate wells or magnetic microparticles (MMPs) to capture free p24 antigens. Captured p24 in turn captured 1D4 mAb coated gold nanoparticle probes (GNPs) containing double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One strand of the oligonucleotides was covalently immobilized whereas the unbound complimentary bio-barcode DNA strand could be released upon heating. The released bio-barcode DNA was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed in agarose gel and quantified. Results The in-house ELISA assay was found to quantify p24 antigen with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1,000 pg/ml and a linear range between 3,000 and 100,000 pg/ml. In contrast, the BCA-based microplate method yielded an LOD of 1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 1 to 10,000 pg/ml. The BCA-based MMP method yielded an LOD of 0.1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 0.1 to 1,000 pg/ml. Conclusions When combined with PCR and simple gel electrophoresis, BCA-based microplate and MMPs assays can be used to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. These methods are 3–4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than our in-house ELISA-based assay and may provide a useful approach to detect p24 in patients newly infected with HIV. PMID

  9. Chemiluminescent Probes for Imaging H2S in Living Animals†

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J.; Lopez, R.; Thacker, J.M.; Moon, J.Y.; Jiang, C.; Morris, S.N.S.; Bauer, J.H.; Tao, P.; Mason, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator of human health and disease, but precise measurement in living cells and animals remains a considerable challenge. We report the total chemical synthesis and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetane chemiluminescent reaction-based H2S probes, CHS-1, CHS-2, and CHS-3. Upon treatment with H2S at physiological pH, these probes display instantaneous light emission that is sustained for over an hour with high selectivity against other reactive sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen species. Analysis of the phenol/phenolate equilibrium and atomic charges has provided a generally applicable predictive model to design improved chemiluminescent probes. The utility of these chemiluminescent reagents was demonstrated by applying CHS-3 to detect cellularly generated H2S using a multi-well plate reader and to image H2S in living mice using CCD camera technology. PMID:25709805

  10. Altered Sulfide (H2S) Metabolism in Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H2S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H2S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed “gasotransmitters.” This review will cover the physiological role and the pathogenic effects of H2S, focusing on ethylmalonic encephalopathy, a human mitochondrial disorder caused by genetic abnormalities of sulfide metabolism. We will also discuss the options that are now conceivable for preventing genetically driven chronic H2S toxicity, taking into account that a complete understanding of the physiopathology of H2S has still to be achieved. PMID:23284046

  11. Synthesis of new ligands for targeting the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schilson, Stefanie S; Keul, Petra; Shaikh, Rizwan S; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences various fundamental biological processes by interacting with a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5). FTY720, a sphingosine analogue, which was approved for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated in vivo and acts as an agonist of four of the five S1P receptor subtypes. Starting from these lead structures we developed new agonists for the S1P1 receptor. The biological activity was tested in vivo and promising ligands were fluorinated at different positions to identify candidates for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging after [(18)F]-labelling. The radioligands shall enable the imaging of S1P1 receptor expression in vivo and thus may serve as novel imaging markers of S1P-related diseases. PMID:25656338

  12. Hyperfine Quenching of the 2s2p 3P0 State of Berylliumlike Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K T; Chen, M H; Johnson, W R

    2008-03-13

    The hyperfine-induced 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}-2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} transition rate for Be-like {sup 47}Ti{sup 18+} was recently measured in a storage-ring experiment by Schippers et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033001 (2007)]. The measured value of 0.56(3) s{sup -1} is almost 60% larger than the theoretical value of 0.356 s{sup -1} from a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation by Marques et al. [Phys. Rev. A 47, 929 (1993)]. In this work, we use a large-scale relativistic configuration-interaction method to calculate these hyperfine-induced rates for ions with Z = 6-92. Coherent hyperfine-quenching effects between the 2s2p {sup 1,3}P{sub 1} states are included in a perturbative as well as a radiation damping approach. Contrary to the claims of Marques et al., contributions from the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state are substantial and lead to a hyperfine-induced rate of 0.67 s{sup -1}, in better agreement with, though larger than, the measured value.

  13. PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Bo-Min; Kang, Jie; Deng, Xian-Zhao; Fan, You-Ben; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1D (PPM1D) is emerging as an oncogene by virtue of its negative control on several tumor suppressor pathways. However, the clinical significance of PPM1D in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been defined. In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2). In contrast to PPM1D, our results showed that ASPP2 is downregulated in PC tissues. Additionally, PPM1D suppresses PC cell apoptosis via inhibition of the p38 MAPK/p53 pathway through both dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downregulation of ASPP2. Furthermore, PPM1D promotes PC tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PPM1D is an oncogene in PC. PMID:26714478

  14. Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...

  15. Polysulfides Link H2S to Protein Thiol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Romy; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Nagy, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is suggested to act as a gaseous signaling molecule in a variety of physiological processes. Its molecular mechanism of action was proposed to involve protein S-sulfhydration, that is, conversion of cysteinyl thiolates (Cys-S−) to persulfides (Cys-S-S−). A central and unresolved question is how H2S—that is, a molecule with sulfur in its lowest possible oxidation state (−2)—can lead to oxidative thiol modifications. Results: Using the lipid phosphatase PTEN as a model protein, we find that the “H2S donor” sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) leads to very rapid reversible oxidation of the enzyme in vitro. We identify polysulfides formed in NaHS solutions as the oxidizing species, and present evidence that sulfane sulfur is added to the active site cysteine. Polysulfide-mediated oxidation of PTEN was induced by all “H2S donors” tested, including sodium sulfide (Na2S), gaseous H2S, and morpholin-4-ium 4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate (GYY4137). Moreover, we show that polysulfides formed in H2S solutions readily modify PTEN inside intact cells. Innovation: Our results shed light on the previously unresolved question of how H2S leads to protein thiol oxidation, and suggest that polysulfides formed in solutions of H2S mediate this process. Conclusion: This study suggests that the effects that have been attributed to H2S in previous reports may in fact have been mediated by polysulfides. It also supports the notion that sulfane sulfur rather than sulfide is the actual in vivo agent of H2S signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1749–1765. PMID:23646934

  16. Search for Metastability of 2s Muonic Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Bernard Wilhelm

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) to establish the conditions for the metastability of the 2S-state of muonic neon. The muonic atoms were formed by stopping negative muons in the neon-filled target chamber of the PSI cyclotron trap. A pair of intrinsic germanium detectors were used in coincidence to search for the two photon decay of the 2S-state. Both energy and time information from two photon events were written to disk for off-line analysis. Data were accumulated for neon pressures of 40 and 400 Torr. The data were then searched for evidence of two photon transitions from the 2S-state. The germanium detectors were sensitive to the K-, L- and M- series x-ray photons (with energies between 10 and 300 keV) emitted during the cascade of the muonic neon ion. The detectors were also used alone to record single photon events of the K- and L-series x rays. The observed intensity ratios of the K-series x rays provided a lower limit on the initial population of the 2S-state. For the pressure condition of 40 Torr of neon, the 2S population was found to be 1.75% +/- .15% of the total cascade. The number of events at 40 Torr that could be attributed to two photon decays of the 2S-state was found to be 30 +/- 52 corresponding to a 2S population of 3.8% +/- 6.5%. At 400 Torr of neon the observed number of 2S two photon decays was 7 +/- 41, placing an upper limit on the 2S population at 0.9% +/- 5.1% of the total cascade. These results, to within the experimental uncertainties, can neither establish nor exclude the metastability of 2S muonic neon.

  17. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing. PMID:24803094

  18. Yeast TFIID Serves as a Coactivator for Rap1p by Direct Protein-Protein Interaction▿

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Krassimira A.; Tripathi, Manish K.; Cencki, Belgin; Layer, Justin H.; Weil, P. Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In vivo studies have previously shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein (RP) gene expression is controlled by the transcription factor repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1p) in a TFIID-dependent fashion. Here we have tested the hypothesis that yeast TFIID serves as a coactivator for RP gene transcription by directly interacting with Rap1p. We have found that purified recombinant Rap1p specifically interacts with purified TFIID in pull-down assays, and we have mapped the domains of Rap1p and subunits of TFIID responsible. In vitro transcription of a UASRAP1 enhancer-driven reporter gene requires both Rap1p and TFIID and is independent of the Fhl1p-Ifh1p coregulator. UASRAP1 enhancer-driven transactivation in extracts depleted of both Rap1p and TFIID is efficiently rescued by addition of physiological amounts of these two purified factors but not TATA-binding protein. We conclude that Rap1p and TFIID directly interact and that this interaction contributes importantly to RP gene transcription. PMID:17074814

  19. Optical model potential for deuteron elastic scattering with 1 p -shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Pang, D. Y.; Lou, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    A set of global optical potential parameters, DA1p, for deuterons with the 1 p -shell nuclei is obtained by simultaneously fitting 67 sets of experimental data of deuteron elastic scattering from 6Li, 9Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14N, 16O, and 18O with incident energies between 5.25 and 170 MeV. DA1p improves the description of the deuteron elastic scattering from the 1 p -shell nuclei with respect to the existing systematic deuteron potentials and can give satisfactory reproduction of the experimental data with radiative nuclei such as 9Li, 10Be, 14C, and 14O.

  20. Functional inactivation of the conserved Sem1p in yeast by intrabodies.

    PubMed

    Reinman, Mirka; Jäntti, Jussi; Alfthan, Kaija; Keränen, Sirkka; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina

    2003-09-01

    Intrabody technology was applied to characterize the function and intracellular localization of a highly conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sem1 protein. DSS1, the mammalian homologue of Sem1p, is functionally conserved between yeast and mammalian cells, and in mammalian cells physically interacts with the strong tumour supressor BRCA2. Yeast and the generated intrabodies are thus expected to offer a useful system for studies on Sem1p/DSS1 function. Sem1p-specific antibody isolated from a phage display library was expressed intracellularily and targeted to either the cytosol or the nucleus of yeast cells. Analysis of the applicability of different antibody fragments as intrabodies showed that the Fab intrabody was expressed most efficiently. Expression of nuclear-targeted anti-Sem1p Fab intrabodies inhibited the growth of the sigma1278b yeast strain in a manner similar to deletion of the SEM1 gene. This indicates that the Fab intrabodies interact in vivo with Sem1p and result in inactivation of Sem1p. Localization of the Fab intrabody with or without the nuclear localization signal to the nucleus in Sem1p-dependent manner suggests that Sem1p mediates the nuclear transport of the intrabody without any targeting signal. Our results suggest that Sem1p function in yeast cells is in part manifested in the nucleus. PMID:12961755

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of two 1-D and 2-D Dawson-based phosphotungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Junwei; Zheng Shoutian; Liu Wei; Yang Guoyu

    2008-03-15

    Two new Dawson-based phosphotungstates (H{sub 2}en){sub 0.5}H[Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(en){sub 2}]({alpha}{sub 1}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}CuO{sub 61}){r_brace}.8H{sub 2}O (1) (en=ethylenediamine) and [4,4'-H{sub 2}bpy]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 3}][Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(4,4'-bpy)][{alpha}-P{sub 2}W{sub 1=} 8O{sub 62}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.6H{sub 2}O (2) (4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=11.7626(17), b=13.246(2), c=29.350(5) A, {alpha}=87.355(5), {beta}=79.583(5), {gamma}=66.993(3){sup o}, V=4138.3(11) A{sup 3}, Z=2, GOF=1.089, R{sub 1}=0.0563 and wR{sub 2}=0.1505, whereas 2 belongs to the orthorhombic space group Iba2 with a=22.277(8), b=47.04(2), c=22.153(8) A, V=23215(17) A{sup 3}, Z=4, GOF=1.051, R{sub 1}=0.0627 and wR{sub 2}=0.1477. 1 consists of a 1-D linear chain structure constructed from monocopper{sup II}-substituted Dawson polyoxoanions, while 2 represents the first 2-D sheet-like structure with a (4,4)-connected topological net built up from plenary Dawson-type polyoxoanions and Cu{sup II}-4,4'-bpy complex cations in polyoxometalate chemistry. - Graphical abstract: Two Dawson-based phosphotungstates (H{sub 2}en){sub 0.5}H[Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(en){sub 2}]({alpha}{sub 1}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}CuO{sub 61}){r_brace}.8H{sub 2}O (1) and [4,4'-H{sub 2}bpy]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 3}][Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(4,4'-bpy)][{alpha}-P{sub 2}W{sub 1=} 8O{sub 62}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.6H{sub 2}O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 consists of a 1-D linear chain structure constructed from monocopper-substituted Dawson polyoxoanions, while 2 represents the first 2-D sheet-like structure with a (4,4)-connected topological net built up from saturated Dawson-type polyoxoanions and Cu{sup II}-4,4'-bpy complex cations in

  2. Yeast Skn7p activity is modulated by the Sln1p-Ypd1p osmosensor and contributes to regulation of the HOG pathway.

    PubMed

    Ketela, T; Brown, J L; Stewart, R C; Bussey, H

    1998-09-01

    Activation and control of the yeast HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) MAP kinase cascade is accomplished, in part, by a two-component sensory-response circuit comprised of the osmosensing histidine protein kinase Sln1p, the phospho-relay protein Ypd1p, and the response regulator protein Ssk1p. We found that deletion of SLN1 and/or YPD1 reduces reporter gene transcription driven by a second two-component response regulator -- Skn7p. The effect of sln1delta and ypd1delta mutations upon Skn7p activity is dependent on a functional two-component phosphorylation site (D427) in Skn7p, suggesting that Sln1p and Ypd1p may act as phosphodonors for Skn7p. We also observed that loss of PTC1 (a protein serine/threonine phosphatase implicated in negative control of the HOG pathway) in a skn7delta background results in severely retarded growth and in morphological defects. Deletion of either PBS2 or HOG1 alleviates the slow growth phenotype of ptc1delta skn7delta cells, suggesting that Skn7p may participate, in concert with known regulatory components, in modulating HOG pathway activity. The contribution of Skn7p to HOG pathway regulation appears to be modulated by the receiver domain, since non-phosphorylatable Skn7pD427N is unable to fully restore growth to ptc1/skn7 cells. PMID:9790591

  3. Genetic variation in aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) affects the expression and activity of multiple cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Yasuda, Kazuto; Yang, Xia; Fan, Yiping; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G

    2013-08-01

    Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network. PMID:23704699

  4. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-15

    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  5. EEF1D modulates proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Flores, Isadora L; Kawahara, Rebeca; Miguel, Márcia C C; Granato, Daniela C; Domingues, Romênia R; Macedo, Carolina C S; Carnielli, Carolina M; Yokoo, Sami; Rodrigues, Priscila C; Monteiro, Bárbara V B; Oliveira, Carine E; Salmon, Cristiane R; Nociti, Francisco H; Lopes, Márcio A; Santos-Silva, Alan; Winck, Flavia V; Coletta, Ricardo D; Paes Leme, Adriana F

    2016-05-01

    EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1δ) is a subunit of the elongation factor 1 complex of proteins that mediates the elongation process during protein synthesis via enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. Although the functions of EEF1D in the translation process are recognized, EEF1D expression was found to be unbalanced in tumours. In the present study, we demonstrate the overexpression of EEF1D in OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma), and revealed that EEF1D and protein interaction partners promote the activation of cyclin D1 and vimentin proteins. EEF1D knockdown in OSCC reduced cell proliferation and induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) phenotypes, including cell invasion. Taken together, these results define EEF1D as a critical inducer of OSCC proliferation and EMT. PMID:26823560

  6. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  7. Inp1p is a peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fagarasanu, Monica; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Tam, Yuen Yi C.; Aitchison, John D.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Cells have evolved molecular mechanisms for the efficient transmission of organelles during cell division. Little is known about how peroxisomes are inherited. Inp1p is a peripheral membrane protein of peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects both the morphology of peroxisomes and their partitioning during cell division. In vivo 4-dimensional video microscopy showed an inability of mother cells to retain a subset of peroxisomes in dividing cells lacking the INP1 gene, whereas cells overexpressing INP1 exhibited immobilized peroxisomes that failed to be partitioned to the bud. Overproduced Inp1p localized to both peroxisomes and the cell cortex, supporting an interaction of Inp1p with specific structures lining the cell periphery. The levels of Inp1p vary with the cell cycle. Inp1p binds Pex25p, Pex30p, and Vps1p, which have been implicated in controlling peroxisome division. Our findings are consistent with Inp1p acting as a factor that retains peroxisomes in cells and controls peroxisome division. Inp1p is the first peroxisomal protein directly implicated in peroxisome inheritance. PMID:15928207

  8. Yeast Mn2+ transporter, Smf1p, is regulated by ubiquitin-dependent vacuolar protein sorting.

    PubMed Central

    Eguez, Lorena; Chung, Young-Sook; Kuchibhatla, Ajay; Paidhungat, Madan; Garrett, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Conditional cdc1(Ts) mutants of S. cerevisiae arrest with a phenotype similar to that exhibited by Mn(2+)-depleted cells. Sequence similarity between Cdc1p and a class of Mn(2+)-dependent phosphoesterases, as well as the observation that conditional cdc1(Ts) growth can be ameliorated by Mn(2+) supplement, suggests that Cdc1p activity is sensitive to intracellular Mn(2+) levels. This article identifies several previously uncharacterized cdc1(Ts) suppressors as class E vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutants and shows that these, as well as other vps mutants, accumulate high levels of intracellular Mn(2+). Yeast VPS genes play a role in delivery of membrane transporters to the vacuole for degradation, and we show that the vps mutants accumulate elevated levels of the high-affinity Mn(2+) transporter Smf1p. cdc1(Ts) conditional growth is also alleviated by mutations, including doa4 and ubc4, that compromise protein ubiquitination, and these ubiquitination defects are associated with Smf1p accumulation. Epistasis studies show that these suppressors require functional Smf1p to alleviate the cdc1(Ts) growth defect, whereas Smf1p is dispensable for cdc1(Ts) suppression by a mutation (cos16/per1) that does not influence intracellular Mn(2+) levels. Because Smf1p is ubiquitinated in vivo, we propose that Smf1p is targeted to the vacuole for degradation by ubiquitination-dependent protein sorting. PMID:15166140

  9. Measurement of the muonium 1S-2S transition frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann, K.; Baird, P. E. G.; Barr, J. R. M.; Berkeland, D.; Boshier, M. G.; Braun, B.; Eaton, G. H.; Ferguson, A. I.; Geerds, H.; Hughes, V. W.; Maas, F.; Matthias, B. E.; Matousek, P.; Persaud, M.; Putlitz, G. zu; Reinhard, I.; Riis, E.; Sandars, P. G. H.; Schwarz, W.; Toner, W. T.

    1995-04-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy has been employed for measuring the 1{sup 2}S1/2-2{sup 2}S1/2 frequency difference in the hydrogen-like muonium atom to 2 455 529 002(33)(46) MHz. The 1S-2S two-photon transition was induced Doppler-free using two counter-propagating laser beams. The 2S state was photo-ionized by a third photon from the same laser field. The measurement agrees with QED theory within two standard deviations. The mass of the positive muon can be extracted from the isotope shifts in this transition to hydrogen and deuterium to 105.658 80(29)(43) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. 2. S. elevation of Engine Room, Boiler House and Pattern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. S. elevation of Engine Room, Boiler House and Pattern Room. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  11. Soft-Chemistry Forms of Sn 2P 2S 6and CuInP 2S 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, X.; Cajipe, V. B.

    1998-11-01

    We present our attempts to prepare lamellar SnP2S6and CuInP2S6by metathesis reactions in aqueous media. Use of a SnCl4precursor unexpectedly led to the formation of the three-dimensional compound SnII2P2S6rather than SnIVP2S6. The crystallites thus obtained were about 65 nm in size, i.e., much larger than those previously synthesized from SnCl2. We correlate this with the smaller Sn/P ratio (<1), which implies fewer nucleation sites and probably enhanced particle growth in the present case. The product tested positive for second-harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature (RT). Initial31P NMR-MAS spectroscopy data indicate that this material is in an intermediate state between the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases of crystalline Sn2P2S6. An analogous solution method readily yielded CuInP2S6, the first quaternary thiophosphate prepared via this soft-chemistry route. A rather small coherence length ≈27Å, equivalent to four layers, is found for this product; band broadening is also observed in the Raman spectrum. SHG measurements likewise revealed a signal for this material at RT; a non polar macroscopic state may, however, not be precluded, given the known order-disorder nature of the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition in crystalline CuInP2S6.

  12. Accurate ab initio double many-body expansion potential energy surface for ground-state H2S by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Song, Y Z; Varandas, A J C

    2009-04-01

    A single-sheeted potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground-state of H(2)S by fitting accurate multireference configuration interaction energies calculated using aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets with extrapolation of the electron correlation energy to the complete basis set limit, plus extrapolation to the complete basis set limit of the complete-active-space self-consistent field energy. A switching function formalism has been used to warrant the correct behavior at the H(2)(X (1)Sigma(g) (+))+S((1)D) and SH(X (2)Pi)+H((2)S) dissociation limits. The topographical features of the novel global potential energy surface are examined in detail, with the former being used for exploratory quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the thermal rate constant for the S((1)D)+H(2), S((1)D)+D(2), and S((1)D)+HD reactions at room temperature. A comparison with other available potential energy surfaces as well as kinetics data is also provided. PMID:19355742

  13. Predictions of exclusive ψ(2S) production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. P.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.; Teubner, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross section for exclusive ψ(2S) ultraperipheral production at the LHC is calculated using gluon parametrizations extracted from exclusive J/ψ measurements performed at HERA and the LHC. Predictions are given at leading and next-to-leading order for pp centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 14 TeV, assuming the non-relativistic approximation for the ψ(2S) wave function.

  14. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Pankey, Edward A.; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Edward, Justin A.; Swan, Kevin W.; Peak, Taylor C.; Mostany, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03–0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat. PMID:26071540

  15. The Yeast Sks1p Kinase Signaling Network Regulates Pseudohyphal Growth and Glucose Response

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cole; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Sheidy, Daniel; Shively, Christian A.; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Andrews, Philip C.; Kumar, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic growth transition from its unicellular form to a filamentous state, marked by the formation of pseudohyphal filaments of elongated and connected cells. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by signaling pathways responsive to reductions in the availability of nitrogen and glucose, but the molecular link between pseudohyphal filamentation and glucose signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identify the glucose-responsive Sks1p kinase as a signaling protein required for pseudohyphal growth induced by nitrogen limitation and coupled nitrogen/glucose limitation. To identify the Sks1p signaling network, we applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics, profiling over 900 phosphosites for phosphorylation changes dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity. From this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p. In particular, we analyzed the Y309 and S313 phosphosites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit Pda1p; these residues are required for pseudohyphal growth, and Y309A mutants exhibit phenotypes indicative of impaired aerobic respiration and decreased mitochondrial number. Epistasis studies place SKS1 downstream of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR1 and the G-protein RAS2 but upstream of or at the level of cAMP-dependent PKA. The pseudohyphal growth and glucose signaling transcription factors Flo8p, Mss11p, and Rgt1p are required to achieve wild-type SKS1 transcript levels. SKS1 is conserved, and deletion of the SKS1 ortholog SHA3 in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans results in abnormal colony morphology. Collectively, these results identify Sks1p as an important regulator of filamentation and glucose signaling, with additional relevance towards understanding stress-responsive signaling in C. albicans. PMID:24603354

  16. A conserved regulatory mode in exocytic membrane fusion revealed by Mso1p membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Zhao, Hongxia; Aro, Nina; Yuan, Qiang; Chernov, Konstantin; Peränen, Johan; Lappalainen, Pekka; Jäntti, Jussi

    2013-02-01

    Sec1/Munc18 family proteins are important components of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex-mediated membrane fusion processes. However, the molecular interactions and the mechanisms involved in Sec1p/Munc18 control and SNARE complex assembly are not well understood. We provide evidence that Mso1p, a Sec1p- and Sec4p-binding protein, interacts with membranes to regulate membrane fusion. We identify two membrane-binding sites on Mso1p. The N-terminal region inserts into the lipid bilayer and appears to interact with the plasma membrane, whereas the C-terminal region of the protein binds phospholipids mainly through electrostatic interactions and may associate with secretory vesicles. The Mso1p membrane interactions are essential for correct subcellular localization of Mso1p-Sec1p complexes and for membrane fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These characteristics are conserved in the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of β-amyloid precursor protein-binding Mint1, the mammalian homologue of Mso1p. Both Mint1 PTB domain and Mso1p induce vesicle aggregation/clustering in vitro, supporting a role in a membrane-associated process. The results identify Mso1p as a novel lipid-interacting protein in the SNARE complex assembly machinery. Furthermore, our data suggest that a general mode of interaction, consisting of a lipid-binding protein, a Rab family GTPase, and a Sec1/Munc18 family protein, is important in all SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events. PMID:23197474

  17. Crystal Structure of a Ube2S-Ubiquitin Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Sonja; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Feiler, Christian; Rape, Michael; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination occurs through the sequential formation and reorganization of specific protein-protein interfaces. Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes, such as Ube2S, catalyze the formation of an isopeptide linkage between the C-terminus of a "donor" ubiquitin and a primary amino group of an "acceptor" ubiquitin molecule. This reaction involves an intermediate, in which the C-terminus of the donor ubiquitin is thioester-bound to the active site cysteine of the E2 and a functionally important interface is formed between the two proteins. A docked model of a Ube2S-donor ubiquitin complex was generated previously, based on chemical shift mapping by NMR, and predicted contacts were validated in functional studies. We now present the crystal structure of a covalent Ube2S-ubiquitin complex. The structure contains an interface between Ube2S and ubiquitin in trans that resembles the earlier model in general terms, but differs in detail. The crystallographic interface is more hydrophobic than the earlier model and is stable in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Remarkably, the docked Ube2S-donor complex converges readily to the configuration seen in the crystal structure in 3 out of 8 MD trajectories. Since the crystallographic interface is fully consistent with mutational effects, this indicates that the structure provides an energetically favorable representation of the functionally critical Ube2S-donor interface. PMID:26828794

  18. Crystal Structure of a Ube2S-Ubiquitin Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Sonja; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Feiler, Christian; Rape, Michael; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination occurs through the sequential formation and reorganization of specific protein-protein interfaces. Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes, such as Ube2S, catalyze the formation of an isopeptide linkage between the C-terminus of a “donor” ubiquitin and a primary amino group of an “acceptor” ubiquitin molecule. This reaction involves an intermediate, in which the C-terminus of the donor ubiquitin is thioester-bound to the active site cysteine of the E2 and a functionally important interface is formed between the two proteins. A docked model of a Ube2S-donor ubiquitin complex was generated previously, based on chemical shift mapping by NMR, and predicted contacts were validated in functional studies. We now present the crystal structure of a covalent Ube2S-ubiquitin complex. The structure contains an interface between Ube2S and ubiquitin in trans that resembles the earlier model in general terms, but differs in detail. The crystallographic interface is more hydrophobic than the earlier model and is stable in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Remarkably, the docked Ube2S-donor complex converges readily to the configuration seen in the crystal structure in 3 out of 8 MD trajectories. Since the crystallographic interface is fully consistent with mutational effects, this indicates that the structure provides an energetically favorable representation of the functionally critical Ube2S-donor interface. PMID:26828794

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} with mixed-valent Ge centers

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu

    2013-10-15

    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å{sup 3} and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain and a [(dien){sub 2}Mn]{sup 2+} complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV–vis spectra. - Graphical abstract: One new thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}, contains a one-dimensional [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain with two different oxidation states of germanium centers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One new manganese thiogermanate [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} was prepared. • The compound features 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain composed of [Ge{sup II}S{sub 4}] and [Ge{sup IV}S{sub 4}] tetrahedra. • The first example of inorganic–organic hybrid thiogermanates with mixed valent Ge centers.

  20. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  1. Endogenous N-terminal Domain Cleavage Modulates α1D-Adrenergic Receptor Pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kountz, Timothy S; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Aggarwal-Howarth, Stacey; Curran, Elizabeth; Park, Ji-Min; Harris, Dorathy-Ann; Stewart, Aaron; Hendrickson, Joseph; Camp, Nathan D; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Wang, Edith H; Scott, John D; Hague, Chris

    2016-08-26

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1D) is a key regulator of cardiovascular, prostate, and central nervous system functions. This clinically relevant G protein-coupled receptor has proven difficult to study, as it must form an obligate modular homodimer containing the PDZ proteins scribble and syntrophin or become retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as non-functional protein. We previously determined that targeted removal of the N-terminal (NT) 79 amino acids facilitates ADRA1D plasma membrane expression and agonist-stimulated functional responses. However, whether such an event occurs in physiological contexts was unknown. Herein, we report the ADRA1D is subjected to innate NT processing in cultured human cells. SNAP near-infrared imaging and tandem-affinity purification revealed the ADRA1D is expressed as both full-length and NT truncated forms in multiple human cell lines. Serial truncation mapping identified the cleavage site as Leu(90)/Val(91) in the 95-amino acid ADRA1D NT domain, suggesting human cells express a Δ1-91 ADRA1D species. Tandem-affinity purification MS/MS and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicate NT processing of ADRA1D is not required to form scribble-syntrophin macromolecular complexes. Yet, label-free dynamic mass redistribution signaling assays demonstrate that Δ1-91 ADRA1D agonist responses were greater than WT ADRA1D. Mutagenesis of the cleavage site nullified the processing event, resulting in ADRA1D agonist responses less than the WT receptor. Thus, we propose that processing of the ADRA1D NT domain is a physiological mechanism employed by cells to generate a functional ADRA1D isoform with optimal pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:27382054

  2. Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.

    2015-09-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63.) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.

  3. A protein required for nuclear-protein import, Mog1p, directly interacts with GTP-Gsp1p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ran homologue.

    PubMed

    Oki, M; Nishimoto, T

    1998-12-22

    We previously isolated 25 temperature-sensitive gsp1 alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran homologue, each of which possesses amino acid changes that differ from each other. We report here isolation of three multicopy suppressors-PDE2, NTF2, and a gene designated MOG1-all of which rescued a growth defect of these gsp1 strains. The gsp1 suppression occurred even in the absence of GSP2, another S. cerevisiae GSP1-like gene. Previously, NTF2 was reported to suppress gsp1 but not PDE2. Mog1p, with a calculated molecular mass of 24 kDa, was found to be encoded by the yeast ORF YJR074W. Both MOG1 and NTF2 suppressed a series of gsp1 alleles with similar efficiency, and both suppressed gsp1 even with a single gene dose. Consistent with the high efficiency of gsp1 suppression, Mog1p directly bound to GTP, but not to GDP-Gsp1p. The disruption of MOG1 made yeast temperature-sensitive for growth. Deltamog1, which was suppressed by overexpression of NTF2, was found to have a defect in both classic and nonclassic nuclear localization signal-dependent nuclear-protein imports, but not in mRNA export. Thus, Mog1p, which was localized in the nucleus, is a Gsp1p-binding protein involved in nuclear-protein import and that functionally interacts with Ntf2p. Furthermore, the finding that PDE2 suppressed both gsp1 and rna1-1 indicates that the Ran GTPase cycle is regulated by the Ras-cAMP pathway. PMID:9860978

  4. Hadronic Production of psi(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of {psi}(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb{sup -1} and 800 pb{sup -1}, respectively. The decay {psi}(2S) {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} is used to reconstruct {psi}(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y({psi}(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the p{sub T} range is 2.0 GeV/c {le} p{sub T} ({psi}(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT {ge} 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with p{sub T} ({psi}(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced {psi}(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as p{sub T} increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Stm1p facilitates ribosome preservation during quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Natalya; Chanchorn, Ekkawit; Van Dyke, Michael W.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p confers increased resistance to the macrolide starvation-mimic rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p maintains 80S ribosome integrity during stationary phase-induced quiescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates polysome formation following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates protein synthesis following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p is a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation. -- Abstract: Once cells exhaust nutrients from their environment, they enter an alternative resting state known as quiescence, whereby proliferation ceases and essential nutrients are obtained through internal stores and through the catabolism of existing macromolecules and organelles. One example of this is ribophagy, the degradation of ribosomes through the process of autophagy. However, some ribosomes need to be preserved for an anticipated recovery from nutrient deprivation. We found that the ribosome-associated protein Stm1p greatly increases the quantity of 80S ribosomes present in quiescent yeast cells and that these ribosomes facilitate increased protein synthesis rates once nutrients are restored. These findings suggest that Stm1p can act as a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation and restoration.

  6. Evidence that the Yeast Desaturase Ole1p Exists as a Dimer In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2010-06-18

    Desaturase enzymes are composed of two classes, the structurally well characterized soluble class found predominantly in the plastids of higher plants and the more widely distributed but poorly structurally defined integral membrane class. Despite their distinct evolutionary origins, the two classes both require an iron cofactor and molecular oxygen for activity and are inhibited by azide and cyanide, suggesting strong mechanistic similarities. The fact that the soluble desaturase is active as a homodimer prompted us test the hypothesis that an archetypal integral membrane desaturase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the {Delta}{sup o}-acyl-Co-A desaturase Ole1p, also exhibits a dimeric organization. Ole1p was chosen because it is one of the best characterized integral membrane desaturase and because it retains activity when fused with epitope tags. FLAG-Ole1p was detected by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates in which anti-Myc antibodies were used for capture from yeast extracts co-expressing Ole1p-Myc and Ole1p-FLAG. Interaction was confirmed by two independent bimolecular complementation assays (i.e. the split ubiquitin system and the split luciferase system). Co-expression of active and inactive Ole1p subunits resulted in an {approx}75% suppression of the accumulation of palmitoleic acid, demonstrating that the physiologically active form of Ole1p in vivo is the dimer in which both protomers must be functional.

  7. The vascular S1P gradient—Cellular sources and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Hla, Timothy; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Michaud, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingomyelin metabolism, is enriched in the circulatory system whereas it is estimated to be much lower in interstitial fluids of tissues. This concentration gradient, termed the vascular S1P gradient appears to form as a result of substrate availability and the action of metabolic enzymes. S1P levels in blood and lymph are estimated to be in the μM range. In the immune system, the S1P gradient is needed as a spatial cue for lymphocyte and hematopoietic cell trafficking. During inflammatory reactions in which enhanced vascular permeability occurs, a burst of S1P becomes available to its receptors in the extravascular compartment, which likely contributes to the tissue reactions. Thus, the presence of the vascular S1P gradient is thought to contribute to physiological and pathological conditions. From an evolutionary perspective, S1P receptors may have co-evolved with the advent of a closed vascular system and the trafficking paradigms for hematopoietic cells to navigate in and out of the vascular system. PMID:18674637

  8. Regulation of a formin complex by the microtubule plus end protein tea1p.

    PubMed

    Feierbach, Becket; Verde, Fulvia; Chang, Fred

    2004-06-01

    The plus ends of microtubules have been speculated to regulate the actin cytoskeleton for the proper positioning of sites of cell polarization and cytokinesis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, interphase microtubules and the kelch repeat protein tea1p regulate polarized cell growth. Here, we show that tea1p is directly deposited at cell tips by microtubule plus ends. Tea1p associates in large "polarisome" complexes with bud6p and for3p, a formin that assembles actin cables. Tea1p also interacts in a separate complex with the CLIP-170 protein tip1p, a microtubule plus end-binding protein that anchors tea1p to the microtubule plus end. Localization experiments suggest that tea1p and bud6p regulate formin distribution and actin cable assembly. Although single mutants still polarize, for3Deltabud6Deltatea1Delta triple-mutant cells lack polarity, indicating that these proteins contribute overlapping functions in cell polarization. Thus, these experiments begin to elucidate how microtubules contribute to the proper spatial regulation of actin assembly and polarized cell growth. PMID:15184402

  9. Single minded 2-s (SIM2-s) gene is expressed in human GBM cells and involved in GBM invasion.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaowei; Li, Gang; Su, Yuhang; Shen, Jie; Liu, Qinglin; Ma, Xiangyu; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Jian

    2010-03-15

    The human single-minded 2 (SIM2) gene is mapped within the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) of chromosome 21 and its short splice variant SIM2-s is suggested to be a molecular target for cancer therapy. It has been shown that SIM2-s is expressed in colon, pancreatic and prostate tumors but not in their corresponding normal tissues. In present study, we found that SIM2-s was expressed in glioma tissues as well as in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines but not in other brain tumors or normal cortex. The invasive potential of GBM cells was significantly decreased by RNA interference targeting SIM2-s, while the proliferation was not affected. Further investigation showed that the mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were downregulated in cells treated with SIM2-s siRNA, concomitance with the upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Moreover, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 was clearly decreased. Our results collectively suggested that SIM2-s expressed in gliomas selectively and played a role in GBM cells invasion, which may be partly associated with the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. PMID:20448453

  10. 1p/19q codeletion and RET rearrangements in small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongyang; Xu, Haimiao; Xie, Fajun; Qin, Jing; Han, Na; Fan, Yun; Mao, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is poor despite reports suggesting modest improvement in survival. To date, chemotherapy remains the cornerstone treatment for SCLC patients, and many studies have focused on identifying the molecular characteristics of SCLC, which serve as the basis for precision treatments that improve the prognosis of SCLC. For instance, the therapeutic effect of temozolomide, recommended for patients with relapsed SCLC, is linked to 1p/19q codeletion in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. A subpopulation of SCLC patients may derive benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting RET. In order to identify 1p/19q codeletion and RET rearrangement in SCLC patients, 32 SCLC resected specimens were retrospectively collected between 2008 and 2014 from the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital in People’s Republic of China. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect 1p/19q codeletion and RET rearrangement in the specimens. A 1p single deletion was detected in eight specimens, 19q single deletion was detected in three specimens, and only three specimens had a 1p/19q codeletion. None of the specimens had a RET rearrangement. The three patients whose specimens had a 1p/19q codeletion were alive after 58, 50, and 30 months of follow-up care. There was a trend toward prolonged overall survival for the patients with codeletion compared to no codeletion, 1p single deletion, 19q single deletion, and without 1p and 19q deletion (P=0.113, 0.168, 0.116, and 0.122, respectively). Our data showed that RET rearrangement may be not an ideal molecular target for SCLC therapies in People’s Republic of China. Instead, 1p/19q codeletion is a promising marker for a good prognosis and treatment with temozolomide in SCLC. PMID:27366094

  11. A conserved regulatory mode in exocytic membrane fusion revealed by Mso1p membrane interactions

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Zhao, Hongxia; Aro, Nina; Yuan, Qiang; Chernov, Konstantin; Peränen, Johan; Lappalainen, Pekka; Jäntti, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Sec1/Munc18 family proteins are important components of soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex–mediated membrane fusion processes. However, the molecular interactions and the mechanisms involved in Sec1p/Munc18 control and SNARE complex assembly are not well understood. We provide evidence that Mso1p, a Sec1p- and Sec4p-binding protein, interacts with membranes to regulate membrane fusion. We identify two membrane-binding sites on Mso1p. The N-terminal region inserts into the lipid bilayer and appears to interact with the plasma membrane, whereas the C-terminal region of the protein binds phospholipids mainly through electrostatic interactions and may associate with secretory vesicles. The Mso1p membrane interactions are essential for correct subcellular localization of Mso1p–Sec1p complexes and for membrane fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These characteristics are conserved in the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of β-amyloid precursor protein–binding Mint1, the mammalian homologue of Mso1p. Both Mint1 PTB domain and Mso1p induce vesicle aggregation/clustering in vitro, supporting a role in a membrane-associated process. The results identify Mso1p as a novel lipid-interacting protein in the SNARE complex assembly machinery. Furthermore, our data suggest that a general mode of interaction, consisting of a lipid-binding protein, a Rab family GTPase, and a Sec1/Munc18 family protein, is important in all SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events. PMID:23197474

  12. Novel airway findings in a patient with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferril, Geoffrey R; Barham, Henry P; Prager, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    1p36 deletion syndrome comprises a phenotypic presentation that includes central nervous system, cardiac, and craniofacial anomalies. There has been no report of associated airway anomalies with this syndrome. We present here a case report and literature review. Prenatally, amniocentesis for chromosomal analysis was performed on our patient, with results consistent with 1p36 deletion syndrome. Respiratory distress and unsuccessful attempts at intubation prompted transfer to Children's Hospital of Colorado. Microlaryngoscopy was subsequently performed, revealing a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and unidentifiable larynx. Emergent tracheostomy was then performed to secure the airway. Airway anomalies may be associated with 1p36 deletion syndrome. PMID:24290305

  13. Translocation involving 1p and 17q is a recurrent genetic alteration of human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savelyeva, L.; Corvi, R.; Schwab, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Human neuroblastoma cells often are monosomic for the distal portion of 1p (1p36). The authors report that the deleted 1p material in cells of neuroblastoma lines is preferentially replaced by material from chromosome 17, resulting from an unbalanced 1;17 translocation. Chromosome 17 often acquires instability, followed by the integration of fragments into various marker chromosomes. As a consequence, 17q material can increase over 17p material. The nonrandom frequency of 1;17 translocations appears to indicate an as-yet-undefined contribution to neuroblastoma development. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-01-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  15. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-07-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  16. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  17. Diffractive photoproduction of ψ(2 S) mesons at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Brückner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; İşsever, Ç.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Kurča, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Mangano, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Nellen, G.; Newman, P. R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rädel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner, T.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.; H1 Collaboration

    2002-08-01

    Results on diffractive photoproduction of ψ(2 S) mesons are presented using data collected between 1996 and 2000 with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77 pb -1. The energy dependence of the diffractive ψ(2 S) cross section is found to be similar to or possibly somewhat steeper than that for J/ ψ mesons. The dependences of the elastic and proton dissociative ψ(2 S) photoproduction cross sections on the squared momentum transfer t at the proton vertex are measured. The t-dependence of the elastic channel, parametrised as ebt, yields belψ(2 S) =(4.31±0.57±0.46) GeV -2, compatible with that of the J/ ψ. For the proton dissociative channel the result bpdψ(2 S) =(0.59±0.13±0.12) GeV -2 is 2.3 standard deviations smaller than that measured for the J/ ψ. With proper account of the individual wavefunctions theoretical predictions based on perturbative QCD are found to describe the measurements well.

  18. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27171200

  19. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. PMID:26769064

  20. A Membrane Reactor for H2S Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, D.

    1996-12-31

    This program consisted of experimental evaluation of new metal- membrane compositions, experimental evaluation of the corrosion resistance of structural alloys and coatings for use in fabricating membrane reactors, development and evaluation of new membrane reactor designs, and economic analysis of the membrane reactor-based process for H{sub 2}S thermolysis and membrane-reactor fabrication. The results are described. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that the membrane-reactor process will ultimately be a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and environmentally acceptable means for the separation and treatment of H{sub 2}S from hot coal-gasifier streams. We estimate that the proposed process will separate and decompose H{sub 2}S at a cost that is one-half to one-fifth that of conventional technology for this application-amine scrubbers coupled with the Claus process.

  1. Sensing properties of assembled Bi2S3 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakova, G.; Meija, R.; Bite, I.; Prikulis, J.; Kosmaca, J.; Varghese, J.; Holmes, J. D.; Erts, Donats

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanowires were grown in porous aluminium oxide template and a selective chemical etching was applied to transfer the nanowires to a solution. Well aligned nanowire arrays were assembled on pre-patterned silicon substrates employing dielectrophoresis. Electron beam lithography was used to connect aligned individual nanowires to the common macroelectrode. In order to evaluate the conductometric sensing performance of the Bi2S3 nanowires, current-voltage characteristics were measured at different relative humidity (RH) levels (5-80%) / argon medium. The response of the Bi2S3 nanowires depending of RH is found to be considerably different from those reported for other types of nanowire RH sensor devices.

  2. The identification and characterization of a novel splicing protein, Isy1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Dix, I; Russell, C; Yehuda, S B; Kupiec, M; Beggs, J D

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a novel splicing factor, Isy1p, through two-hybrid screens for interacting proteins involved in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing. Isy1p was tagged and demonstrated to be part of the splicing machinery, associated with spliceosomes throughout the splicing reactions. At least a portion of the Isy1 protein population is associated with snRNAs; low levels of U5 and U6 snRNAs are coimmunoprecipitated specifically with Isy1p. When the ISY1 gene was knocked out, no defect in vegetative growth was observed. Using a sensitive in vivo splicing assay, however, we observed lower splicing efficiency in the isy1 null mutant compared to wild-type, indicating that Isy1 p is important in the optimization of splicing. PMID:10094305

  3. Involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hydrolase Ldh1p in lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Thoms, Sven; Connerth, Melanie; Daum, Günther; Erdmann, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Here, we report the functional characterization of the newly identified lipid droplet hydrolase Ldh1p. Recombinant Ldh1p exhibits esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities. Mutation of the serine in the hydrolase/lipase motif GXSXG completely abolished esterase activity. Ldh1p is required for the maintenance of a steady-state level of the nonpolar and polar lipids of lipid droplets. A characteristic feature of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δldh1 strain is the appearance of giant lipid droplets and an excessive accumulation of nonpolar lipids and phospholipids upon growth on medium containing oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Ldh1p is thought to play a role in maintaining the lipid homeostasis in yeast by regulating both phospholipid and nonpolar lipid levels. PMID:21478434

  4. Observation of {chi}{sub bJ}(1P,2P) decays to light hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.

    2008-11-01

    Analyzing {upsilon}(nS) decays acquired with the CLEO detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we measure for the first time the product branching fractions B[{upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}((n-1)P)]B[{chi}{sub bJ}(n-1)P){yields}X{sub i}] for n=2 and 3, where X{sub i} denotes, for each i, one of the 14 exclusive light-hadron final states for which we observe significant signals in both {chi}{sub bJ}(1P) and {chi}{sub bJ}(2P) decays. We also determine upper limits for the electric dipole (E1) transitions {upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}(1P)

  5. Pathway specific modulation of S1P1 receptor signalling in rat and human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Luke M; Sheridan, Graham K; Pritchard, Adam J; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific. Experimental Approach Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered. Key Results The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface. PMID:23587004

  6. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m. PMID:19002228

  7. Photocatalytic Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manna, Goutam; Bose, Riya; Pradhan, Narayan

    2014-06-23

    Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructure photocatalysts were designed in which the coupling of a metal plasmon and a semiconductor exciton aids the absorption of solar light, enhances charge separation, and results in improved catalytic activity. Furthermore, these nanostructures show a unique pattern of structural combination, with Au nanoparticles positioned at the center of Bi2S3 nanorods. The chemistry of formation of these nanostructures, their epitaxy at the junction, and their photoconductance were studied, as well as their photoresponse properties. PMID:24844409

  8. Assay Methods for H2S Biogenesis and Catabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ruma; Chiku, Taurai; Kabil, Omer; Libiad, Marouane; Motl, Nicole; Yadav, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced from sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and homocysteine, or a catabolite, 3-mercaptopyruvate, by three known enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, γ-cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Of these, the first two enzymes reside in the cytoplasm and comprise the transsulfuration pathway, while the third enzyme is found both in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondrion. The following mitochondrial enzymes oxidize H2S: sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, sulfur dioxygenase, rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase. The products of the sulfide oxidation pathway are thiosulfate and sulfate. Assays for enzymes involved in the production and oxidative clearance of sulfide to thiosulfate are described in this chapter. PMID:25725523

  9. Assay methods for H2S biogenesis and catabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ruma; Chiku, Taurai; Kabil, Omer; Libiad, Marouane; Motl, Nicole; Yadav, Pramod K

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced from sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and homocysteine, or a catabolite, 3-mercaptopyruvate, by three known enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, γ-cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Of these, the first two enzymes reside in the cytoplasm and comprise the transsulfuration pathway, while the third enzyme is found both in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondrion. The following mitochondrial enzymes oxidize H2S: sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, sulfur dioxygenase, rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase. The products of the sulfide oxidation pathway are thiosulfate and sulfate. Assays for enzymes involved in the production and oxidative clearance of sulfide to thiosulfate are described in this chapter. PMID:25725523

  10. Tfs1p, a Member of the PEBP Family, Inhibits the Ira2p but Not the Ira1p Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chautard, Hélène; Jacquet, Michel; Schoentgen, Françoise; Bureaud, Nicole; Bénédetti, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Ras proteins are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. They are involved in signal transduction pathways and are tightly regulated by two sets of antagonistic proteins: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) inhibit Ras proteins, whereas guanine exchange factors activate them. In this work, we describe Tfs1p, the first physiological inhibitor of a Ras GAP, Ira2p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TFS1 is a multicopy suppressor of the cdc25-1 mutation in yeast and corresponds to the so-called Ic CPY cytoplasmic inhibitor. Moreover, Tfs1p belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, one member of which is RKIP, a kinase and serine protease inhibitor and a metastasis inhibitor in prostate cancer. In this work, the results of (i) a two-hybrid screen of a yeast genomic library, (ii) glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments, (iii) multicopy suppressor tests of cdc25-1 mutants, and (iv) stress resistance tests to evaluate the activation level of Ras demonstrate that Tfs1p interacts with and inhibits Ira2p. We further show that the conserved ligand-binding pocket of Tfs1—the hallmark of the PEBP family—is important for its inhibitory activity. PMID:15075275

  11. Loss of CDC5 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to defects in Swe1p regulation and Bfa1p/Bub2p-independent cytokinesis.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Jin; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Philip R; Shou, Wenying; Deshaies, Raymond J; Lee, Kyung S

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, polo kinases appear to play multiple roles during M-phase progression. To provide new insights into the function of budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5p, we generated novel temperature-sensitive cdc5 mutants by mutagenizing the C-terminal domain. Here we show that, at a semipermissive temperature, the cdc5-3 mutant exhibited a synergistic bud elongation and growth defect with loss of HSL1, a component important for normal G(2)/M transition. Loss of SWE1, which phosphorylates and inactivates the budding yeast Cdk1 homolog Cdc28p, suppressed the cdc5-3 hsl1Delta defect, suggesting that Cdc5p functions at a point upstream of Swe1p. In addition, the cdc5-4 and cdc5-7 mutants exhibited chained cell morphologies with shared cytoplasms between the connected cell bodies, indicating a cytokinetic defect. Close examination of these mutants revealed delayed septin assembly at the incipient bud site and loosely organized septin rings at the mother-bud neck. Components in the mitotic exit network (MEN) play important roles in normal cytokinesis. However, loss of BFA1 or BUB2, negative regulators of the MEN, failed to remedy the cytokinetic defect of these mutants, indicating that Cdc5p promotes cytokinesis independently of Bfa1p and Bub2p. Thus, Cdc5p contributes to the activation of the Swe1p-dependent Cdc28p/Clb pathway, normal septin function, and cytokinesis. PMID:12586693

  12. A Role for Myosin-I in Actin Assembly through Interactions with Vrp1p, Bee1p, and the Arp2/3 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Marie; Klebl, Bert M.; Tong, Amy H.Y.; Webb, Bradley A.; Leeuw, Thomas; Leberer, Ekkehard; Whiteway, Malcolm; Thomas, David Y.; Boone, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Type I myosins are highly conserved actin-based molecular motors that localize to the actin-rich cortex and participate in motility functions such as endocytosis, polarized morphogenesis, and cell migration. The COOH-terminal tail of yeast myosin-I proteins, Myo3p and Myo5p, contains an Src homology domain 3 (SH3) followed by an acidic domain. The myosin-I SH3 domain interacted with both Bee1p and Vrp1p, yeast homologues of human WASP and WIP, adapter proteins that link actin assembly and signaling molecules. The myosin-I acidic domain interacted with Arp2/3 complex subunits, Arc40p and Arc19p, and showed both sequence similarity and genetic redundancy with the COOH-terminal acidic domain of Bee1p (Las17p), which controls Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation. These findings suggest that myosin-I proteins may participate in a diverse set of motility functions through a role in actin assembly. PMID:10648568

  13. Drc1p/Cps1p, a 1,3-beta-glucan synthase subunit, is essential for division septum assembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Wang, H; McCollum, D; Balasubramanian, M K

    1999-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe divides by medial fission through the use of an actomyosin-based contractile ring. A division septum is formed centripetally, concomitant with ring constriction. Although several genes essential for cytokinesis have been described previously, enzymes that participate in the assembly of the division septum have not been identified. Here we describe a temperature-sensitive mutation, drc1-191, that prevents division septum assembly and causes mutant cells to arrest with a stable actomyosin ring. Unlike the previously characterized cytokinesis mutants, which undergo multiple mitotic cycles, drc1-191 is the first cytokinesis mutant that arrests with two interphase nuclei. Interestingly, unlike drc1-191, drc1-null mutants proceed through multiple mitotic cycles, leading to the formation of large cells with many nuclei. drc1 is allelic to cps1, which encodes a 1,3-beta-glucan synthase subunit. We conclude that Drc1p/Cps1p is not required for cell elongation and cell growth, but plays an essential role in assembly of the division septum. Furthermore, it appears that constriction of the actomyosin ring might depend on assembly of the division septum. We discuss possible mechanisms that account for the differences in the phenotypes of the drc1-191 and the drc1-null mutants and also reflect the potential links between Drc1p and other cytokinesis regulators. PMID:10545452

  14. S1P lyase: a novel therapeutic target for ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Honbo, Norman; Wang, Guan-Ying; Jin, Zhu-Qiu; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Dillard, Lisa; Karliner, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contributes to ischemic preconditioning. S1P lyase (SPL) is a stress-activated enzyme responsible for irreversible S1P catabolism. We hypothesized that SPL contributes to oxidative stress by depleting S1P pools available for cardioprotective signaling. Accordingly, we evaluated SPL inhibition as a strategy for reducing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We measured SPL expression and enzyme activity in murine hearts. Basal SPL activity was low in wild-type cardiac tissue but was activated in response to 50 min of ischemia (n = 5, P < 0.01). Hearts of heterozygous SPL knockout mice exhibited reduced SPL activity, elevated S1P levels, smaller infarct size, and increased functional recovery after I/R compared with littermate controls (n = 5, P < 0.01). The small molecule tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) is a Federal Drug Administration-approved food additive that inhibits SPL. When given overnight at 25 mg/l in drinking water, THI raised S1P levels and reduced SPL activity (n = 5, P < 0.01). THI reduced infarct size and enhanced hemodynamic recovery in response to 50 min of ischemia and to 40 min of reperfusion in ex vivo hearts (n = 7, P < .01). These data correlated with an increase in MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation levels after I/R, suggesting that SPL inhibition enhances protein translation. Pretreatment with an S1P1 and S1P3 receptor antagonist partially reversed the effects of THI. These results reveal, for the first time, that SPL is an ischemia-induced enzyme that can be targeted as a novel strategy for preventing cardiac I/R injury. PMID:21335477

  15. FXR1P is a GSK3β substrate regulating mood and emotion processing

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Latapy, Camille; Rampino, Antonio; Khlghatyan, Jivan; Lemasson, Morgane; Gelao, Barbara; Quarto, Tiziana; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Barbeau, Annie; Lamarre, Claude; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a shared action believed to be involved in the regulation of behavior by psychoactive drugs such as antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. However, little is known about the identity of the substrates through which GSK3β affects behavior. We identified fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1P), a RNA binding protein associated to genetic risk for schizophrenia, as a substrate for GSK3β. Phosphorylation of FXR1P by GSK3β is facilitated by prior phosphorylation by ERK2 and leads to its down-regulation. In contrast, behaviorally effective chronic mood stabilizer treatments in mice inhibit GSK3β and increase FXR1P levels. In line with this, overexpression of FXR1P in the mouse prefrontal cortex also leads to comparable mood-related responses. Furthermore, functional genetic polymorphisms affecting either FXR1P or GSK3β gene expression interact to regulate emotional brain responsiveness and stability in humans. These observations uncovered a GSK3β/FXR1P signaling pathway that contributes to regulating mood and emotion processing. Regulation of FXR1P by GSK3β also provides a mechanistic framework that may explain how inhibition of GSK3β can contribute to the regulation of mood by psychoactive drugs in mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. Moreover, this pathway could potentially be implicated in other biological functions, such as inflammation and cell proliferation, in which FXR1P and GSK3 are known to play a role. PMID:26240334

  16. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  17. Adsorption of insoluble polysulfides Li2S(x) (x = 1, 2) on Li2S surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiao; Hubble, Dion; Balbuena, Perla B; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2015-04-14

    In lithium-sulfur batteries, the growth of insulating discharge product Li2S film affects the cathode microstructure and the related electron as well as lithium ion transport properties. In this study, chemical reactions of insoluble lithium polysulfides Li2Sx (x = 1, 2) on crystal Li2S substrate are investigated by a first-principles approach. First-principles atomistic thermodynamics predicts that the stoichiometric (111) and (110) surfaces are stable around the operating cell voltage. Li2Sx adsorption is an exothermic reaction with the (110) surface being more active to react with the polysulfides than the stoichiometric (111) surface. There is no obvious charge transfer between the adsorbed molecule and the crystal Li2S substrate. Analysis of the charge density difference suggests that the adsorbate interacts with the substrate via a strong covalent bond. The growth mechanism of thermodynamically stable surfaces is investigated in the present study. It is found that direct Li2S deposition is energetically favored over Li2S2 deposition and reduction process. PMID:25752296

  18. Role of the α-Glucanase Agn1p in Fission-Yeast Cell Separation

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Nick; Speijer, Dave; Grün, Christian H.; van den Berg, Marlene; de Haan, Annett; Hochstenbach, Frans

    2004-01-01

    Cell division in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe yields two equal-sized daughter cells. Medial fission is achieved by deposition of a primary septum flanked by two secondary septa within the dividing cell. During the final step of cell division, cell separation, the primary septum is hydrolyzed by an endo-(1,3)-β-glucanase, Eng1p. We reasoned that the cell wall material surrounding the septum, referred to here as the septum edging, also must be hydrolyzed before full separation of the daughter cells can occur. Because the septum edging contains (1,3)-α-glucan, we investigated the cellular functions of the putative (1,3)-α-glucanases Agn1p and Agn2p. Whereas agn2 deletion results in a defect in endolysis of the ascus wall, deletion of agn1 leads to clumped cells that remained attached to each other by septum-edging material. Purified Agn1p hydrolyzes (1,3)-α-glucan predominantly into pentasaccharides, indicating an endo-catalytic mode of hydrolysis. Furthermore, we show that the transcription factors Sep1p and Ace2p regulate both eng1 and agn1 expression in a cell cycle-dependent manner. We propose that Agn1p acts in concert with Eng1p to achieve efficient cell separation, thereby exposing the secondary septa as the new ends of the daughter cells. PMID:15194814

  19. Hyaluroan-regulated lymphatic permeability through S1P receptors is crucial for cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengsi; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Du, Yan; Wu, Man; Zhang, Guoliang; Yang, Cuixia; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cancer lymphatic vessel barrier function occurs has been reported to involve in cancer lymphatic metastasis. Hyaluronan (HA), a major glycosaminoglycan component of the extracellular matrix, is associated with cancer metastasis. We investigated the effect of high/low molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA/LMW-HA) on regulation of barrier function and tight junctions in cancer lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer. Results showed that LMW-HA increased the permeability of cancer LEC monolayers and induced disruption of Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1)-mediated intercellular tight junction and actin stress fiber formation. HMW-HA treatment decreased permeability in cancer LEC monolayers and cortical actin ring formation. As reported, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are involved in vascular integrity. After silencing of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), upregulation of S1P receptors (S1P1 and S1P3) induced by HMW-HA/LMW-HA were inhibited, respectively. With S1P3 silenced, the disruption of ZO-1 as well as stress fiber formation and the ROCK1/RhoA signaling pathway induced by LMW-HA was not observed in cancer LEC. These results suggested that S1P receptors may play an important role in HMW-HA-/LMW-HA-mediated regulation of cancer lymphatic vessel integrity, which might be the initial step of cancer lymphatic metastasis and a useful intervention of cancer progression. PMID:25428387

  20. Loss of APD1 in Yeast Confers Hydroxyurea Sensitivity Suppressed by Yap1p Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Pan, Kewu; Kong, Ka-Yiu Edwin; Hu, Ligang; Chan, Ling-Chim; Siu, Kam-Leung; Sun, Hongzhe; Wong, Chi-Ming; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play important roles in electron transport and redox homeostasis. Yeast Apd1p is a novel member of the family of thioredoxin-like ferredoxins. In this study, we characterized the hydroxyurea (HU)-hypersensitive phenotype of apd1Δ cells. HU is an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, a cellular stressor and an anticancer agent. Although the loss of APD1 did not influence cell proliferation or cell cycle progression, it resulted in HU sensitivity. This sensitivity was reverted in the presence of antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, implicating a role for intracellular redox. Mutation of the iron-binding motifs in Apd1p abrogated its ability to rescue HU sensitivity in apd1Δ cells. The iron-binding activity of Apd1p was verified by a color assay. By mass spectrometry two irons were found to be incorporated into one Apd1p protein molecule. Surprisingly, ribonucleotide reductase genes were not induced in apd1Δ cells and the HU sensitivity was unaffected when dNTP production was boosted. A suppressor screen was performed and the expression of stress-regulated transcription factor Yap1p was found to effectively rescue the HU sensitivity in apd1Δ cells. Taken together, our work identified Apd1p as a new ferredoxin which serves critical roles in cellular defense against HU. PMID:25600293

  1. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer efficiency in the O/1 D/-N2 and O/1 D/-CO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1974-01-01

    With the aid of a molecular resonance fluorescence technique, which utilizes optical pumping from the v = 1 level of the ground state of CO by A 1 Pi-X 1 Sigma radiation, a study is made of the efficiency of E-V transfer from O(1 D) to CO. O(1 D) is generated at a known rate by O2 photodissociation at 1470 A in an intermittent mode, and the small modulation of the fluorescent signal associated with CO (v = 1) above the normal thermal background is interpreted in terms of E-V transfer efficiency. The CO (v = 1) lifetime in this system is determined mainly by resonance trapping of the IR fundamental band, and is found to be up to ten times longer than the natural radiative lifetime. For CO, (40 plus or minus 8)% of the O(1 D) energy is converted into vibrational energy. By observing the effect of N2 on the CO (v = 1) fluorescent intensity and lifetime, it is possible to obtain the E-V transfer efficiency for the system O(1 D)-N2 relative to that for O(1 D)-CO. The results indicate that the efficiency for N2 is (83 plus or minus 10)% of that for CO.

  2. Optical and electronic properties of semiconducting Sn2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David J.

    2016-07-01

    We report the electronic and optical properties of Sn2S3 as obtained from first principles calculations with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. The electronic structure shows that Sn occurs in both divalent and tetravalent forms. The fundamental band gap of 0.82 eV is indirect. The direct gap is 0.97 eV, but the onset of strong optical absorption is much higher at ˜1.75 eV. This is as a consequence of the Sn2+ s and Sn4+ s characters of the valence and conduction band extrema, respectively. We also find strong and different anisotropies for conduction in p- and n-type Sn2S3. This should be taken into account in device structures in order to obtain efficient charge collection. The thermopowers are reasonably high for both p- and n-type materials. p-type Sn2S3 shows complex corrugated isosurface sections, while the n-type material shows multiple band extrema.

  3. REACTION OF H2S AND SULFUR WITH LIMESTONE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the direct-displacement reaction of limestone with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) over the temperature range 570-850 C in a differential reactor. It is one of several possible mechanisms of sulfur capture in limestone-injection multistage burners whi...

  4. Controlling H/sub 2/S in fuel oils

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, G.L.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes the method of maintaining the H/sub 2/S content of the atmosphere above heavy sour fuel oils within acceptable limits. It comprises treating such fuel oils with an effective amount of choline base at a temperature below the decomposition temperature of choline base.

  5. The PI2S2 project: grid and new challenges .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.

    The new grid e-Infrastructure in Sicily is offering new perspectives and important resources for both scientific and industrial application in the National context. This paper shows the infrastructure of the Cometa Consortium built with the PI2S2 project, the current status of the project and the new challenges, mainly in the HPC area, that the project is carrying out.

  6. Case report of individual with cutaneous immunodeficiency and novel 1p36 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D; Soler, David C; Curtis, Christine; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Crusted or Norwegian scabies is an infectious skin dermatopathology usually associated with an underlying immunodeficiency condition. It is caused when the mite Sarcoptes scabiei infects the skin, and the immune system is unable to control its spread, leading to a massive hyperinfestation with a simultaneous inflammatory and hyperkeratotic reaction. This is the first report of a novel 1p36 duplication associated with a recurrent infection of crusted scabies. Case report We describe a 34-year-old patient with a cutaneous immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent crusted scabies infestation, diffuse tinea, and recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis, who we suspected had an undiagnosed syndrome. The patient also suffered from mental retardation, renal failure, and premature senescence. A cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 9.34 Mb duplication within the short (p) arm of chromosome 1, precisely from 1p36.11 to 1p36.21, with an adjacent 193 kb copy gain entirely within 1p36.11. In addition, chromosome 4 had a 906 kb gain in 4p16.1 and chromosome 9 had a 81 kb copy gain in 9p24.3. Over 100 genes localized within these duplicated regions. Gene expression array revealed 82 genes whose expression changed >1.5-fold compared to a healthy age-matched skin control, but among them only the lipolytic enzyme arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 was found within the duplicated 1p36 region of chromosome 1. Discussion Although genetic duplications in the 1p36 region have been previously described, our report describes a novel duplicative variant within the 1p36 region. The patient did not have a past history of immunosuppression but was afflicted by a recurrent case of crusted scabies, raising the possibility that the recurrent infection was associated with the 1p36 genetic duplication. Conclusion To our knowledge, the specific duplicated sequence between 1p36.11 and p36.21 found in our patient has never been previously reported. We reviewed and

  7. H2S during circulatory shock: some unresolved questions.

    PubMed

    McCook, Oscar; Radermacher, Peter; Volani, Chiara; Asfar, Pierre; Ignatius, Anita; Kemmler, Julia; Möller, Peter; Szabó, Csaba; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E; Wang, Rui; Georgieff, Michael; Wachter, Ulrich

    2014-09-15

    Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of "acute on chronic disease", i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions (i) of the "real" sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and (ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as "real" sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable "on line" due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a "constitutive" CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states. PMID:24650697

  8. H2S during circulatory shock: Some unresolved questions

    PubMed Central

    McCook, Oscar; Radermacher, Peter; Volani, Chiara; Asfar, Pierre; Ignatius, Anita; Kemmler, Julia; Möller, Peter; Szabó, Csaba; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E.; Wang, Rui; Georgieff, Michael; Wachter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of “acute on chronic disease”, i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions i) of the “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and, ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable “on line” due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a “constitutive” CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states. PMID:24650697

  9. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction. PMID:26200093

  10. (1S,2R,2'S)- and (1S,2S, 2'S)-1-phenyl-2-phenylthio-2-(tetrahydropyran-2'-ylthio)ethanol diastereoisomers at 193 K.

    PubMed

    Kansikas, J; Sipilä, K

    2000-11-01

    In the synthesis of 1-phenyl-2-phenylthio-2-(tetrahydropyran-2-ylthio)ethanol, C(19)H(22)O(2)S(2), four diastereoisomers are formed. Two non-centrosymmetric enantiomeric forms which crystallize in space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) and Pna2(1) are presented. The former has an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the O atom of the tetrahydropyran ring. In the latter isomer, the hydroxyl group forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond to the O atom of the tetrahydropyranyl group of a neighbouring molecule, joining the molecules into chains in the c-axis direction; the O.O distances are 2.962 (4) and 2.764 (3) A, respectively. The tetrahydropyran rings are in chair conformations in both isomers and the S side chain has an equatorial orientation in the former, but an axial orientation in the latter molecule. PMID:11077307

  11. Molecular and cellular pathways associated with chromosome 1p deletions during colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Claire M; Crowley-Skillicorn, Cheray; Bernstein, Carol; Holubec, Hana; Bernstein, Harris

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal instability is a major pathway of sporadic colon carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p appears to be one of the “hot spots” in the non-neoplastic mucosa that, when deleted, is associated with the initiation of carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p contains genes associated with DNA repair, spindle checkpoint function, apoptosis, multiple microRNAs, the Wnt signaling pathway, tumor suppression, antioxidant activities, and defense against environmental toxins. Loss of 1p is dangerous since it would likely contribute to genomic instability leading to tumorigenesis. The 1p deletion-associated colon carcinogenesis pathways are reviewed at the molecular and cellular levels. Sporadic colon cancer is strongly linked to a high-fat/low-vegetable/low-micronutrient, Western-style diet. We also consider how selected dietary-related compounds (eg, excess hydrophobic bile acids, and low levels of folic acid, niacin, plant-derived antioxidants, and other modulatory compounds) might affect processes leading to chromosomal deletions, and to the molecular and cellular pathways specifically altered by chromosome 1p loss. PMID:21753893

  12. Telomerase and Tel1p Preferentially Associate with Short Telomeres in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sabourin, Michelle; Tuzon, Creighton T.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In diverse organisms, telomerase preferentially elongates short telomeres. We generated a single short telomere in otherwise wild-type (WT) S. cerevisiae cells. The binding of the positive regulators Ku and Cdc13p was similar at short and WT-length telomeres. The negative regulators Rif1p and Rif2p were present at the short telomere, although Rif2p levels were reduced. Two telomerase holoenzyme components, Est1p and Est2p, were preferentially enriched at short telomeres in late S/G2 phase, the time of telomerase action. Tel1p, the yeast ATM-like checkpoint kinase, was highly enriched at short telomeres from early S through G2 phase and even into the next cell cycle. Nonetheless, induction of a single short telomere did not elicit a cell-cycle arrest. Tel1p binding was dependent on Xrs2p and required for preferential binding of telomerase to short telomeres. These data suggest that Tel1p targets telomerase to the DNA ends most in need of extension. PMID:17656141

  13. Ptc1p regulates cortical ER inheritance via Slt2p.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunrui; Walker, Lee; Novick, Peter; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that the inheritance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and vacuoles involves the capture of a tubular structure at the bud tip. Ptc1p, a serine/threonine phosphatase, has previously been shown to regulate mitochondrial inheritance by an unknown mechanism. Ptc1p regulates the high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and has also been implicated in the cell wall integrity (CWI) MAPK pathway. Here we show that the loss of Ptc1p or the Ptc1p binding protein, Nbp2p, causes a prominent delay in the delivery of ER tubules to the periphery of daughter cells and results in a dramatic increase in the level of phosphorylated Slt2p, the MAPK in the CWI pathway. Either loss of Slt2p or inhibition of the CWI pathway by addition of sorbitol, suppresses the ER inheritance defect in the ptc1Delta and nbp2Delta mutants. Our findings indicate that Ptc1p and Nbp2p regulate ER inheritance through the CWI MAPK pathway by modulating the MAPK, Slt2p. PMID:16977319

  14. Optical model potential of A =3 projectiles for 1 p -shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, D. Y.; Dean, W. M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    A set of global optical potential parameters describing the A =3 particles (3He and 3H ) elastic scattering from 1 p -shell nuclei, HT 1 p , is obtained by simultaneously fitting 118 sets of experimental data of 3He and 3H elastic scattering from 9Be,10B ,11B ,12C ,13C ,14C ,14N ,15N ,16O ,17O , and 18O with incident energies from 4 ≤E ≤118.5 MeV and 24 sets of elastic scattering data with the 6Li and 7Li targets from 3 ≤E ≤44 MeV. HT 1 p is found to be superior to GDP08 [D. Y. Pang, P. Roussel-Chomaz, H. Savajols, R. L. Varner, and R. Wolski, Phys. Rev. C 79, 024615 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevC.79.024615], which is a systematic potential designed for the heavy-target region, in the reproduction of the angular distributions of elastic scattering cross sections of 3He and 3H from 1 p -shell nuclei at energies below 100 MeV. At energies above 100 MeV, GDP08 is found to be better than HT1p.

  15. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ynk1p: localization to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed Central

    Amutha, Boominathan; Pain, Debkumar

    2003-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a highly conserved multifunctional enzyme. It catalyses the transfer of gamma phosphates from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates by a mechanism that involves formation of an autophosphorylated enzyme intermediate. The phosphate is usually supplied by ATP. NDPK activity in different subcellular compartments may regulate the crucial balance between ATP and GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. NDPKs are homo-oligomeric proteins and are predominantly localized in the cytosol. In this paper, we demonstrate that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a small fraction of total NDPK activity encoded by YNK1 is present in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria, and the corresponding protein Ynk1p in the IMS represents approx. 0.005% of total mitochondrial proteins. Ynk1p, synthesized as a single gene product, must therefore be partitioned between cytoplasm and mitochondrial IMS fractions. A mechanism for this partitioning is suggested by our observations that interaction with a 40 kDa protein of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom40p), occurs preferentially with unfolded, unphosphorylated forms of Ynk1p. A population of newly translated, but not yet folded or autophosphorylated, Ynk1p intermediates may be imported into the IMS of mitochondria and trapped there by subsequent folding and oligomerization. Within the small volume of the IMS, Ynk1p may be more concentrated and may be required to supply GTP to several important proteins in this compartment. PMID:12472466

  16. Nud1p, the yeast homolog of Centriolin, regulates spindle pole body inheritance in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Oren; Taxis, Christof; Keller, Philipp J; Benjak, Aleksander; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Simchen, Giora; Knop, Michael

    2006-08-23

    Nud1p, a protein homologous to the mammalian centrosome and midbody component Centriolin, is a component of the budding yeast spindle pole body (SPB), with roles in anchorage of microtubules and regulation of the mitotic exit network during vegetative growth. Here we analyze the function of Nud1p during yeast meiosis. We find that a nud1-2 temperature-sensitive mutant has two meiosis-related defects that reflect genetically distinct functions of Nud1p. First, the mutation affects spore formation due to its late function during spore maturation. Second, and most important, the mutant loses its ability to distinguish between the ages of the four spindle pole bodies, which normally determine which SPB would be preferentially included in the mature spores. This affects the regulation of genome inheritance in starved meiotic cells and leads to the formation of random dyads instead of non-sister dyads under these conditions. Both functions of Nud1p are connected to the ability of Spc72p to bind to the outer plaque and half-bridge (via Kar1p) of the SPB. PMID:16888627

  17. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  18. Laa1p, a Conserved AP-1 Accessory Protein Important for AP-1 Localization in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, G. Esteban

    2006-01-01

    AP-1 and Gga adaptors participate in clathrin-mediated protein transport between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Both adaptors contain homologous domains that act to recruit accessory proteins involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation, but the spectrum of known adaptor-binding partners is limited. This study describes an evolutionarily conserved protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Laa1p (Yjl207cp), that interacts and functions specifically with AP-1. Deletion of LAA1, when combined with a conditional mutation in clathrin heavy chain or deletion of GGA genes, accentuated growth defects and increased disruption of clathrin-dependent α-factor maturation and transport of carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole. In contrast, such genetic interactions were not observed between deletions of LAA1 and AP-1 subunit genes. Laa1p preferentially interacted with AP-1 compared with Gga proteins by glutathione S-transferase-fusion affinity binding and coimmunoprecipitations. Localization of AP-1 and Laa1p, but not Gga proteins, was highly sensitive to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) activation. Importantly, deletion of LAA1 caused mislocalization of AP-1, especially in cells at high density (postdiauxic shift), but it did not affect Gga protein distribution. Our results identify Laa1p as a new determinant of AP-1 localization, suggesting a model in which Laa1p and Arf cooperate to direct stable association of AP-1 with appropriate intracellular membranes. PMID:16687571

  19. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  20. FISH analysis of a patient with a constitutional 1p36 deletion defines a region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.; Hilliard, C.; White, P.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic studies of neuroblastoma have implicated the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 1p. We previously reported a neuroblastoma patient with a constitutional interstitial deletion of 1p36. As one means of further defining the deleted region, we have analyzed a series of chromosome 1p36 specific probes by FISH to metaphase chromosomes from a lymphoblastoid cell line established from the patient. We have also tested these probes on a neuroblastoma cell line, NGP, which has a t(1;15) translocation involving 1p36. The probes analyzed to date in order from centromere to telomere include ID-3 (heir-1), D1S56, D1S160, and CDC2L1 (p58). Cosmids for ID-3 and D1S56 were present in 2 copies and proximal to the breakpoint in the constitutional case, and retained on the derivative 1 in NGP. CDC2L1 was also present in 2 copies in the constitutional case, but is distal to the deletion. In NGP, CDC2L1 was translocated to the derivative 15. The D1S160 locus was deleted from one of the chromosomes 1 in the constitutional case, and was present in three copies in NGP: on the normal chromosome 1, the derivative chromosome 1, and the derivative chromosome 15. Molecular studies have suggested that there is a duplication involving this region in NGP, and so it is not clear where the translocation breakpoint is in this cell line. These studies have localized a critical region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene to 1p36.2, distal to D1S56, proximal to CDC2L1, and including D1S160. This region overlaps with the smallest area of deletion defined by loss of heterozygosity studies of primary neuroblastomas and neuroblastoma cell lines. Additional studies with probes that flank the D1S160 locus will facilitate a molecular cloning approach for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene.

  1. Measurement of the muonium 1S-2S transition frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann, K.; Baird, P.E.G.; Barr, J.R.M.; Berkeland, D.; Boshier, M.G.; Braun, B.; Eaton, G.H.; Ferguson, A.I.; Geerds, H.; Hughes, V.W.; Maas, F.; Matthias, B.E.; Matousek, P.; Persaud, M.; zu Putlitz, G.; Reinhard, I.; Riis, E.; Sandars, P.G.H.; Schwarz, W.; Toner, W.T.; Towrie, M.; Willmann, L.; Woodle, K.A.; Woodman, G.

    1995-04-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy has been employed for measuring the 1{sup 2}{ital S}{sub 1/2}{minus}2{sup 2}{ital S}{sub 1/2} frequency difference in the hydrogen-like muonium atom to 2 455 529 002(33)(46) MHz. The 1S-2S two-photon transition was induced Doppler-free using two counter-propagating laser beams. The 2S state was photo-ionized by a third photon from the same laser field. The measurement agrees with QED theory within two standard deviations. The mass of the positive muon can be extracted from the isotope shifts in this transition to hydrogen and deuterium to 105.658 80(29)(43) MeV/c{sup 2}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  2. Hot gas, regenerative, supported H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from moderately high temperature (usually 200.degree. C.-550.degree.C.) gas streams comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a zeolite, and most preferably a sodium deficient zeolite containing 1 to 20 weight percent of binary metal oxides. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O contained in the support. The sorbent effectively removes H.sub.2 S from the host gas stream in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated at least 10 times without loss of activity.

  3. Optical Properties of In2S3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, I. V.; Polubok, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    Laser deposition on substrates at temperatures of 480, 610, and 720 K has been used to produce films of the compound In2S3. Single crystals of this compound grown by the Bridgeman-Stockbarger method are used as targets. The composition is determined by x-ray spectral analysis and the structure of the resulting crystals and films is determined by x-ray methods. Both the crystals and the films crystallize into a tetragonal spinel structure. Transmission spectra in the region of the intrinsic absorption edge are used to determine the width of the band gap and the refractive index of the In2S3 films. The band gap width is found to increase as the substrate temperature is raised.

  4. Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1)

    SciTech Connect

    Costanzo, L.; Drury, J; Christianson, D; Penning, T

    2009-01-01

    Human steroid 5{beta}-reductase (aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1D1) catalyzes reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-ene double bonds in steroid hormones and bile acid precursors. We have reported the structures of an AKR1D1-NADP{sup +} binary complex, and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-cortisone, AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-progesterone and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-testosterone ternary complexes at high resolutions. Recently, structures of AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone complexes showed that the product is bound unproductively. Two quite different mechanisms of steroid double bond reduction have since been proposed. However, site-directed mutagenesis supports only one mechanism. In this mechanism, the 4-pro-R hydride is transferred from the re-face of the nicotinamide ring to C5 of the steroid substrate. E120, a unique substitution in the AKR catalytic tetrad, permits a deeper penetration of the steroid substrate into the active site to promote optimal reactant positioning. It participates with Y58 to create a 'superacidic' oxyanion hole for polarization of the C3 ketone. A role for K87 in the proton relay proposed using the AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone structure is not supported.

  5. The FC-1D: The profitable alternative Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Victor J.; Alvarez, Jaime; Harrington, Brook; Lujan, Michael A.; Mitlyng, David; Saroughian, Andy; Silva, Alex; Teale, Tim

    1994-01-01

    The FC-1D was designed as an advanced solution for a low cost commercial transport meeting or exceeding all of the 1993/1994 AIAA/Lockheed request for proposal requirements. The driving philosophy behind the design of the FC-1D was the reduction of airline direct operating costs. Every effort was made during the design process to have the customer in mind. The Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group targeted reductions in drag, fuel consumption, manufacturing costs, and maintenance costs. Flying Circus emphasized cost reduction throughout the entire design program. Drag reduction was achieved by implementation of the aft nacelle wing configuration to reduce cruise drag and increase cruise speeds. To reduce induced drag, rather than increasing the wing span of the FC-1D, spiroids were included in the efficient wing design. Profile and friction drag are reduced by using riblets in place of paint around the fuselage and empennage of the FC-1D. Choosing a single aisle configuration enabled the Flying Circus to optimize the fuselage diameter. Thus, reducing fuselage drag while gaining high structural efficiency. To further reduce fuel consumption a weight reduction program was conducted through the use of composite materials. An additional quality of the FC-1D is its design for low cost manufacturing and assembly. As a result of this design attribute, the FC-1D will have fewer parts which reduces weight as well as maintenance and assembly costs. The FC-1D is affordable and effective, the apex of commercial transport design.

  6. Mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannoside is a natural antigen for CD1d-restricted T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karsten; Scotet, Emmanuel; Niemeyer, Marcus; Koebernick, Heidrun; Zerrahn, Jens; Maillet, Sophie; Hurwitz, Robert; Kursar, Mischo; Bonneville, Marc; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Schaible, Ulrich E.

    2004-01-01

    A group of T cells recognizes glycolipids presented by molecules of the CD1 family. The CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are primarily considered to be self-reactive. By employing CD1d-binding and T cell assays, the following structural parameters for presentation by CD1d were defined for a number of mycobacterial and mammalian lipids: two acyl chains facilitated binding, and a polar head group was essential for T cell recognition. Of the mycobacterial lipids tested, only a phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) fulfilled the requirements for CD1d binding and NKT cell stimulation. This PIM activated human and murine NKT cells via CD1d, thereby triggering antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and PIM-loaded CD1d tetramers identified a subpopulation of murine and human NKT cells. This phospholipid, therefore, represents a mycobacterial antigen recognized by T cells in the context of CD1d. PMID:15243159

  7. Dynamical Relativistic Effects in Quasielastic 1p -Shell Proton Knockout from O{sup 16}

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Auerbach, L.; Baker, F. T.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.-Y.; Boeglin, W. U.

    2000-04-10

    We have measured the cross section for quasielastic 1p -shell proton knockout in the {sup 16}O( e, e{sup '}p) reaction at {omega}=0.439 GeV and Q{sup 2}=0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} for missing momentum P{sub miss}{<=}355 MeV /c . We have extracted the response functions R{sub L+TT} , R{sub T} , R{sub LT} , and the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LT} , for the 1p{sub 1/2} and the 1p{sub 3/2} states. The data are well described by relativistic distorted wave impulse approximation calculations. At large P{sub miss} , the structure observed in A{sub LT} indicates the existence of dynamical relativistic effects. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Hunt for the 1/sup 1/P/sub 1/ bound state of charmonium

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F.C.

    1982-02-01

    Using the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR, we have looked for evidence of the isospin-violating decay psi' ..-->.. ..pi../sup 01/P/sub 1/, where /sup 1/P/sub 1/ is the predicted spin-singlet p-wave bound state of charmonium. For a /sup 1/P/sub 1/ state at the predicted mass (approx. 3520 MeV), we obtain the 95% confidence level limits: BR(psi' ..-->.. ..pi../sup 01/P/sub 1/) < 0.55%, BR(psi' ..-->.. ..pi../sup 01/P/sub 1/)BR(/sup 1/P/sub 1/ ..-->.. ..gamma..n/sub c/ < 0.14%. These limits are compared with simple theoretical predictions.

  9. Combined PDF and Rietveld studies of ADORable zeolites and the disordered intermediate IPC-1P.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel A; Wheatley, Paul S; Položij, Miroslav; Nachtigall, Petr; Eliášová, Pavla; Čejka, Jiří; Lucas, Tim C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Pinar, Ana B; Morris, Russell E

    2016-09-28

    The disordered intermediate of the ADORable zeolite UTL has been structurally confirmed using the pair distribution function (PDF) technique. The intermediate, IPC-1P, is a disordered layered compound formed by the hydrolysis of UTL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Its structure is unsolvable by traditional X-ray diffraction techniques. The PDF technique was first benchmarked against high-quality synchrotron Rietveld refinements of IPC-2 (OKO) and IPC-4 (PCR) - two end products of IPC-1P condensation that share very similar structural features. An IPC-1P starting model derived from density functional theory was used for the PDF refinement, which yielded a final fit of Rw = 18% and a geometrically reasonable structure. This confirms the layers do stay intact throughout the ADOR process and shows PDF is a viable technique for layered zeolite structure determination. PMID:27527381

  10. FHA domain boundaries of the dun1p and rad53p cell cycle checkpoint kinases.

    PubMed

    Hammet, A; Pike, B L; Mitchelhill, K I; Teh, T; Kobe, B; House, C M; Kemp, B E; Heierhorst, J

    2000-04-14

    Dun1p and Rad53p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are members of a conserved family of cell cycle checkpoint protein kinases that contain forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. Here, we demonstrate that these FHA domains contain 130-140 residues, and are thus considerably larger than previously predicted by sequence comparisons (55-75 residues). In vivo, expression of the proteolytically defined Dun1p FHA domain, but not a fragment containing only the predicted domain boundaries, inhibited the transcriptional induction of repair genes following replication blocks. This indicates that the non-catalytic FHA domain plays an important role in the transcriptional function of the Dun1p protein kinase. PMID:10767410

  11. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity. PMID:22605691

  12. Electron impact excitation of the 3s3p 1P1 state in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predojević, Branko

    2006-12-01

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact excitation of the 3s3p 1P1 resonance state of magnesium have been measured at 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 eV incident electron energies (Eo). Scattered-electron intensities were measured over wide range of scattering angles from 2° to 150°. The absolute DCS scale for the 1P1 state was determined through normalizations of its relative DCSs to optical oscillator strength using forward scattering function method, except at Eo ⩽ 15 eV where the excitation function of the 3s3p 1P1 state experimentally obtained by Leep and Gallagher (1976 Phys. Rev. A 13 148) was utilized for normalization. These absolute DCSs were extrapolated to 0° and 180° and numerically integrated to yield integral, momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections. Our results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  13. The Cometa Consortium and the PI2S2 project .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.

    The new grid e-Infrastructure in Sicily is offering new perspectives and important resources and starts to give new great opportunity for research using the HPC resources. We will show the infrastructure of the Cometa Consortium, the main activities of the PI2S2 project and the new challenges, mainly in the HPC area, that the project is carrying out. A simple but useful procedure for running HPC is also described.

  14. Species Specific Differences of CD1d Oligomer Loading In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Paletta, Daniel; Fichtner, Alina Suzann; Starick, Lisa; Porcelli, Steven A.; Savage, Paul B.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CD1d molecules are MHC class I-like molecules that present glycolipids to iNKT cells. The highly conserved interaction between CD1d:α-Galactosylceramide (αGC) complexes and the iNKT TCR not only defines this population of αβ T cells but can also be used for its direct identification. Therefore, CD1d oligomers are a widely used tool for iNKT cell related investigations. To this end, the lipid chains of the antigen have to be inserted into the hydrophobic pockets of the CD1d binding cleft, often with help of surfactants. In this study, we investigated the influence of different surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tyloxapol) on in vitro loading of CD1d molecules derived from four different species (human, mouse, rat and cotton rat) with αGC and derivatives carrying modifications of the acyl-chain (DB01-1, PBS44) and a 6-acetamido-6-deoxy-addition at the galactosyl head group (PBS57). We also compared rat CD1d dimers with tetramers and staining of an iNKT TCR transductant was used as readout for loading efficacy. The results underlined the importance of CD1d loading efficacy for proper analysis of iNKT TCR binding and demonstrated the necessity to adjust loading conditions for each oligomer/glycolipid combination. The efficient usage of surfactants as a tool for CD1d loading was revealed to be species-specific and depending on the origin of the CD1d producing cells. Additional variation of surfactant-dependent loading efficacy between tested glycolipids was influenced by the acyl-chain length and the modification of the galactosyl head group with PBS57 showing the least dependence on surfactants and the lowest degree of species-dependent differences. PMID:26599805

  15. H2S mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low temperature methods of natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) in mixture with methane, CH4, altogether deemed as sub-quality or “sour” gas. We propose a unique method for activating this “sour” gas to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3, and an energy carrier, such as H2. For this purpose, we computationally investigated H2S mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species via direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4+H2S complex results in a barrier-less relaxation via a conical intersection to form a ground state CH3SH+H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH can further be heterogeneously coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons while the H2 can be used as a fuel. This process is very different from a conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced controllability over the process conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the currently industrially used methane steam reforming (SMR). PMID:24150813

  16. Superconductivity in semimetallic Bi3O2S3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, L.; Parker, D.; Babkevich, P.; Yang, L.; Ronnow, H. M.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-03-12

    We report in this paper a further investigation on the thermodynamic and transport properties, and an assessment of theoretical calculations, for the BiS2-layered Bi3O2S3 superconductor. The polycrystalline sample is synthesized with a superconducting transition temperature of Tconset=5.75K and Tczero=4.03K (≈Tcmag) that drops to 3.3 K by applying a hydrostatic pressure of 6 kbar. Density-of-states (DOS) calculations give substantial hybridization between Bi, O, and S, with Bi the largest component of DOS, which supports the idea that the BiS2 layer is relevant for producing electron-phonon coupling. An analysis of previously published specific heat data for Bi3O2S3 is additionally suggestive of amore » strong electron-phonon interaction in the Bi-O-S system. The analysis of the Seebeck coefficient results strongly suggests that Bi3O2S3 is a semimetal. In fact, we found the semimetallic or narrow band gap behavior may occur in certain other materials in the BiS2-layered class of materials, such as Bi4O4S3.« less

  17. Thermodynamics and kinetics of defects in Li2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2016-05-01

    Li2S is the final product of lithiation of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In this work, we study formation and diffusion of defects in Li2S. It is found that for a wide range of voltages (referenced to metal Li) between 0.17 V and 2.01 V, positively charged interstitial Li (Li+) is the most favorable defect type with a fixed formation energy of 1.02 eV. The formation energy of negatively charged Li vacancy ( VL i - ) is also constant, and it is only 0.13 eV higher than that of Li+. For a narrow range of voltages between 0.00 V and 0.17 V, the formation energy of neutral S vacancy is the lowest and it decreases with decreasing the cell voltage. The energy barrier for Li+ diffusion (0.45 eV), which takes place via an exchange mechanism, is 0.18 eV higher than that for VL i - (0.27 eV), which takes place via a single vacancy hopping. Considering formation energies and diffusion barriers, we find that ionic conductivity in Li2S is due to both Li+ and VL i - , but the latter mechanism being slightly more favorable.

  18. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  19. Voa1p Functions in V-ATPase Assembly in the Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Margret; Graham, Laurie A.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit complex divided into two sectors: the V1 sector catalyzes ATP hydrolysis and the V0 sector translocates protons, resulting in acidification of its resident organelle. Four protein factors participate in V0 assembly. We have discovered a fifth V0 assembly factor, Voa1p (YGR106C); an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized integral membrane glycoprotein. The role of Voa1p in V0 assembly was revealed in cells expressing an ER retrieval-deficient form of the V-ATPase assembly factor Vma21p (Vma21pQQ). Loss of Voa1p in vma21QQ yeast cells resulted in loss of V-ATPase function; cells were unable to acidify their vacuoles and exhibited growth defects typical of cells lacking V-ATPase. V0 assembly was severely compromised in voa1 vma21QQ double mutants. Isolation of V0–Vma21p complexes indicated that Voa1p associates most strongly with Vma21p and the core proteolipid ring of V0 subunits c, c′, and c″. On assembly of the remaining three V0 subunits (a, d, and e) into the V0 complex, Voa1p dissociates from the now fully assembled V0–Vma21p complex. Our results suggest Voa1p functions with Vma21p early in V0 assembly in the ER, but then it dissociates before exit of the V0–Vma21p complex from the ER for transport to the Golgi compartment. PMID:18799613

  20. Conservation of Histone Binding and Transcriptional Repressor Functions in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tup1p Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Yukio; Matsuo, Eri; Roth, Sharon Y.; Harashima, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    The Ssn6p-Tup1p corepressor complex is important to the regulation of several diverse genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and serves as a model for corepressor functions. To investigate the evolutionary conservation of these functions, sequences homologous to the S. cerevisiae TUP1 gene were cloned from Kluyveromyces lactis (TUP1) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (tup11+). Interestingly, while the K. lactis TUP1 gene complemented an S. cerevisiae tup1 null mutation, the S. pombe tup11+ gene did not, even when expressed under the control of the S. cerevisiae TUP1 promoter. However, an S. pombe Tup11p-LexA fusion protein repressed transcription of a corresponding reporter gene, indicating that this Tup1p homolog has intrinsic repressor activity. Moreover, a chimeric protein containing the amino-terminal Ssn6p-binding domain of S. cerevisiae Tup1p and 544 amino acids from the C-terminal region of S. pombe Tup11p complemented the S. cerevisiae tup1 mutation. The failure of native S. pombe Tup11p to complement loss of Tup1p functions in S. cerevisiae corresponds to an inability to bind to S. cerevisiae Ssn6p in vitro. Disruption of tup11+ in combination with a disruption of tup12+, another TUP1 homolog gene in S. pombe, causes a defect in glucose repression of fbp1+, suggesting that S. pombe Tup1p homologs function as repressors in S. pombe. Furthermore, Tup11p binds specifically to histones H3 and H4 in vitro, indicating that both the repression and histone binding functions of Tup1p-related proteins are conserved across species. PMID:10567571

  1. On the current drive capability of low dimensional semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-29

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Lastly, our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  2. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport.

    PubMed

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R; Mans, Dorus A; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J F; Taylor, S Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A; Scambler, Peter J; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M; Beales, Philip L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M; Witman, George B

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  3. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  4. Comet Halley O(1D) and H2O production rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee-Sauer, K.; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-based dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer observations have been made of Comet Halley's forbidden O I 6300 A emission. The 0.2 A resolution of the spectral scans was sufficient to resolve the O I forbidden line emissions from both nearby cometary NH2 and telluric emissions. On the basis of these measurements, the production rate Q of O(1D) was determined; it is then found, by taking into account the photodissociation of H2O and OH as sources of O(1D), that the ratio of H2O/O(1D) production rates is of the order of 6.

  5. GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.

  6. Three unrelated cases of paracentric inversions of 1p in individuals with abnormal phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Estop, A.M.; Karlin, S.M.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Bansal, V.; Surti, U.; Lin, A.; Levinson, F.

    1994-02-15

    Paracentric inversions, involving a rearrangement within one chromosome arm, are rare. Although carriers of balanced paracentric inversions should theoretically not be at risk for abnormal offspring, such cases have been reported. The authors report on 2 unrelated cases of inherited paracentric inversions of 1p with breakpoints at p32 and p36.1 and p32.3 and p36.22 in individuals with abnormal phenotypes. Another case of 2 abnormal monozygotic twins with a de novo paracentric inversion of 1p with breakpoints at p22 and p34 is presented as well. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fluorescence-linked Antigen Quantification (FLAQ) Assay for Fast Quantification of HIV-1 p24Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gesner, Marianne; Maiti, Mekhala; Grant, Robert; Cavrois, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence-linked antigen quantification (FLAQ) assay allows a fast quantification of HIV-1 p24Gag antigen. Viral supernatant are lysed and incubated with polystyrene microspheres coated with polyclonal antibodies against HIV-1 p24Gag and detector antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes (Figure 1). After washes, the fluorescence of microspheres is measured by flow cytometry and reflects the abundance of the antigen in the lysate. The speed, simplicity, and wide dynamic range of the FLAQ assay are optimum for many applications performed in HIV-1 research laboratories.

  8. Excitations of {sup 1}P levels of zinc by electron impact on the ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Panajotovic, R.; Sevic, D.; Pejcev, V.; Marinkovic, B.P.; Filipovic, D.M.

    2005-07-15

    We present results of a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of electron scattering from the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S ground state of zinc. The 4s4p {sup 1}P{sup o} and 4s5p {sup 1}P{sup o} differential cross sections were measured at scattering angles between 10 degree sign and 150 degree sign and electron-energies of 15, 20, 25, 40, and 60 eV. Corresponding convergent close-coupling calculations have been performed and are compared with experiment.

  9. Optimization of a Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Agonist Containing a Quinolinone Core

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of a series of S1P1 agonists with limited activity against S1P3 is reported. A polar headgroup was used to improve the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lead quinolinone 6. When dosed orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg, the azahydroxymethyl analogue 22 achieved statistically significant lowering of circulating blood lymphocytes 24 h postdose. In rats, a dose-proportional increase in exposure was measured when 22 was dosed orally at 2 and 100 mg/kg. PMID:24900374

  10. Potential Link between the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) System and Defective Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Barnawi, Jameel; Tran, Hai; Jersmann, Hubertus; Pitson, Stuart; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Meech, Robyn; Haberberger, Rainer; Hodge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defective in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic cells, with a similar defect in response to cigarette smoke. The exact mechanisms for this defect are unknown. Sphingolipids including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in diverse cellular processes and we hypothesised that a comprehensive analysis of this system in alveolar macrophages in COPD may help to delineate the reasons for defective phagocytic function. Methods We compared mRNA expression of sphingosine kinases (SPHK1/2), S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and S1P-degrading enzymes (SGPP1, SGPP2, SGPL1) in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages from 10 healthy controls, 7 healthy smokers and 20 COPD patients (10 current- and 10 ex-smokers) using Real-Time PCR. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Functional associations were assessed between sphingosine signalling system components and alveolar macrophage phagocytic ability in COPD. To elucidate functional effects of increased S1PR5 on macrophage phagocytic ability, we performed the phagocytosis assay in the presence of varying concentrations of suramin, an antagonist of S1PR3 and S1PR5. The effects of cigarette smoking on the S1P system were investigated using a THP-1 macrophage cell line model. Results We found significant increases in SPHK1/2 (3.4- and 2.1-fold increases respectively), S1PR2 and 5 (4.3- and 14.6-fold increases respectively), and SGPL1 (4.5-fold increase) in COPD vs. controls. S1PR5 and SGPL1 expression was unaffected by smoking status, suggesting a COPD “disease effect” rather than smoke effect per se. Significant associations were noted between S1PR5 and both lung function and phagocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract significantly increased mRNA expression of SPHK1, SPHK2, S1PR2 and S1PR5 by THP-1 macrophages, confirming the results in

  11. Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3: Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.

    2005-03-01

    The thermodynamic database for Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3 sulfides and sulfosalts applicable to temperatures above 119°C has been updated based on the results of recent petrologic, experimental, and theoretical studies. Solution and end-member properties of fahlore [˜(Ag,Cu) 10(Fe,Zn) 2(Sb,As) 4S 13] have been adjusted to allow for (1) revisions of the description of Fe-Zn partitioning with sphalerite that incorporate sphalerite activity-composition relations derived from the cluster variation method (CVM) model of a previous study, (2) the assumption that the miscibility gaps observed in high-Ag fahlores from the Husky Mine (Yukon, Canada) approximate a temperature of 170°C, and (3) an increase in the Ag-Cu partitioning between fahlore and polybasite (Ag,Cu) 16(Sb,As) 2S 11 required to reproduce compositions of fahlore in the polybasite + Sb-fahlore + ZnS sphalerite assemblage reported in previous experimental studies. The resulting minor parameter adjustments produce a database that demonstrably reproduces the composition data reported for a wide-range of sulfide ore deposits. They result in revised estimates for the Gibbs energies of formation of end-member fahlore components from the simple sulfides that, except for Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, are less temperature dependent than those previously inferred (at 200 and 400°C: -23.27 and -24.84 kJ/gfw for Ag 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, -115.18 and -116.57 kJ/gfw for Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, -85.14 and -75.20 kJ/gfw for Cu 10Fe 2Sb 4S 13, and -3.81 and 9.10 kJ/gfw for Ag 10Fe 2Sb 4S 13). The database is extended to PbS-bearing supersystems containing the galena + fahlore + sphalerite assemblage. Predicted initial Ag-contents of galena calculated from this database agree with those inferred from petrological studies of Ag-Pb-Zn ores from the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, USA and Julcani, Peru.

  12. S1P3 receptor influences key physiological properties of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Elena; Bondì, Michela; Cencetti, Francesca; Donati, Chiara; Nocella, Marta; Colombini, Barbara; Betto, Romeo; Bruni, Paola; Bagni, Maria Angela; Danieli-Betto, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    To examine the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 3 (S1P3) in modulating muscle properties, we utilized transgenic mice depleted of the receptor. Morphological analyses of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle did not show evident differences between wild-type and S1P3-null mice. The body weight of 3-mo-old S1P3-null mice and the mean cross-sectional area of transgenic EDL muscle fibers were similar to those of wild-type. S1P3 deficiency enhanced the expression level of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors mRNA in S1P3-null EDL muscle. The contractile properties of S1P3-null EDL diverge from those of wild-type, largely more fatigable and less able to recover. The absence of S1P3 appears responsible for a lower availability of calcium during fatigue. S1P supplementation, expected to stimulate residual S1P receptors and signaling, reduced fatigue development of S1P3-null muscle. Moreover, in the absence of S1P3, denervated EDL atrophies less than wild-type. The analysis of atrophy-related proteins in S1P3-null EDL evidences high levels of the endogenous regulator of mitochondria biogenesis peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); preserving mitochondria could protect the muscle from disuse atrophy. In conclusion, the absence of S1P3 makes the muscle more sensitive to fatigue and slows down atrophy development after denervation, indicating that S1P3 is involved in the modulation of key physiological properties of the fast-twitch EDL muscle. PMID:26718782

  13. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D.

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  14. Photochemistry of O(1D) and O(1S) lines in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cessateur, Gaël; De Keyser, Johan; Maggiolo, Romain; Gibbons, Andrew; Gronoff, Guillaume; Gunell, Herbert; Dhooghe, Frederik; Loreau, Jérôme; Vaeck, Nathalie; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Briois, Christelle; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Haessig, Myrtha; Le Roy, Lena; Neefs, Eddy; Rubin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We present here a chemistry-emission coupled model to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O(1D) and O(1S) states, for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The recent discovery of O2 in significant abundance relative to water (3.80% +/- 0.85%, Bieler et al. 2015) within the coma of 67P has been taken into consideration for the first time in such models. We evaluate the effect of the presence of O2 on the green to red-doublet emission intensity ratio, which is traditionally used to assess the CO2 abundance within cometary atmospheres. Model simulations, solving the continuity equation with transport, show that not taking O2 into account leads to an underestimation of the CO2 abundance within 67P. This strongly suggests that the green to red-doublet emission intensity ratio alone is not a proper tool for determining the CO2 abundance, as previously suggested. O2 might indeed be a rather common and abundant parent species, following the re-analysis of the comet 1P/Halley data (Rubin et al. 2015). Therefore, it is likely that earlier determinations of the CO2 abundance in cometary atmospheres have to be revisited.

  15. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  16. Quantum and semi-classical transport in RTDs using NEMO 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, G.; Stout, P.; Bowen, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 1-D has been developed primarily for the simulation of resonant tunneling diodes, and quantitative and predictive agreements with experimental high performance, high current density devices have been achieved in the past.

  17. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-10-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large D effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the 1 /D expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in 1 /D. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the 1 /D expansion. As the result, the large D analysis gives a critical dimension D * ≃ 13 .5 at which the translation-symmetry-breaking phase transition changes between first and second order. This value of D * agrees perfectly, within the precision of the 1 /D expansion, with the result previously obtained by E. Sorkin through the numerical resolution. We also compare our NNLO results for the thermodynamics of NUBS to earlier numerical calculations, and find good agreement within the expected precision.

  18. Pseudo 1-D Micro/Nanofluidic Device for Exact Electrokinetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-28

    Conventionally, a 1-D micro/nanofluidic device, whose nanochannel bridged two microchannels, was widely chosen in the fundamental electrokinetic studies; however, the configuration had intrinsic limitations of the time-consuming and labor intensive tasks of filling and flushing the microchannel due to the high fluidic resistance of the nanochannel bridge. In this work, a pseudo 1-D micro/nanofluidic device incorporating air valves at each microchannel was proposed for mitigating these limitations. High Laplace pressure formed at liquid/air interface inside the microchannels played as a virtual valve only when the electrokinetic operations were conducted. The identical electrokinetic behaviors of the propagation of ion concentration polarization layer and current-voltage responses were obtained in comparison with the conventional 1-D micro/nanofluidic device by both experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, the suggested pseudo 1-D micro/nanofluidic device owned not only experimental conveniences but also exact electrokinetic responses. PMID:27248856

  19. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  20. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment. PMID:25573299

  1. Identification and characterization of Candida utilis multidrug efflux transporter CuCdr1p.

    PubMed

    Watanasrisin, Wittawan; Iwatani, Shun; Oura, Takahiro; Tomita, Yasuyuki; Ikushima, Shigehiro; Chindamporn, Ariya; Niimi, Masakazu; Niimi, Kyoko; Lamping, Erwin; Cannon, Richard D; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    The edible, nitrate assimilating, yeast Candida utilis is a commercial food additive, and it is a potentially useful host for heterologous protein expression. A number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are multidrug efflux pumps that can cause multidrug resistance in opportunistic pathogens. In order to develop optimal novel antimicrobial agents it is imperative to understand the structure, function and expression of these transporters. With the ultimate aim of developing an alternative yeast host for the heterologous expression of eukaryotic membrane transporters, and to identify ABC transporters potentially associated with C. utilis multidrug resistance, we classified the entire repertoire of 30 C. utilis ABC proteins. We named the open reading frame most similar to the archetype multidrug efflux pump gene C. albicans CDR1 as CuCDR1 Overexpression of CuCDR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADΔ caused multidrug resistance similar to that of cells overexpressing CaCDR1 Unlike CaCdr1p, however, the C-terminally green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged CuCdr1p-GFP was functionally impaired and did not properly localize to the plasma membrane. CuCdr1p function could be recovered however by adding a 15 amino acid linker -GAGGSAGGSGGAGAG- between CuCdr1p and the C-terminal GFP tag. PMID:27188883

  2. Identification of 1p36 deletion syndrome in patients with facial dysmorphism and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The 1p36 deletion syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by developmental delays/intellectual disability, craniofacial dysmorphism, and other congenital anomalies. To date, many cases of this syndrome have been reported worldwide. However, cases with this syndrome have not been reported in Korean populations anywhere. This study was performed to report the clinical and molecular characteristics of five Korean patients with the 1p36 deletion syndrome. Methods The clinical characteristics of the 5 patients were reviewed. Karyotyping and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed for genetic diagnoses. Results All 5 patients had typical dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, flat right parietal bone, low-set ears, straight eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissure, hypotelorism, flat nasal roots, midface hypoplasia, pointed chins, small lips, and variable degrees of developmental delay. Each patient had multiple and variable anomalies such as a congenital heart defect including ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent duct arteriosus, ventriculomegaly, cryptorchism, or hearing loss. Karyotyping revealed the 1p36 deletion in only 1 patient, although it was confirmed in all 5 patients by MLPA analyses. Conclusion All the patients had the typical features of 1p36 deletion. These hallmarks can be used to identify other patients with this condition in their early years in order to provide more appropriate care. PMID:26893599

  3. Partial monosomy of chromosome 1p36.3: A distinctive phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; King. R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a series of five patients with a partial monosomy of 1p36.3 presenting with a similar syndromic appearance. The phenotype of deletion 1p36.3 patients includes abnormal facies, multiple congenital malformations, and mental retardation.The ages of the patients in our series ranged from 3 to 50 years. As the deletion is very small, detection in the present cases relied upon high resolution G-band analyses and was confirmed with FISH in cases 3 and 5. Patients 2 and 3 were diagnosed as adults; thus smaller deletions in 1p36.33 may be associated with longer life expectancy, but include the critical region for the above phenotype. We noted that the dysmorphic features of the patients are more prominent with older age and are difficult to appreciate in infancy. Observation of this specific 1p36 appears as a white, terminal G-band; detection of a small partial deletion or rearrangement may require greater than 550 band level resolution. FISH utilizing a probe to 1pter can facilitate and confirm these analyses.

  4. Selenodiglutathione uptake by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar ATP-binding cassette transporter Ycf1p.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Myriam; Ha-Duong, Nguyet-Thanh; Mounié, Stéphanie; Perrin, Romary; Plateau, Pierre; Blanquet, Sylvain

    2011-11-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar ATP-binding cassette transporter Ycf1p is involved in heavy metal detoxification by mediating the ATP-dependent transport of glutathione-metal conjugates to the vacuole. In the case of selenite toxicity, deletion of YCF1 was shown to confer increased resistance, rather than sensitivity, to selenite exposure [Pinson B, Sagot I & Daignan-Fornier B (2000) Mol Microbiol36, 679-687]. Here, we show that when Ycf1p is expressed from a multicopy plasmid, the toxicity of selenite is exacerbated. Using secretory vesicles isolated from a sec6-4 mutant transformed either with the plasmid harbouring YCF1 or the control plasmid, we establish that the glutathione-conjugate selenodigluthatione is a high-affinity substrate of this ATP-binding cassette transporter and that oxidized glutathione is also efficiently transported. Finally, we show that the presence of Ycf1p impairs the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio of cells subjected to a selenite stress. Possible mechanisms by which Ycf1p-mediated vacuolar uptake of selenodiglutathione and oxidized glutathione enhances selenite toxicity are discussed. PMID:21880115

  5. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    PubMed Central

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  6. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time.

    PubMed

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1(+), a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  7. Histone chaperone Chz1p regulates H2B ubiquitination and subtelomeric anti-silencing

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yakun; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Lin, Chan-Hsien; Arens, Christina E.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Smith, Jennifer J.; Aitchison, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Chz1p is a histone chaperone that interacts physically and functionally with the histone variant Htz1p, which has been implicated in establishing and maintaining boundaries between transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin and active euchromatin. To investigate the role of Chz1p in chromatin organization, we performed genome-wide expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitations of SIR complex components and modified histones in a CHZ1 deletion strain. Deletion of CHZ1 led to reduced ubiquitination of subtelomere-associated H2B, reduced subtelomeric H3K79 di-methylation, and increased binding of Sir3p, and Sir4p at telomere-distal euchromatin regions, correlating with decreased gene expression in subtelomeric regions. This anti-silencing defect appears to be mediated by enhanced association of de-ubiquitinase Ubp10p with subtelomeric DNA, as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In support of this, we show that deletion of UBP10 can antagonize the subtelomeric silencing phenotype of Δchz1. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel role for Chz1p in epigenetic regulation, through H2B de-ubiquitination by Ubp10p. PMID:20008511

  8. Creation of a S1P Lyase bacterial surrogate for structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Argiriadi, Maria A; Banach, David; Radziejewska, Elzbieta; Marchie, Susan; DiMauro, Jennifer; Dinges, Jurgen; Dominguez, Eric; Hutchins, Charles; Judge, Russell A; Queeney, Kara; Wallace, Grier; Harris, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    S1P Lyase (SPL) has been described as a drug target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It plays an important role in maintaining intracellular levels of S1P thereby affecting T cell egress from lymphoid tissues. Several groups have already published approaches to inhibit S1P Lyase with small molecules, which in turn increase endogenous S1P concentrations resulting in immunosuppression. The use of structural biology has previously aided SPL inhibitor design. Novel construct design is at times necessary to provide a reagent for protein crystallography. Here we present a chimeric bacterial protein scaffold used for protein X-ray structures in the presence of early small molecule inhibitors. Mutations were introduced to the bacterial SPL from Symbiobacterium thermophilum which mimic the human enzyme. As a result, two mutant StSPL crystal structures resolved to 2.8Å and 2.2Å resolutions were solved and provide initial structural hypotheses for an isoxazole chemical series, whose optimization is discussed in the accompanying paper. PMID:27013389

  9. Mitochondrial Fusion in Yeast Requires the Transmembrane GTPase Fzo1p

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Greg J.; Thatcher, John W.; Mills, John P.; Hales, Karen G.; Fuller, Margaret T.; Nunnari, Jodi; Shaw, Janet M.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane fusion is required to establish the morphology and cellular distribution of the mitochondrial compartment. In Drosophila, mutations in the fuzzy onions (fzo) GTPase block a developmentally regulated mitochondrial fusion event during spermatogenesis. Here we report that the yeast orthologue of fuzzy onions, Fzo1p, plays a direct and conserved role in mitochondrial fusion. A conditional fzo1 mutation causes the mitochondrial reticulum to fragment and blocks mitochondrial fusion during yeast mating. Fzo1p is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein with its GTPase domain exposed to the cytoplasm. Point mutations that alter conserved residues in the GTPase domain do not affect Fzo1p localization but disrupt mitochondrial fusion. Suborganellar fractionation suggests that Fzo1p spans the outer and is tightly associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. This topology may be required to coordinate the behavior of the two mitochondrial membranes during the fusion reaction. We propose that the fuzzy onions family of transmembrane GTPases act as molecular switches to regulate a key step in mitochondrial membrane docking and/or fusion. PMID:9786948

  10. Increased sensitivity of HIV-1 p24 ELISA using a photochemical signal amplification system

    PubMed Central

    Bystryak, Simon; Santockyte, Rasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we describe a photochemical signal amplification method (PSAM) for increasing of the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of HIV-1 p24 antigen. This method can be used for both commercially available and in-house ELISA tests, and has the advantage of being considerably simpler and less costly than alternative signal amplification methods. The photochemical signal amplification method is based on an autocatalytic photochemical reaction of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) substrate, orthophenylenediamine (OPD). To compare the performance of PSAM-boosted ELISA with a conventional colorimetric ELISA for determination of HIV-1 p24 antigen we employed a PerkinElmer HIV-1 p24 ELISA kit, using conventional ELISA alongside ELISA + PSAM. In the present study, we show that PSAM technology allows one to increase the analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of a commercial HIV-1 p24 ELISA kit, with and without immune-complex disruption (ICD and Non-ICD ELISA), by a factor of approximately 40-fold. ELISA + PSAM is compatible with commercially available microtiter plate readers, requires only an inexpensive illumination device, and the PSAM amplification step takes no longer than 15 min. PMID:26090753

  11. Radiative processes in Alpha-ZnAl_2S4: Ti spinel type single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyuk, Leonid; Klokishner, Sophia; Sushkevich, Konstantin; Koshchug, Dmitrii; Boulon, Georges; Brenier, Alain; Fortin, Emery

    2008-06-01

    The radiative properties of the alpha-ZnAl_2S4 wide band -gap semiconductor (E_g=3.4eV) doped with Ti-ions are investigated . It is shown, that the ZnAl_2S_4:Ti spinel type crystals exhibit a IR luminescence in the spectral range 0.8-1.4 micrometers. The observed spectroscopic and temporal characteristics are assigned to the emission bands arising from the ligand - -Ti^4+ charge transfer for octahedral sites of titanium. Bulk stoichiometric alpha-ZnAl2S4:Ti crystals with impurity concentration 0.1-0.5 at % were grown by a closed tube vapor method with halogen as a transport agent. At temperatures T=2-300K the steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies, as well as the optical absorption measurements , were carried out in the spectral range 0.4-1.5 μm using a liquid nitrogen cooled Ge-detector or photomultiplier. The steady-state PL excitation was provided by Ar^+ (λ_ex1=514nm) and He-Ne (Lambda_ex2=633nm) lasers. The PL kinetics has been examined under pulsed excitation (tau_P~10^-8 s) with wavelengths: "green"-λ_ex1P=532nm and "red"-λ_ex2P=630nm (dye laser and OPO) close to Lambda_ex1 and λ_ex2. The EPR studies of the samples have been carried out as well. Under the "green" excitation (λ_ex1), that corresponds to the maximum of the Ti-impurity absorption (λ_abs~510nm), the steady -state PL spectra of ZnAl^2S^4:Ti crystals consist of 2 broad bands centered at λ_1=1.1μm and Lambda_20.8μm. Τhe first component λ_1 dominates in the spectrum at low temperatures (T<200K). At T~300K the shape of the integral spectrum practically is determined by the second broad band Lambda_2. At "red" excitation (λ_ex2, λ_ex2P) the main contribution to the PL spectra in the whole temperature range is provided by the second component, the kinetics of which obeys the exponential law with a single decay time. In contrast to the second band , the emission decay can be described by the superposition of two exponents with different lifetimes. At low

  12. Lassomycin, a ribosomally synthesized cyclic peptide, kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting the ATP-dependent protease ClpC1P1P2

    PubMed Central

    Gavrish, Ekaterina; Sit, Clarissa S.; Cao, Shugeng; Kandror, Olga; Spoering, Amy; Peoples, Aaron; Ling, Losee; Fetterman, Ashley; Hughes, Dallas; Bissell, Anthony; Torrey, Heather; Akopian, Tatos; Mueller, Andreas; Epstein, Slava; Goldberg, Alfred; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Languishing antibiotic discovery and flourishing antibiotic resistance have prompted development of alternative untapped sources for antibiotic discovery, including previously uncultured bacteria. Here, we screen extracts from uncultured species against M. tuberculosis and identify lassomycin, an antibiotic that exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both growing and dormant mycobacteria, including drug-resistant forms of M. tuberculosis, but little activity against other bacteria or mammalian cells. Lassomycin is a highly basic, ribosomally-encoded cyclic peptide with an unusual structural fold that only partially resembles that of other lasso peptides. We show that lassomycin binds to a highly acidic region of the ClpC1 ATPase complex and markedly stimulates its ATPase activity without stimulating ClpP1P2 catalyzed protein breakdown, which is essential for viability of mycobacteria. This mechanism, uncoupling ATPase from proteolytic activity, accounts for lassomycin's bacteriocidal activity. PMID:24684906

  13. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  14. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  15. Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Olszak, Torsten; Neves, Joana F; Dowds, C Marie; Baker, Kristi; Glickman, Jonathan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Jobin, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Sotlar, Karl; Wada, Koichiro; Katayama, Kazufumi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Kunito; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Müller, Werner; Snapper, Scott B; Schreiber, Stefan; Kaser, Arthur; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2014-05-22

    The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease. As CD1d crosslinking on model IECs results in the production of the important regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (ref. 9), decreased epithelial CD1d expression--as observed in inflammatory bowel disease--may contribute substantially to intestinal inflammation. Here we show in mice that whereas bone-marrow-derived CD1d signals contribute to NKT-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation, engagement of epithelial CD1d elicits protective effects through the activation of STAT3 and STAT3-dependent transcription of IL-10, heat shock protein 110 (HSP110; also known as HSP105), and CD1d itself. All of these epithelial elements are critically involved in controlling CD1d-mediated intestinal inflammation. This is demonstrated by severe NKT-cell-mediated colitis upon IEC-specific deletion of IL-10, CD1d, and its critical regulator microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), as well as deletion of HSP110 in the radioresistant compartment. Our studies thus uncover a novel pathway of IEC-dependent regulation of mucosal homeostasis and highlight a critical role of IL-10 in the intestinal epithelium, with broad implications for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24717441

  16. Optimization of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase PPM1D (Wip1).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryo; Tanoue, Kan; Durell, Stewart R; Chatterjee, Deb K; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Appella, Daniel H; Appella, Ettore

    2011-05-31

    PPM1D (PP2Cδ or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 μM. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates. PMID:21528848

  17. Two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models in 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, T.; Kleinert, H.; Ami, S.

    1984-08-01

    We calculate the two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models on the lattice in a 1/D expansion to order 1/D2. The resulting free energy depends on β = 1/T and the order parameter Φ. It matches the high and low temperature regimes and is quite reliable close to the phase transition where it has a simple Landau expansion.

  18. Mp1p Is a Virulence Factor in Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmin; Lo, Raymond K. C.; Cai, Jian-Pao; Au-Yeung, Rex K. H.; Ng, Wing-Fung; Tse, Herman; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Xu, Simin; Lam, Wai Hei; Tse, Man-Kit; Sze, Kong Hung; Kao, Richard Y.; Reiner, Neil E.; Hao, Quan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Background Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T. marneffei PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant respectively. None of the mice died 60 days after challenge with MP1 knockout mutant (P<0.0001). Seventy percent of mice died 60 days after challenge with MP1 knockdown mutant (P<0.0001). All mice died after challenge with MPLP1 to MPLP13 knockdown mutants, suggesting that only Mp1p plays a significant role in virulence. The mean fungal loads of PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant in the liver, lung, kidney and spleen were significantly higher than those of the MP1 knockout mutant. Similarly, the mean load of PM1 in the liver, lung and spleen were significantly higher than that of the MP1 knockdown mutant. Histopathological studies showed an abundance of yeast in the kidney, spleen, liver and lung with more marked hepatic and splenic necrosis in mice challenged with PM1 compared to MP1 knockout and MP1 knockdown mutants. Likewise, a higher abundance of yeast was observed in the liver and spleen of mice challenged with MP1 complemented mutant compared to MP1 knockout mutant. PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant survived significantly better than MP1 knockout mutant in macrophages at 48 hours (P<0.01) post-infection. The mean fungal counts of Pichia pastoris GS115-MP1 in the liver (P<0.001) and spleen (P<0.05) of mice were significantly higher than those of GS115 at 24 hours post-challenge. Conclusions/Significance Mp1p is a key virulence factor of T. marneffei. Mp1p mediates virulence by improving the survival of T. marneffei

  19. Transcriptional Regulators Cph1p and Efg1p Mediate Activation of the Candida albicans Virulence Gene SAP5 during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Peter; Kretschmar, Marianne; Nichterlein, Thomas; Hof, Herbert; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans can cause superficial as well as systemic infections. Successful adaptation to the different host niches encountered during infection requires coordinated expression of various virulence traits, including the switch between yeast and hyphal growth forms and secretion of aspartic proteinases. Using an in vivo expression technology that is based on genetic recombination as a reporter of gene activation during experimental candidiasis in mice, we investigated whether two signal transduction pathways controlling hyphal growth, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade ending in the transcriptional activator Cph1p and a cyclic AMP-dependent regulatory pathway that involves the transcription factor Efg1p, also control expression of the SAP5 gene, which encodes one of the secreted aspartic proteinases and is induced by host signals soon after infection. Our results show that both transcriptional regulators are important for SAP5 activation in vivo. SAP5 expression was reduced in a cph1 mutant, although filamentous growth in infected tissue was not detectably impaired. SAP5 expression was also reduced, but not eliminated, in an efg1 null mutant, although this strain grew exclusively in the yeast form in infected tissue, demonstrating that in contrast to in vitro conditions, SAP5 activation during infection does not depend on growth of C. albicans in the hyphal form. In a cph1 efg1 double mutant, however, SAP5 expression in infected mice was almost completely eliminated, suggesting that the two signal transduction pathways are important for SAP5 expression in vivo. The avirulence of the cph1 efg1 mutant seemed to be caused not only by the inability to form hyphae but also by a loss of expression of additional virulence genes in the host. PMID:11796627

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate analogue recognition and selectivity at S1P4 within the endothelial differentiation gene family of receptors

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuichi; Pham, TrucChi T.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kohno, Takayuki; Osborne, Daniel A.; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L.

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic computational and experimental studies provided previously unforeseen details concerning the structural basis of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) recognition by the S1P4 G-protein-coupled receptor. Similarly to reports on the S1P1 receptor, cationic and anionic residues in the third transmembrane domain (R3.28 and E3.29 at positions 124 and 125) form ion pairs with the phosphate and ammonium of S1P, and alanine mutations at these positions abolished specific S1P binding, S1P-induced receptor activation and cell migration. Unlike findings on the S1P1 receptor, no cationic residue in the seventh transmembrane domain interacts with the phosphate. Additionally, two previously undiscovered interactions with the S1P polar headgroup have been identified. Trp186 at position 4.64 in the fourth transmembrane domain interacts by a cation-π interaction with the ammonium group of S1P. Lys204 at position 5.38 forms an ion pair with the S1P. The S1P4 and S1P1 receptors show differences in binding-pocket shape and electrostatic distributions that correlate with the published structure–activity relationships. In particular, the binding pocket of mS1P4 (mouse S1P4) has recognition sites for the anionic phosphate and cationic ammonium groups that are equidistant from the end of the non-polar tail. In contrast, the binding pocket of hS1P1 (human S1P4) places the ammonium recognition site 2 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) closer to the end of the non-polar tail than the phosphate recognition site. PMID:15733055

  1. Atypical natural killer T-cell receptor recognition of CD1d-lipid antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Nours, Jérôme; Praveena, T; Pellicci, Daniel G; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Ross, Fiona J; Lim, Ricky T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Richardson, Stewart K; Howell, Amy R; Gras, Stephanie; Godfrey, Dale I; Rossjohn, Jamie; Uldrich, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Crucial to Natural Killer T (NKT) cell function is the interaction between their T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD1d-antigen complex. However, the diversity of the NKT cell repertoire and the ensuing interactions with CD1d-antigen remain unclear. We describe an atypical population of CD1d-α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-reactive human NKT cells that differ markedly from the prototypical TRAV10-TRAJ18-TRBV25-1(+) type I NKT cell repertoire. These cells express a range of TCR α- and β-chains that show differential recognition of glycolipid antigens. Two atypical NKT TCRs (TRAV21-TRAJ8-TRBV7-8 and TRAV12-3-TRAJ27-TRBV6-5) bind orthogonally over the A'-pocket of CD1d, adopting distinct docking modes that contrast with the docking mode of all type I NKT TCR-CD1d-antigen complexes. Moreover, the interactions with α-GalCer differ between the type I and these atypical NKT TCRs. Accordingly, diverse NKT TCR repertoire usage manifests in varied docking strategies and specificities towards CD1d-α-GalCer and related antigens, thus providing far greater scope for diverse glycolipid antigen recognition. PMID:26875526

  2. PPM1D controls nucleolar formation by up-regulating phosphorylation of nucleophosmin.

    PubMed

    Kozakai, Yuuki; Kamada, Rui; Furuta, Junya; Kiyota, Yuhei; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    An increase of nucleolar number and size has made nucleoli essential markers for cytology and tumour development. However, the underlying basis for their structural integrity and abundance remains unclear. Protein phosphatase PPM1D was found to be up-regulated in different carcinomas including breast cancers. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation via inducing an increased phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein NPM. We show that PPM1D overexpression induces an increase in the nucleolar number regardless of p53 status. We also demonstrated that specific sequential phosphorylation of NPM is important for nucleolar formation and that PPM1D is a novel upstream regulator of this phosphorylation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern nucleoli formation by demonstrating that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation by regulating NPM phosphorylation status through a novel signalling pathway, PPM1D-CDC25C-CDK1-PLK1. PMID:27619510

  3. The SLE-associated Pbx1-d isoform acts as a dominant-negative transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, M; Liang, S; Potula, H-HS; Chang, L-J; Morel, L

    2013-01-01

    Pbx1 is a transcription factor involved in multiple cellular processes, including the maintenance of self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors. We have shown that the CD4 + T-cell expression of a novel splice isoform of Pbx1, Pbx1-d, is associated with lupus susceptibility in the NZM2410 mouse and in lupus patients. The function of Pbx1 in T cells is unknown, but the splicing out of the DNA-binding domain in Pbx1-d predicts a dominant-negative function. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that Pbx1-d transduction accelerates differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast pregenitors and mimics the effect of short hairpin RNA silencing of Pbx1. Conversely, Pbx1-d transduction reduced the expression of Sox3, a gene strongly transactivated by Pbx1, and Pbx1-d did not bind the Sox3 promoter. These results constitute a first step towards the understanding on how Pbx1-d contributes to systemic autoimmunity in the NZM2410 mouse model as well as in lupus patients. PMID:22992721

  4. Epigenetic activation of a cryptic TBC1D16 transcript enhances melanoma progression by targeting EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, Miguel; Ferreira, Humberto J; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Javier Carmona, F; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Girotti, Maria Romina; Villanueva, Alberto; Guil, Sonia; Moutinho, Catia; Liz, Julia; Portela, Anna; Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, August; Martinez-Iniesta, Maria; Manzano, Jose L; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Elez, Elena; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Berrocal, Alfonso; Pontén, Fredrik; van den Oord, Joost; Gallagher, William M; Frederick, Dennie T; Flaherty, Keith T; McDermott, Ultan; Lorigan, Paul; Marais, Richard; Esteller, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, and, among common tumor types, melanoma is one with great potential to metastasize. Here we study the contribution of epigenetic changes to the dissemination process by analyzing the changes that occur at the DNA methylation level between primary cancer cells and metastases. We found a hypomethylation event that reactivates a cryptic transcript of the Rab GTPase activating protein TBC1D16 (TBC1D16-47 kDa; referred to hereafter as TBC1D16-47KD) to be a characteristic feature of the metastatic cascade. This short isoform of TBC1D16 exacerbates melanoma growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. By combining immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified RAB5C as a new TBC1D16 target and showed that it regulates EGFR in melanoma cells. We also found that epigenetic reactivation of TBC1D16-47KD is associated with poor clinical outcome in melanoma, while conferring greater sensitivity to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. PMID:26030178

  5. Epigenetic activation of a cryptic TBC1D16 transcript enhances melanoma progression by targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Miguel; Ferreira, Humberto J; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Carmona, F Javier; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Girotti, Maria Romina; Villanueva, Alberto; Guil, Sonia; Moutinho, Catia; Liz, Julia; Portela, Anna; Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, August; Martinez-Iniesta, Maria; Manzano, Jose L; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Elez, Elena; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Berrocal, Alfonso; Pontén, Fredrik; Oord, Joost van den; Gallagher, William M; Frederick, Dennie T; Flaherty, Keith T; McDermott, Ultan; Lorigan, Paul; Marais, Richard; Esteller, Manel

    2015-07-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, and, among common tumor types, melanoma is one with great potential to metastasize. Here we study the contribution of epigenetic changes to the dissemination process by analyzing the changes that occur at the DNA methylation level between primary cancer cells and metastases. We found a hypomethylation event that reactivates a cryptic transcript of the Rab GTPase activating protein TBC1D16 (TBC1D16-47 kDa; referred to hereafter as TBC1D16-47KD) to be a characteristic feature of the metastatic cascade. This short isoform of TBC1D16 exacerbates melanoma growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. By combining immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified RAB5C as a new TBC1D16 target and showed that it regulates EGFR in melanoma cells. We also found that epigenetic reactivation of TBC1D16-47KD is associated with poor clinical outcome in melanoma, while conferring greater sensitivity to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. PMID:26030178

  6. The Temporal Evolution of O(1D) Emission in Ionospheric Modification Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Byler, E. B.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding processes involving atomic oxygen is crucial for the study of energy transfer and transport dynamics in the upper atmosphere. Until recently, the lack of reliable information on the role of O(3P ) collisions in relaxing O(1D) has often led to the assumption that the ionospheric atomic oxygen red line emission decay was controlled by collisions with N2. Laboratory measurements at SRI International have established that the removal rate constants for O(1D) + N2 and O(1D) + O are comparable and therefore O atoms play a major role in the ionospheric O(1D) decay at altitudes between 200 and 300 km. We have previously shown that measuring the O(1D) emission decay following ionospheric modification provides an approach for Remote O-atom Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE). In this report, we present examples of available ionospheric modification data sets from several heating facilities, examine the details of the appearance and decay of the O(1D) emission, and interpret its temporal evolution. This work is supported by the CEDAR Program of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant no. ATM-0737713. The participation of Eleanor B. Byler was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant no. PHY-0649315.

  7. NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}S advances

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Krishnan, G.N.; Hung, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The following preliminary conclusions can be derived from the above-mentioned experimental results: (1) HTSR-1, a nickel-based catalyst has a high activity for NH{sub 3} decomposition at 725{degree}C in simulated coal gas streams under low H{sub 2}S levels. (2) HTSR-1 when mixed with a desulfurization sorbent such as zinc titanate could decompose NH{sub 3} effectively until the removal of H{sub 2}S by zinc titanate decreases. (3) HTSR-1 continues to exhibit an activity for NH{sub 3} decomposition even after exposure to zinc titanate regeneration conditions. (4) MoS{sub 2} is also a catalyst for the decomposition of NH{sub 3}. However, its surface area needs to be maintained by addition of suitable stabilizing agents for sustained activity. Sorbent-catalyst samples of zinc titanate doped with cobalt-molybdenum were prepared by first crushing and sieving pellets of zinc titanate sorbents (L-3774M). The zinc titanate powders were then placed into an aqueous solution having the desired total amount of molybdenum (in the form of molybdic acid). The water was then dried and the powder heated and calcined. To add cobalt to the Mo-coated powder, the powder was then placed into a solution of cobalt nitrate containing the appropriate amount of the cobalt precursor followed by drying and calcination. The sorbent-catalyst samples were then activated (presulfided) by introducing H{sub 2}S in a controlled reducing environment. Samples of nickel-molybdenum-zinc titanate were prepared by using nickel nitrate instead of cobalt nitrate in the described procedure.

  8. Overexpression of Chromatin Assembly Factor-1/p60 helps to predict the prognosis of melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin malignancy, which registers a constant increase in incidence worldwide. The identification of molecular alteration(s) involved in its biological aggressiveness represents a major challenge for researchers, considering that existing therapies are ineffective to treat metastasizing cases. The epigenetic control of chromatin dynamics during DNA synthesis, replication, and repair is fundamental for the orderly progression of cell proliferation. The Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complex acts as a major regulator of this process; its intermediate (p60) subunit has been recently proposed as a novel proliferation and prognostic marker for several tumors. We aimed to establish if the evaluation of the expression of CAF-1/p60 in primary CM may help define the prevision of outcome of patients. Methods Immunohistochemistry with anti-CAF-1/p60 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 130 cases of primary CM retrieved from the archive files of the Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Section of Pathology, University "Federico II" of Naples, Italy. Results were compared with histopathological and follow-up data of patients. Results CAF-1/p60 was expressed in all CM. A significant statistical association between the overexpression of the protein and the occurrence of skin, node and/or distant metastases (P < 0.05) emerged, independently from histopathological prognostic factors. Conclusions CAF-1/p60 looks promising as a new prognostic marker for CM and sheds new light on the molecular events associated with photocancerogenesis and melanoma biology. The screening for CAF-1/p60 might contribute to the molecular sub-classification of CM, with improved translational outcomes. PMID:20178651

  9. Advanced process selectively removes H/sub 2/S

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-08

    A selective H/sub 2/S-removal scheme called the HS process is being tested at a New Mexico pilot plant having an 18-in-diam contactor, a 24-in-diam stripping still, and a 30-gpm solution flow capacity. The test program goals are to (1) demonstrate the technical and economic superiority of the process over other options, and (2) redefine mass-transfer and ray hydraulic data for scale-up to commercial size. The technology combines a selective chemical solvent based on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a unique contactor design, and an innovative selective contactor tray.

  10. Yeast Los1p Has Properties of an Exportin-Like Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Factor for tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Klaus; Lau, Denise M.; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Künzler, Markus; Hurt, Ed; Simos, George

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Los1p, which is genetically linked to the nuclear pore protein Nsp1p and several tRNA biogenesis factors, was recently grouped into the family of importin/karyopherin-β-like proteins on the basis of its sequence similarity. In a two-hybrid screen, we identified Nup2p as a nucleoporin interacting with Los1p. Subsequent purification of Los1p from yeast demonstrates its physical association not only with Nup2p but also with Nsp1p. By the use of the Gsp1p-G21V mutant, Los1p was shown to preferentially bind to the GTP-bound form of yeast Ran. Furthermore, overexpression of full-length or N-terminally truncated Los1p was shown to have dominant-negative effects on cell growth and different nuclear export pathways. Finally, Los1p could interact with Gsp1p-GTP, but only in the presence of tRNA, as revealed in an indirect in vitro binding assay. These data confirm the homology between Los1p and the recently identified human exportin for tRNA and reinforce the possibility of a role for Los1p in nuclear export of tRNA in yeast. PMID:9774653

  11. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Rozell, E. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The S2S Search Interface Framework provides tools and services to build customized user interfaces. It also serves as a focal point for repository managers to develop science data services and reusable components for search interfaces. The framework has been used to design a faceted browsing platform for web services, including OpenSearch and SAWSDL. This exemplar faceted browsing platform has been applied in our development of search interfaces for 1) an international open government dataset catalog and 2) a metadata catalog for biological and chemical oceanography. S2S was designed from the ground up using open standards and technologies. The framework was initially created to develop "data dashboard" interfaces on top of OpenSearch services, but has been generalized to support web services and standards with semantic annotation capabilities. We apply OWL, a W3C standard for ontologies on the Web, to create a vocabulary for the description of framework metadata. Our faceted browsing platform is heavily focused on the use of jQuery; we have created reusable user interface "widgets" that leverage OpenLayers and MapServer technology in geospatial selection and visualization, which can be used in this and future platforms. The use of open standards and technologies has enabled rapid iterations over software development lifecycles, and has kept the framework agile as new use cases and ideas have emerged.

  12. The dipole moment surface for hydrogen sulfide H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Ala`a. A. A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Yurchenko, Sergey N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    In this work we perform a systematic ab initio study of the dipole moment surface (DMS) of H2S at various levels of theory and of its effect on the intensities of vibration-rotation transitions; H2S intensities are known from the experiment to display anomalies which have so far been difficult to reproduce by theoretical calculations. We use the transition intensities from the HITRAN database of 14 vibrational bands for our comparisons. The intensities of all fundamental bands show strong sensitivity to the ab initio method used for constructing the DMS while hot, overtone and combination bands up to 4000 cm-1 do not. The core-correlation and relativistic effects are found to be important for computed line intensities, for instance affecting the most intense fundamental band (ν2) by about 20%. Our recommended DMS, called ALYT2, is based on the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(6+d)Z level of theory supplemented by a core-correlation/relativistic corrective surface obtained at the CCSD[T]/aug-cc-pCV5Z-DK level. The corresponding computed intensities agree significantly better (to within 10%) with experimental data taken directly from original papers. Worse agreement (differences of about 25%) is found for those HITRAN intensities obtained from fitted effective dipole models, suggesting the presence of underlying problems in those fits.

  13. Substrate specificity and inhibitor analyses of human steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2011-01-01

    Human steroid 5β-reductase (Aldo-keto Reductase 1D1) catalyzes the stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction of the C4-C5 double bond of Δ4-ketosteroids to yield an A/B cis-ring junction. This cis-configuration is crucial for bile acid biosynthesis and plays important roles in steroid metabolism. The biochemical properties of the enzyme have not been thoroughly studied and conflicting data have been reported, partially due to the lack of highly homogeneous protein. In the present study, we systematically determined the substrate specificity of homogeneous human recombinant AKR1D1 using C18, C19, C21, and C27 Δ4-ketosteroids and assessed the pH-rate dependence of the enzyme. Our results show that AKR1D1 proficiently reduced all the steroids tested at physiological pH, indicating AKR1D1 is the only enzyme necessary for all the 5β-steroid metabolite present in humans. Substrate inhibition was observed with C18 to C21 steroids provided that the side-chain at C17 was unsubstituted. This structure activity relationship can be explained by the existence of a small alternative substrate binding pocket revealed by the AKR1D1 crystal structure. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are potent inhibitors of the related AKR1C enzymes do not inhibit AKR1D1 by contrast chenodeoxycholate and ursodeoxycholate were found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors suggesting that bile-acids may regulate their own synthesis at the level of AKR1D1 inhibition. PMID:21255593

  14. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  15. Cdc42p and Rho1p are sequentially activated and mechanistically linked to vacuole membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Michael R.; Jones, Lynden; Eitzen, Gary

    2010-03-26

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches, regulating many biological functions via activation of membrane localized signaling cascades. Activation of their switch function is controlled by GTP binding and hydrolysis. Two Rho GTPases, Cdc42p and Rho1p, are localized to the yeast vacuole where they regulate membrane fusion. Here, we define a method to directly examine vacuole membrane Cdc42p and Rho1p activation based on their affinity to probes derived from effectors. Cdc42p and Rho1p showed unique temporal activation which aligned with distinct subreactions of in vitro vacuole fusion. Cdc42p was rapidly activated in an ATP-independent manner while Rho1p activation was kinetically slower and required ATP. Inhibitors that are known to block vacuole membrane fusion were examined for their effect on Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Rdi1p, which inhibits the dissociation of GDP from Rho proteins, blocked both Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Ligands of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} specifically inhibited Rho1p activation while pre-incubation with U73122, which targets Plc1p function, increased Rho1p activation. These results define unique activation mechanisms for Cdc42p and Rho1p, which may be linked to the vacuole membrane fusion mechanism.

  16. The Rtr1p CTD phosphatase autoregulates its mRNA through a degradation pathway involving the REX exonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Hodko, Domagoj; Ward, Taylor; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Rtr1p is a phosphatase that impacts gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we show that Rtr1p is a component of a novel mRNA degradation pathway that promotes its autoregulation through turnover of its own mRNA. We show that the 3′UTR of the RTR1 mRNA contains a cis element that destabilizes this mRNA. RTR1 mRNA turnover is achieved through binding of Rtr1p to the RTR1 mRNP in a manner that is dependent on this cis element. Genetic evidence shows that Rtr1p-mediated decay of the RTR1 mRNA involves the 5′-3′ DExD/H-box RNA helicase Dhh1p and the 3′-5′ exonucleases Rex2p and Rex3p. Rtr1p and Rex3p are found associated with Dhh1p, suggesting a model for recruiting the REX exonucleases to the RTR1 mRNA for degradation. Rtr1p-mediated decay potentially impacts additional transcripts, including the unspliced BMH2 pre-mRNA. We propose that Rtr1p may imprint its RNA targets cotranscriptionally and determine their downstream degradation mechanism by directing these transcripts to a novel turnover pathway that involves Rtr1p, Dhh1p, and the REX family of exonucleases. PMID:26843527

  17. Atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2014-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerotic disease. However, clinical interventions targeting HDL cholesterol failed to show clinical benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk reduction, suggesting that HDL components distinct from cholesterol may account for anti-atherogenic effects attributed to this lipoprotein. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-a lysosphingolipid exerting its biological activity via binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors and regulating a wide array of biological responses in a variety of different organs and tissues including the cardiovascular system-has been identified as an integral constituent of HDL particles. In the present review, we discuss current evidence from epidemiological studies, experimental approaches in vitro, and animal models of atherosclerosis, suggesting that S1P contributes to atheroprotective effects exerted by HDL particles. PMID:24891400

  18. Beam propagation method using a [(p- 1)/ p] Padé approximant of the propagator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya Yan; Ho, Pui Lin

    2002-05-01

    A new beam propagation method (BPM) is developed based on a direct approximation to the propagator by its [(p-1)/p] Padé approximant. The approximant is simple to construct and has the desired damping effect for the evanescent modes. The method is applied to a tapered waveguide for TM-polarized waves, based on the energy-conserving improvement of the one-way Helmholtz equation. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with other variants of the BPM. PMID:18007898

  19. IDH mutation, 1p19q codeletion and ATRX loss in WHO grade II gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Leeper, Heather E.; Caron, Alissa A.; Decker, Paul A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Giannini, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetic, genetic, and molecular studies have identified several diagnostic and prognostic markers in diffuse gliomas. Their importance for evaluating WHO grade II gliomas has yet to be specifically delineated. Methods We analyzed markers, including IDH mutation(IDHmut), 1p19q codeletion(1p19qcodel), ATRX expression loss(ATRX loss) and p53 overexpression, and outcomes in 159 patients with WHO grade II oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, and astrocytoma (2003–2012). Results IDHmut was found in 141(91%) and ATRX loss in 64(87%) of IDHmut-noncodel tumors (p = 0.003). All codeleted tumors (n = 66) were IDHmut. Four subgroups were identified: IDHmut-codel, 66(43%); IDHmut-noncodel-ATRX loss, 60(39%); IDHmut-noncodel-ATRXwt, 9(6%); IDHwt, 14(9%). Median survival among 4 groups was significantly different (p = 0.038), particularly in IDHmut-codel (median survival 15.6 years) compared to the remaining 3 groups (p = 0.025). Survival by histology was not significant. Overall (OS), but not progression-free (PFS), survival was significantly longer with gross total resection vs. biopsy only (p = 0.042). Outcomes for patients with subtotal resection were not significantly different from those with biopsy only. Among these uniformly treated patients, OS far exceeds PFS, particularly in those with 1p/19q codeletion. Conclusions For WHO grade II diffuse glioma, molecular classification using 1p/19qcodel, IDHmut, and ATRX loss more accurately predicts outcome and should be incorporated in the neuropathologic evaluation. PMID:26210286

  20. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4–8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  1. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

  2. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Helen, M; Reddy, M Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  3. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport. PMID:26324759

  4. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio. PMID:26744378

  5. Possible Dimensional Crossover to 1D of ^3He Fluid in Nanochannels Observed in Susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Taku; Kurebayashi, Katsuya; Shibatsuji, Ryosuke; Hieda, Mitsunori; Wada, Nobuo

    2016-05-01

    Dimensional crossover to the one-dimensional (1D) state from higher dimensions has been studied for dilute ^3He fluid adsorbed in 2.4 nm ^4He-preplated nanochannels, by susceptibility measurements down to 70 mK using 4.29 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance. In nanochannels, since energy states of ^3He motion perpendicular to the channel axis are discrete, a genuine 1D ^3He fluid is expected when the Fermi energy is less than the first excitation Δ _{01} for azimuthal motion. The susceptibilities χ above 0.3 K show the Curie-law susceptibilities independent of the ^3He density, which are characteristic of nondegenerate fluid in higher dimensions. With decreasing the temperature, a significant reduction of χ T was observed from about 0.3 K for all ^3He densities. It is considered to be due to the dimensional crossover below Δ _{01}˜ 0.5 K to the 1D ^3He state in the semi-degenerate regime above the Fermi temperature. In the 1D state at lower temperatures, T-independent χ were observed for ^3He of 0.019 layers below 0.1 K. It suggests that the 1D ^3He fluid enters the quantum degenerate regime.

  6. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  7. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Travis S; Wilson, Henry D; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Kojetin, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959

  8. CD1d-restricted antigen presentation by Vγ9Vδ2-T cells requires trogocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Famke L; Prodöhl, Jan; Ruben, Jurjen M; O'Toole, Tom; Scheper, Rik J; Bonneville, Marc; Scotet, Emmanuel; Verheul, Henk M W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) constitute an important immunoregulatory T-cell subset that can be activated by the synthetic glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and play a dominant role in antitumor immunity. Clinical trials with α-GalCer-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) have shown anecdotal antitumor activity in advanced cancer. It was reported that phosphoantigen (pAg)-activated Vγ9Vδ2-T cells can acquire characteristics of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). Considering the clinical immunotherapeutic applications, Vγ9Vδ2-T APC can offer important advantages over moDC, potentially constituting an attractive novel APC platform. Here, we demonstrate that Vγ9Vδ2-T APC can present antigens to iNKT. However, this does not result from de novo synthesis of CD1d by Vγ9Vδ2-T, but critically depends on trogocytosis of CD1d-containing membrane fragments from pAg-expressing cells. CD1d-expressing Vγ9Vδ2-T cells were able to activate iNKT in a CD1d-restricted and α-GalCer-dependent fashion. Although α-GalCer-loaded moDC outperformed Vγ9Vδ2-T APC on a per cell basis, Vγ9Vδ2-T APC possess unique features with respect to clinical immunotherapeutic application that make them an interesting platform for consideration in future clinical trials. PMID:24934445

  9. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. PMID:27297969

  10. Phonon drag of electrons in Ag{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, S. A.; Aliev, F. F. Gasanov, Z. S.; Abdullayev, S. M.; Selim-zade, R. I.

    2010-06-15

    The temperature dependences of the heat-conductivity coefficient {chi} and the thermopower 6h of Ag{sub 2}S are investigated in the range of 4.2-300 K. It is found that the value of 6h sharply increases (6h {infinity} T{sup -3}) with decreasing T at T < 100 K and passes through a maximum at 16-18 K. The heat-conductivity coefficient passes through a maximum at {approx}30 K. The sharp increase in 6h is found to be caused by the effect of long-wavelength-phonon drag of electrons. It is shown that the shift of the 6h and {chi} peaks, as well as the temperature dependence of the phonon thermopower 6h{sub ph} {infinity} T{sup -3}, agrees with the Herring theory.

  11. Modification of polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces using H2S plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesel, Alenka; Kovac, Janez; Zaplotnik, Rok; Modic, Martina; Mozetic, Miran

    2015-12-01

    A process for modifying the surface properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer using sulfur-containing gaseous plasma is presented in this paper. Samples of PTFE foils were treated in pure H2S gaseous plasma sustained by an electrode-less radio-frequency discharge in the E-mode. The samples were kept at a floating potential. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy were used to determine the evolution of the surface functionalities and morphology. An extremely thin film of chemically bonded sulfur was formed on the surface after a few seconds of plasma treatment, whereas a treatment duration of more than a minute resulted in the deposition of pure sulfur. The deposited film remained as thin as a few nanometers, even after half an hour of treatment.

  12. The membrane remodeling protein Pex11p activates the GTPase Dnm1p during peroxisomal fission

    PubMed Central

    Opalinski, Lukasz; Landgraf, Christiane; Costello, Joseph; Schrader, Michael; Krikken, Arjen M.; Knoops, Kèvin; Kram, Anita M.; Volkmer, Rudolf; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2015-01-01

    The initial phase of peroxisomal fission requires the peroxisomal membrane protein Peroxin 11 (Pex11p), which remodels the membrane, resulting in organelle elongation. Here, we identify an additional function for Pex11p, demonstrating that Pex11p also plays a crucial role in the final step of peroxisomal fission: dynamin-like protein (DLP)-mediated membrane scission. First, we demonstrate that yeast Pex11p is necessary for the function of the GTPase Dynamin-related 1 (Dnm1p) in vivo. In addition, our data indicate that Pex11p physically interacts with Dnm1p and that inhibiting this interaction compromises peroxisomal fission. Finally, we demonstrate that Pex11p functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Dnm1p in vitro. Similar observations were made for mammalian Pex11β and the corresponding DLP Drp1, indicating that DLP activation by Pex11p is conserved. Our work identifies a previously unknown requirement for a GAP in DLP function. PMID:25941407

  13. Cap1p attenuates the apoptosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bao-Di; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Li, De-Dong; Li, Ming-Bang; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen and its apoptosis is inducible by environmental stress. Based on our previous finding that transcription factor Cap1p was involved in baicalein-induced apoptosis, the present study aimed to further clarify the role of Cap1p in apoptosis by observing the impact of CAP1 deletion on cell fate. It was found that apoptotic stimulation with amphotericin B, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide increased the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells, caspase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, whereas it decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. The cell fate was, at least partly, caused by glutathione depletion and attenuation of the expression of the glutathione reductase gene in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. Collectively, our data suggest that Cap1p participated in the apoptosis of C. albicans by regulating the expression of the glutathione reductase gene and glutathione content. PMID:23517286

  14. RPA regulates telomerase action by providing Est1p access to chromosome ends.

    PubMed

    Schramke, Vera; Luciano, Pierre; Brevet, Vanessa; Guillot, Sylvine; Corda, Yves; Longhese, Maria Pia; Gilson, Eric; Géli, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. We show here that RPA is present at the telomeres of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a maximal association in S phase. A truncation of the N-terminal region of Rfa2p (associated with the rfa2Delta40 mutated allele) results in severe telomere shortening caused by a defect in the in vivo regulation of telomerase activity. Cells carrying rfa2Delta40 show impaired binding of the protein Est1p, which is required for telomerase action. In addition, normal telomere length can be restored by expressing a Cdc13-Est1p hybrid protein. These findings indicate that RPA activates telomerase by loading Est1p onto telomeres during S phase. We propose a model of in vivo telomerase action that involves synergistic action of RPA and Cdc13p at the G-rich 3' overhang of telomeric DNA. PMID:14702040

  15. Is 1p36 deletion associated with anterior body wall defects?

    PubMed

    Çöllü, Medis; Yüksel, Şirin; Şirin, Başak Kumbasar; Abbasoğlu, Latif; Alanay, Yasemin

    2016-07-01

    Epispadias and exstrophy of the cloaca, also known as OEIS complex (omphalocele, exstrophy, imperforate anus, spinal defects), respectively constitute the most benign and severe ends of the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) spectrum. In 2009, El-Hattab et al. reported the first patient with OEIS complex associated with a chromosome 1p36 deletion. Here we report a second patient with 1p36 deletion who also has classic bladder exstrophy, supporting the possible role of genes in this region in the development of BEEC. The absence of omphalocele and imperforate anus in our patient places him toward classic bladder exstrophy while presence of spina bifida and the absence of coccyx suggest an overlap with OEIS complex. An additional differential diagnosis is the pentalogy of Cantrell in our patient as he also has a diaphragmatic hernia and an incomplete sternum. This is the second observation of a ventral midline birth defect in association with 1p36 deletion syndrome, following El-Hattab et al.'s report [2009]. The three genes (NOCL2, DVL1, and MMP23B) discussed as possible candidates are also among the deleted ones in our patient, supporting the possible role of these genes in BEEC spectrum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27144803

  16. Class I Histone Deacetylase Thd1p Promotes Global Chromatin Condensation in Tetrahymena thermophila▿

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kathryn; Maxson, Julia; Mooney, Alissa; Wiley, Emily A.

    2007-01-01

    Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate DNA-templated processes such as transcription. They act both at specific loci and more generally across global chromatin, contributing to acetylation patterns that may underlie large-scale chromatin dynamics. Although hypoacetylation is correlated with highly condensed chromatin, little is known about the contribution of individual HDACs to chromatin condensation mechanisms. Using the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we investigated the role of a specific class I HDAC, Τhd1p, in the reversible condensation of global chromatin. In this system, the normal physiological response to cell starvation includes the widespread condensation of the macronuclear chromatin and general repression of gene transcription. We show that the chromatin in Thd1p-deficient cells failed to condense during starvation. The condensation failure correlated with aberrant hyperphosphorylation of histone H1 and the overexpression of CDC2, encoding the major histone H1 kinase. Changes in the rate of acetate turnover on core histones and in the distribution of acetylated lysines 9 and 23/27 on histone H3 isoforms that were found to correlate with normal chromatin condensation were absent from Thd1p mutant cells. These results point to a role for a class I HDAC in the formation of reversible higher-order chromatin structures and global genome compaction through mechanisms involving the regulation of H1 phosphorylation and core histone acetylation/deacetylation kinetics. PMID:17715364

  17. On F-algebras M(p)   (1 < p < ∞) of holomorphic functions.

    PubMed

    Meštrović, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the classes M(p)  (1 < p < ∞) of holomorphic functions on the open unit disk in the complex plane. These classes are in fact generalizations of the class M introduced by Kim (1986). The space M (p) equipped with the topology given by the metric ρ p defined by ρp (f, g) = ||f - g|| p = (∫0(2π) log(p) (1 + M(f - g)(θ))(dθ/2π))(1/p), with f, g ∈ M (p) and Mf(θ) = sup 0 ⩽ r<1 ⁡|f(re(iθ))|, becomes an F-space. By a result of Stoll (1977), the Privalov space N(p)  (1 < p < ∞) with the topology given by the Stoll metric d p is an F-algebra. By using these two facts, we prove that the spaces M(p) and N(p) coincide and have the same topological structure. Consequently, we describe a general form of continuous linear functionals on M(p) (with respect to the metric ρp). Furthermore, we give a characterization of bounded subsets of the spaces M(p). Moreover, we give the examples of bounded subsets of M(p) that are not relatively compact. PMID:24672388

  18. Bem1p contributes to secretory pathway polarization through a direct interaction with Exo70p

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    The exocyst serves to tether secretory vesicles to cortical sites specified by polarity determinants, in preparation for fusion with the plasma membrane. Although most exocyst components are brought to these sites by riding on secretory vesicles as they are actively transported along actin cables, Exo70p displays actin-independent localization to these sites, implying an interaction with a polarity determinant. Here we show that Exo70p directly and specifically binds to the polarity determinant scaffold protein Bem1p. The interaction involves multiple domains of both Exo70p and Bem1p. Mutations in Exo70p that disrupt its interaction with Bem1, without impairing its interactions with other known binding partners, lead to the loss of actin-independent localization. Synthetic genetic interactions confirm the importance of the Exo70p–Bem1p interaction, although there is some possible redundancy with Sec3p and Sec15p, other exocyst components that also interact with polarity determinants. Similar to Sec3p, the actin-independent localization of Exo70p requires a synergistic interaction with the phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P2. PMID:25313406

  19. Comparing CN Features in Two Comets: 1P/Halley and 103P/Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Lejoly, Cassandra; Barrera, Jose; Mueller, Beatrice; Schleicher, David

    2015-11-01

    Comets 1P/Halley and 103P/Hartley 2 show distinct CN features in their respecive comae. Both comets are non-principal-axis rotators. 1P/Halley is the proto-type for Halley-type comets with the Oort Cloud as its possible source region, whereas 103P/Hartley 2 is a Jupiter-Family comet that possibly originated from the Kuiper Belt. Both comets were spacecraft targets and studied widely from both space and from the ground.We will discuss the properties of CN features, and in particular the behavior of the derived outflow velocities based on the CN features present in the groundbased coma images of these two comets. The corresponding heliocentric distances for CN images of comet 1P/Halley range from approximately 0.8 AU to 2.0 AU (during its post-perihelion leg of the 1986 apparition). For CN images of comet 103P/Hartley 2, the corresponding heliocentric distances range from 1.31 AU through the perihelion (at 1.06 AU) to 1.25 AU (during its 2010 apparition).Ultimately, these results will be used to understand the rotational states and the activity behaviors of these two comets.

  20. Phase equilibria in the quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 and optical properties of (Ga55In45)2S300, (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, I. A.; Danyliuk, I. V.; Olekseyuk, I. D.; Pankevych, V. Z.; Halyan, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 was investigated by differential thermal, X-ray diffraction analyses. The phase diagram of the Ga2S3-In2S3 system and nine polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were constructed. The existence of the large solid solutions ranges of binary and ternary compounds was established. The range of the existence of the quaternary phase AgGaxIn5-xS8 (2.25≤x≤2.85) at 820 K was determined. The single crystals (Ga55In45)2S300 and (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 were grown by a directional crystallization method from solution-melt. Optical absorption spectra in the 500-1600 nm range were recorded. The luminescence of the (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystal shows a maximum at 1530 nm for the excitation wavelengths of 532 and 980 nm at 80 and 300 K.

  1. Analysis of the promoter region of a cardiac specific phospholipase A{sub 2} gene located at 1p35

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.V.; Chen, J.; Tischfield, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phospholipases may play an important role in the pathology of tissue damage and in membrane remodeling. We have previously shown that the Group II PLA{sub 2} gene and two PLA{sub 2}-like gene fragments map to 1p35. We have since shown that at least one of the fragments is part of a cardiac-specific PLA{sub 2} gene. Thus the identification and characterization of the regulatory regions of this new phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) may be important for understanding the regulation of this gene under normal and pathologic conditions. HPLA2-10, mainly expressed in heart, is a low molecular weight, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent PLA{sub 2} that we have classified as a new group (Group III) based on structural considerations. The 5{prime} regulatory region of HPLA2-10 was isolated from a human genomic DNA bacteriophage library and cloned into pUC19. Computer analysis of the region`s DNA sequence indicates the presence of multiple transcription factor binding sites. A comparison between the human promoter region and the promoter region of the rat homologue, RPLA2-10, indicates that at least two putative transcription factor binding sites are conserved between the two species. These include a CCAAT box and an AGTCCT hexanucleotide, which has been implicated as a binding site for the glucocorticoid receptor. DNA footprint analysis is being performed to determine whether or not these putative regions are sites of protein binding. Also, a proposed view of the evolution of the distinct groups of low molecular weight PLA{sub 2}s will be presented.

  2. The H2S Donor NaHS Changes the Expression Pattern of H2S-Producing Enzymes after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Ming-Jie; Jin, Sheng; Bai, Ya-Dan; Hou, Cui-Lan; Ma, Fen-Fen; Li, Xing-Hui; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the expression patterns of hydrogen sulphide- (H2S-) producing enzymes in ischaemic heart tissue and plasma levels of H2S after 2 weeks of NaHS treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) and to clarify the role of endogenous H2S in the MI process. Results. After MI surgery, 2 weeks of treatment with the H2S donor NaHS alleviated ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, in ischemia myocardium, three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) significantly increased. Plasma H2S levels were also elevated. In vitro, NaHS treatment protected cardiomyocytes from hypoxic injury and raised CBS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Different from in vivo results, however, CSE or 3-MST expression did not change. NaHS treatment increased the activity of CSE/CBS but not of 3-MST. When CSE was either knocked down (in vitro) or knocked out (in vivo), H2S levels significantly decreased, which subsequently exacerbated the ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, the expressions of CBS and 3-MST increased due to compensation. Conclusions. Exogenous H2S treatment changed the expressions of three H2S-producing enzymes and H2S levels after MI, suggesting a new and indirect regulatory mechanism for H2S production and its contribution to cardiac protection. Endogenous H2S plays an important role in protecting ischaemic tissue after MI. PMID:27057284

  3. 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

    2012-01-01

    Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}·H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-μ-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating μ-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-μ-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-μ-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  5. Operational fog monitoring using FY-1D remotely sensed data in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yonglan; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Maoxin

    2006-12-01

    Fog is a disaster that troubles the people life especially the traffic safety and air quality. NOAA and EOS/MOSDIS data can both be used to monitor the fog disaster, but FY-1D data is the best in China for its timely acquirement that covers the local region. So fog monitoring using FY-1D in China can offer timely fog disaster information for traffic safety forecast and further weather trend analyses. Fog monitoring mainly uses visible and infrared bands which are not very good for fog mapping, however. The paper analyzed the image spectral properties of fog and low stratus to choose the best band combination for optimal fog mapping. The paper proposed the method of using FY-1D data to monitor daytime fog disaster in China.

  6. Spin Excitations and Phonon Anomaly in Quasi-1D Spiral Magneti CuBr2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Yu, Daiwei; Wang, Lichen; Wang, Fa; Iida, Kazuki; Kamazawa, Kazuya; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    CuBr2 can be considered as a model quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) spin-1/2 magnet, in which the frustrating ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions give rise to a cycloidal magnetic order below TN = 73 K. The removal of inversion symmetry by the magnetic order also makes the material a type-II multiferroic system with a remarkably simple crystal structure. Using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy, we have determined the spin-wave as well as phonon spectra throughout the entire Brillouin zone. The spin-wave spectrum exhibits pronounced anisotropy and magnon damping, consistent with the material's quasi-1D nature and the non-colinear spin structure. The phonon spectrum exhibits dramatic discontinuities in the dispersion across the quasi-1D magnetic wave vector, indicative of strong magnetoelastic coupling and possibly of a spin-orbital texture that comes along with the spin correlations.

  7. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  8. Carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors inhibit the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Rivera, Richard; Chun, Jerold; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    Human α1D-adrenoceptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate adrenaline/noradrenaline actions. There is a growing interest in identifying regulatory domains in these receptors and determining how they function. In this work, we show that the absence of the human α1D-adrenoceptor carboxyl tail results in altered ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and p38 phosphorylation states. Amino terminus-truncated and both amino and carboxyl termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors were transfected into Rat-1, HEK293, and B103 cells, and changes in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was assessed using biochemical and biophysical approaches. The phosphorylation state of other protein kinases (p38, MEK1, and Raf-1) was also studied. Noradrenaline-induced ERK phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. However, in cells expressing receptors with both amino and carboxyl termini truncations, noradrenaline-induced activation was abrogated. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation that normally occurs through activation of endogenous G protein-coupled receptors, EGF receptors, and protein kinase C, was also decreased, suggesting that downstream steps in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were affected. A similar effect was observed in B103 cells but not in HEK 293 cells. Phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1 was also diminished in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino- and carboxyl-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. Our data indicate that expression of carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors alters ERK and p38 phosphorylation state. PMID:27146292

  9. Characterisation and improvement of j(O1D) filter radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Birger; Heard, Dwayne E.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Schmitt, Rainer; Whalley, Lisa K.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric O3 → O(1D) photolysis frequencies j(O1D) are crucial parameters for atmospheric photochemistry because of their importance for primary OH formation. Filter radiometers have been used for many years for in situ field measurements of j(O1D). Typically the relationship between the output of the instruments and j(O1D) is non-linear because of changes in the shape of the solar spectrum dependent on solar zenith angles and total ozone columns. These non-linearities can be compensated for by a correction method based on laboratory measurements of the spectral sensitivity of the filter radiometer and simulated solar actinic flux density spectra. Although this correction is routinely applied, the results of a previous field comparison study of several filter radiometers revealed that some corrections were inadequate. In this work the spectral characterisations of seven instruments were revised, and the correction procedures were updated and harmonised considering recent recommendations of absorption cross sections and quantum yields of the photolysis process O3 → O(1D). Previous inconsistencies were largely removed using these procedures. In addition, optical interference filters were replaced to improve the spectral properties of the instruments. Successive determinations of spectral sensitivities and field comparisons of the modified instruments with a spectroradiometer reference confirmed the improved performance. Overall, filter radiometers remain a low-maintenance alternative of spectroradiometers for accurate measurements of j(O1D) provided their spectral properties are known and potential drifts in sensitivities are monitored by regular calibrations with standard lamps or reference instruments.

  10. The Kar3-interacting protein Cik1p plays a critical role in passage through meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, R M; Kamieniecki, R J; Dawson, D S

    2001-01-01

    Meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent upon the motor protein Kar3. Absence of Kar3p in meiosis results in an arrest in prophase I. Cik1p and Vik1p are kinesin-associated proteins known to modulate the function of Kar3p in the microtubule-dependent processes of karyogamy and mitosis. Experiments were performed to determine whether Cik1p and Vik1p are also important for the function of Kar3p during meiosis. The meiotic phenotypes of a cik1 mutant were found to be similar to those of kar3 mutants. Cells without Cik1p exhibit a meiotic defect in homologous recombination and synaptonemal complex formation. Most cik1 mutant cells, like kar3 mutants, arrest in meiotic prophase; however, in cik1 mutants this arrest is less severe. These data are consistent with the model that Cik1p is necessary for some, but not all, of the roles of Kar3p in meiosis I. vik1 mutants sporulate at wild-type levels, but have reduced spore viability. This loss in viability is partially attributable to vegetative chromosome loss in vik1 diploids. Cellular localization experiments reveal that Kar3p, Cik1p, and Vik1p are present throughout meiosis and are consistent with Cik1p and Vik1p having different meiotic roles. PMID:11729143

  11. C-terminal anchoring of mid1p to membranes stabilizes cytokinetic ring position in early mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Bordes, Nicole; Fraisier, Vincent; Tran, Phong T; Paoletti, Anne

    2004-12-01

    mid1p is a key factor for the central positioning of the cytokinetic ring in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In interphase and early mitosis, mid1p forms a medial cortical band overlying the nucleus, which may represent a landmark for cytokinetic ring assembly. It compacts before anaphase into a tight ring with other cytokinetic ring components. We show here that mid1p binds to the medial cortex by at least two independent means. First, mid1p C-terminus association with the cortex requires a putative amphipathic helix adjacent to mid1p nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is predicted to insert directly into the lipid bilayer. This association is stabilized by the polybasic NLS. mid1p mutated within the helix and the NLS forms abnormal filaments in early mitosis that are not properly anchored to the medial cortex. Misplaced rings assemble in late mitosis, indicating that mid1p C-terminus binding to membranes stabilizes cytokinetic ring position. Second, the N terminus of mid1p has the ability to associate faintly with the medial cortex and is sufficient to form tight rings. In addition, we show that mid1p oligomerizes. We propose that membrane-bound oligomers of mid1p assemble recruitment "platforms" for cytokinetic ring components at the medial cortex and stabilize the ring position during its compaction. PMID:15572668

  12. MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-induced invasion of follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Veronica; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-03-15

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has emerged as a potent inducer of cancer cell migration and invasion. Previously, we have shown that S1P induces invasion of ML-1 follicular thyroid cancer cells via S1P receptors 1 and 3 (S1P1,3). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes used by cells for degradation of the extracellular matrix during invasion and migration. In the present study, we examined the role of MMP2 and MMP9 for S1P-induced invasion of ML-1 cells, and found that S1P regulates the secretion and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 via S1P1,3. Both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of MMP2 and MMP9 could attenuate S1P-induced invasion. Additionally, we show that calpains and Rac1 mediate S1P-induced secretion of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-evoked follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cell invasion. PMID:25643979

  13. Cigarette smoke inhibits efferocytosis via deregulation of sphingosine kinase signaling: reversal with exogenous S1P and the S1P analogue FTY720.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai B; Barnawi, Jameel; Ween, Miranda; Hamon, Rhys; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Reynolds, Paul N; Pitson, Stuart M; Davies, Lorena T; Haberberger, Rainer; Hodge, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and cigarette smokers are deficient in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic bronchial epithelial cells (efferocytosis). We hypothesized that the defect is mediated via inhibition of sphingosine kinases and/or their subcellular mislocalization in response to cigarette smoke and can be normalized with exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate or FTY720 (fingolimod), a modulator of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling, which has been shown to be clinically useful in multiple sclerosis. Measurement of sphingosine kinase 1/2 activities by [(32)P]-labeled sphingosine-1-phosphate revealed a 30% reduction of sphingosine kinase 1 (P < 0.05) and a nonsignificant decrease of sphingosine kinase 2 in THP-1 macrophages after 1 h cigarette smoke extract exposure. By confocal analysis macrophage sphingosine kinase 1 protein was normally localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm and sphingosine kinase 2 to the nucleus and cytoplasm but absent at the cell surface. Cigarette smoke extract exposure (24 h) led to a retraction of sphingosine kinase 1 from the plasma membrane and sphingosine kinase 1/2 clumping in the Golgi domain. Selective inhibition of sphingosine kinase 2 with 25 µM ABC294640 led to 36% inhibition of efferocytosis (P < 0.05); 10 µM sphingosine kinase inhibitor/5C (sphingosine kinase 1-selective inhibitor) induced a nonsignificant inhibition of efferocytosis, but its combination with ABC294640 led to 56% inhibition (P < 0.01 vs. control and < 0.05 vs. single inhibitors). Cigarette smoke-inhibited efferocytosis was significantly (P < 0.05) reversed to near-control levels in the presence of 10-100 nM exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate or FTY720, and FTY720 reduced cigarette smoke-induced clumping of sphingosine kinase 1/2 in the Golgi domain. These data strongly support a role of sphingosine kinase 1/2 in efferocytosis and as novel therapeutic targets in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID

  14. Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media using EIGER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, Ferhat T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, Guido; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.

  15. Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media with EIGER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, F. T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, G.; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.

  16. On the origin of multi-step spin transition behaviour in 1D nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiruta, Daniel; Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Garcia, Yann; Rotaru, Aurelian

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the spin state switching mechanism in spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles, a special attention is given to three-step thermally induced SCO behavior in 1D chains. An additional term is included in the standard Ising-like Hamiltonian to account for the border interaction between SCO molecules and its local environment. It is shown that this additional interaction, together with the short range interaction, drives the multi-steps thermal hysteretic behavior in 1D SCO systems. The relation between a polymeric matrix and this particular multi-step SCO phenomenon is discussed accordingly. Finally, the environmental influence on the SCO system's size is analyzed as well.

  17. Lattice study of (D¯ 1D*)± near-threshold scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Lei, Yu-Hong; Li, Ning; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Clqcd Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    In this exploratory lattice study, low-energy near threshold scattering of the (D¯1D*)± meson system is analyzed using lattice QCD with Nf=2 twisted mass fermion configurations. Both s-wave (JP=0-) and p-wave (JP=1+) channels are investigated. It is found that the interaction between the two charmed mesons is attractive near the threshold in both channels. This calculation provides some hints in the searching of resonances or bound states around the threshold of (D¯1D*)± system.

  18. DOPEX-1D2C: A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation shield optimization code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation sheild weight optimization procedure and a computer program, DOPEX-1D2C, is described. The DOPEX-1D2C uses the steepest descent method to alter a set of initial (input) thicknesses of a spherical shield configuration to achieve a minimum weight while simultaneously satisfying two dose-rate constraints. The code assumes an exponential dose-shield thickness relation with parameters specified by the user. Code input instruction, a FORTRAN-4 listing, and a sample problem are given. Typical computer time required to optimize a seven-layer shield is less than 1/2 minute on an IBM 7094.

  19. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p.

    PubMed Central

    Cherkasova, V; Lyons, D M; Elion, E A

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. PMID:10049917

  20. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport.We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport

  1. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation.

  2. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  3. High temperature regenerative H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Inventor); Gavalas, George R. (Inventor); Tamhankar, Satish S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas streams comprise porous, high surface area particles. A first class of sorbents comprise a thin film of binary oxides that form a eutectic at the temperature of the gas stream coated onto a porous, high surface area refractory support. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as a film of V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O coated on an alumina support. A second class of sorbents consist of particles of unsupported mixed oxides in the form of highly dispersed solid solutions of solid compounds characterized by small crystallite size, high porosity and relatively high surface area. The mixed oxide sorbents contain one Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal oxide such as copper, zinc or manganese and one or more oxides of Groups IIIA, VIB or VII such as aluminum, iron or molybdenum. The presence of iron or aluminum maintains the Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal in its oxidized state. Presence of molybdenum results in eutectic formation at sulfidation temperature and improves the efficiency of the sorbent.

  4. Non-BCS thermodynamic properties of H2 S superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durajski, Artur P.; Szcze&şacute; niak, Radosław; Li, Yinwei

    2015-08-01

    The present paper determines the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in the H2S compound. The values of the pressure from 130 GPa to 180 GPa were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. In the first step, the experimental course of the dependence of the critical temperature on the pressure was reproduced: TC ∈ < 31, 88 > K, whereas the Coulomb pseudopotential equal to 0.15 was adopted. Next, the following quantities were calculated: the order parameter at the temperature of zero Kelvin (Δ (0)), the specific heat jump at the critical temperature (ΔC (TC) ≡CS (TC) -CN (TC)), and the thermodynamic critical field (HC (0)). It was found that the values of the dimensionless ratios: RΔ ≡ 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC ≡ ΔC(TC) /CN (TC) , and RH ≡TCCN (TC) / HC2(0) deviate from the predictions of the BCS theory: RΔ ∈ < 3.64, 4.16 > , RC ∈ < 1.59, 2.24 > , and RH ∈ < 0.144, 0.163 > . Generalizing the results on the whole family of the HnS -type compounds, it was shown that the maximum value of the critical temperature can be equal to ˜290 K, while RΔ,RC and RH adopt the following values: 6.53, 3.99, and 0.093, respectively.

  5. The Dellistrique 2S - A 200 Channel Streak Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1985-02-01

    Despite a great deal of effort to improve time resolution of streak cameras, the best reported time resolution remained just under one picosecond for more than a decade. However, the sensitivity and resolution of these devices have improved substantially over this time. In this paper the design of a very high performance streak camera, capable of resolving one picosecond on 200 parallel channels with single photo-electron detection capability: the Dellistrique 2S. The system comprises of a streak tube type Picotron 200 with a photocathode resolving 200 spatial channels along a slit and with an extraction field near the photocathode of greater than 16 KV per cm and with a non saturating phosphor screen as the main component. There is post streak tube intensification of 30,000 at the streak tube output wavelength which increases both the sensitivity of the system. The intensifier is coupled to a CCD readout device fibre-optically for producing a two dimensional image with a dynamic range of greater than 500. The camera can be operated at a repetition rate of between 80 MHz and 240 MHz using R.F. scanning methods. Upto 20 parallel channels have been tried with parallel information recording, which is well below the tube's capability of recording 200 independent channels. The image is virtually distortion free across the whole usable screen length of 45 mm for a large screen tube.

  6. Lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins as allergens.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, E A; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Brenna, O; Farioli, L; Trambaioli, C; Conti, A

    2001-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins, a widespread family of proteins, have been recently identified as important food allergens. Their common structural features, such as eight conserved cysteines forming disulfide bridges, basic isoelectric point and high similarity in amino acid sequence, are the basis of allergic clinical cross-reactivity. This has been demonstrated for the LTP allergens of the Prunoideae subfamily, whose similarity is about 95% as demonstrated for the purified allergens of peach, apricot, plum and apple. A relevant aspect is the existence of sequence homology of LTPs of botanically unrelated foods, as demonstrated for LTPs of maize and peach. A class of food allergens of well recognized clinical importance is that of seed storage 2S albumins. They have been identified in the most diffused edible seeds and nuts, such as mustard, sesame, Brazil nut, walnut and peanut. In particular, a strong correlation between IgE-binding to these proteins and food-induced anaphylaxis has been demonstrated for Brazil nut and sesame seeds. PMID:11298008

  7. 1p/19q-driven prognostic molecular classification for high-grade oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haihui; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Xiaohui; Zeng, Wei; Jia, Wenqing; Wang, Junmei; Lin, Song

    2014-12-01

    The subjectivity in pathological diagnosis of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) and uncertainty in designation of glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) were two major dilemmas which puzzled neuro-pathologists and neurosurgeons. The present study was designed to project a molecular classification scheme based on the status of chromosome 1p and 19q. Patients (n = 117) with histological diagnosis of primary high-grade oligodendroglial tumors (HGOs) enrolled in the study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes 1p and 19q was performed. Univariate analysis showed that higher tumor grade, 1p/19q maintenance and 1q/19p co polysomy were confirmed as risk factors in HGOs (P < 0.01). Accordingly, patients with HGOs were divided into four subtypes which conferred remarkably distinct prognosis based on the number of risk factors (0 risk factor: HGOs-1, 1 risk factor: HGOs-2, 2 risk factors: HGOs-3, 3 risk factors: HGOs-4). Cox regression model revealed that the tumor grade was no longer independently associated with survival, while the molecular classification scheme showed a marked prognostic significance (HR = 0.359, 95 % CI 0.261-0.494, P < 0.001 for progression-free survival (PFS); HR = 0.393, 95 % CI 0.283-0.546, P < 0.001 for overall survival (OS)). The classification scheme incorporating traditional pathology with molecular information can be served as a supplement of the current WHO classification system and contribute to the personalized treatment decision-making. PMID:25151507

  8. Fine-Mapping of the 1p11.2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus.

    PubMed

    Horne, Hisani N; Chung, Charles C; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Iwata, Hiroji; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H; Ven den Berg, David; Smeets, Ann; Zhao, Hui; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Marchand, Loic Le; Goldberg, Mark S; Teo, Soo H; Taib, Nur A M; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha; Winqvist, Robert; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; Li, Jingmei; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Harrington, Patricia; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Slager, Susan; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Orr, Nick; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Easton, Douglas F; Chanock, Stephen J; Dunning, Alison M; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799-121,481,132) flanking rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120,300,000-120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry-specific principal components. The strongest association observed was with the original identified index SNP rs11249433 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.402; per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.13, P = 1.49 x 10-21). The association for rs11249433 was limited to ER-positive breast cancers (test for heterogeneity P≤8.41 x 10-5). Additional analyses by other tumor characteristics showed stronger associations with moderately/well differentiated tumors and tumors of lobular histology. Although no significant eQTL associations were observed, in silico analyses showed that rs11249433 was located in a region that is likely a weak enhancer/promoter. Fine-mapping analysis of the 1p11.2 breast cancer susceptibility locus confirms this region to be limited to risk to cancers that are ER-positive. PMID:27556229

  9. Late-onset Stargardt-like macular dystrophy maps to chromosome 1p13

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Stargardt`s disease (MIM 248200), originally described in 1909, is an autosomal recessive condition of childhood, characterized by a sudden and bilateral loss of central vision. Typically, it has an early onset (7 to 12 years), a rapidly progressive course and a poor final outcome. The central area of the retina (macula) displays pigmentary changes in a ring form with depigmentation and atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). Perimacular yellowish spots, termed fundus flavimaculatus, are observed in a high percentage of patients. We have recently reported the genetic mapping of Stargardt`s disease to chromosome 1p13. On the other hand, considering that fundus flavimaculatus (MIM 230100) is another form of fleck fundus disease, with a Stargardt-like retinal aspect but with a late-onset and a more progressive course, we decided to test the hypothesis of allelism between typical Stargardt`s disease and late-onset autosomal recessive fundus flavimaculatus. Significant pairwise lod scores were obtained in each of four multiplex families (11 affected individuals, 12 relatives) with four markers of the 1p13 region (Z = 4.79, 4.64, 3.07, 3.16 at loci D1S435, D1S424, D1S236, and D1S415, respectively at {theta} = 0). Multipoint analysis showed that the best estimate for location of the disease gene is between D1S424 and D1S236 (maximum lod score of 5.20) as also observed in Stargardt`s disease. Our results are consistent with the location of the gene responsible of the late-onset Stargardt-like macular dystrophy in the 1p13 region and raise the hypothesis of either allelic mutational events or contiguous genes in this chromosomal region. The question of possible relationship with some age-related macular dystrophies in now open to debate.

  10. A Role for Lsm1p in Response to Ultraviolet-Radiation Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spicakova, Tatiana; McCann, Kelly; Brown, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    A genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified LSM1 as a new gene affecting sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Lsm1p is a member of a cytoplasmic complex composed of Lsm1p–7p that interacts with the yeast mRNA degradation machinery. To investigate the potential role of Lsm1p in response to UV radiation, we constructed double mutant strains in which LSM1 was deleted in combination with a representative gene from each of three known yeast DNA repair pathways. Our results show that lsm1Δ increases the UV-radiation sensitivity of the rad1Δ and rad51Δ mutants, but not the rad18Δ mutant, placing LSM1 within the post-replication repair/damage tolerance pathway (PRR). When combined with other deletions affecting PRR, lsm1Δ increases the UV-radiation sensitivity of the rev3Δ, rad30Δ and pol30-K164R mutants but not rad5Δ. Furthermore, the UV-radiation sensitivity phenotype of lsm1Δ is partially rescued by mutations in genes involved in 3′ to 5′ mRNA degradation, and mutations predicted to function in RNA interactions confer the most UV-radiation sensitivity. Together, these results suggest that Lsm1p may confer protection against UV-radiation damage by protecting the 3′ ends of mRNAs from exosome-dependent 3′ to 5′ degradation as part of a novel RAD5-mediated, PCNA-K164 ubiquitylation-independent subpathway of PRR. PMID:19024647

  11. Fine-Mapping of the 1p11.2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Hisani N.; Chung, Charles C.; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Iwata, Hiroji; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H.; ven den Berg, David; Smeets, Ann; Zhao, Hui; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J.; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Marchand, Loic Le; Goldberg, Mark S.; Teo, Soo H.; Taib, Nur A. M.; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha; Winqvist, Robert; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; Li, Jingmei; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Harrington, Patricia; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Slager, Susan; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Orr, Nick; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799–121,481,132) flanking rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120,300,000–120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry-specific principal components. The strongest association observed was with the original identified index SNP rs11249433 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.402; per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.13, P = 1.49 x 10-21). The association for rs11249433 was limited to ER-positive breast cancers (test for heterogeneity P≤8.41 x 10-5). Additional analyses by other tumor characteristics showed stronger associations with moderately/well differentiated tumors and tumors of lobular histology. Although no significant eQTL associations were observed, in silico analyses showed that rs11249433 was located in a region that is likely a weak enhancer/promoter. Fine-mapping analysis of the 1p11.2 breast cancer susceptibility locus confirms this region to be limited to risk to cancers that are ER-positive. PMID:27556229

  12. Multimodal Assessment of Protein Functional Deficiency Supports Pathogenicity of BRCA1 p.V1688del

    PubMed Central

    De Nicolo, Arcangela; Parisini, Emilio; Zhong, Quan; Palma, Maurizia Dalla; Stoeckert, Kathryn A.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Caligo, Maria A.; Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Garber, Judy E.

    2009-01-01

    Unequivocal discrimination between neutral variants and deleterious mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 sequence change. An increasing number of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) are being identified, whose unclassified biological effect poses clinical concerns. A multifactorial likelihood-based approach recently suggested disease causality for BRCA1 p.V1688del, a VUS recurrent in Italian breast/ovarian cancer families. Whether and how this single amino acid deletion in the BRCA1 BRCT domain affects the function of the mutant protein (ΔValBRCA1) has not been elucidated. We undertook comprehensive functional characterization of ΔValBRCA1, comprising comparative structural modeling, analysis of protein stability and associations, and analysis of DNA repair function. Our model predicted BRCT domain destabilization and folding disruption caused by BRCA1 p.V1688del. Consistently, the recombinant ΔValBRCA1 was less stable than wtBRCA1 and, unlike the latter, failed to associate with BRIP1, CtIP, and Rap80, and to re-localize to sites of DNA damage. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a compromised interaction with FHL2 and with KPNA2, which is likely responsible for improper subcellular localization of ΔValBRCA1. In addition, we found four new breast/ovarian cancer families of Italian ancestry who carried this sequence alteration. These results provide the first evidence of the effect of BRCA1 p.V1688del on protein stability and function, supporting the view that it is a deleterious mutation. Multimodal analyses like ours could advance understanding of tumor suppression by BRCA1, and ultimately contribute to developing efficient strategies for screening and characterization of VUSs. PMID:19706752

  13. Fingolimod: direct CNS effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulation and implications in multiple sclerosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Aran; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying therapy approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Following phosphorylation in vivo, the active agent, fingolimod phosphate (fingolimod-P), acts as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, binding with high affinity to four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4 and S1P5). The mechanism of action of fingolimod in MS has primarily been considered as immunomodulatory, whereby fingolimod-P modulates S1P1 on lymphocytes, selectively retaining autoreactive lymphocytes in lymph nodes to reduce damaging infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence indicates that fingolimod has direct effects in the CNS in MS. For example, in the MS animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), fingolimod is highly efficacious in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting, yet becomes ineffective in animals selectively deficient for S1P1 on astrocytes, despite maintained normal immunologic receptor expression and functions, and S1P-mediated immune activities. Here, we review S1P signalling effects relevant to MS in neural cell types expressing S1P receptors, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia and dendritic cells. The direct effects of fingolimod on these CNS cells observed in preclinical studies are discussed in view of the functional consequences of reducing neurodegenerative processes and promoting myelin preservation and repair. The therapeutic implications of S1P modulation in the CNS are considered in terms of the clinical outcomes of MS, such as reducing MS-related brain atrophy, and other CNS disorders. Additionally, we briefly outline other existing and investigational MS therapies that may also have effects in the CNS. PMID:23518370

  14. RAP1GA1: A candidate tumor suppressor locus in 1p36.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, K.; Hussussian, C.J.; Higgins, P.

    1994-09-01

    The rap1/Krev-1 gene (RAP1A) encodes a p21-related protein that suppresses transformation by activated p21{sup ras}. The GTPase activating protein (GAP) gene for p21{sup rap1A} (RAP1GA1) has recently been assigned to chromosome 1p36.1-p35, a region of the genome that is frequently involved in deletions and rearrangements in several different tumors including breast, colon and hepatocellular carcinomas, melanoma, and neuroblastoma. GAP genes negatively regulate the activity of p21 proteins by catalyzing the conversion of the active GTP-bound forms to the inactive GDP-bound forms. The physiological function of p21{sup rap1A}-GAP makes it a strong candidate as a tumor suppressor gene that may have a role in the development of one or more of these malignancies. We have refined the localization of RAP1GA1 by linkage analysis with a highly informative (CA){sub n} repeat contained within the gene, and demonstrated that it is within the minimal deleted region for breast and colon carcinomas, and that it is excluded from the minimally deleted region in melanoma and neuroblastoma. Genetic mapping in the mouse demonstrated that Rap1ga1 is located {approximately}10 cM proximal to Pnd and therefore maps within the interval containing the modifier of Min gene (Mom-1) and the plasmocytoma susceptibility locus (Pcts). The human RAP1GA1 gene contains at least 27 exons. The coding region contains 22 exons, and there are at least five 5{prime}-UT exons that are assembled in a complex pattern of alternative splicing in different tissues. The localization of RAP1GA1 makes it a very strong candidate for a role as a modifier gene involved in the common secondary abnormalities involving 1p36 in several different carcinomas. The potential role of RAP1GA1 in these malignancies is currently being investigated by sequence analysis of breast and colon carcinomas with loss of heterozygosity in 1p36.

  15. Capitulation in Abelian extensions of some fields ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    We study the capitulation of the 2-ideal classes of an infinite family of imaginary biquadratic number fields consisting of fields k =ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i ), where i =√{-1 } and p1 ≡ p2 ≡ -q ≡ 1 (mod 4) are different primes. For each of the three quadratic extensions K /k inside the absolute genus field k(*) of k , we compute the capitulation kernel of K /k . Then we deduce that each strongly ambiguous class of k /ℚ (i ) capitulates already in k(*), which is smaller than the relative genus field (k/ℚ (i )) *.

  16. First Observation of the P-Wave Spin-Singlet Bottomonium States hb(1P) and hb(2P)

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, David M.; Aushev, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Belous, K.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bondar, A.; Bracko, Marko; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, Thomas E.; Chang, P.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I- S.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Drasal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Esen, Sevda; Fast, James E.; Feindt, M.; Gaur, Vipin; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hara, Takanori; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W. S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, Igal; Julius, T.; Kang, J. H.; Katayama, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, Kay; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, N.; Koblitz, S.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S. H.; Li, J.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liventsev, D.; Louvot, R.; Macnaughton, Jimmy N.; Matvienko, D.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mussa, R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Neubauer, S.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Nozaki, T.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, Stephen L.; Onuki, Y.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Pestotnik, Rok; Petric, M.; Piilonen, Leo E.; Poluektov, A.; Ritter, M.; Rohrken, M.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, Himansu B.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, Martin E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T. A.; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Young-Soo; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanic, S.; Stanic, M.; Sumihama, M.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Teramoto, Y.; Tikhomirov, I.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Vahsen, S. E.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vinokurova, A.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, Y.; Wicht, J.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamashita, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2012-01-18

    We report the observation of the hb(1P) and hb(2P) spin-singlet bottomonium states produced in the reaction e⁺e⁻ → hb(nP)π⁺π⁻ with significances of 5.5σ and 11.2σ, respectively. We find that M[hb(1P)] = (9898.25±1.06+1.03 –1.07 )MeV/c² and M[hb(2P)] = (10259.76±0.64+1.43 –1.03 )MeV/c2, which correspond to measurements of the P-wave hyperfine splittings ΔMHF = (1.62 ± 1.52)MeV/c² and (0.48+1.57 –1.22)MeV/c², respectively. We also report measurements of the cross sections for e⁺e⁻ → hb(nP)π⁺π⁻ relative to the cross section for the e⁺e⁻ Υ(2S)π⁺π⁻ reaction. These results are obtained from a 121.4 fb⁻¹ data sample collected with the Belle detector near the Υ(5S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider.

  17. Fus1p interacts with components of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdc42p morphogenesis signaling pathways to control cell fusion during yeast mating.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Bryce; Parsons, Ainslie B; Evangelista, Marie; Schaefer, Karen; Kennedy, Kathy; Ritchie, Steven; Petryshen, Tracey L; Boone, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Cell fusion in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a temporally and spatially regulated process that involves degradation of the septum, which is composed of cell wall material, and occurs between conjugating cells within a prezygote, followed by plasma membrane fusion. The plasma membrane protein Fus1p is known to be required for septum degradation during cell fusion, yet its role at the molecular level is not understood. We identified Sho1p, an osmosensor for the HOG MAPK pathway, as a binding partner for Fus1 in a two-hybrid screen. The Sho1p-Fus1p interaction occurs directly and is mediated through the Sho1p-SH3 domain and a proline-rich peptide ligand on the Fus1p COOH-terminal cytoplasmic region. The cell fusion defect associated with fus1Delta mutants is suppressed by a sho1Delta deletion allele, suggesting that Fus1p negatively regulates Sho1p signaling to ensure efficient cell fusion. A two-hybrid matrix containing fusion proteins and pheromone response pathway signaling molecules reveals that Fus1p may participate in a complex network of interactions. In particular, the Fus1p cytoplasmic domain interacts with Chs5p, a protein required for secretion of specialized Chs3p-containing vesicles during bud development, and chs5Delta mutants were defective in cell surface localization of Fus1p. The Fus1p cytoplasmic domain also interacts with the activated GTP-bound form of Cdc42p and the Fus1p-SH3 domain interacts with Bni1p, a yeast formin that participates in cell fusion and controls the assembly of actin cables to polarize secretion in response to Cdc42p signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that Fus1p acts as a scaffold for the assembly of a cell surface complex involved in polarized secretion of septum-degrading enzymes and inhibition of HOG pathway signaling to promote cell fusion. PMID:15020407

  18. 1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street (west) facade (long side). North of the D Street facade is the Edward Abner Building (413-415 9th Street) and north of it is the Ferree Building (417 9th Street). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Monereo, O; Illera, S; Varea, A; Schmidt, M; Sauerwald, T; Schütze, A; Cirera, A; Prades, J D

    2016-03-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called "hot-spots". On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures. PMID:26868599

  20. CD1d-restricted peripheral T cell lymphoma in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Bachy, Emmanuel; Urb, Mirjam; Chandra, Shilpi; Robinot, Rémy; Bricard, Gabriel; de Bernard, Simon; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Gazzo, Sophie; Blond, Olivier; Khurana, Archana; Baseggio, Lucile; Heavican, Tayla; Ffrench, Martine; Crispatzu, Giuliano; Mondière, Paul; Schrader, Alexandra; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Martin, Nadine; Dalle, Stéphane; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Salles, Gilles; Lachuer, Joel; Hermine, Olivier; Asnafi, Vahid; Roussel, Mikael; Lamy, Thierry; Herling, Marco; Iqbal, Javeed; Buffat, Laurent; Marche, Patrice N; Gaulard, Philippe; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Defrance, Thierry; Genestier, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous entity of neoplasms with poor prognosis, lack of effective therapies, and a largely unknown pathophysiology. Identifying the mechanism of lymphomagenesis and cell-of-origin from which PTCLs arise is crucial for the development of efficient treatment strategies. In addition to the well-described thymic lymphomas, we found that p53-deficient mice also developed mature PTCLs that did not originate from conventional T cells but from CD1d-restricted NKT cells. PTCLs showed phenotypic features of activated NKT cells, such as PD-1 up-regulation and loss of NK1.1 expression. Injections of heat-killed Streptococcus pneumonia, known to express glycolipid antigens activating NKT cells, increased the incidence of these PTCLs, whereas Escherichia coli injection did not. Gene expression profile analyses indicated a significant down-regulation of genes in the TCR signaling pathway in PTCL, a common feature of chronically activated T cells. Targeting TCR signaling pathway in lymphoma cells, either with cyclosporine A or anti-CD1d blocking antibody, prolonged mice survival. Importantly, we identified human CD1d-restricted lymphoma cells within Vδ1 TCR-expressing PTCL. These results define a new subtype of PTCL and pave the way for the development of blocking anti-CD1d antibody for therapeutic purposes in humans. PMID:27069116

  1. On the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, David Yang; Lu, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    This paper mainly investigates the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D through the approach of nonlinear differential equations. Based on the canonical duality method, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation with Neumann boundary condition can be converted into a cubic dual algebraic equation, which will help find the local extrema for the primal problem.

  2. Quasi 1-D Study of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of several different PDRE nozzle configurations is reported.

  3. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  4. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of 1D TiO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Julieta; Alarcón, Hugo; López, Alcides; Candal, Roberto; Acosta, Dwight; Rodriguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire/nanorod TiO(2) structures of approximately 8 nm in diameter and around 1,000 nm long were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of two different TiO(2) nanopowders. The first precursor was TiO(2) obtained by the sol-gel process (SG-TiO(2)); the second was the well-known commercial TiO(2) P-25 (P25-TiO(2)). Anatase-like 1D TiO(2) nanostructures were obtained in both cases. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures synthesized from SG-TiO(2) powders turned into rod-like nanostructures after annealing at 400 °C for 2 h. Conversely, the nanostructures synthesized from P25-TiO(2) preserved the tubular structure after annealing, displaying a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area than the first system (279 and 97 m²/g, respectively). Despite the higher surface area shown by the 1D nanostructures, in both cases the photocatalytic activity was lower than for the P25-TiO(2) powder. However, the rod-like nanostructures obtained from SG-TiO(2) displayed slightly higher efficiency than the sol-gel prepared powders. The lower photocatalytic activity of the nanostructures with respect to P-25 can be associated with the lower crystallinity of 1D TiO(2) in both materials. PMID:25259484

  6. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  7. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  8. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  9. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of “structural correctness” depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D 1H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D 1H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by 1H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D 1H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  10. On the self-assembly of TiOx into 1D NP network nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redel, Engelbert; Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Venkata; Lan, Yanhua; Natzeck, Carsten; Heissler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report for the first time a ‘ligand free’ method of designing 1D TiOx supramolecular network materials, which starts from Ti bare metal powder. Each TiOx oxidation step has been carefully investigated with different analytical techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy/high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM/HRSEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. The self-assembly of TiOx nanoparticles (NPs) into 1D supramolecular nanoparticle networks is induced by the formation of mixed valent TiII,III species. The synthesis starts with etching a bare Ti surface, followed by a continuous oxidation of TiOx clusters and NPs, and it finally ends with the self-assembly into rigid 1D NPs chains. Today, such self-assembled 1D NP TiOx network materials are bridging the gap between the nanoscale and the macroscopic material world and will further provide interesting research opportunities.

  11. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Guido F; Niemitz, Matthias; Bisson, Jonathan; Lodewyk, Michael W; Soldi, Cristian; Shaw, Jared T; Tantillo, Dean J; Saya, Jordy M; Vos, Klaas; Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Hiemstra, Henk; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Friesen, J Brent

    2016-02-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of "structural correctness" depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D (1)H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D (1)H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D (1)H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  12. Energy transformation of plasmonic photocatalytic oxidation on 1D quantum well of platinum thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung Ji; Liu, Bo-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The energy transformation of vertical incident light into energy for a chemical reaction is demonstrated in the endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor. The plasmonic enhancement on photocatalytic reaction demonstrated the generation of quantum hot charge on 1D quantum well of platinum thin film.

  13. Build up An Operational Flood Simulation from Existing 1D Channel Flow Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Lien, Ho-Cheng; Shen, Jhih-Cyuan; Chung, Ming-Ko

    2016-04-01

    Several 2D flood simulations will be developed for urban area in recent years in Taiwan. Original ideas focus on the static flood maps produced by the 2D flood simulation with respect to design events, which could be useful no matter for planning or disaster awareness. However, an extra bonus is expected to see if we can reuse the 2D flood simulation framework for operational use or not. Such a project goal inspire us to setup a standard operation procedure before any progress from existing 1D channel flow works. 3 key issues are taken into account in the SOP: 1. High Resolution Terrain: A 1m resolution digital terrain model (DTM) is considered as a reference. The Channels and structures should be setup in 1D channel flow works if we can identify under such high resolution. One should examine the existing 1D channel flow works consistent with the DTM or not. 2. Meteo Stations Referenced: Real time precipitation would be send to referenced location in RR models during an operational forecast. Existing 1D channels flow works are usually specifically for design events which are not necessarily equipped with such references. 3. Time Consuming: A full scale 2D flood simulation needs a lot of computation resources. A solution should be derived within practical time limits. Under the above consideration, some impacts and procedures will be analyzed and developed to setup the SOP for further model modification.

  14. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)

  15. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  16. Millimeter and Submillimeter Studies of O(^1D) Insertion Reactions to Form Molecules of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian; Wehres, Nadine; Deprince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    While both the number of detected interstellar molecules and their chemical complexity continue to increase, understanding of the processes leading to their formation is lacking. Our research group combines laboratory spectroscopy, observational astronomy, and astrochemical modeling for an interdisciplinary examination of the chemistry of star and planet formation. This talk will focus on our laboratory studies of O(^1D) insertion reactions with organic molecules to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. By employing these reactions in a supersonic expansion, we are able to produce interstellar organic reaction intermediates that are unstable under terrestrial conditions; we then probe the products using millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. We benchmarked this setup using the well-studied O(^1D) + methane reaction to form methanol. After optimizing methanol production, we moved on to study the O(^1D) + ethylene reaction to form vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH), and the O(^1D) + methyl amine reaction to form aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH). Vinyl alcohol measurements have now been extended up to 450 GHz, and the associated spectral analysis is complete. A possible detection of aminomethanol has also been made, and continued spectral studies and analysis are underway. We will present the results from these experiments and discuss future applications of these molecular and spectroscopic techniques.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative G protein, Gtr1p, which forms complexes with itself and a novel protein designated as Gtr2p, negatively regulates the Ran/Gsp1p G protein cycle through Gtr2p.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, N; Noguchi, E; Nishimoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Prp20p and Rna1p are GDP/GTP exchanging and GTPase-activating factors of Gsp1p, respectively, and their mutations, prp20-1 and rna1-1, can both be suppressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae gtr1-11. We found that gtr1-11 caused a single amino acid substitution in Gtr1p, forming S20L, which is a putative GDP-bound mutant protein, while Gtr1p has been reported to bind to GTP alone. Consistently, gtr1-S20N, another putative GDP-bound mutant, suppressed both prp20-1 and rna1-1. On the other hand, gtr1-Q65L, a putative GTP-bound mutant, was inhibitory to prp20-1 and rna1-1. Thus, the role that Gtr1p plays in vivo appears to depend upon the nucleotide bound to it. Our data suggested that the GTP-bound Gtr1p, but not the GDP-bound Gtr1p, interacts with itself through its C-terminal tail. S. cerevisiae possesses a novel gene, GTR2, which is homologous to GTR1. Gtr2p interacts with itself in the presence of Gtr1p. The disruption of GTR2 suppressed prp20-1 and abolished the inhibitory effect of gtr1-Q65L on prp20-1. This finding, taken together with the fact that Gtr1p-S20L is a putative, inactive GDP-bound mutant, implies that Gtr1p negatively regulates the Ran/Gsp1p GTPase cycle through Gtr2p. PMID:10388807

  18. The Taz1p transacylase is imported and sorted into the outer mitochondrial membrane via a membrane anchor domain.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jenny D; Claypool, Steven M; Koehler, Carla M

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial transacylase tafazzin, Taz1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause Barth syndrome, a disease of defective cardiolipin remodeling. Taz1p is an interfacial membrane protein that localizes to both the outer and inner membranes, lining the intermembrane space. Pathogenic point mutations in Taz1p that alter import and membrane insertion result in accumulation of monolysocardiolipin. In this study, we used yeast as a model to investigate the biogenesis of Taz1p. We show that to achieve this unique topology in mitochondria, Taz1p follows a novel import pathway in which it crosses the outer membrane via the translocase of the outer membrane and then uses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex of the intermembrane space to insert into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Taz1p is then transported to membranes of an intermediate density to reach a location in the inner membrane. Moreover, a pathogenic mutation within the membrane anchor (V224R) alters Taz1p import so that it bypasses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex and interacts with the translocase of the inner membrane, TIM23, to reach the matrix. Critical targeting information for Taz1p resides in the membrane anchor and flanking sequences, which are often mutated in Barth syndrome patients. These studies suggest that altering the mitochondrial import pathway of Taz1p may be important in understanding the molecular basis of Barth syndrome. PMID:24078306

  19. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and the proton ATPase Pma1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J. Allen; Chen, Janice S.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2015-07-03

    In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays a critical role in oxidative stress protection as well as in signaling. We recently demonstrat