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1

Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert

2008-12-16

2

Variance and Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This source, created by David M. Lane of Hyperstat Online, defines and explains variance and standard deviation. The page intertwines mathematical formulas with text to best introduce the topic. While brief, it still provides a nice introduction to these methods.

Lane, David M.

2009-01-13

3

Standard Deviation for Small Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

2006-01-01

4

The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

Yunis, Isam

2005-01-01

5

7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards. 1724.52...52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards. The provisions... (2) Any deviation from the RUS construction standards for...

2010-01-01

6

Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

2005-01-01

7

A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

2010-01-01

8

Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

Fischer, R. E.

1972-01-01

9

7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204 Section 400.204...Agency Sales and Service Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall...

2009-01-01

10

7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204 Section 400.204...Agency Sales and Service Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall...

2010-01-01

11

Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.

PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)

2008-05-06

12

Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

Tasker, G. D.; Gilroy, E. J.

1982-01-01

13

Automatic white balancing using standard deviation of RGB components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good automatic white balancing algorithm is an essential image pre-processing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality. In this paper, an automatic white balancing algorithm based on the standard deviation of RGB components of the pre-captured image is proposed. A light source model for evaluation of an automatic white balancing is

Hong-kwai Lam; Oscar C. Au; Chi-wah Wong

2004-01-01

14

Some Posterior Standard Deviations in Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedures required to obtain the approximate posterior standard deviations of the parameters in the three commonly used item response models for dichotomous items are described and used to generate values for some common situations. The results were compared with those obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown that the use of…

Kim, Seock-Ho

2007-01-01

15

7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section...Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations...174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer...

2010-01-01

16

7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section...Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations...174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer...

2009-01-01

17

1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the Code...Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code...Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal...

2010-01-01

18

Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

2006-01-01

19

75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...

2010-01-05

20

A light-hearted look at a lion-hearted organ (or, a perspective from three standard deviations beyond the norm) part 2 (of 2 parts).  

PubMed

Throughout history, the heart has been associated not only with its life-sustaining function but also with its close ties to the human emotions. In this literature and internet review, we attempt to gather and organize information from both of these perspectives as they relate to the heart in the following 11 categories: (1) fun facts, (2) medical photography, (3) history, (4) languages (etymology), (5) nonmedical English expressions, (6) death, (7) the arts, (8) movie titles, (9) song titles, (10) Shakespeare, and (11) the Bible. Part 1 (previously published) covered the first five topics, and Part 2 will cover the last six topics. These data may be useful to those who are engaged in teaching about the cardiovascular system. PMID:15556782

Loe, Matthew J; Edwards, William D

2004-01-01

21

Variances and uncertainties of the sample laboratory-to-laboratory variance (S(L)2) and standard deviation (S(L)) associated with an interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

The validation process for an analytical method usually employs an interlaboratory study conducted as a balanced completely randomized model involving a specified number of randomly chosen laboratories, each analyzing a specified number of randomly allocated replicates. For such studies, formulas to obtain approximate unbiased estimates of the variance and uncertainty of the sample laboratory-to-laboratory (lab-to-lab) STD (S(L)) have been developed primarily to account for the uncertainty of S(L) when there is a need to develop an uncertainty budget that includes the uncertainty of S(L). For the sake of completeness on this topic, formulas to estimate the variance and uncertainty of the sample lab-to-lab variance (S(L)2) were also developed. In some cases, it was necessary to derive the formulas based on an approximate distribution for S(L)2. PMID:22468367

McClure, Foster D; Lee, Jung K

2012-01-01

22

Bounds for a multivariate extension of range over standard deviation based on the Mahalanobis distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range over standard deviation of a set of univariate data points is given a natural multivariate extension through the Mahalanobis distance. The problem of finding extrema of this multivariate extension of “range over standard deviation” is investigated. The supremum (maximum) is found using Lagrangian methods and an interval is given for the infinimum. The independence of optimizing the Mahalanobis

E. G. Gath; K. Hayes

2011-01-01

23

What to use to express the variability of data: Standard deviation or standard error of mean?  

PubMed Central

Statistics plays a vital role in biomedical research. It helps present data precisely and draws the meaningful conclusions. While presenting data, one should be aware of using adequate statistical measures. In biomedical journals, Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used interchangeably to express the variability; though they measure different parameters. SEM quantifies uncertainty in estimate of the mean whereas SD indicates dispersion of the data from mean. As readers are generally interested in knowing the variability within sample, descriptive data should be precisely summarized with SD. Use of SEM should be limited to compute CI which measures the precision of population estimate. Journals can avoid such errors by requiring authors to adhere to their guidelines.

Barde, Mohini P.; Barde, Prajakt J.

2012-01-01

24

Divisional Normals and Standard Deviations of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days, 1971-2000 (and previous normals period). Section 2: Precipitation. Climatography of the United States No. 85.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Climatography includes normals and standard deviations for the five 30-year normals periods and the 70-year period between 1931-2000 for each climate division. A climate division represents a region within a state that is as climatically homogeneous ...

2002-01-01

25

Estimating the Mean and Standard Deviation from a Bruceton Statistical Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The maximum likelihood equations used to determine estimates of the mean and standard deviation for the Bruceton method of statistical analysis were solved numerically. A digital computer algorithm was developed to reduce the time associated with the nume...

L. Shainheit

1966-01-01

26

Estimation of the Standard Deviation of the Logistic Distribution by the Use of Selected Order Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is applied to obtain unbiased estimators with minimum variance among the class of linear estimators for the standard deviation of a logistic population with known mean. Coefficients for multiplying ordered observations are developed for comple...

J. N. Beyer A. H. Moore H. L. Harter

1972-01-01

27

Cost Contingency as the Standard Deviation of the Cost Estimate for Cost Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional cost contingency estimation relies heavily on expert judgment based on various cost-engineering standards. This paper compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contingencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Institute. It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingencies equal to the standard deviation of the cost estimate. It

Geoffrey Rothwell

2004-01-01

28

Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

Mandrake, Lukas

2013-01-01

29

AUTOMATIC WHITE BALANCING USING LUMINANCE COMPONENT AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF RGB COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic white balancing is an essential image pre- processing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality of the captured image. In this paper, a novel automatic white balancing algorithm based on both luminance component and standard deviation of RGB components of the pre- captured image is proposed. A light source model for

Hong-Kwai LAM; Oscar C. AU; Chi-Wah WONG

2004-01-01

30

Automatic white balancing using luminance component and standard deviation of RGB components [image preprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic white balancing is an essential image preprocessing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality of the captured image. In this paper, a novel automatic white balancing algorithm based on both the luminance component and standard deviation of RGB components of the pre-captured image is proposed. A light source model for evaluation

Hong-Kwai Lam; Oscar C. AU; Chi-Wah Wong

2004-01-01

31

On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

2007-01-01

32

On the Experience of the Arab Open University with the Standard Deviation Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arab Open University (AOU) has adopted the standard deviation method (SDM) as a grading system in replacement of a fixed scale. Adopting SDM was intended to remedy a problem that has resulted from discrepancies between AOU's graduation requirements and those of its partner, UK Open University. This paper aims mainly at investigating whether…

Al-Eisa, Abdulkarim S.; Alhemoud, Abdulla M.

2008-01-01

33

Deviations from Standard Italian in the Victorian H.S.C. Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of observations are made of deviations from standard Italian made by students, both of Italian and non-Italian origin, in the Victorian H.S.C. examinations, with discussion of probable English, French and Italian dialectal influences. (RM)

Streager, H. R.

1974-01-01

34

An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.

Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

1971-01-01

35

MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )

Pieta, Holger

2010-02-01

36

Standard Deviation of Spatially-Averaged Surface Cross Section Data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.

Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

37

Equivalent Standard Deviation to Convert High-reliability Model to Low- reliability Model for Efficiency of Sampling-based RBDO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents a methodology to convert an RBDO problem requiring very high reliability to an RBDO problem requiring relatively low reliability by increasing input standard deviations for efficient computation in sampling-based RBDO. First, for linea...

D. Gorsich I. Lee K. K. Choi

2011-01-01

38

Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

Lin, P. -S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C. -T.; Cheng, C. -T.

2011-01-01

39

Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

2008-01-01

40

A standard deviation based quantification differentiates coding from non-coding DNA sequences and gives insight to their evolutionary history.  

PubMed

A method quantifying the randomness of nucleotide sequences is developed, based on the introduction of a standard deviation type of quantity involving locally computed means and a length scale around which is assessed the clustering of nucleotides. It is pointed out that the value taken by this modified standard deviation may distinguish between coding rich and non-coding rich sequences. Moreover, the approach described herein allows the determination of some minimal characteristics of an evolutionary scenario which can account for the origin of the clustering in the nucleotide distribution of the different parts of the genome. PMID:10049623

Almirantis, Y

1999-02-01

41

Variations of Standard Deviation of Gravity Anomalies in Chugoku District, Japan: Relationship with Distributions of Topographic Lineaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship between distribution of topographic lineaments and variation of standard deviation of gravity anomalies in Chugoku district, Japan is investigated. Tectonic movement may disturb lateral continuities of crustal structures at weak zones. Lateral discontinuities of the density structure cause undulations of gravity anomaly field over them. Therefore, complexities of the gravity anomaly field might be an indicator of the past

T. Kudo; T. Nohara; H. Kinoshita; A. Yamamoto; R. Shichi

2003-01-01

42

Importance of the Radiocarbon Standard Deviation in Determining Relative Sea Levels and Glacial Chronology from East Baffin Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the importance of the radiocarbon standard deviation in the evaluation of relative sea levels and a local glacial chronology are presented. Techniques for evaluating the data are described. In the early stage of postglacial emergence, uncertainties in the radiocarbon age of a sample, presumed to date the marine limit, can lead to a twenty per cent error in

J. T. ANDREWS

43

Numerical studies on a novel damage localization feature of cantilever beams using standard deviation and curvature method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, taking the cantilever beams as example, a novel and simple damage localization approach is proposed: the Curvature Difference Probability Method of Waveform Logarithms of Standard Deviation (CDPWLSD). Firstly, the feature, the common Logarithms of Standard Deviation (LSD) for the response signals before and after damage should be computed at every measured node. Then, the curvature changes of the waveform LSD are selected as candidates for the potentially damaged locations. Lastly, the probability of every potentially damaged element presenting in multiple identifications is considered to determine the finally damaged elements. Numerical results of both single and multiple damage cases show that the proposed approach can be used to locate damage very well. And it is still effective even if the noise level is up to 15%.

An, Yonghui; Ou, Jinping

2012-03-01

44

Distributions of the standard deviation and skewness in random samples from a gamma density: a new look at a Craig-Pearson study  

SciTech Connect

Using Taylor series, series for the first four moments of the standardized sample standard deviation and the sample skewness from Gamma populations are studied; the series, using a computer approach, are taken out to terms of order n/sup -24/ (n the sample size) for the standard deviation, and n/sup -12/ for the skewness. Summation techniques are required for the apparent divergency encountered; Pade (near the main diagonal in the table) and Levin algorithms are used. Although the latter seems to be weakly divergent, a best stopping member of a sequence can be located by comparison with exact results for n = 2 and n = 3. The study is a continuation of theoretical and numerical work undertaken by Cecil Craig and Egon S. Pearson half-a-century ago. Comparisons are made with extended moment series, first of all for the moments, and secondly, for 4-moment distributional approximants. As backup assessments, simulation results in a few cases are given.

Bowman, K.O.; Shenton, L.R.

1983-01-01

45

Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

Nelde, Peter H.

1974-01-01

46

Factors Influencing Parental Decision Making When Parents Choose to Deviate From the Standard Pediatric Immunization Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study focusing on the basis for parental decisions to refrain from the standard pediatric immunization schedule. Design and Methods: The study was based upon open-ended qualitative items that were subjected to content analysis to identify the prominent themes cited by parents. Results: The results of the study

Maria D. Whyte; James Whyte IV; Eileen Cormier; David W. Eccles

2011-01-01

47

An improved offset generator developed for Allan deviation measurement of ultra stable frequency standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring the performance of ultra stable frequency standards such as the Superconducting Cavity Maser Oscillator (SCMO) necessitates improvement of some test instrumentation. The frequency stability test equipment used at JPL includes a 1 Hz Offset Generator to generate a beat frequency between a pair of 100 MHz signals that are being compared. The noise floor of the measurement system using the current Offset Generator is adequate to characterize stability of hydrogen masers, but it is not adequate for the SCMO. A new Offset Generator with improved stability was designed and tested at JPL. With this Offset Generator and a new Zero Crossing Detector, recently developed at JPL, the measurement flow was reduced by a factor of 5.5 at 1 second tau, 3.0 at 1000 seconds, and 9.4 at 10,000 seconds, compared against the previous design. In addition to the new circuit designs of the Offset Generator and Zero Crossing Detector, tighter control of the measurement equipment environment was required to achieve this improvement. The design of this new Offset Generator are described, along with details of the environment control methods used.

Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

1992-01-01

48

78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chicken of the Sea International (the applicant...Chicken of the Sea International, 9330 Scranton Rd., suite 500, San...30/2 Sethakit 1 Rd., Tambon Tarsrai...Chicken of the Sea International will distribute...

2013-01-10

49

Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.  

PubMed

When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

2013-01-01

50

Deviation from the Curie-Weiss Law in KH2PO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric constants of KH2PO4 along the c- and a-axes have been measured precisely in the paraelectric phase at T-Tc?230 K. Slight deviation from the Curie-Weiss law was found for \\varepsilonc and \\varepsilona in the range T-Tc?25 K. The deviation can not be explained by the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. The short range correlation taken in Slater’s theory of KH2PO4 is a possible origin of this deviation.

Deguchi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Eiji

1980-11-01

51

Standard deviation of vertical two-point longitudinal velocity differences in the atmospheric boundary layer.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical estimates of wind shear in the planetary boundary layer are important in the design of V/STOL aircraft, and for the design of the Space Shuttle. The data analyzed in this study consist of eleven sets of longitudinal turbulent velocity fluctuation time histories digitized at 0.2 sec intervals with approximately 18,000 data points per time history. The longitudinal velocity fluctuations were calculated with horizontal wind and direction data collected at the 18-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 150-m levels. The data obtained confirm the result that Eulerian time spectra transformed to wave-number spectra with Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis possess inertial-like behavior at wave-numbers well out of the inertial subrange.

Fichtl, G. H.

1971-01-01

52

Standard operation procedures for conducting the on-the-road driving test, and measurement of the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP)  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the methodology of the standardized on-the-road driving test and standard operation procedures to conduct the test and analyze the data. The on-the-road driving test has proven to be a sensitive and reliable method to examine driving ability after administration of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. The test is performed on a public highway in normal traffic. Subjects are instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. Its primary parameter, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), ie, an index of ‘weaving’, is a stable measure of driving performance with high test–retest reliability. SDLP differences from placebo are dose-dependent, and do not depend on the subject’s baseline driving skills (placebo SDLP). It is important that standard operation procedures are applied to conduct the test and analyze the data in order to allow comparisons between studies from different sites.

Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

2011-01-01

53

Deviation from the Curie-Weiss Law in KH2PO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constants of KH2PO4 along the c- and a-axes have been measured precisely in the paraelectric phase at T-Tc≲230 K. Slight deviation from the Curie-Weiss law was found for \\\\varepsilonc and \\\\varepsilona in the range T-Tc≲25 K. The deviation can not be explained by the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. The short range correlation taken in Slater's theory of KH2PO4 is

Kiyoshi Deguchi; Eiji Nakamura

1980-01-01

54

[Penis deviation].  

PubMed

Penile deviation has been gaining in importance as a symptom of several diseases. There are congenital forms (congenital penile deviation, hypo- and epispadias) as well as acquired forms (induratio penis plastica, traumatic deviation, urethral manipulation syndrome). History and autophotography are the most important diagnostic procedures. The therapeutic procedure is corporaplasty according to Nesbit-Kelâmi. PMID:4012944

Kelâmi, A

1985-05-01

55

Correlation of pattern reversal visual evoked potential parameters with the pattern standard deviation in primary open angle glaucoma  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defect particularly the pattern standard deviation (PSD) of Humphrey visual field could be associated with visual evoked potential (VEP) parameters of patients having primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Visual field by Humphrey perimetry and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. The stimulus configuration for VEP recordings consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board pattern was generated (full field) and displayed on VEP monitor (colour 14?) by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). RESULTS The results of our study indicate that there is a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation of P100 amplitude and a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of N70 latency, P100 latency and N155 latency with the PSD of Humphrey visual field in the subjects of POAG in various age groups as evaluated by Student's t-test. CONCLUSION Prolongation of VEP latencies were mirrored by a corresponding increase of PSD values. Conversely, as PSD increases the magnitude of VEP excursions were found to be diminished.

Kothari, Ruchi; Bokariya, Pradeep; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Narang, Purvasha

2014-01-01

56

Standard deviation of the mean and other time series properties of voltages measured with a digital lock-in amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate some statistical properties of ac voltages from a white noise source measured with a digital lock-in amplifier equipped with finite impulse response output filters which introduce correlations between successive voltage values. The main goal of this work is to propose simple solutions to account for correlations when calculating the standard deviation of the mean (SDM) for a sequence of measurement data acquired using such an instrument. The problem is treated by time series analysis based on a moving average model of the filtering process. Theoretical expressions are derived for the power spectral density (PSD), the autocorrelation function, the equivalent noise bandwidth and the Allan variance; all are related to the SDM. At most three parameters suffice to specify any of the above quantities: the filter time constant, the time between successive measurements (both set by the lock-in operator) and the PSD of the white noise input, h0. Our white noise source is a resistor so that the PSD is easily calculated; there are no free parameters. Theoretical expressions are checked against their respective sample estimates and, with the exception of two of the bandwidth estimates, agreement to within 11% or better is found.

Witt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, N. E.

2010-10-01

57

Calculating the interindividual geometric standard deviation for use in the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.  

PubMed

The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model, recommended for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at residential Superfund sites to predict potential risks to children from lead exposure and to establish lead remediation levels, requires an interindividual geometric standard deviation (GSDi) as an essential input parameter. The GSDi quantifies the variability of blood lead concentrations for children exposed to similar environmental concentrations of lead. Estimates of potential risks are directly related to the GSDi, and therefore the GSDi directly impacts the scope of remediation at Superfund sites. Site-specific GSDi can be calculated for sites where blood lead and environmental lead have been measured. This paper uses data from blood and environmental lead studies conducted at the Bingham Creek and Sandy, Utah, Superfund sites to calculate GSDi using regression modeling, box modeling, and structural equation modeling. GSDis were calculated using various methods for treating values below the analytical method detection and quantitation limits. Treatment of nonquantifiable blood lead concentrations affected the GSDi more than the statistical method used to calculate the GSDi. For any given treatment, the different statistical methods produced similar GSDis. Because of the uncertainties associated with data in the blood lead studies, we recommend that a range of GSDis be used when analyzing site-specific risks associated with exposure to environmental lead instead of a single estimate. Because the different statistical methods produce similar GSDis, we recommend a simple procedure to calculate site-specific GSDi from a scientifically sound blood and environmental lead study. PMID:10339449

Griffin, S; Marcus, A; Schulz, T; Walker, S

1999-06-01

58

Asymptotic behavior of small deviations for Bogoliubov's Gaussian measure in the L p norm, 2 ? p ? ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove several results on exact asymptotic formulas for small deviations in the Lp-norm with 2 ˜ p ˜ ? for Bogoliubov's stationary Gaussian process ?(t). We prove the property of mutual absolute continuity for the conditional Bogoliubov measure and the conditional Wiener measure and calculate the Radon-Nikodym derivative.

Fatalov, V. R.

2012-12-01

59

Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations  

SciTech Connect

We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

Chueshov, Igor, E-mail: chueshov@univer.kharkov.u [Kharkov National University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Millet, Annie, E-mail: amillet@univ-paris1.f [Universites Paris 6-Paris 7, Boite Courrier 188, Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles Aleatoires (France)

2010-06-15

60

Surface composition deviation of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivative powdered samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powdered samples of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivatives prepared through a solid-state route were investigated by both bulk (electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and surface-sensitive (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) methods. We observe a deviation in composition between the surface and the bulk for all non-stoichiometric samples (both Cu-poor and Cu-rich). This behavior has already been observed for slightly Cu-poor CZTS thin films and is reminiscent of that of CIGSe compounds.

Harel, S.; Guillot-Deudon, C.; Choubrac, L.; Hamon, J.; Lafond, A.

2014-06-01

61

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

62

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

63

Polarizabilities and parity nonconservation in the Cs atom and limits on the deviation from the standard electroweak model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-empirical calculation of the 6s - 7s Stark amplitude $\\\\alpha$ in Cs\\u000ahas been performed using the most accurate measurements and calculations of the\\u000aelectromagnetic amplitudes available. This is then used to extract the\\u000aparameters of the electroweak theory from experimental data. The results are:\\u000a$\\\\alpha = 269.0 (1.3) a_0^3$, weak charge of Cs $Q_W = -72.41(25)_{exp}\\u000a(80)_{theor}$, deviation

V. A. Dzuba; V. V. Flambaum; O. P. Sushkov

1997-01-01

64

Measuring the deviation of the 2-3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the deviation of the 2-3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D{sub 23}{identical_to}1/2-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}, is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the 3{nu} context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D{sub 23}. We perform the global 3{nu}-analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the solar parameters ({delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} and {theta}{sub 12}) and the 1-3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2-3 mixing from maximal by {delta}sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}{approx_equal}0.04, so that D{sub 23}{approx}0.04{+-}0.07 (1{sigma}). Though the value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency of the allowed region to move towards smaller values of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23} is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future large scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D{sub 23} with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivity of future long-baseline experiments. Moreover, the atmospheric neutrinos will provide unique information on the sign of the deviation (octant of {theta}{sub 23})

Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C. [Physics Department, Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-C.S.I.C., Apt. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Maltoni, M. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Smirnov, A.Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

2004-11-01

65

Low-energy proton stopping power of N2, O2 and water vapor and deviations from Bragg's rule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified local plasma model, based on the works of Lindhard and Winther; and Bethe, Brown, and Walske, is established. The Gordon-Kim model for molecular electron density is used to calculate stopping power of N2, O2, and water vapor for protons of energy ranging from 40 keV to 2.5 MeV, resulting in good agreement with experimental data. Deviations from Bragg's rule are evaluated and are discussed under the present theoretical model.

Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

1984-01-01

66

Use of Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass Standard Deviation Scores Obtained Using Simple Measurement Methods in Healthy Children and Patients: Comparison with the Reference 4-Component Model  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. Objectives (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. Design FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height2/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8–22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). Results DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (±0.62); FFM SDS ?0.04 (±0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ??2 or ?2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. Conclusions DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

Atherton, Rachel R.; Williams, Jane E.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Fewtrell, Mary S.

2013-01-01

67

Deviation of the O-H chemical bond of the H2O molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deviation angles of the O-H bond for water molecules in the gaseous state are calculated ab initio. The Hartree-Fock method with various basis sets of the Gaussian 09 package is used. The calculation results correlate with previous estimates based on experimental data.

Okhrimenko, B. A.; Yablochkova, K. S.

2014-04-01

68

Vibrational investigation on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, IR intensity, Raman activity, peak resemblance, ideal estimation, standard deviation of computed frequencies analyses and electronic structure on 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene using HF and DFT (LSDA\\/B3LYP\\/B3PW91) calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000–100cm?1) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA\\/B3LYP\\/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA\\/B3LYP\\/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis

S. Ramalingam; A. Jayaprakash; S. Mohan; M. Karabacak

2011-01-01

69

Ionosperic anomaly due to seismic activities - Part 1: Calibration of the VLF signal of VTX 18.2 KHz station from Kolkata and deviation during seismic events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLF signals are long thought to give away important information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In order to establish co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what the reference signals are, throughout the year. The best opportunity to do this is during the period of solar minimum where the number of flares and sunspots are negligible and the data would be primarily affected by the sun and variation would be due to normal sunset and sunrise effects. In this paper, we present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005-2008 when the solar activity was very low. The terminators are for the 18.2 KHz VTX signal of the Indian Navy as observed from Indian Centre for Space Physics receiving station located in Kolkata. A total of 624 days of data have been used to obtain the mean plot. Any deviation of observations from this so-called the standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes) and extra-terrestrial events (such as solar activities). We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of 16 months and show that the correlation with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation takes place up to a couple of days prior to the seismic event. Simultaneous observations of such deviations from more than one station could improve the predictability of earthquakes.

Sasmal, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

2009-08-01

70

A goal geometric programming problem ( G 2 P 2) with logarithmic deviational variables and its applications on two industrial problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very useful multi-objective technique is goal programming. There are many methodologies of goal programming such as weighted goal programming, min-max goal programming, and lexicographic goal programming. In this paper, weighted goal programming is reformulated as goal programming with logarithmic deviation variables. Here, a comparison of the proposed method and goal programming with weighted sum method is presented. A numerical example and applications on two industrial problems have also enriched this paper.

Ghosh, Payel; Roy, Tapan Kumar

2013-04-01

71

Divisional Normals and Standard Deviations of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days, 1971-2000 (and previous normals period). Section 1: Temperature. Climatography of the United States No. 85.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Climatography includes normals and standard deviations for the five 30-year normals periods and the 70-year period between 1931-2000 for each climate division. A climate division represents a region within a state that is as climatically homogeneous ...

2002-01-01

72

Urbach's tails in the absorption spectra of CuInTe2 single crystals with various deviations from stoichiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical absorption coefficient ? near the band edge is found to vary exponentially with photon energy in several samples of CuInTe2 single crystals. This behavior, where the extrapolation of ln ? vs h? at different temperatures converges to a single point, is consistent with Urbach's rule. The temperature dependence of Urbach energy KT/?, calculated from the steepness parameter ?, agrees with the theoretical model that takes into account the contribution of both electron-phonon interaction and structural disorder. It is established that the observed phonon energy higher than the average value calculated from the reported optical modes is due to structural disorder which is caused by the compositional deviation from the ideal stoichiometry.

Wasim, S. M.; Marín, G.; Rincón, C.; Sánchez Pérez, G.; Mora, A. E.

1998-03-01

73

Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 by a modified minimum deviation method.  

PubMed

Thermo-optic coefficients anisotropy was characterized in monoclinic potassium (rare-earth) double tungstates KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 in the spectral range of 0.44-0.63 ?m by a modified minimum deviation method. This approach takes into account the changes in the shape and dimensions of the prismatic sample caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion effect under uniform heating together with the conventional measurements of minimum deviation angle. At room temperature at the wavelength of 633 nm, principal refractive indices for KGdW are n(p)=2.0135, n(m)=2.0458, and n(g)=2.0860, and for KYW they are n(p)=1.9979, n(m)=2.0396, and n(g)=2.0869. Optical axes position for KGdW (KYW) crystals is N(g) ± 42.60 (N(g) ± 44.1°) in the N(p)-N(g) plane. For both crystals, all the thermo-optic coefficients are negative and equal dn(p)/dT=-10.6, dn(m)/dT=-8.4, and dn(g)/dT=-15.2 for KGdW, and dn(p)/dT=-10.1, dn(m)/dT=-7.3, and dn(g)/dT=-8.4 for KYW [10(-6) K(-1)] (at 633 nm). PMID:22614598

Loiko, Pavel A; Filippov, Valery V; Yumashev, Konstantin V; Kuleshov, Nikolai V; Pavlyuk, Anatoly A

2012-05-20

74

Global optimization of data quality checks on 2-D and 3-D networks of GPR cross-well tomographic data for automatic correction of unknown well deviations  

SciTech Connect

Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of

Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.

2010-03-15

75

Remarks on the method of paired comparisons: III. A test of significance for paired comparisons when equal standard deviations and equal correlations are assumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test of goodness of fit is developed for Thurstone's method of paired comparisons, Case V. The test involves the computation of\\u000a$$\\\\chi ^2 = n\\\\Sigma (\\\\theta '' - \\\\theta ')^2 \\/821,$$\\u000a, wheren is the number of observations per pair, and and are the angles obtained by applying the inverse sine transformation to the fitted and the observed proportions

Frederick Mosteller

1951-01-01

76

A light-hearted look at a lion-hearted organ (or, a perspective from three standard deviations beyond the norm). Part 1 (of two parts).  

PubMed

Throughout history, the heart has been associated not only with its life-sustaining function but also with its close ties to the human emotions. In this literature and Internet review, we attempt to gather and organize information from both of these perspectives as they relate to the heart in the following 11 categories: (1) fun facts, (2) medical photography, (3) history, (4) languages (etymology), (5) nonmedical English expressions, (6) death, (7) the arts, (8) movie titles, (9) song titles, (10) Shakespeare, and (11) the Bible. Part 1 will cover the first five topics, and Part 2 will cover the last six topics. These data may be useful to those who are engaged in teaching about the cardiovascular system. PMID:15358343

Loe, Matthew J; Edwards, William D

2004-01-01

77

Spatial correlations of foF2 deviations and their implications for global ionospheric models: 1. Ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deviations of foF2 from the monthly median, ?foF2, have been calculated for each UT hour of each month for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2006, for 10 ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The linear correlation coefficients between simultaneous (same UT) values of ?foF2 for 45 station pairs have then been calculated for each hour for the

Leo F. McNamara; Phillip J. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

78

Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations of the ternary system of 1-butanol + 2-butanol + 1,3-butanediol at 303.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures of 1-butanol + 2-butanol + 1,3-butanediol and the binary systems 1-butanol + 2-butanol,\\u000a 1-butanol + 1,3-butanediol, and 2-butanol + 1,3-butanediol were measured at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire\\u000a range of compositions. Excess molar volumes V\\u000a E and viscosity deviations ?? were obtained from the experimental results for the binary and ternary systems and fitted to\\u000a Redlich–Kister’s and Cibulka’s equations in terms

M. Rezaei-Sameti; H. Iloukhani

2009-01-01

79

Large deviations and portfolio optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

Sornette, Didier

80

49 CFR 71.2 - Annual advancement of standard time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Annual advancement of standard time. 71.2 Section 71.2 Transportation...the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.2 Annual advancement of standard time. (a) The Uniform Time Act of...

2013-10-01

81

Correlation of Ranges of Correlated Deviates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The correlation between ranges of correlated normal deviates is assessed, exactly for ranges of 2 and 3, approximately for ranges of 4 or more, with results modifying those of Hartley (1950). The approximation is asymptotic in the correlation between the ...

T. E. Kurtz R. F. Link J. W. Tukey D. L. Wallace

1966-01-01

82

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Individual drain systems. 60.692-2 Section 60.692-2...Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1) Each drain shall be equipped with water seal controls....

2010-07-01

83

40 CFR 60.692 - 2 Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum] [Sec. 60.692 - 2 Standards: Individual drain systems.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ...Petroleum Sec. 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1) Each drain shall be equipped with water seal...

2009-07-01

84

15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Legal standard barrels. 241.2 Section 241.2 Commerce and Foreign...TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARDS FOR BARRELS BARRELS FOR FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY...

2009-01-01

85

15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal standard barrels. 241.2 Section 241.2 Commerce and Foreign...TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARDS FOR BARRELS BARRELS FOR FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY...

2010-01-01

86

41 CFR 101-29.301-2 - Federal Standardization Handbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Federal Standardization Handbook. 101-29.301-2 Section 101-29...101-29.301-2 Federal Standardization Handbook. The Assistant Administrator for...current basis a âFederal Standardization Handbook.â The Federal...

2010-07-01

87

29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section...Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL...

2013-07-01

88

2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. - Carnegie Institute of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

89

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2013-07-01

90

DOAS for flue gas monitoring—II. Deviations from the Beer-Lambert law for the U.V.\\/visible absorption spectra of NO, NO 2, SO 2 and NH 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviations from the Beer-Lambert law were studied for the differential absorption cross-sections for NO, SO2, NO2 and NH3. This was performed by simple calculations, computer simulations of spectra and by recordings of spectra for the above mentioned species at various total columns. The linearity studies for the DOAS instrument displayed large variations for the molecules studied and for different wavelength

Johan Mellqvist; Arne Rosén

1996-01-01

91

Development and verification of NASA Standard Initiator-2 (NSI-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of verification testing under NASA Contract NAS9-17249 are summarized in this Final Report. An Appendix is published separately. The report contains a brief discussion of design elements, test results, and a discussion of the latter. The contract was awarded for development and demonstration of design modifications to the NASA Standard Initiator-1 (NSI-1), resulting in the development of NSI-2. The intent of the project was to develop and prove the following design features: (1) Protection from premature initiation due to electrostatic potential by means other than a spark gap; (2) Development of an integral insulated charge cup for use with a zirconium/potassium perchlorate type mixture; (3) Improved cost and reliability figures by the use of a deposited ridge; and (4) Elimination of dudding as a result of the pyrotechnic shock effect, the movement of the primer composition away from the bridge circuit.

Corbin-Roberts, Linda

1988-01-01

92

Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

2005-01-01

93

Large deviations of Lyapunov exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generic dynamical systems have ‘typical’ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the sensitivity to small perturbations of almost all trajectories. A generic system also has trajectories with exceptional values of the exponents, corresponding to unusually stable or chaotic situations. From a more mathematical point of view, large deviations of Lyapunov exponents characterize phase-space topological structures such as separatrices, homoclinic trajectories and degenerate tori. Numerically sampling such large deviations using the Lyapunov Weighted Dynamics allows one to pinpoint, for example, stable configurations in celestial mechanics or collections of interacting chaotic ‘breathers’ in nonlinear media. Furthermore, we show that this numerical method allows one to compute the topological pressure of extended dynamical systems, a central quantity in the thermodynamic of trajectories of Ruelle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

Laffargue, Tanguy; Nguyen Thu Lam, Khanh-Dang; Kurchan, Jorge; Tailleur, Julien

2013-06-01

94

Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.  

PubMed

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

95

Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures  

PubMed Central

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

Serra, Joan; Ozaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

96

9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100...

2010-01-01

97

9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100...

2009-01-01

98

Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…

Gorard, Stephen

2005-01-01

99

FGDC CONTENT STANDARD FOR DIGITAL GEOSPATIAL METADATA (CSDGM) VERSION 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) recently approved a revised version of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM Version 2 - FGDC-STD-001-1998). The objectives of the standard are to provide a common set of terminology and definitions for the docume...

100

Optimal hedging via large deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criterion of minimizing the cumulative hedged returns’ probability of underperforming a benchmark provides a framework for evaluating short-term hedges that are rolled over to produce longer-term hedges. Large deviations theory can be used to either parametrically or nonparametrically estimate underperformance probabilities for cumulative hedged returns produced by roll-overs, providing a straightforward way to find optimal hedge ratios. Optimal hedges using soybean futures are constructed to illustrate the procedures, and their relationship to the popular hedging criteria that are motivated by normality.

Stutzer, Michael

2013-08-01

101

Ethoxyquin (6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline): Pesticide Registration Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains information regarding reregistration of pesticide products containing 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline (Ethoxyquin), including how to register under a registration standard, regulatory position and rationale, and summar...

1981-01-01

102

21. c, 1915 Historic plan, standard 2 beam girder bridge. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. c, 1915 Historic plan, standard 2 beam girder bridge. United Construction Company, Albany, New York. Generic plan typical of Prescott Bridge. Source: New Hampshire Department of Transportation - Prescott Bridge, Spanning Lamprey River on Prescott Road, Raymond, Rockingham County, NH

103

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

2009-02-04

104

Allan deviation analysis of financial return series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

Hernández-Pérez, R.

2012-05-01

105

Essential Principle 2: Correlation to Standards and Curriculum Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article aligns the concepts of Essential Principle 2 of the Climate Sciences to the K-5 content standards of the National Science Education Standards. The author also identifies common misconceptions about heat and the greenhouse gases effect and offers resources for assessing students' understanding of interactions among components of the Earth system. This article continues the examination of the climate sciences and climate literacy on which the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured.

Lightle, Kimberly

2011-03-01

106

High precision calibration for 2D optical standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask is a kind of 2-D optical standard with etched orthogonal coordinates made of a glass substrate chrominged or filmed with other metal. In order to solve the problems of measurement and traceability of ultra precision photomasks used in advanced manufacturing industry, 2-D photomask optical standard was calibrated in high precision laser two coordinate standard device. A high precision differential laser interferometer system was used for a length standard, a high magnification optical micro vision system was used for precision optical positioning feedback. In this paper, a image measurement model was purposed; A sampling window auto identification algorithm was designed. Grid stripe image could be identified and aimed at automatically by this algorithm. An edge detection method based on bidirection progressive scanning and 3-sigma rule for eliminating outliers in sampling window was found. Dirty point could be removed with effect. Edge detection error could be lowered. By this means, the measurement uncertainty of 2-D optical standard's ruling span was less than 0.3 micrometer (k=2).

Sun, Shuanghua; Gan, Xiaochuan; Xue, Zi; Ye, Xiaoyou; Wang, Heyan; Gao, Hongtang

2012-10-01

107

Probabilistic Deviation Detection and Optimal Thresholds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PDDOT program is to provide a method of continuously monitoring military plans during execution for deviations from expected performance. Determining such deviations in critical to the success of military operations where the complexity of the battle ...

J. Fahey J. Smith

2014-01-01

108

48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2013-10-01

109

48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2013-10-01

110

Observations on the Reliability of Rubidium Frequency Standards on Block 2/2A GPS Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the block 2/2A Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are equipped with two rubidium frequency standards. These frequency standards were originally intended to serve as the back-ups to two cesium frequency standards. As the constellation ages, the master Control Station is forced to initialize and increasing number or rubidium frequency standards. Unfortunately the operational use of these frequency standards has not lived up to initial expectations. Although the performance of these rubidium frequency standards has met and even exceeded GPS requirements, their reliability has not. The number of unscheduled outage times and the short operational lifetimes of the rubidium frequency standards compare poorly to the track record of the cesium frequency standards. Only a small number of rubidium frequency standards have actually been made operational. Of these, a large percentage have exhibited poor reliability. If this trend continues, it is unlikely that the rubidium frequency standards will help contribute to the navigation payload meeting program specification.

Dieter, Gary L.

1996-01-01

111

GPS Block 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying philosophy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture is to utilize two frequency sources, one fixed frequency reference source and one system frequency source, and to couple the system frequency source to the reference frequency source via a sample data loop. The system source is used to provide the basic clock frequency and timing for the space vehicle (SV) and it uses a voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) with high short term stability. The reference source is an atomic frequency standard (AFS) with high long term stability. The architecture can support any type of frequency standard. In the system design rubidium, cesium, and H2 masers outputting a canonical frequency were accommodated. The architecture is software intensive. All VCXO adjustments are digital and are calculated by a processor. They are applied to the VCXO via a digital to analog converter.

Baker, Anthony P.

1990-01-01

112

Changing axis deviation and acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also rarely reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 77-year-old Italian woman admitted to the Cardiology Unit with an acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:19339062

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro; Dattilo, Giuseppe

2011-08-18

113

Analysis of using the tongue deviation angle as a warning sign of a stroke  

PubMed Central

Background The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. Methods In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning sign of a stroke. Results The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9?±?3.1, 4.9?±?2.1 and 1.4?±?0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue deviation angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. With respect to the visual examination, 40% and 32% of stroke patients, 24% and 16% of TIA patients, and 4% and 0% of normal subjects were found to have tongue deviations when physicians “A” and “B” examined them. The variation showed the essentiality of the quantification method in a clinical setting. In the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.96) indicates good discrimination. The tongue deviation angle more than the optimum threshold value (= 3.2°) predicts a risk of stroke. Conclusions In summary, we developed an effective quantification method to characterize the tongue deviation angle, and we confirmed the feasibility of recognizing the tongue deviation angle as an early warning sign of an impending stroke.

2012-01-01

114

LANDSAT 2 cumulative non-US standard catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referred month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

115

Impact of standardization on EDI in B2B development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the standardization on electronic data interchange (EDI) might affect B2B development in the real world of business. EDI technique has been evolved to become a very important technique with a lot of potential benefits. Its impacts on organizations both socially and economically are explored, together with a detailed discussion of the roles of XML in EDI.

Chang-tseh Hsieh; Binshan Lin

2004-01-01

116

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-01-01

117

Deviation from Standard Inflationary Cosmology and the Problems in Ekpyrosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two competing models of our universe right now. One is Big Bang with inflation cosmology. The other is the cyclic model with ekpyrotic phase in each cycle. This paper is divided into two main parts according to these two models. In the first part, we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes ( alma*l'm') of the spherical-harmonic coefficients. We then provide a model and study the two-point correlation of a massless scalar (the inflaton) when the stress tensor contains the energy density from an infinitely long straight cosmic string in addition to a cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss if inflation can reconcile with the Liouville's theorem as far as the fine-tuning problem is concerned. In the second part, we find several problems in the cyclic/ekpyrotic cosmology. First of all, quantum to classical transition would not happen during an ekpyrotic phase even for superhorizon modes, and therefore the fluctuations cannot be interpreted as classical. This implies the prediction of scale-free power spectrum in ekpyrotic/cyclic universe model requires more inspection. Secondly, we find that the usual mechanism to solve fine-tuning problems is not compatible with eternal universe which contains infinitely many cycles in both direction of time. Therefore, all fine-tuning problems including the flatness problem still asks for an explanation in any generic cyclic models.

Tseng, Chien-Yao

118

Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

119

Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the censored regression (or censored 'Tobit') model. The proposed estimator is a generalization of least absolute deviations estimation for the standard linear model, and, unlike estimation methods based on the assumption of normally distributed error terms, the estimator is consistent and asymptoti- cally normal for a wide

James L. Powell

1984-01-01

120

Pressure dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen effect in ZrZn2: Deviations from the Stoner-Wohlfarth model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure derivatives of the spin-split ?30 Fermi-surface cross-sectional areas in ferromagnet ZrZn2 have been determined from a phase-shift analysis of the de Haas-van Alphan oscillations. The difference between these derivatives is inconsistent with a Stoner-Wohlfarth interpretation of both the pressure-dependent beat frequency between the two oscillations and the pressure-dependent magnetization.

Lo, I.; Mazumdar, S.; Mattocks, P. G.

1989-05-01

121

Calibration of a molecular clock in tits (Paridae)--do nucleotide substitution rates of mitochondrial genes deviate from the 2% rule?  

PubMed

The ongoing debate on the reliability of avian molecular clocks is actually based on only a small number of calibrations carried out under different assumptions with respect to the choice and constraints of calibration points or to the use of substitution models. In this study, we provide substitution rate estimates for two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b and the control region, and age estimates for lineage splits within four subgenera of tits (Paridae: Parus, Cyanistes, Poecile and Periparus). Overall sequence divergence between cytochrome b lineages covers a range of 0.4-1.8% per million years and is thus consistent with the frequently adopted approximation for a sequence divergence between avian lineages of 1.6-2% per my. Overall rate variation is high and encompasses the 2% value in a 95% CI for model corrected data. Mean rate estimates for cytochrome b range between 1.9 and 8.9 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per lineage. Local rates differ significantly between taxonomic levels with lowest estimates for haplotype lineages. At the population/subspecies level mean sequence divergence between lineages matches the 2% rule best for most cytochrome b datasets (1.5-1.9% per my) with maximum estimates for small isolated populations like those of the Canarian P. teneriffae complex (up to 3.9% per my). Overall rate estimates for the control region range at similar values like those for cytochrome b (2.7-8.8 x 10(-3), 0.5-1.8% per my), however, within some subgenera mean rates are higher than those for cytochrome b for uncorrected sequence data. The lowest rates for both genes were calculated for coal tits of subgenus Periparus (0.04-0.6% per my). Model-corrected sequence data tend to result in higher rate estimates than uncorrected data. Increase of the gamma shape parameter goes along with a significant decrease of rate and partly age estimates, too. Divergence times for earliest deep splits within tit subgenera Periparus and Parus were dated to the mid Miocene at 10-14my bp. Most recent splits between east and west Palearctic taxa of blue, willow and great tits were dated to the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary with the earliest estimates based on model-corrected trees. Relaxation of the Messinian calibration point leads to more recent divergence times for North African coal and blue tit populations during the mid Pliocene. Despite a relatively broad age constraint for the split between Nearctic and Palearctic Poecile due to the Pliocene re-opening of the Bering Strait, the split between chickadees and willow tits is dated considerably earlier than in former studies to the upper bound of the age constraint at 7.4 my BP. PMID:17512759

Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Dietzen, Christian; Wink, Michael; Kvist, Laura

2007-07-01

122

Investigating inelastic collisions by the deviation curve from Druyvesteyn distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laser plasma, the real experimental electron energy distribution(EED) f deviates from Druyveteyn distribution fD. This paper suggests that the deviation (f-fD) of Druyvesteyn distribution, instead of EEDS, can be used to show clearly some details of excitation and ionization of atoms(molecules), and also gives some examples of CO2, N2, He, Ne and Ar.

Mingjiang Yang; Chaohua Wang

1988-01-01

123

Investigating inelastic collisions by the deviation curve from Druyvesteyn distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laser plasma, the real experimental electron energy distribution(EED) f deviates from Druyveteyn distribution fD. This paper suggests that the deviation (f-fD) of Druyvesteyn distribution, instead of EEDS, can be used to show clearly some details of excitation and ionization of atoms(molecules), and also gives some examples of CO2, N2, He, Ne and Ar.

Yang, Mingjiang; Wang, Chaohua

1988-03-01

124

Measurement of the Half-Life of the T =1/2 Mirror Decay of Ne19 and its Implication on Physics Beyond the Standard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1/2+?1/2+ superallowed mixed mirror decay of Ne19 to F19 is excellently suited for high precision studies of the weak interaction. However, there is some disagreement on the value of the half-life. In a new measurement we have determined this quantity to be T1/2=17.2832±0.0051(stat)±0.0066(syst) s, which differs from the previous world average by 3 standard deviations. The impact of this measurement on limits for physics beyond the standard model such as the presence of tensor currents is discussed.

Broussard, L. J.; Back, H. O.; Boswell, M. S.; Crowell, A. S.; Dendooven, P.; Giri, G. S.; Howell, C. R.; Kidd, M. F.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Mol, A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pattie, R. W.; Shidling, P. D.; Sohani, M.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Traykov, E.; Versolato, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.

2014-05-01

125

Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Applied Physics, B57, pp 131-139, April 1993

Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

2014-05-01

126

Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity error had a median of 2.2 to 6.2 %. Several more model performance metrics, including spatial patterns, will be presented. These exceptional performance outcomes demonstrate that 2D models have relatively minor inherent performance limitations, so the key challenge for their use in practice is to obtain the most accurate topographic representation as possible.

Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

2013-12-01

127

Standardized strapdown inertial component modularity study, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To obtain cost effective strapdown navigation, guidance and stabilization systems to meet anticipated future needs a standardized modularized strapdown system concept is proposed. Three performance classes, high, medium and low, are suggested to meet the range of applications. Candidate inertial instruments are selected and analyzed for interface compatibility. Electronic packaging and processing, materials and thermal considerations applying to the three classes are discussed and recommendations advanced. Opportunities for automatic fault detection and redundancy are presented. The smallest gyro and accelerometer modules are projected as requiring a volume of 26 cubic inches and 23.6 cubic inches, respectively. Corresponding power dissipation is projected as 5 watts, and 2.6 watts respectively.

Feldman, J.

1974-01-01

128

Free Natural Voice Reader Standard 2.9  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy program allows users to listen to emails, text selections, and other written materials via a number of voices included with the software. With this free edition, users can change the speed of reading, the voice of reading, the volume of reading, and can also read the text and have it saved to a .wav file. From the program's Web site, users can read a FAQ section, and view several screenshots. This edition of Free Natural Voice Reader Standard 2.9 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

129

Acceptable Deviation between Facial and Dental Midlines in Dentate Population.  

PubMed

The success of the dental restorations largely depends on its esthetics, although various literature reviews recommend that anterior teeth midline be placed coinciding the facial midline, the amount of acceptable deviation between facial and dental midline has not been fully investigated. To observe the acceptable deviation between the dental and facial midline. Facial photographs of 200 students aged about 18-30 years of both sexes, without any missing teeth, with complete alignment of anterior teeth, were selected and scanned on to computer screen. Using specialized programme, the crown width of the central incisor in the mouth and on photograph was ensured constant. The distance between the facial midline, (obtained by bisecting intercanthal line) and the mesial surfaces of the central incisors were read on the computer. 44.4 % Boys and 55 % of Girls showed deviation between dental and facial midline in the range of 0-1 mm. while, 54 % of boys and 33 % of girls showed deviation of the dental and facial midline in the range 1-2 mm. 37 % of boys and 8 % of girls showed deviation of dental midline with facial midline with the range of 2-3 mm. 80 % of the study population showed maxillary and mandibular dental midlines never coincide. Majority of the study population showed deviation between facial midline and anterior teeth midline within the range of 0-1 mm. PMID:24431778

Jayalakshmi, N S; Ravindra, S; Nagaraj, K R; Rupesh, P L; Harshavardhan, M P

2013-12-01

130

TOPICAL REVIEW: The standard model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews and updates the standard model prediction of the muon g-2. QED, electroweak and hadronic contributions are presented, and open questions discussed. The theoretical prediction deviates from the present experimental value by 2-3 standard deviations, if e+e- annihilation data are used to evaluate the leading hadronic term.

M. Passera; G. Galilei

2005-01-01

131

Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

2006-02-01

132

Effect of deviation from stoichiometric composition on structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, CoxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.2 to 1.0)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of deviation from stoichiometric composition on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2 to 1.0), are presented. Both CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} have a spinel crystal structure, and it might be expected that intermediate compositions would have the same structure. However, results show that synthesis via the ceramic method leads to the development of a secondary {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Both structural and magnetic properties are altered depending on the concentration of the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Saturation magnetization is at a maximum for the stoichiometric composition (i.e., x = 1.0) and thereafter decreases with x. In attempts to achieve the properties required for application, the ceramic method offers the ability to selectively adjust the concentrations of both CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases.

Nlebedim, I. C.; Snyder, J. E.; Moses, A. J.; Jiles, D. C.

2012-02-10

133

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...

2013-10-01

134

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...

2012-10-01

135

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...

2011-10-01

136

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...

2010-10-01

137

48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies. 52...Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price AdjustmentâStandard Supplies...contracting office. Economic Price AdjustmentâStandard Supplies (JAN...

2013-10-01

138

The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

Touchette, Hugo

2009-07-01

139

Analysing traces of autoinducer-2 requires standardization of the Vibrio harveyi bioassay.  

PubMed

Autoinducer-2 (furanosyl borate diester) is a biologically active compound whose role as a universal bacterial signalling molecule is currently under intense investigation. Because of its instability and the low concentrations of it found in biological samples, its detection relies at present on a bioassay that measures the difference in the timing of the luminescence of the Vibrio harveyi BB170 sensor strain with and without externally added AI-2. Here we systematically investigated which parameters affected the fold induction values of luminescence obtained in the bioassay and developed a modified protocol. Our experiments showed that growth and luminescence of V. harveyi BB170 are strongly influenced by trace elements. In particular, addition of Fe(3+) within a certain concentration range to the growth medium of the preinoculum culture improved the reproducibility and reduced the variance of the bioassay. In contrast, trace elements and vitamins introduced directly into the bioassay caused inhibitory effects. The initial density and luminescence of the sensor strain are very important and the values required for these parameters were defined. Borate interferes with the detection of AI-2 by giving false positive results. The response of V. harveyi BB170 to chemically synthesized AI-2 in the bioassay is nonlinear except over a very small concentration range; it is maximum over three orders of magnitude and shows inhibition above 35 microM. Based on the modified protocol, we were able to detect AI-2 in the absence of inhibitors with maximum fold induction values for the positive control (chemically synthesized AI-2) of >120 with a standard deviation of approximately 30% in a reliable and reproducible way. PMID:17143597

Vilchez, Ramiro; Lemme, André; Thiel, Verena; Schulz, Stefan; Sztajer, Helena; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

2007-01-01

140

Non standard neutrino interactions at LEP2 and the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider Non-Standard neutrino Interactions (NSI) connecting two neutrinos with two first-generation fermions (e, u or d), which we assume to arise at dimension eight due to New Physics. The coefficient is normalised as 4epsilonGF/. We explore signatures of NSI-on-electrons at LEP2, and of NSI-on-quarks at the LHC, treating the NSI as contact interactions at both energies. In models where the coefficients of dangerous dimension six operators are suppressed by cancellations, LEP2 provides interesting bounds on NSI operators (epsilon 10-2 - 10-3), which arise because ~ 200 GeV, and the cancellation applied at zero momentum transfer. At the LHC, we use the Equivalence Theorem, which relates the longitudinal W to the Higgs, to estimate the rate for bar qq ? W+W-e+?e-? induced by NSI. We find that the cross-section is small, but that the outgoing particles have very high pT > 400 GeV, which reduces the issue of backgrounds. In a conservative scenario, we find that the LHC at 14 TeV and with 100 fb-1 of data would have a sensitivity to epsilon 3 × 10-3.

Davidson, Sacha; Sanz, Veronica

2013-02-01

141

PM{sub 2.5}: A fine particle standard  

SciTech Connect

This conference provided the first major opportunity for the scientific, regulatory, industrial, and environmental communities to share technical and policy information relating to the new particulate matter (PM) national ambient air quality standards. This two-volume collection of technical papers presented at the conference provides original and recent information on measurements taken with the new Federal Reference Method, continuous PM monitors, and chemical and physical analyses of PM{sub 2.5} samples. Current PM monitoring networks and alternatives for selecting planning areas and averaging zones for PM{sub 2.5} compliance are evaluated, and recent special PM{sub 2.5} field studies and chemical analyses are reported. Models to simulate the dispersion and dilution of primary emissions, as well as secondary aerosol formation and receptor source apportionment, are described and evaluated. New methods and challenges for estimating fine particle emissions and managing that information in geographical information systems are identified and explored. Results from recent emissions reduction demonstration studies and the practicality of novel pollution controls are presented, along with an identification of potential non-attainment areas and possible changes in SIPs. The effects of PM emissions reductions on ozone, carbon monoxide, and visibility, as well as recent findings about the effects of PM exposures on public health are also discussed in the proceedings.

NONE

1998-07-01

142

Standard spacecraft economic analysis. Volume 2: Findings and conclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparative program costs associated with use of various standardized spacecraft for Air Force space test program missions to be flown on the space shuttle were studied in two phases. In the first phase, a variety of procurement mixes composed of existing or programmed NASA standard spacecraft designs and an Air Force standard spacecraft design were considered. The second phase dealt with additional procurement options using an upgraded version of an existing NASA design. The results of both phases are discussed.

Harris, E. D.; Large, J. P.

1976-01-01

143

Fatigue, pilot deviations and time of day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationships between pilot fatigue, pilot deviations, reported incidents, and time of day are examined. A sample of 200 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports were analyzed from 1985 and 200 reports from 1987, plus 100 reports from late 1987 and early 1988 that were selected because of possible association with fatigue. The FAA pilot deviation data and incident data were analyzed in relation to denominator data that summarized the hourly operations (landings and takeoffs of scheduled flights) at major U.S. airports. Using as numerators FAA data on pilot deviations and incidents reported to the FAA, the rates by time of day were calculated. Pilot age was also analyzed in relation to the time of day, phase of flight, and type of incident.

Baker, Susan P.

1989-01-01

144

Biometric Identification Standards Research. Final Report. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October, 1995, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) contracted with San Jose State University to develop biometric identification standards for possible use with the Commercial Driver's Licensing Information System (CDLIS). This project was in res...

J. L. Wayman

1997-01-01

145

Standard Processing Routines. Volume 2B: Algorithm Listings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capabilities of the onboard data handling system concept, with respect to the optimization of execution of experiments carried out in space, were evaluated. Standard processing routines which are applicable to typical categories of experiments were de...

1978-01-01

146

78 FR 54626 - Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 201-2, Personal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 201-2, Personal Identity Verification...Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 201-2, Personal Identity Verification...changes in the environment since the publication of FIPS 201-1, and specific...

2013-09-05

147

40 CFR 75.33 - Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, and flow rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, and flow rate... CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.33 Standard missing data procedures for SO2 , NOX , and flow...

2011-07-01

148

Deviation from reciprocity in bidirectional reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of the paper is to discuss and quantify deviations from reciprocity of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), i.e., the difference of BRDF obtained when inverting illumination and viewing directions. Directional reciprocity is not valid in general, because when the illumination beam has a spatial extension larger than the viewed area (as is most often the case for

Marc Leroy

2001-01-01

149

Asymptotically Efficient Simulation Of Large Deviation Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often im...

A. B. Dieker M. R. H. Mandjes

2003-01-01

150

Reflector surface deviations in large parabolic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important factors affecting the efficiency of parabolic reflector antennas is the degree to which the surface of the reflector deviates from the true parabolic shape. For a given reflector surface it is also important to locate the focal point of the best-fit paraboloid relative to the existing feed support structure. A simple method is presented for making

L. Anderson; L. Groth

1963-01-01

151

Aversion therapy for sexual deviation: Contingent shock and covert sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied 2 different aversion therapy approaches to the treatment of sexual deviation (e.g., homosexuality) in 6 clinical referrals. Covert sensitization, which provides an imagined aversive event following imagined sexual behavior, was compared with contingent shock, which provides a physical aversive event following erection to slides depicting sexually deviant material. Replicated, counterbalanced within-S presentations of each technique were used. Treatment effects

Edward J. Callahan; Harold Leitenberg

1973-01-01

152

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2013-07-01

153

40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection...primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 . (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic...

2013-07-01

154

Predicting deviations in software quality by using relative critical value deviation metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new metric, relative critical value deviation (RCVD), for classifying and predicting software quality. The RCVD is based on the concept that the extent to which a metric's value deviates from its critical value, normalized by the scale of the metric, indicates the degree to which the item being measured does not conform to a specified norm. For

Norman F. Schneidewind; A. P. Nikora

1999-01-01

155

National Standards for Quality Online Courses: Version 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. "National Standards for Quality Online Courses" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other…

International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2011

2011-01-01

156

Noncommutative standard model at O({theta}{sup 2})  

SciTech Connect

We derive the most general Seiberg-Witten maps for noncommutative gauge theories in second order of the noncommutative parameter {theta}. Our results reveal the existence of more ambiguities than previously known. In particular, we demonstrate that some of these ambiguities enter observables like scattering cross sections and enlarge the parameter space of the noncommutative standard model beyond O({theta})

Alboteanu, Ana; Ohl, Thorsten; Rueckl, Reinhold [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2007-11-15

157

Trade Electricity. Lighting--Level 2. Standardized Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide consists of nine modules on lighting, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The nine modules cover the following subjects: armored cable, rigid conduit, electrical metallic tubing, services and meters, fluorescent lighting, metal molding, wiremold, Romex,…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

158

Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

1979-01-01

159

Preliminary RNAV Avionics Standard (2D and 3D Area Navigation Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this Avionics Standards effort is to develop a preliminary standard for the required minimum operational characteristics applicable to 2D and 3D area navigation. The method of approach utilized to achieve this objective was: first...

R. J. Adams

1974-01-01

160

Unification of Electromagnetic Specifications and Standards. Part 2. Recommendations for Revisions of Existing Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents Phase 2 of a program on unification of electromagnetic specifications and standards. During Phase 1, existing specifications and standards were reviewed against a general interference control mode. Alternative techniques to the incom...

W. Graf J. M. Hamm E. F. Vance

1983-01-01

161

Society of Automotive Engineers AS2 standardization activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Avionics Systems Division has been developing standards to meet the requirements of the aerospace community beginning with the development of MIL-STD-1553. In 1979, the SAE began to look at requirements for an avionics bus with performance which was substantially better than MIL-STD-1553B. The results of this work was the generation of two high-speed data

J. W. Meyer

1992-01-01

162

Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 4: Standardized subsystem modules analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to analyze payloads constructed of standardized modules was provided for the planning of future mission models. An inventory of standardized module designs previously obtained was used as a starting point. Some of the conclusions and recommendations are: (1) the two growth factor synthesis methods provide logical configurations for satellite type selection; (2) the recommended method is the one that determines the growth factor as a function of the baseline subsystem weight, since it provides a larger growth factor for small subsystem weights and results in a greater overkill due to standardization; (3) the method that is not recommended is the one that depends upon a subsystem similarity selection, since care must be used in the subsystem similarity selection; (4) it is recommended that the application of standardized subsystem factors be limited to satellites with baseline dry weights between about 700 and 6,500 lbs; and (5) the standardized satellite design approach applies to satellites maintainable in orbit or retrieved for ground maintenance.

1974-01-01

163

Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the $H \\\\to ZZ \\\\to 2l 2\\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess

Serguei Chatrchyan; Vardan Khachatryan; Albert M Sirunyan; Armen Tumasyan; Wolfgang Adam; Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Janos Erö; Christian Fabjan; Markus Friedl; Rudolf Fruehwirth; Vasile Mihai Ghete; Josef Hammer; Michael Hoch; Natascha Hörmann; Josef Hrubec; Manfred Jeitler; Wolfgang Kiesenhofer; Manfred Krammer; Dietrich Liko; Ivan Mikulec; Manfred Pernicka; Babak Rahbaran; Christine Rohringer; Herbert Rohringer; Robert Schöfbeck; Josef Strauss; Anton Taurok; Florian Teischinger; Philipp Wagner; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Gerhard Walzel; Edmund Widl; Claudia-Elisabeth Wulz; Vladimir Mossolov; Nikolai Shumeiko; Juan Suarez Gonzalez; Sunil Bansal; Leonardo Benucci; Tom Cornelis; Eddi A De Wolf; Xavier Janssen; Sten Luyckx; Thomas Maes; Luca Mucibello; Silvia Ochesanu; Benoit Roland; Romain Rougny; Michele Selvaggi; Hans Van Haevermaet; Pierre Van Mechelen; Nick Van Remortel; Alex Van Spilbeeck; Freya Blekman; Stijn Blyweert; Jorgen D'Hondt; Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez; Alexis Kalogeropoulos; Michael Maes; Annik Olbrechts; Walter Van Doninck; Petra Van Mulders; Gerrit Patrick Van Onsem; Ilaria Villella; Otman Charaf; Barbara Clerbaux; Gilles De Lentdecker; Vincent Dero; Arnaud Gay; Gregory Habib Hammad; Tomas Hreus; Alexandre Léonard; Pierre Edouard Marage; Laurent Thomas; Catherine Vander Velde; Pascal Vanlaer; John Wickens; Volker Adler; Kelly Beernaert; Anna Cimmino; Silvia Costantini; Guillaume Garcia; Martin Grunewald; Benjamin Klein; Jérémie Lellouch; Andrey Marinov; Joseph Mccartin; Alberto Andres Ocampo Rios; Dirk Ryckbosch; Nadja Strobbe; Filip Thyssen; Michael Tytgat; Lukas Vanelderen; Piet Verwilligen; Sinead Walsh; Efe Yazgan; Nicolas Zaganidis; Suzan Basegmez; Giacomo Bruno; Ludivine Ceard; Jerome De Favereau De Jeneret; Christophe Delaere; Tristan Du Pree; Denis Favart; Laurent Forthomme; Andrea Giammanco; Ghislain Grégoire; Jonathan Hollar; Vincent Lemaitre; Junhui Liao; Otilia Militaru; Claude Nuttens; Davide Pagano; Arnaud Pin; Krzysztof Piotrzkowski; Nicolas Schul; Nikita Beliy; Thierry Caebergs; Evelyne Daubie; Gilvan Alves; Marcos Correa Martins Junior; Dilson De Jesus Damiao; Thiago Martins; Maria Elena Pol; Moacyr Henrique Gomes E Souza; Walter Luiz Aldá Júnior; Wagner Carvalho; Analu Custódio; Eliza Melo Da Costa; Carley De Oliveira Martins; Sandro Fonseca De Souza; Diego Matos Figueiredo; Luiz Mundim; Helio Nogima; Vitor Oguri; Wanda Lucia Prado Da Silva; Alberto Santoro; Sheila Mara Silva Do Amaral; Luana Soares Jorge; Andre Sznajder; Tiago Souza Dos Anjos; Cesar Augusto Bernardes; Flavia De Almeida Dias; Thiago Tomei; Eduardo De Moraes Gregores; Caio Lagana; Franciole Da Cunha Marinho; Pedro G Mercadante; Sergio F Novaes; Sandra Padula; Vladimir Genchev; Plamen Iaydjiev; Stefan Piperov; Mircho Rodozov; Stefka Stoykova; Georgi Sultanov; Vanio Tcholakov; Rumen Trayanov; Mariana Vutova; Anton Dimitrov; Roumyana Hadjiiska; Aneliya Karadzhinova; Venelin Kozhuharov; Leander Litov; Borislav Pavlov; Peicho Petkov; Jian-Guo Bian; Guo-Ming Chen; He-Sheng Chen; Chun-Hua Jiang; Dong Liang; Song Liang; Xiangwei Meng; Junquan Tao; Jian Wang; Xianyou Wang; Zheng Wang; Hong Xiao; Ming Xu; Jingjing Zang; Zhen Zhang; Chayanit Asawatangtrakuldee; Yong Ban; Shuang Guo; Yifei Guo; Wenbo Li; Shuai Liu; Yajun Mao; Si-Jin Qian; Haiyun Teng; Siguang Wang; Bo Zhu; Wei Zou; Andrés Cabrera; Bernardo Gomez Moreno; Andres Felipe Osorio Oliveros; Juan Carlos Sanabria; Nikola Godinovic; Damir Lelas; Roko Plestina; Dunja Polic; Ivica Puljak; Zeljko Antunovic; Mile Dzelalija; Marko Kovac; Vuko Brigljevic; Senka Duric; Kreso Kadija; Jelena Luetic; Srecko Morovic; Alexandros Attikis; Mario Galanti; Jehad Mousa; Charalambos Nicolaou; Fotios Ptochos; Panos A Razis; Miroslav Finger; Michael Finger Jr; Yasser Assran; Ali Ellithi Kamel; Shaaban Khalil; Mohammed Mahmoud; Amr Radi; Andi Hektor; Mario Kadastik; Mait Müntel; Martti Raidal; Liis Rebane; Andres Tiko; Virginia Azzolini; Paula Eerola; Giacomo Fedi; Mikko Voutilainen; Sandor Czellar; Jaakko Härkönen; Mika Aatos Heikkinen; Veikko Karimäki; Ritva Kinnunen; Matti J Kortelainen; Tapio Lampén; Kati Lassila-Perini; Sami Lehti; Tomas Lindén; Panja-Riina Luukka; Teppo Mäenpää; Timo Peltola; Eija Tuominen; Jorma Tuominiemi; Esa Tuovinen; Donatella Ungaro; Lauri Wendland; Kukka Banzuzi; Arja Korpela; Tuure Tuuva; Daniel Sillou; Marc Besancon; Somnath Choudhury; Marc Dejardin; Daniel Denegri; Bernard Fabbro; Jean-Louis Faure; Federico Ferri; Serguei Ganjour; Alain Givernaud; Philippe Gras; Gautier Hamel de Monchenault; Patrick Jarry; Elizabeth Locci; Julie Malcles; Laurent Millischer; John Rander

2012-01-01

164

System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 2: Amendment I  

SciTech Connect

This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 2, in conjunction with Volume 3, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

Not Available

1990-12-21

165

A kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation of a gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of a gear's pitch deviation is one of the most important tests on gears. The specifications of gears are usually assessed using gear measuring instruments or coordinate measuring machines. The National Metrology Institute of Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt proposed the closure technique for measuring gear pitch deviation, which can eliminate the systematic errors in pitch measurement, and can also be used for calibrating pitch standards. The reference to a closure technique—a kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation—is introduced, of which the measurement process is relatively simple, and systematic errors can also be eliminated. Two gears’ pitch deviations were measured by adopting the closure technique and multi-step method, respectively. The result shows that the multi-step method can also be used for highly accurate measurements of pitch deviation.

Lou, Zhifeng; Ling, Siying; He, Haizhao; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Yong; Wang, Liding

2012-11-01

166

Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus  

PubMed Central

Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus.

Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

2012-01-01

167

Deviation from {lambda}CDM: Pressure parametrization  

SciTech Connect

Most parametrizations for dark energy involve the equation of state w of the dark energy. In this work, we choose the pressure of the dark energy to parametrize. As p=constant essentially gives a cosmological constant, we use the Taylor expansion around this behavior p=-p{sub 0}+(1-a)p{sub 1}+... to study the small deviations from the cosmological constant. In our model, the departure from the cosmological constant behavior has been modeled by the presence of extra K-essence fields while keeping the cosmological constant term untouched. The model is similar to an assisted inflation scenario in a sense that for any higher order deviation in terms of Taylor series expansion, one needs multiple K-essence fields. We have also tested our model with the recent observational data coming from Supernova type Ia measurements, the baryon oscillations peak (BAO), and the gas mass fraction of the galaxy clusters inferred from x-ray observations and obtain constraints for our model parameters.

Sen, A. A. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

2008-02-15

168

Moderate Deviations of Dependent Random Variables Related to CLT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of three-parts. In the first-part, we find a common condition-the $C^2$ regularity--both for CLT and for moderate deviations. We show that this condition is verified in two important situations: the Lee-Yang theorem case and the FKG system case. In the second part, we apply the previous results to the additive functionals of a Markov process. By means

Wu Liming

1995-01-01

169

40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. 86.1865-12 Section 86...1865-12 How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards. (a) Applicability. ...the provisions of § 86.1801-12(j), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

170

41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property...CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and health...and Phosphate; Sulphur; and Gold, Silver, or...

2010-07-01

171

41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property...CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and health...and Phosphate; Sulphur; and Gold, Silver, or...

2009-07-01

172

28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.2...political subdivisions to conduct elections in the language of certain âlanguage minority groupsâ in addition to English....

2013-07-01

173

40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2...Administrator may require that the manufacturer ship test vehicles to an EPA test facility for...

2009-07-01

174

40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2...Administrator may require that the manufacturer ship test vehicles to an EPA test facility for...

2013-07-01

175

DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL STANDARDS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN PM2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of analytical standards for the analysis of organic compounds present in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). The methods and analytical standards described in the paper are designed to be implemented in a b...

176

Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields  

PubMed Central

We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20.

2014-01-01

177

Common Standards of Basal Insulin Titration in T2DM  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide major health problem, and the number of people affected is steadily increasing. Thus, not all patients suffering from the disease can be treated by specialized diabetes centers or outpatient clinics, but by primary care physicians. The latter, however, might have time constraints and have to deal with many kinds of diseases or with multimorbid patients, so their focus is not so much on lowering high blood glucose values. Thus, the physicians, as well as the patients themselves, are often reluctant to initiate and adjust insulin therapy, although basal insulin therapy is considered the appropriate strategy after oral antidiabetic drug failure, according to the latest international guidelines. A substantial number of clinical studies have shown that insulin initiation and optimization can be managed successfully by using titration algorithms—even in cases where patients themselves are the drivers of insulin titration. Nevertheless, tools and strategies are needed to facilitate this process in the daily life of both primary health care professionals and patients with diabetes.

Arnolds, Sabine; Heise, Tim; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen

2013-01-01

178

An International Collaboration To Standardize HIV-2 Viral Load Assays: Results from the 2009 ACHIEV2E Quality Control Study?  

PubMed Central

Accurate HIV-2 plasma viral load quantification is crucial for adequate HIV-2 patient management and for the proper conduct of clinical trials and international cohort collaborations. This study compared the homogeneity of HIV-2 RNA quantification when using HIV-2 assays from ACHIEV2E study sites and either in-house PCR calibration standards or common viral load standards supplied to all collaborators. Each of the 12 participating laboratories quantified blinded HIV-2 samples, using its own HIV-2 viral load assay and standard as well as centrally validated and distributed common HIV-2 group A and B standards (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HelpDocs/subtypes-more.html). Aliquots of HIV-2 group A and B strains, each at 2 theoretical concentrations (2.7 and 3.7 log10 copies/ml), were tested. Intralaboratory, interlaboratory, and overall variances of quantification results obtained with both standards were compared using F tests. For HIV-2 group A quantifications, overall and interlaboratory and/or intralaboratory variances were significantly lower when using the common standard than when using in-house standards at the concentration levels of 2.7 log10 copies/ml and 3.7 log10 copies/ml, respectively. For HIV-2 group B, a high heterogeneity was observed and the variances did not differ according to the type of standard used. In this international collaboration, the use of a common standard improved the homogeneity of HIV-2 group A RNA quantification only. The diversity of HIV-2 group B, particularly in PCR primer-binding regions, may explain the heterogeneity in quantification of this strain. Development of a validated HIV-2 viral load assay that accurately quantifies distinct circulating strains is needed.

Damond, F.; Benard, A.; Balotta, Claudia; Boni, Jurg; Cotten, Matthew; Duque, Vitor; Ferns, Bridget; Garson, Jeremy; Gomes, Perpetua; Goncalves, Fatima; Gottlieb, Geoffrey; Kupfer, Bernd; Ruelle, Jean; Rodes, Berta; Soriano, Vicente; Wainberg, Mark; Taieb, Audrey; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Genevieve; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise

2011-01-01

179

A performance standards approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

The CO{sub 2} emission performance standard policies outlined in this paper could complement a cap-and-trade program that puts a price on carbon and serve to significantly reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from coal use for electricity generation. Emission performance standards have a long history in the United States and have been successfully used to control emissions of various air pollutants from electric generators. This paper explores the rationale for using emission performance standards and describes the various types of performance standard policies. Emission performance standards that address CO{sub 2} emissions could promote the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology coupled with new and existing coal-fueled electric power plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rubin, E.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-06-15

180

Development and verification of NASA Standard Initiator-2 (NSI-2): Appendix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Appendix to the Final Report on the results of verification testing on NASA Contract NAS9-17249. The test results are presented graphically in the Appendix. The Final Report is a brief discussion of design elements, test results, and a discussion of the latter. The contract was awarded for development and demonstration of design modifications to the NASA Standard Initiator-1 (NSI-1), resulting in the development of NSI-2. The intent of the project was to develop and prove the following design features: (1) Protection from premature detonation due to electrostatic potential by means other than a spark gap; (2) Development of an integral insulated charge cup for use with a zirconium/potassium perchlorate type mixture; (3) Improved cost and reliability figures by the use of a deposited bridge; and (4) Elimination of dudding as a result of the pyrotechnic shock effect, the movement of the primer composition away from the bridge circuit.

1988-01-01

181

40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard...input (0.80 lb/MMBtu) derived from liquid fossil fuel or liquid fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) 520 ng/J heat...

2013-07-01

182

36 CFR 1230.2 - What standards are used as guidance for this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What standards are used as guidance for this part...DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.2 What standards are used as guidance for this part...regulations conform with guidance provided in ISO 15489-1:2001, par. 6.3...

2013-07-01

183

NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and HIDH (Human Integration Design Handbook)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reports on the review and re-issuance of the NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and the Human Integration Design Handbook. These standards were last updated in 1995. The target date for the release is September 2009.

Connolly, Janis; Fitts, David; Stroud, Kenneth; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry

2009-01-01

184

FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES  

SciTech Connect

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Bunch, Dr David S. [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01

185

Frequency deviation of thermal power plants due to wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study on the frequency deviation of the utility grid due to wind power fluctuations. The deviation is estimated by a deterministic method based on the transfer functions of system components. As the grid frequency is regulated, the deviation can limit high wind power penetration. The research identifies speed governors as one key component

Changling Luo; Boon-Teck Ooi

2006-01-01

186

Calculated follicle deviation using segmented regression for modeling diameter differences in cattle.  

PubMed

Segmented linear regression alone or in combination with simple linear regression was evaluated as an objective method to calculate the beginning of follicle deviation by modeling the sequential (Experiment 1) and non-sequential or single-point (Experiment 2) differences in diameter between the future dominant (F1) and largest subordinate (F2) follicles of Wave 1 in cattle. The segmented regression consisted of Segment 1 representing the common growth phase, Segment 2 representing the period of dominance, and a Join Point connecting the two segments and representing the end of the common growth phase and the beginning of deviation. The model was fit to the diameter differences for each heifer in Experiment 1 (n=15) and the group of heifers in Experiment 2 (n=40). The optimal Join Point value that corresponded to the maximum R(2) was designated the calculated hour (Experiment 1) or diameter of F1 (Experiment 2) at the beginning of deviation. In Experiment 1, simple linear regression was used to calculate the corresponding diameter of F1 at the beginning of deviation. Observed deviation was determined by inspection of the diameter profiles of F1 and F2 for comparison to calculated deviation. In Experiment 1, the observed method determined the beginning of deviation in 80% of the heifers, whereas, the regression method calculated deviation in 93% of the heifers including two of the three heifers in which observed deviation was not discernable (no significant difference between methods). The mean hours of deviation after wave emergence (Hour 0) and diameters of F1 at the corresponding hours were not significantly different between the observed (62 h and 8.4 mm) and calculated (61 h and 8.8 mm) methods. In Experiment 2, the diameter of F1 at the beginning of calculated deviation was 8.2 mm. The results indicated that the segmented regression model can provide an objective and more accurate alternative to estimate follicle deviation, especially when observed deviation is obscured by the complexity of follicle development in some waves. PMID:12566154

Bergfelt, D R; Sego, L H; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

2003-04-15

187

Nonperturbative Effects of Fermions in the SU(2) Sector of the Standard Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some nonperturbative effects of fermions in the SU(2) sector of the standard model are studied on the lattice. The results from both analytic studies and numerical simulations with dynamical fermions are presented. Implications for the strongly coupled st...

I. H. Lee

1988-01-01

188

78 FR 71448 - Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2-Contingency Reserve  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and ``Spinning Reserve,'' from the Glossary of Terms Used in NERC Reliability Standards (NERC Glossary).\\2\\ In addition, the Commission...FERC ] 61,015 (2011). \\9\\ The NERC Glossary defines Contingency Reserve as...

2013-11-29

189

Implementing the Massachusetts Adult Basic Education Math Standards: Our Research Stories. The ABE Math Standards Project. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The product of a project conducted in Massachusetts to apply the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" to adult basic education (ABE) learning environments, this volume is a collection of teacher-researchers' essays on field-based application of the adapted standards. The…

Leonelli, Esther, Ed.; And Others

190

MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation  

SciTech Connect

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-02-10

191

MUSiC-An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd

2010-02-01

192

T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.  

PubMed

Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation. PMID:24011993

Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

2013-01-01

193

A review of the Canadian Standards Association C22.2 0.16 Standard on the measurement of harmonic currents and the rationale used in its development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for line current harmonics in commercial and industrial systems has increased greatly in recent years. The Canadian Standards Association Senior Part II Committees directed that a method for measuring these harmonic currents be developed so that Part II Standards could set appropriate limits. The results of this mandate is Standard C232.2 #0.16. Measurement of Harmonic Contents. This document is

N. Grimshaw

1991-01-01

194

Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Parental and Unaffected Sibling Genotype Data  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping error can increase both type I and II errors. In order to elucidate potential genotyping errors, data quality control often includes testing genotype data for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Methods The Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium (HWD) coefficient and the ability to reject the null hypothesis of HWE were calculated analytically for genotype data from parents and unaffected siblings of affected probands. Results Genotype data from parents and unaffected siblings display deviations from HWE when functional or markers in LD with functional locus are tested. For the parental genotype data all deviations from HWE are negative, indicating an excess of heterozygous genotypes with the strongest deviations from HWE observed for the multiplicative model. In contrast, for affected proband genotype data, there is no deviation from HWE under the multiplicative model and the deviations from HWE for the recessive model are positive. For the unaffected sibling data, patterns of deviation from HWE are similar to those observed in the proband data with the exception of the multiplicative model where the HWD coefficient although close to 0 can be either positive or negative depending on the allele frequency. Conclusion Deviations from HWE in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data could be due to an association with the functional locus. However these deviations for genotypic relative risk ?2.0 are not large and therefore the power to detect them is usually low. Testing for deviations from HWE in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data is still beneficial for quality control even though functional loci, in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data, can produce an association signal.

Li, Bingshan; Leal, Suzanne M.

2009-01-01

195

Standards for Children's Height at Ages 2-9 Years Allowing for Height of Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charts are presented which give centile standards for boys' and girls' heights at ages 2 to 9 when parents' height is allowed for. Mid-parent height is used (i.e. the average of father's and mother's height).A comparison is made with results from the existing `parent-unknown' British standard charts. A child at the 3rd centile on the parent-unknown charts is (i) at

J. M. Tanner; H. Goldstein; R. H. Whitehouse

1970-01-01

196

40 CFR 75.33 - Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow... CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.33 Standard missing data procedures for SO2 , NOX , Hg, and...

2010-07-01

197

Constructs Assessed by the GARS-2: Factor Analysis of Data from the Standardization Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The GARS-2 (Gilliam 2006) is widely used for autism screening; however, the validity of its three conceptually-derived subscales has not been evaluated. In this study, exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses of data from matched subgroups of the standardization sample did not support the GARS-2 subscale structure. EFAs identified…

Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

2010-01-01

198

Higgs Boson Mass at 2 Loops in the Finely Tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mass of the Higgs boson in the finely tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model is calculated. All 1 loop threshold effects are included, in addition to the full RG running of the Higgs quartic coupling through 2 loops. The 2 loop corrections are very...

M. Binger

2004-01-01

199

Improving registration measurement capability by defining a 2D grid standard using multiple registration measurement tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently all LMS IPRO pattern placement metrology tools are calibrated using a 1D length standard provided by a national standards institute (e.g. NIST or PTB), however there are no 2-D standards available with an uncertainty matching the requirements of mask manufacturing for the 22nm HP node and beyond. Therefore, the 2D stage coordinate system of the LMS IPRO systems is calibrated using KLA Tencor's proprietary combined correction technique. With introduction of the LMS IPRO4 into high volume mask production at the AMTC, AMTC and KLA-Tencor MIE have demonstrated the capability to match IPRO3 and IPRO4 grids within 1.2 nm uncertainty [1]. Using the Golden Tool approach, we achieved a significant improvement in pattern placement measurement capability of previous generation measurement tools of up to 30%. This in turn leads to improved pattern placement metrology fleet capability and extended useful lifetime of capital equipment. The use of multiple high end registration measurement tools enables the creation of a 2D coordinate system standard, which could be used for improved fleet matching and would help improve the capability of older generation pattern placement metrology tools by matching to this standard. Within this paper Golden Tool and Round Robin worldwide fleet matching approaches are compared and discussed.

Loeffler, O.; Antesberger, G.; Ullrich, A.; Richter, J.; Wiswesser, A.; Higuchi, Masaru; Kamibayashi, Tatsuhiko; Laske, F.; Adam, D.; Ferber, M.; Roeth, K.-D.

2010-09-01

200

Characterization and Comparison of the 10-2 SITA-Standard and Fast Algorithms  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare the 10-2 SITA-standard and SITA-fast visual field programs in patients with glaucoma. Methods: We enrolled 26 patients with open angle glaucoma with involvement of at least one paracentral location on 24-2 SITA-standard field test. Each subject performed 10-2 SITA-standard and SITA-fast tests. Within 2 months this sequence of tests was repeated. Results: SITA-fast was 30% shorter than SITA-standard (5.5 ± 1.1 vs 7.9 ± 1.1 minutes, P < 0.001). Mean MD was statistically significantly higher for SITA-standard compared with SITA-fast at first visit (? = 0.3?dB, P = 0.017) but not second visit. Inter-visit difference in MD or in number of depressed points was not significant for both programs. Bland-Altman analysis showed that clinically significant variations can exist in individual instances between the 2 programs and between repeat tests with the same program. Conclusions: The 10-2 SITA-fast algorithm is significantly shorter than SITA-standard. The two programs have similar long-term variability. Average same-visit between-program and same-program between-visit sensitivity results were similar for the study population, but clinically significant variability was observed for some individual test pairs. Group inter- and intra-program test results may be comparable, but in the management of the individual patient field change should be verified by repeat testing.

Barkana, Yaniv; Bakshi, Erez; Goldich, Yakov; Morad, Yair; Kaplan, Audrey; Avni, Isaac; Zadok, David

2012-01-01

201

Electrocardiographic axis deviation in Navajo and Apache indians.  

PubMed

It has been our clinical impression that the range of the mean frontal-plane electrocardiographic QRS axis was greater than might have been anticipated in healthy Navajo and Apache Indians. To determine whether this clinical impression was correct, electrocardiograms were obtained from 146 Navajo, 144 Apache, and 159 non-Navajo non-Apache schoolchildren with normal findings on cardiovascular examinations. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between -1 degrees and -90 degrees was present in 19 percent of the Navajo, 12 percent of the Apache, and 2 percent of the control schoolchildren. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between +91 degrees and +180 degrees was present in 18 percent of the Navajo, 19 percent of the Apache, and 5 percent of the control schoolchildren. There is a high incidence of electrocardiographic mean frontal-plane QRS axis deviation in healthy Navajo and Apache schoolchildren. PMID:421525

Ewy, G A; Okada, R D; Marcus, F I; Goldberg, S J; Phibbs, B P

1979-01-01

202

First among Others? Cohen's "d" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., [eta][superscript 2], f[superscript 2]) evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation--that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In…

Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal

2011-01-01

203

Moderate deviations for some point measures in geometric probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant techniques and exponential modifications of measures show that such functionals satisfy moderate deviation principles. This leads to moderate deviation principles and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models as well as for statistics associated with germ-grain models and $k$

Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich

2008-01-01

204

Moderate Deviations and Cluster Measures in Geometric Probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant expansions and cluster mea- sures show that such functionals satisfy moderate deviation principles. This leads to moderate deviation principles and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models, the process of maximal points, as well as for statistics associated with

Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich

2004-01-01

205

Moderate Deviations for Some Point Measures in Geometric Probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant techniques and exponential modications of measures show that such functionals satisfy moderate deviation principles. This leads to moderate deviation principles and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models as well as for statistics associated with germ-grain models and k

Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich

2007-01-01

206

Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1985-01-01

207

Structure validation by C? geometry: ?,? and C? deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical validation around the C is described, with a new C measure and up- dated Ramachandran plot. Deviation of the ob- served C atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-valida- tion information contained in bond angle distor- tions. C deviation is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement

Simon C. Lovell; Ian W. Davis; W. Bryan Arendall; Paul I. W. de Bakker; J. Michael Word; Michael G. Prisant; Jane S. Richardson; David C. Richardson

2003-01-01

208

40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...63.1990. For the purposes of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs...monitoring periods within the hour. (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site. [68 FR...

2013-07-01

209

Deviations and the breakdown of project management principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled and how the limited time available in a project affects the possibilities for reflection and knowledge creation. Since deviations will inevitably occur and they will substantially increase project costs, studies of them are imperative. When only a fraction of the

Markus Hällgren; Eva Maaninen-Olsson

2009-01-01

210

Standard management options for rosacea, part 2: options according to subtype.  

PubMed

The standard management options were developed by a consensus committee and review panel of 26 experts to assist in providing optimal patient care based on the standard classification and grading systems for rosacea that were developed to perform research; analyze results and compare data from different sources; and provide a common terminology and reference for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of results in clinical practice. We discuss the standard management options for rosacea in 2 parts: (1) overview and broad spectrum of care, and (2) management options according to subtype. The menu of options is considered provisional and may be expanded and updated as appropriate. Managing the various potential signs and symptoms of rosacea calls for consideration of a broad spectrum of care, and a more precise selection of therapeutic options may become increasingly possible as the mechanisms of action of therapies are more definitively established. PMID:19746768

Odom, Richard; Dahl, Mark; Dover, Jeffrey; Draelos, Zoe; Drake, Lynn; Macsai, Marian; Powell, Frank; Thiboutot, Diane; Webster, Guy F; Wilkin, Jonathan

2009-08-01

211

DEVIATIONS FROM HARDY-WEINBERG PROPORTIONS: SAMPLING VARIANCES AND USE IN ESTIMATION OF INBREEDING COEFFICIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the distribution of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions with k alleles and of estimates of inbreeding coefficients (f) ob- tained from these deviations.-If f is small, the best estimate off in large samples is shown to be 2x,(T.\\/N,)\\/(k - I), where T. is an unbiased measure of the excess of the ith homozygote and N, the

ALAN ROBERTSON; WILLIAM G. HILL

212

Comparison of measurement standards of the acoustic pressure in air in the low frequency range: COOMET.AUV.A-K2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bilateral regional comparison of national microphone standards from 2 Hz to 250 Hz was carried out between the DP NDI 'Systema' (Ukraine) and the VNIIFTRI (Russia) from July to September 2009. The comparison, COOMET.AUV.A-K2, was based on the pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones type LSIP. The comparison results have been linked to the established key comparison reference value (KCRV) of CCAUV.A-K2. The degrees of equivalence, expressed as the deviation from the established KCRV and its expanded uncertainty (k = 2), have been determined, and the comparison result is in agreement with the KCRV within the estimated uncertainties at all employed frequencies. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Chalyy, V.

2011-01-01

213

Possible deviations due to exotic-lepton mixings in the process e sup + e sup minus r arrow W sup + W sup minus  

SciTech Connect

The process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}{r arrow}{ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}} is reexamined with the inclusion of mixing between ordinary leptons and exotic leptons of the types (i) mirror, (ii) vector doublet, and (iii) vector singlet. The effects of mixings are discussed in terms of the expected relative deviations from the standard-model predictions for the total cross section, the forward-backward asymmetry, the differential angular distribution for unpolarized {ital W}'s, and the inclusive angular distributions for longitudinally ({ital L}) and transversely ({ital T}) polarized {ital W}'s with and without charge identification at energies of the CERN collider LEP II ({radical}{ital s} {approx}190 GeV). These deviations are evaluated for three extreme cases of mixing: (I) mixing in the neutral-lepton sector only, (II) mixing in the charged-lepton sector only, and (III) equal mixings in both sectors. The expected relative deviations are presented as a function of the scattering angle {theta} as well as the exotic-neutrino mass {ital m}{sub {ital N}} and the square of the mixing angle sin{sup 2}{psi}. For case (I), all three types of exotic leptons have identical mixing effects. For a run of 500-pb{sup {minus}1} data, with {ital m}{sub {ital N}}{ge}250 GeV and {psi}=10{degree}, the expected relative deviations are more than one standard deviation (SD) error in {ital d}{sigma}({theta}), {ital d}{sigma}{sub {ital T}}({theta}) for all values of {theta}, in {ital d}{sigma}{sub {ital T}{ital T}}({theta}) for cos{theta}{ge}0.4, and in {ital d}{sigma}{sub {ital L}}({theta}) for {vert bar}cos{theta}{vert bar}{le}0.6.

Nagawat, A.K.; Singh, S.; Sharma, N.K. (Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India (IN))

1990-11-01

214

Mutual authentication protocol for RFID conforming to EPC Class 1 Generation 2 standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

As low-cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) will become pervasive in our daily lives, RFID systems may create new threats to the security and privacy of individuals and organizations. However, the previous works on designing security protocols for RFID either do not conform to the EPC Class 1 Generation 2 standards or suffer from security flaws. This paper will point out

Hung-yu Chien; Che-hao Chen

2007-01-01

215

The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

Lee, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

216

"GFL2"! The Updated "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition" ("GFL2") is the recently released update of the original edition published in 1994. The original edition of "Geography for Life" provided excellent guidance on geographic content for teachers, curriculum designers, publishers, and pre-service teachers as well as many other…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher

2012-01-01

217

Indiana's Academic Standards: Grade 2 English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to Indiana's academic standards in language arts, mathematics, science, and the social studies for Grade 2 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to help…

Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

218

LANDSAT 2 cumulative US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality, are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

219

Grid-enabled measures: using Science 2.0 to standardize measures and share data.  

PubMed

Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment--a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) with two overarching goals: (1) promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. The first is accomplished by creating an online venue where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting on, and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. The second is accomplished by connecting the constructs and measures to an ontological framework with data standards and common data elements such as the NCI Enterprise Vocabulary System (EVS) and the cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR). This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories--for data sharing). PMID:21521586

Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; Shaikh, Abdul R; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry Y; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

2011-05-01

220

Empirical data and the variance-covariance matrix for the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth (2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical data used in the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth (2) are presented. The variance-covariance matrix, or the normal equations, used for correlation analysis, are considered. The format and contents of the matrix, available on magnetic tape, are described and a sample printout is given.

Gaposchkin, E. M.

1972-01-01

221

Standardization of Product Ontologies in B2B Relationships - On the Role of ISO 13584  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product ontologies in B2B relationships establish a shared and common understanding of a product domain by building hierarchies of product classes enriched by attributes. This is especially true for standardized product ontologies which enable efficient catalog navigation and product search as well as product comparison across suppliers. While much research work has been carried out on the classification process, business

Joerg Leukel

2004-01-01

222

40 CFR 61.243-2 - Alternative standards for valves in VHAP service-skip period leak detection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Alternative standards for valves in VHAP service-skip period leak...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...243-2 Alternative standards for valves in VHAP serviceâskip period...

2013-07-01

223

Development of the DDA 8. 2L diesel engine for 1988 emission standards  

SciTech Connect

The emission development performed to meet 1988 Federal and California emission standards with a four-stroke direct-injection V-8 diesel engine of 8.2L displacement is described. On the naturally aspirated engine the major concern was meeting particulate and lug smoke standards at low NO/sub x/ levels. Acceleration smoke and particulate emission reduction was necessary on the turbocharged engine. The performance and emission goals were met by modifying the unit injectors and pistons of both naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines.

Winsor, R.E.; Wheeler, C.L.

1988-01-01

224

Identification of informative cooperator herds for progeny testing based on yield deviations.  

PubMed

Several arguments exist for breeding organizations to focus on cooperative herds for progeny testing, but an efficient methodology addressing herd selection strategies is lacking. In this study, a new approach based on yield deviations (YD) to identify the most informative cooperator herds in terms of genetic differentiation was evaluated. Data comprised YD from 717,377 first-lactation cows from 2 regions in East and West Germany calving between January 2003 and January 2008. Daughters were ranked and classified within sire according to their YD for protein yield, fat yield, milk yield, and somatic cell score. Cows in created YD classes were merged with respective herd-calving year (HCY) characteristics. Cows of extreme YD classes (i.e., such classes including the most extreme daughter contributions), belonged to herds characterized by a high HCY production level, a low value for HCY somatic cell count, and a low HCY age at first calving (AFC). Cows with low extremes for YD in protein yield were associated with the lowest HCY production level, a high value for HCY somatic cell count, and a late HCY AFC. Ranks of HCY and ranks of herds considering HCY over the whole analyzed period were calculated by averaging YD percentages within HCY, and within herds, respectively. The YD percentages (in absolute values so that negative and positive daughter contributions were treated equally) were derived from the rank of the YD of a daughter within sire in relation to all daughters of a sire. A further partitioning of ranks of herds into quartiles revealed the following results: herds in the first quartile had the highest average protein yield, the highest intra-herd standard deviation for the national production index, and the lowest AFC. Correlations between herd rankings for different production traits ranged between 0.64 and 0.86, and were 0.65 for West Germany and 0.62 for East Germany between HCY 2006 and the average herd rank of all calving years. Correlations between daughter yield deviations for the highest and the lowest herd quartile of 0.87 for protein yield disproved concerns regarding genotype by environment interaction between test and production environment. The suggested methodology to identify informative cooperator herds is easy to implement, holds for regions with small herd sizes, and thus, may help in implementing sustainable and competitive dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:21426998

Schierenbeck, S; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R; Simianer, H; König, S

2011-04-01

225

Characterization of a Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Reference Standard Material  

PubMed Central

Abstract A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus–free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?×?1011 particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?×?1011 to 1.05?×?1012 particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?×?1010 vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?×?1010 to 4.75?×?1010 vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?×?108 transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?×?108 to 9.60?×?108 transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?×?109 TCID50 IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?×?109 to 9.26?×?109 TCID50 IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.

Lock, Martin; McGorray, Susan; Auricchio, Alberto; Ayuso, Eduard; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Blouin-Tavel, Veronique; Bosch, Fatima; Bose, Mahuya; Byrne, Barry J.; Caton, Tina; Chiorini, John A.; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Clark, K. Reed; Conlon, Thomas; Darmon, Christophe; Doria, Monica; Douar, Anne; Flotte, Terence R.; Francis, Joyce D.; Francois, Achille; Giacca, Mauro; Korn, Michael T.; Korytov, Irina; Leon, Xavier; Leuchs, Barbara; Lux, Gabriele; Melas, Catherine; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Moullier, Philippe; Muller, Marcus; Ozawa, Keiya; Philipsberg, Tina; Poulard, Karine; Raupp, Christina; Riviere, Christel; Roosendaal, Sigrid D.; Samulski, R. Jude; Soltys, Steven M.; Surosky, Richard; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Thomas, Darby L.; van Montfort, Bart; Veres, Gabor; Wright, J. Fraser; Xu, Yili; Zelenaia, Olga; Zentilin, Lorena

2010-01-01

226

Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu0402@yahoo.com.c [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany)

2010-02-15

227

77 FR 40338 - Announcing Revised Draft Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201-2, Personal Identity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...clarification of the text of the standard and/or recommended editorial...and changes were made to the standard, where appropriate. Some...commenters indicated that the standard needs to accommodate the Federal...Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ International...

2012-07-09

228

21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written...

2013-04-01

229

Computerized Inspection of Real Surfaces and Minimization of Their Deviations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface deviations between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates....

F. L. Litvin Y. Zhang C. Kuan R. F. Handschuh

1991-01-01

230

Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized Large deviation principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type was developed for weakly time inhomogeneous diffusions prove to be key tools for a treatment of the problem of diffusion exit from a domain and thus for the approach of stochastic resonance via transition probabilities between meta-stable states. We expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by

Jaykov Foukzon

2008-01-01

231

International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 2: Current perspectives; PVP-Volume 313-2  

SciTech Connect

The topics in this volume include: (1) Recent or imminent changes to Section 3 design sections; (2) Select perspectives of ASME Codes -- Section 3; (3) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- an international outlook; (4) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- ASME Code Sections 3, 8 and 11; (5) Codes and Standards Perspectives for Analysis; (6) Selected design perspectives on flow-accelerated corrosion and pressure vessel design and qualification; (7) Select Codes and Standards perspectives for design and operability; (8) Codes and Standards perspectives for operability; (9) What`s new in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?; (10) A look at ongoing activities of ASME Sections 2 and 3; (11) A look at current activities of ASME Section 11; (12) A look at current activities of ASME Codes and Standards; (13) Simplified design methodology and design allowable stresses -- 1 and 2; (14) Introduction to Power Boilers, Section 1 of the ASME Code -- Part 1 and 2. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers.

Rao, K.R.; Asada, Yasuhide; Adams, T.M. [eds.] [and others

1995-12-01

232

A new gold-standard dataset for 2D/3D image registration evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of 2D/3D image registration algorithms for image guided radiotherapy. A gold standard data set was calculated using a pig head with attached fiducial markers. We used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T1, T2 and proton density (PD) sequences, and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information, and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail and image data quality. The markers of three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional (2D) images were segmented using Analyze 9.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc) and an in-house software. The projection distance errors (PDE) and the expected target registration errors (TRE) over all the image data sets were found to be less than 1.7 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively. The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

Pawiro, Supriyanto; Markelj, Primoz; Gendrin, Christelle; Figl, Michael; Stock, Markus; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Unger, Ewald; Nöbauer, Iris; Kainberger, Franz; Bergmeister, Helga; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

2010-03-01

233

Qualitative Analysis of Workflow Modifications Used to Generate the Reference Standard for the 2010 i2b2/VA Challenge  

PubMed Central

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) team partnered to generate the reference standard for the 2010 i2b2/VA challenge task on concept extraction, assertion classification, and relation classification. The purpose of this paper is to report an in-depth qualitative analysis of the experience and perceptions of human annotators for these tasks. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify key constructs and themes related to these annotation tasks. Interventions were embedded with these tasks using pre-annotation of clinical concepts and a modified annotation workflow. From the human perspective, annotation tasks involve an inherent conflict between bias, accuracy, and efficiency. This analysis deepens understanding of the biases, complexities and impact of variations in the annotation process that may affect annotation task reliability and reference standard validity that are generalizable for other similar large-scale clinical corpus annotation projects.

South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Barrus, Robyn; DuVall, Scott L.; Uzuner, Ozlem; Weir, Charlene

2011-01-01

234

The effects of deviation from LTE in the solar Fraunhofer spectrum - Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of neutral O I 130.2-130.6, 135.6-135.9, 777.2-777.5, 844.6 nm lines observable in quiet regions on the solar disk is considered with allowance for deviation from LTE. The non-LTE equivalent width of the triplet 772.2-775.5 nm is highly sensitive to temperature, which may ultimately lead to variations of the flux and equivalent width of the triplet in stellar spectra. The influence of LTE deviations on the characteristics of the O I line profiles considered is greater than the errors of precision solar observations and must be accounted for in their interpretation.

Shchukina, N. G.

1987-12-01

235

Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.

Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

2013-12-01

236

Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method  

PubMed Central

Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n?1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level.

Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

2009-01-01

237

Large deviations for local time fractional Brownian motion and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let be a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst index H[set membership, variant](0,1) with values in , and let be the local time process at zero of a strictly stable Lévy process of index 1<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]2 independent of WH. The [alpha]-stable local time fractional Brownian motion is defined by ZH(t)=WH(Lt). The process ZH is self-similar with self-similarity index and is related to the scaling limit of a continuous time random walk with heavy-tailed waiting times between jumps [P. Becker-Kern, M.M. Meerschaert, H.P. Scheffler, Limit theorems for coupled continuous time random walks, Ann. Probab. 32 (2004) 730-756; M.M. Meerschaert, HEP. Scheffler, Limit theorems for continuous time random walks with infinite mean waiting times, J. Appl. Probab. 41 (2004) 623-638]. However, ZH does not have stationary increments and is non-Gaussian. In this paper we establish large deviation results for the process ZH. As applications we derive upper bounds for the uniform modulus of continuity and the laws of the iterated logarithm for ZH.

Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Xiao, Yimin

2008-10-01

238

ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

Byrum, John D.

239

40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection...secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 . (a) The national primary...concentration measured in the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an...

2013-07-01

240

40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection...secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 . (a) The national primary...concentration measured in the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an...

2013-07-01

241

Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D

Krishna Subramanyan; Martin Palomo; Mark Hans

2006-01-01

242

A refined 'standard' thermal model for asteroids based on observations of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present ground-based thermal infrared observations of asteroids 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas made over a period of 2 years. By analyzing these data in light of the recently determined occultation diameter of Ceres (933 - 945 km) and Pallas (538 km) and their known small-amplitude lightcurves, they have determined a new value for the infrared beaming parameter used in the "standard" thermal emission model for asteroids. The new value is significantly lower than that previously used, and when applied in the reduction of thermal infrared observations of other asteroids, should yield model diameters that are closer to actual diameters.

Lebofsky, L. A.; Sykes, M. V.; Tedesco, E. F.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Brown, R. H.; Gradie, J. C.; Feierberg, M. A.; Rudy, R. J.

1986-11-01

243

The standard calibration instrument automation system for the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Part 2: User's guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The user's guide to the atomic absorption instrument automation system is presented. This system receives lists of samples from the sample file control system and returns the measured concentrations to that system. It is capable of interfacing with a number of commercially available atomic absorption instruments. It incorporates the following major features: (1) multipoint calibration using first, second, or third degree regression or linear interpolation, (2) timely quality control assessments for spiked samples, duplicates, laboratory control standards, reagent blanks and instrument check standards, (3) reagent blank subtraction, and (4) plotting of calibration curves and raw data peaks. The programs of this system are written in data general extended BASIC, as enhanced for multiuser, real time data acquisition. They run in a data general Nova 840 minicomputer under the operating system RDOS. Detailed descriptions and examples of the features of the system are presented as they appear to the user.

1982-04-01

244

Standard thermodynamic functions of complex formation between Cu2+ and glycine in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat effects of the interaction of copper(II) solutions with aminoacetic acid (glycine) are measured by the direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against a background of potassium nitrate. Standard enthalpy values for reactions of the formation of aminoacetic acid copper complexes in aqueous solutions are obtained using an equation with a single individual parameter by extrapolating it to zero ionic strength. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation in the Cu2+-glycine system are calculated. It is shown that glycine-like coordination is most likely in Cu(II) complexes with L-asparagine, L-glutamine, and L-valine.

Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

2013-05-01

245

Causes of the ESD immunity testing problems in the IEC 61000-4-2 standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To resolve the poor reproducibility of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity test platform which is specified in the standard IEC 61000-4-2, using a newly designed ESD testing system, the effects of the switch action of ESD generator, the discharge current and its derivative, the radiation field and the imperfect specification of the test method on the testing results were studied. It was found that the effect of the switch action of ESD generator on the testing results was very distinct, and the radiation field caused by the switch action was one of the main cause of the different testing results; different discharge current and current derivative were caused by different ESD generators, which would cause different testing results; the imperfect specification of the test method in the standard was the other reason.

Yuan, Qingyun; Liu, Shanghe; Sun, Yongwei; Zhang, Xijun

2013-03-01

246

Progress and new standards of care in the management of HER-2 positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this review article is to examine the available evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer. This group of breast tumours (up to 30% of the total number of breast cancers) is known for having a more aggressive behaviour. The current recommendations for HER-2 positive tumour diagnosis are discussed since accurate identification of HER-2 amplification or overexpression is key for allowing a correct risk assessment and treatment. HER-2 positive tumours can be treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin, Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland), a monoclonal antibody targeted against the HER-2 receptor. The role of this drug in the metastatic, adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting is reviewed. The results of the recently reported adjuvant trials are commented, as the positive results of these trials changed the standard of care for patients with this particular type of breast cancer. PMID:17223541

Demonty, Gaston; Bernard-Marty, Chantal; Puglisi, Fabio; Mancini, Isabelle; Piccart, Martine

2007-02-01

247

Successive Standardization of Rectangular Arrays  

PubMed Central

In this note we illustrate and develop further with mathematics and examples, the work on successive standardization (or normalization) that is studied earlier by the same authors in [1] and [2]. Thus, we deal with successive iterations applied to rectangular arrays of numbers, where to avoid technical difficulties an array has at least three rows and at least three columns. Without loss, an iteration begins with operations on columns: first subtract the mean of each column; then divide by its standard deviation. The iteration continues with the same two operations done successively for rows. These four operations applied in sequence completes one iteration. One then iterates again, and again, and again, … In [1] it was argued that if arrays are made up of real numbers, then the set for which convergence of these successive iterations fails has Lebesgue measure 0. The limiting array has row and column means 0, row and column standard deviations 1. A basic result on convergence given in [1] is true, though the argument in [1] is faulty. The result is stated in the form of a theorem here, and the argument for the theorem is correct. Moreover, many graphics given in [1] suggest that except for a set of entries of any array with Lebesgue measure 0, convergence is very rapid, eventually exponentially fast in the number of iterations. Because we learned this set of rules from Bradley Efron, we call it “Efron’s algorithm”. More importantly, the rapidity of convergence is illustrated by numerical examples.

Olshen, Richard A.; Rajaratnam, Bala

2012-01-01

248

Interplay between bias field correction, intensity standardization, and noise filtering for T2-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is known to be significantly affected by a number of acquisition artifacts, such as intensity non-standardness, bias field, and Gaussian noise. These artifacts degrade MR image quality significantly, obfuscating anatomical and physiological detail and hence need to be corrected for to facilitate application of computerized analysis techniques such as segmentation, registration, and classification. Specifically, algorithms are required to correct for bias field (intensity inhomogeneity), intensity non-standardness (drift in tissue intensities across patient acquisitions), and Gaussian noise, an artifact that significantly affects and blurs tissue boundaries (resulting in poor gradients). While clearly one needs to correct for all these artifacts, the exact sequence in which all three operations need to be applied in order to maximize MR image quality has not been explored. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the interplay between distinct algorithms for bias field correction (BFC), intensity standardization (IS), and noise filtering (NF) to study the effect of these operations on image quality in the context of 3 Tesla T2-weighted (T2w) prostate MRI. 7 different sequences comprising combinations of BFC, IS, and NF were quantitatively evaluated in terms of the percent coefficient of variation (%CV), a statistic which attempts to quantify the intensity inhomogeneity within a region of interest (prostate). The different combinations were also independently evaluated in the context of a classifier scheme for detection of prostate cancer on high resolution in vivo T2w prostate MRI. A secondary contribution of this work is a novel evaluation measure for quantifying the level of intensity non-standardness, called difference of modes (DoM). Experimental evaluation of the different sequences of operations across 22 patient datasets revealed that the sequence of BFC, followed by NF, and IS provided the best image quality in terms of %CV as well as classifier accuracy. The DoM measure was able to accurately capture the level of intensity non-standardness present in the images resulting from the different sequences of operations. PMID:22255481

Palumbo, Daniel; Yee, Brian; O'Dea, Patrick; Leedy, Shane; Viswanath, Satish; Madabhushi, Anant

2011-01-01

249

GALEON Phase 2: Testing Gateways Between Formal Standard Interfaces and Existing Community Standard Client/server Implementations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Service (WCS) revision 1.1 specification includes many modifications that are important to the communities working with existing services and clients based on netCDF (network Common Data Form), THREDDS THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), OPeNDAP Open-source Project for Network Data Access Protocol), and ADDE (Abstract Data Distribution Envrironment) technologies. Chief among the WCS changes is the requirement that WCS binary encoding formats have documented application profiles. NetCDF will be among the first WCS binary encoding format profiles. In addition, WCS 1.1 enables multiple fields in a coverage, 3 spatial dimensions, 2 time dimensions (e.g., the time a forecast was run and the forecast times within the run), relative time ( e.g., the latest image), non-spatial dimension (e.g., pressure or density), irregular grids. In Phase 2 of the GALEON (Geo-interface for Land, Environment, Earth, Ocean NetCDF) Interoperability experiment, the participants will 1. Implement and test clients and servers that conform to the new WCS 1.1 spec and experiment with them on a wide range of real-world datasets. 2. Test the OGC CS-W (Catalog Services for the Web) as a means for accessing lists of datasets available on WCS servers. as well as WCS. As an illustration of the challenge, the top level 3. Evaluate various OGC GML (Geography Markup Language) dialects as a means for representing the information in netCDF datasets. This will include: ncML-GML (netCDF Markup Language-GML), CSML (Climate Sciences Modeling Language), and GMLJP2 (GML for JPEG 2000). Many of the datasets and catalogs for these experiements will be from existing netCDF, THREDDS, OPeNDAP, and ADDE servers.

Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.; Woolf, A.; Whittaker, T.; Husar, R. B.; Bigagli, L.

2006-12-01

250

Comparison of the frequencies of NH3, CO2, H2O, N2O, CO, and CH4 as infrared calibration standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute accuracies of infrared calibration standards for the line positions have been investigated using a 0.0056-kayser-resolution (unapodized) Fourier-transform spectrum recorded from 550 to 5000 kayser. The spectrum has been obtained using a multicell arrangement containing the various molecular species. Detailed comoparisons reveal that standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O obtained from laser research and NH3 from Fourier-transform spectrometer research are consistent within the accuracies of the present data (+ or 0.0001 kayser). However, certain N2O, H2O, and CO values in the 1100-to 2300 kayser region are systematically high by 0.0001 to 0.0004 kayser. Correction factors for the H2O and CO standards are obtained to bring these into agreement with the laser values. In addition, corrected values for the 2nu-2 and nu-1 bands of N2O at 9 microns are reported.

Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.

1985-01-01

251

Standardization and Program Effect Analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum missi...

T. Shiokari

1975-01-01

252

Highly accurate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen standards based on permeation.  

PubMed

The development and operation of a highly accurate primary gas facility for the dynamic production of mixtures of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in nitrogen (N(2)) based on continuous weighing of a permeation tube and accurate impurity quantification and correction of the gas mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is described. NO(2) gas mixtures in the range of 5 ?mol mol(-1) to 15 ?mol mol(-1) with a standard relative uncertainty of 0.4% can be produced with this facility. To achieve an uncertainty at this level, significant efforts were made to reduce, identify and quantify potential impurities present in the gas mixtures, such as nitric acid (HNO(3)). A complete uncertainty budget, based on the analysis of the performance of the facility, including the use of a FT-IR spectrometer and a nondispersive UV analyzer as analytical techniques, is presented in this work. The mixtures produced by this facility were validated and then selected to provide reference values for an international comparison of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM), number CCQM-K74, (1) which was designed to evaluate the consistency of primary NO(2) gas standards from 17 National Metrology Institutes. PMID:23148702

Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

2012-12-01

253

Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.

2014-04-01

254

SRS ES&H Standards Compliance Program Implementation Plan. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

SRS initiated two parallel efforts to address aspects of Recommendation 90-2. An Order Compliance Program was established with initial focus on compliance with requirements contained in Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related DOE Orders, both from a programmatic perspective as well as from a field adherence perspective; and a Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) development program was established to specify a ``necessary and sufficient`` set of ES&H requirements to protect the environment and public/worker safety and health. During the period while the S/RID methodology was being developed, many of the DOE ES&H Orders were revised and substantially improved. These improvements captured many of the insights gained in the developing S/RID program. As the SRS Order Compliance and S/RID programs matured and achieved major deliverables in 1993 and 1994, major overlaps between the two programs were identified. In early 1994, WSRC and DOE-SR determined that the two separate programs should be physically and organizationally integrated (and further merged with newly identified needs associated with Price-Anderson Amendments Act nuclear safety regulations) to become a single SRS Compliance Program. This document defines the program for integration of the WSRC Order Compliance, S/RID, and Price-Anderson Compliance activities. This plan supersedes the SRS ES&H Standards Compliance Program Management Plan and the SRS ES&H Standards Compliance Program Implementation Plan.

Hearn, W.H.

1994-08-31

255

Mapping CO2 emission in highly urbanized region using standardized microbial respiration approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is a major recent land-use change pathway. Land conversion to urban has a tremendous and still unclear effect on soil cover and functions. Urban soil can act as a carbon source, although its potential for CO2 emission is also very high. The main challenge in analysis and mapping soil organic carbon (SOC) in urban environment is its high spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics. The urban environment provides a number of specific features and processes that influence soil formation and functioning and results in a unique spatial variability of carbon stocks and fluxes at short distance. Soil sealing, functional zoning, settlement age and size are the predominant factors, distinguishing heterogeneity of urban soil carbon. The combination of these factors creates a great amount of contrast clusters with abrupt borders, which is very difficult to consider in regional assessment and mapping of SOC stocks and soil CO2 emission. Most of the existing approaches to measure CO2 emission in field conditions (eddy-covariance, soil chambers) are very sensitive to soil moisture and temperature conditions. They require long-term sampling set during the season in order to obtain relevant results. This makes them inapplicable for the analysis of CO2 emission spatial variability at the regional scale. Soil respiration (SR) measurement in standardized lab conditions enables to overcome this difficulty. SR is predominant outgoing carbon flux, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic respiration of soil microorganisms. Microbiota is responsible for 50-80% of total soil carbon outflow. Microbial respiration (MR) approach provides an integral CO2 emission results, characterizing microbe CO2 production in optimal conditions and thus independent from initial difference in soil temperature and moisture. The current study aimed to combine digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques with standardized microbial respiration approach in order to analyse and map CO2 emission and its spatial variability in highly urbanized Moscow region. Moscow region with its variability of bioclimatic conditions and high urbanization level (10 % from the total area) was chosen as an interesting case study. Random soil sampling in different soil zones (4) and land-use types (3 non-urban and 3 urban) was organized in Moscow region in 2010-2011 (n=242). Both topsoil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-150 cm) were included. MR for each point was analysed using standardized microbial (basal) respiration approach, including the following stages: 1) air dried soil samples were moisturised up to 55% water content and preincubated (7 days, 22° C) in a plastic bag with air exchange; 2) soil MR (in ?g CO2-C g-1) was measured as the rate of CO2 production (22° C, 24 h) after incubating 2g soil with 0.2 ?l distilled water; 3) the MR results were used to estimate CO2 emission (kg C m-2 yr-1). Point MR and CO2 emission results obtained were extrapolated for the Moscow region area using regression model. As a result, two separate CO2 maps for topsoil and subsoil were created. High spatial variability was demonstrated especially for the urban areas. Thus standardized MR approach combined with DSM techniques provided a unique opportunity for spatial analysis of soil carbon temporal dynamics at the regional scale.

Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Ananyeva, N. D.

2012-12-01

256

White Dwarf Standard Stars: G191-B2B, GD 71, GD 153, HZ 43  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three additional white dwarfs, GD 71, GD 153, and HZ 43, covering a wide range in effective temperature, have been observed with HST faint object spectrograph (FOS) to check the G191 -B2B white dwarf based absolute calibration of HST instruments. The FOS spectrophotometry of the three additional white dwarfs agree with model spectra to ˜2%. The FOS absolute flux of G19l -B2B, GD 71, and GD 153 agree with Landolt photometry to better than 1% on average, in B and V. Consequently, the white dwarfs G191 -B2B, GD 71, GD 153, and HZ 43 are the primary reference standards that are recommended for all ultraviolet and optical absolute calibrations from 1000 to 10 000 Å.

Bohlin, Ralph C.; Colina, Luis; Finley, David S.

1995-09-01

257

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

258

Repeatability and Reproducibility Standard Deviations in the Measurement of Trace Moisture Generated Using Permeation Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Permeation-tube moisture generators are used in industry as calibrated sources of water vapor and carrier gas mixtures. Measurements were made using three permeation-tube moisture generators of the type used in the semiconductor industry. This paper descr...

2003-01-01

259

An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. II.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been presented for estimating the variability of a system's natural frequencies arising from the variability of the system's parameters. The only information required to obtain the estimates is the member variability, in the form of second-order properties, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the mean system. It has also been established for the systems studied by means of Monte Carlo estimates that the specification of second-order properties is an adequate description of member variability.

Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

1971-01-01

260

7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc., c/o Jim Fitzpatrick, Treasurer, Carpenter Nature Center, 12805 St. Croix Trail South, Hastings, Minnesota 55033. It is also...

2009-01-01

261

Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow  

SciTech Connect

We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart

2000-09-15

262

Nearly Best Linear Unbiased Estimation of the Mean and Standard Deviation of the Logistic Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of nearly best linear unbiased estimation, which was developed through order statistics, for obtaining unbiased estimators for use in estimating the location and scale parameters of continuous distribution is applied to the logistic distributio...

J. W. Rodgers

1968-01-01

263

Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what mathematics is and…

Richardson, Kathy

264

Octadentate Cages of Tb(III) 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides: A New Standard for Luminescent Lanthanide Labels  

PubMed Central

The synthesis, structure, and photophysical properties of several Tb(III) complexes with octadentate, macrotricyclic ligands that feature a bicapped topology and 2-hydroxyisopthalamide (IAM) chelating units are reported. These Tb(III) complexes exhibit highly efficient emission (?total ? 50%), large extinction coefficients (?max ? 20,000 M?1cm?1), and long luminescence lifetimes (?H2O ? 2.45 ms) at dilute concentrations in standard biological buffers. The structure of the methyl-protected ligand was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirms the macrotricyclic structure of the parent ligand; the amide groups of the methyl-protected cage compound generate an anion binding cavity that complexes a chloride anion. Once the ligand is deprotected a conformational change generates a similar cavity, formed by the phenolate and ortho amide oxygen groups that strongly bind lanthanide ions. The Tb(III) complexes thus formed display long term stability, with little if any change in their spectral properties (including lifetime, quantum yield, and emission spectrum) over time or in different chemical environments. Procedures to prepare functionalized derivatives with a terminal amine, carboxylate and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups suitable for derivatization and protein bioconjugation have also been developed. These bifunctional ligands have been covalently attached to a number of different proteins and the terbium complexes' exceptional photophysical properties are retained. These compounds establish a new aqueous stability and quantum yield standard for long-lifetime lanthanide reporters.

Xu, Jide; Corneillie, Todd M.; Moore, Evan G.; Law, Ga-Lai; Butlin, Nathaniel G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2011-01-01

265

Calibration of ac and dc magnetometers with a Dy2O3 standard.  

PubMed

The ac susceptibility and magnetization curves of a glued Dy(2)O(3) powder sample are measured by an ac susceptometer and a dc superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer, both of which have been calibrated previously. It is shown that the magnetic moment of the paramagnetic sample as a function of field and temperature may be accurately expressed by a combination of the Curie-Weiss law and the Langevin function at T > 45 K with three adjusting parameters, so that the dc magnetization curves and the magnitude and phase of ac susceptibility at different values of dc bias field measured by any magnetometer can be calibrated by using Dy(2)O(3) as a standard. The expressions are empirical and cannot be justified in the entire field and temperature range by existing theories of paramagnetism. Below 10 K, indication of approaching a possible phase transition is found. It is shown that pure Dy(2)O(3) powder may be used as a primary standard, with susceptibility [13.28(T + 17)](-1) emu/Oe/g at T > 50 K and H < 10 kOe, in consistency with the Curie-Weiss law and the quantum mechanical theory of paramagnetism. PMID:21529044

Chen, D-X; Skumryev, V; Bozzo, B

2011-04-01

266

Calibration of ac and dc magnetometers with a Dy2O3 standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ac susceptibility and magnetization curves of a glued Dy2O3 powder sample are measured by an ac susceptometer and a dc superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer, both of which have been calibrated previously. It is shown that the magnetic moment of the paramagnetic sample as a function of field and temperature may be accurately expressed by a combination of the Curie-Weiss law and the Langevin function at T > 45 K with three adjusting parameters, so that the dc magnetization curves and the magnitude and phase of ac susceptibility at different values of dc bias field measured by any magnetometer can be calibrated by using Dy2O3 as a standard. The expressions are empirical and cannot be justified in the entire field and temperature range by existing theories of paramagnetism. Below 10 K, indication of approaching a possible phase transition is found. It is shown that pure Dy2O3 powder may be used as a primary standard, with susceptibility [13.28(T + 17)]-1 emu/Oe/g at T > 50 K and H < 10 kOe, in consistency with the Curie-Weiss law and the quantum mechanical theory of paramagnetism.

Chen, D.-X.; Skumryev, V.; Bozzo, B.

2011-04-01

267

New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices  

SciTech Connect

The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

1980-09-01

268

Design of soft x-ray wide-band multilayer gratings for constant deviation monochromators  

SciTech Connect

Constant deviation condition performing scanning energy by the rotation of grating around itself is the one of the most practical mounting for grating monochromators. Conventional multilayer coating can obtain high diffraction efficiency merely in a narrow band width. It is found that a new modified multilayer structure on the laminar-type grating intended to enhance the diffraction efficiency for constant deviation condition shows the diffraction efficiency over 5% in a wide band range of 1.5-2.5 keV in calculation.

Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2012-07-11

269

The One-Shot-Deviation Principle for Sequential Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Number: C72.

Ebbe Hendon; Hans Jørgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth

1996-01-01

270

Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.  

PubMed Central

Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed.

Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

1975-01-01

271

Tutorial on large deviations for the binomial distribution.  

PubMed

We present, in an easy to use form, the large deviation theory of the binomial distribution: how to approximate the probability of k or more successes in n independent trials, each with success probability p, when the specified fraction of successes, a identical to k/n, satisfies 0 less than p less than a less than 1. PMID:2706397

Arratia, R; Gordon, L

1989-01-01

272

Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…

Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.

2007-01-01

273

Optical vibration and deviation measurement of rotating machine parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of interest to get appropriate information about the dynamic behaviour of rotating machinery parts in service. This paper presents an approach of optical vibration and deviation measurement of such parts. Essential of this method is an image derotator combined with a high speed camera or a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV).

Reithmeier, Eduard; Mirzaei, Sahar; Kasyanenko, Natallia

2008-01-01

274

CLT-related large deviation bounds based on Stein's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deviation estimates are derived for sums of random vari- ables with certain dependence structures. Our results cover local dependence (including U-statistics and Nash equilibria), finite pop- ulation statistics and random graphs. The argument is based on Stein's method, but with a novel modification of Stein's equation inspired by the Cramer transform.

Martin Raic

275

CLT-related large deviation bounds based on Stein's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deviation estimates are derived for sums of random variables\\u000awith certain dependence structures, including finite population\\u000astatistics and random graphs. The argument is based on Stein's\\u000amethod, but with a novel modification of Stein's equation inspired\\u000aby the Cramér transform.

Martin Rai?

2007-01-01

276

Dissociated vertical deviation: Etiology, mechanism, and associated phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The etiology and mechanism of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) are explored. Methods: In 6 young adults with DVD, the simultaneous horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements for both eyes were recorded by using dual-coil scleral search coils. Analysis of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements that occurred during the DVD response identified the primary muscles acting in the vergences

David L. Guyton

2000-01-01

277

Sample-Path Large Deviations in Credit Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the pr...

M. R. H. Mandjes P. J. C. Spreij V. Leijdekker

2009-01-01

278

Distributed Detection Over Noisy Networks: Large Deviations Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the large deviations performance of consensus+innovations distributed detection over noisy networks, where agents at a time step $k$ cooperate with their immediate neighbors (consensus) and assimilate their new observations (innovation.) We show that, under noisy communication, all agents can still achieve an exponential error rate, even when certain (or most) agents cannot detect the event of interest in

Dušan Jakovetic; José M. F. Moura; João Xavier

2012-01-01

279

Bahadur representations for the median absolute deviation and its modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median absolute deviation about the median (MAD) is an important univariate spread measure having wide appeal due to its highly robust sample version. A powerful tool in treating the asymptotics of a statistic is a linearization, i.e., a Bahadur representation. Here we establish both strong and weak Bahadur representations for the sample MAD. The strong version is the first

Satyaki Mazumder; Robert Serfling

2009-01-01

280

Radiotherapy Protocol Deviations and Clinical Outcomes: A Meta-analysis of Cooperative Group Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Noncompliance with radiotherapy (RT) protocol guidelines has been linked to inferior clinical outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis of cooperative group trials to examine the association between RT quality assurance (QA) deviations and disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for multi-institutional trials that reported clinical outcomes in relation to RT QA results. Hazard ratios (HRs) describing the association between RT protocol noncompliance and patient outcomes were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Inverse variance meta-analyses were performed to assess the association between RT QA deviations and OS. A second meta-analysis tested the association between RT QA deviations and secondary outcomes, including local or locoregional control, event-free survival, and relapse. Random-effects models were used in cases of statistically significant (P < .10) effect heterogeneity. The Egger test was used to detect publication bias. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Eight studies (four pediatric, four adult) met all inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this analysis. The frequency of RT QA deviations ranged from 8% to 71% (median = 32%). In a random-effects model, RT deviations were associated with a statistically significant decrease in OS (HR of death = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 2.35; P < .001). A similar effect was seen for secondary outcomes (HR of treatment failure = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.78; P = .009). No evidence of publication bias was detected. Conclusion In clinical trials, RT protocol deviations are associated with increased risks of treatment failure and overall mortality.

2013-01-01

281

IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.  

PubMed

The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

2013-01-01

282

Thromboplastin standards.  

PubMed

The Prothrombin Time (PT) test is used for monitoring of treatment with Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA). The result of the PT test should be expressed as the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Calculation of INR is based on the availability of International Standards (IS) for thromboplastin and a calibration model. Calibration of a new PT test system is performed with the appropriate IS and fresh plasma samples of healthy (normal) volunteers and patients treated with VKA. The calibration model is based on the assumption of a linear relationship between the log(PT)'s obtained with the new PT system and the reference IS for both normal and patients' samples. Patients' samples for calibration should be selected by rejecting samples beyond the 1.5-4.5 INR range. Outliers should be rejected defined as points with a perpendicular distance greater than three residual standard deviations from the line of relationship. Selection of patients' samples and rejection of outliers result in a reduction of the between-laboratory variation of calibration. In addition to monitoring of VKA, the PT is used for management of patients with chronic liver disease. Likewise, INR(liver) should be based on calibration with an IS using samples from patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:20338779

van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

2010-07-01

283

Large Deviations for the Fermion Point Process Associated with the Exponential Kernel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the fermion point process on the whole complex plane associated with the exponential kernel e^{zbar{w}}, we show the central limit theorem for the random variable ?( D r , the number of points inside the ball D r of radius r, as r ? ? and we establish the large deviation principle for the random variables { r -2? ( D r ), r > 0}.

Shirai, Tomoyuki

2006-05-01

284

Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).

Roeckner, Michael, E-mail: roeckner@math.uni-bielefeld.d [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: tzhang@maths.man.ac.u [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom); Zhang Xicheng, E-mail: XichengZhang@gmail.co [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics (Australia)

2010-04-15

285

Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product (OMNO2, version 2.1) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3-0.8) with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Irie, H.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Weinheimer, A.; Szykman, J. J.; Knepp, T. N.

2014-06-01

286

Projected compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the State of Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) but did have annual ambient data for particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10) at twenty-four sites. The PM10 data was analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal ZIP code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks and wilderness areas) in an effort to predict annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the twenty-four PM10 monitor sites operated from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were predicted to be below the 24-hour PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at the sites operated in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. A geographic analysis of the emission inventories was also performed to evaluate the impact of PM2.5 emissions from Maryland`s power plants on fourteen monitor locations that were predicted to have a reading exceeding the annual NAAQS for any year.

Walsh, K.; Gardner, R.

1999-02-01

287

NBS+_PH2 - NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS PARAHYDROGEN PROPERTIES DATABASE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Bureau of Standards Parahydrogen Properties Database (NBS+_PH2) program was developed to provide selected parahydrogen thermal and transport properties which match the 1981 NBS parahydrogen data. The program was created to be linked with propulsion simulation programs which require a parahydrogen model which can cover a wide range of pressures. NBS+_PH2 can provide data on parahydrogen for pressures from 1E4 to 1.6E7 Pa and temperatures from 20 degrees to 10000 degrees K. NBS+_PH2 is set up as a single FORTRAN subroutine. When pressure and temperature or enthalpy are sent to it through the FORTRAN call statement, the thermodynamic and transport properties at the given conditions are returned to the calling program. Linear interpolation is used to calculate between database entries when necessary. NBS+_PH2 can provide the following parahydrogen properties: density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, Prandtl number, enthalpy, specific heat, and speed of sound. NBS+_PH2 is a database program written in FORTRAN 77 and is designed to be machine independent. Although a user-interactive test program for accessing NBS+_PH2 is provided in the distribution package, NBS+_PH2 is intended to be linked with simulation programs. The database and interactive test program have been used successfully on a Sun4 series computer running UNIX, an IBM PC series compatible computer running MS-DOS (using Lahey F77L), and a DEC VAX running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of this diskette are compressed with the PKZIP archiving tools. The program to uncompress the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included on the diskette. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided. NBS+_PH2 is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format and a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC FILES-11 format. Documentation is included in the price of the program. NBS+_PH2 was developed in 1992. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. F77L is a registered trademark of Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. DEC VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. PKZIP and PKUNZIP are trademarks of PKWare, Inc.

Walton, J. T.

1994-01-01

288

76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable...Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water quality standard regulations by establishing...phthalate (DEHP). As a consequence, bottled water manufacturers are required to monitor...

2011-10-19

289

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjjjj... - Work Practice Standards, Emission Reduction Measures, and Management Practices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Subpart JJJJJJ of Part 63âWork Practice Standards, Emission Reduction Measures, and Management...the following applicable work practice standards, emission reduction measures, and management...energy management program compatible with ISO 50001 that includes the affected...

2013-07-01

290

75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels. This revised standard...the acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing...the acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction...

2010-10-29

291

75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9113-8] RIN 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur...FR 6698), EPA published emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks...

2010-02-19

292

78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-588-850] Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard...antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard...pipe (over 4 \\1/2\\ inches) (large diameter seamless pipe) from Japan. The...

2013-07-10

293

Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson at LEP2 with the L3 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My thesis topic is the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson at LEP through the process of e+e/sp- annihilation to produce the gauge boson Z0 and the Higgs boson H0/ (e+e/sp-/to Z0H0), with the subsequent decays Z0/to q/bar q and H0/to b/bar b, where q denotes quark and b denotes bottom quark. I use data collected by the L3 detector in 1996. The search for the Higgs boson is one of the most important efforts in experimental high energy physics. In order to generate the masses for all elementary particles, the 'Higgs mechanism' for the breaking of electroweak symmetry is realized in the Standard Model, which is a very successful theory of combined weak and electromagnetic interactions. However, the Higgs mechanism requires the existence of at least one neutral spinless physical particle, the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. The data sample was collected at three centre-of-mass energies, 161.3, 170.3, and 172.3 GeV with integrated luminosities of 10.8, 1.0, and 9.2 pb-1, respectively. The challenge of the Higgs boson search analysis is to reject the large number of background events. Two important analysis techniques were developed and used in this thesis work. One is the b-quark jet tagging algorithm using the high precision particle tracking systems, the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector, and the Time Expansion Chamber. This technique is crucial to separate the Higgs signal from the background, since the Higgs boson decays predominantly into b-quark jets. Another technique is the neural networks approach which is used to help to identify the Higgs event pattern with high efficiency. In contrast to the previous LEP1 Higgs search program, our analysis uses the maximum likelihood fitting method to extract the possible Higgs signature or to set the lower Higgs boson mass limit. My analysis showed no evidence of the Higgs signal in the four-jet channel. In combination with other Standard Model Higgs boson search channels and previous data taken at the Z resonance, a new lower mass limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson, MH > 69.5 GeV, is set at the 95% confidence level.

Xu, Jianguo

1998-06-01

294

Study on Design Standard of Distribution Transformers considering Economic Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No load loss of amorphous transformer (i.e. amorphous metal-based transformer) could be reduced by about 70% compared with traditional transformers (e.g. silicon steel-based transformer). Amorphous transformers have the potential to realize large amount of energy savings and reduction of CO2. However, amorphous transformers have disadvantages of high initial costs and high load loss parameters compared with traditional transformers. In Japan, JIS (Japanese industrial standards) set two regulations about efficiencies of transformers. One is a regulation about amount of total loss at equivalent load factor Pe = 40%, which is made to improve efficiency in actual usage. The other is a regulation about efficiency of rated load (Pe = 100%). Authors propose an optimal design of transformers considering trade-off between the material cost and power loss cost with taking into account the standard in the rated load. Economies of transformers are evaluated in the paper by the sum of the initial cost and the power loss cost. Simulation results show that the two regulations about efficiency of JIS are not reasonable. If there were not the regulation in the rated load, we could design low initial cost and environmentally compatible transformers.

Yamada, Tomoyuki; Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji

295

Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

1995-01-01

296

Math Process Standards Series, Grades PreK-2 [with CD-ROMs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)'s Process Standards support teaching that helps children develop independent, effective mathematical thinking. The books in the Heinemann Math Process Standards Series give every primary teacher the opportunity to explore each standard in depth. With language and examples that don't require…

O'Connell, Susan, Ed.

2007-01-01

297

Standards and Assessment Resource Bank, Version 2.5 [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Colorado "Standards and Assessment Resource Bank" on CD-ROM contains updated information about the Colorado Student Assessment Program, the text of the "Standards-Based Classroom Operator's Manual," and a bank of standards-based units, assessments, and staff development materials submitted by Colorado teachers and school district…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

298

Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling  

SciTech Connect

Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (NO)); Jakobsen, J. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (NO))

1991-08-26

299

Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.

2009-05-01

300

Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed.

Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Lawrence, J.D.; Johnson, G.L.

1996-03-26

301

Limit theory for moderate deviations from a unit root  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymptotic theory is given for autoregressive time series with a root of the form ?n=1+c\\/kn, which represents moderate deviations from unity when (kn)n?N is a deterministic sequence increasing to infinity at a rate slower than n, so that kn=o(n) as n??. For c0, the results provide a nkn rate of convergence and asymptotic normality for the first order serial

Peter Charles Bonest PHILLIPS; Tassos Magadalinos

2007-01-01

302

Outlier Detection Algorithm Based on Local Deviation Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Abstract?Outlier detection is a hot research field in knowledge discovery in databases, such as credit card fraud, and intrusion detection, etc. Finding the rare abnormal,behaviors or the outliers can be more,interesting than finding the common,patterns. This paper proposes a new outlier detection algorithm based on Local Deviation Factor(LDF). This algorithm counts the number of eachpoint’s LDF to reflect its isolation

TAN Qing; ZHANG Rui-ling

2008-01-01

303

Large-deviation properties of resilience of transportation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of the resilience of transport networks are studied numerically, in particular the large-deviation tails. Thus, not only typical quantities like average or variance but the distributions over the (almost) full support can be studied. For a proof of principle, a simple transport model based on the edge-betweenness and three abstract yet widely studied random network ensembles are considered here: Erd?s-Rényi random networks with finite connectivity, small world networks and spatial networks embedded in a two-dimensional plane. Using specific numerical large-deviation techniques, probability densities as small as 10-80 are obtained here. This allows to study typical but also the most and the least resilient networks. The resulting distributions fulfill the mathematical large-deviation principle, i.e., can be well described by rate functions in the thermodynamic limit. The analysis of the limiting rate function reveals that the resilience follows an exponential distribution almost everywhere. An analysis of the structure of the network shows that the most-resilient networks can be obtained, as a rule of thumb, by minimizing the diameter of a network. Also, trivially, by including more links a network can typically be made more resilient. On the other hand, the least-resilient networks are very rare and characterized by one (or few) small core(s) to which all other nodes are connected. In total, the spatial network ensemble turns out to be most suitable for obtaining and studying resilience of real mostly finite-dimensional networks. Studying this ensemble in combination with the presented large-deviation approach for more realistic, in particular dynamic transport networks appears to be very promising.

Hartmann, Alexander K.

2014-05-01

304

Geodesics and geodesic deviation for impulsive gravitational waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the\\u000ageodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the\\u000ametric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of\\u000adistributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the\\u000aDirac $\\\\de$-distribution in the space time metric. Thus, strictly speaking, it\\u000acannot be treated within

Roland Steinbauer

1997-01-01

305

OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

Olsen, Harold, W.

1985-01-01

306

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

307

Human sensorimotor tracking of continuous subliminal deviations from isochrony.  

PubMed

We show that people continuously react to time perturbations in the range 3-96 ms in otherwise isochronous sound sequences. Musically trained and untrained participants were asked to synchronize with a sequence of sounds, and these two groups performed almost equally below the threshold for conscious detection of the perturbations. Above this threshold the motor reactions accounted for a larger proportion of the stimulus deviations in musically trained participants. PMID:15489020

Madison, Guy; Merker, Björn

2004-11-01

308

Photon spectra from beta sources of the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, the Beta Secondary Standard (BSS 2) developed at PTB has been in worldwide use to perform irradiations with calibrated beta sources. In this work, the photon contamination of the reference beta radiation fields was measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer. Both the spectral distribution of the photons and the resulting dose(rate) was deduced from the measurements. The dose due to photons turned out to be about 0.6% for 147Pm sources, 0.5% for 106Ru/106Rh sources, and less than 0.1% for 85Kr and 90Sr/90Y sources compared to the dose due to betas. For 147Pm, 85Kr, and 90Sr/90Y sources, the dominating contribution consists of bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-rays produced in the source encapsulation, while for 106Ru/106Rh sources the gamma emissions from the radionuclides themselves are dominant.

Behrens, R.; Hilgers, G.

2011-09-01

309

Neutral kaon mixing beyond the standard model with nf=2+1 chiral fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators needed for the study of K0-K¯0 mixing beyond the Standard Model (SM). We use nf=2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermion that exhibit good chiral-flavor symmetry. The renormalization is performed nonperturbatively through the RI-MOM scheme and our results are converted perturbatively to MS¯. The computation is performed on a single lattice spacing a˜0.086 with a lightest unitary pion mass of 290 MeV. The various systematic errors, including the discretization effects, are estimated and discussed. Our results confirm a previous quenched study, where large ratios of non-SM to SM matrix elements were obtained.

Boyle, P. A.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R. J.

2012-09-01

310

Visual-evoked cortical potentials in dissociated vertical deviation.  

PubMed

It is debatable whether chiasmatic misrouting of temporal optic-nerve fibers (similar to that found in ocular albinism) is also characteristic of dissociated vertical deviation. Pattern appearance, pattern reversal, and diffuse-flash, monocular full-field visual-evoked cortical potentials were recorded from albino and normal human subjects and subjects with dissociated vertical deviation. Pattern appearance was the most reliable stimulus for evaluating lateralization (albino-type misrouting) in adult albino patients, and diffuse-flash stimulation was almost as reliable in children. Pattern reversal was found to be an unreliable indicator. Lateralization was not evident among patients with dissociated vertical deviation, as determined by the three modes of stimulation. Our data supported earlier findings that pattern appearance is the most appropriate technique to detect lateralization. Our findings differed from those of previous reports in demonstrating that reliability of the lateralization phenomenon increases with age up to approximately 15 years. Pattern reversal stimulation was not reliable in patients with horizontal nystagmus. PMID:1957909

Zubcov, A A; Fendick, M G; Gottlob, I; Wizov, S S; Reinecke, R D

1991-12-15

311

Standard Error of Sample Means  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Richard Lowry of Vassar College, calculates the standard error of a sampling distribution of sample means when users input the mean and standard deviation of the population and the sample size. This is a great interactive resource to help reinforce many statistical theories.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-09

312

Ultrasonographic characterization of follicle deviation in follicular waves with single dominant and codominant follicles in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Follicular wave emergence was synchronized by treating camels with GnRH when a dominant follicle (DF) was present in the ovaries. Animals were scanned twice a day from day 0 (day of GnRH treatment) to day 10, to characterize emergence and deviation of follicles during the development of the follicular wave. Follicle deviation in individual animals was determined by graphical method. Single DFs were found in 16, double DFs in 9 and triple DFs in two camels. The incidence of codominant (double and triple DFs) follicles was 41%. The interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence, wave emergence to deviation, diameter and growth rate of F1 follicle before or after deviation did not differ between the animals with single and double DFs. The size difference between future DF(s) and the largest subordinate follicle (SF) was apparent from the day of wave emergence in single and double DFs. Overall, interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence and wave emergence to the beginning of follicle deviation was 70.6 ± 1.4 and 58.6 ± 2.7 h, respectively. Mean size of the DF and largest SF at the beginning of deviation was 7.4 ± 0.2 and 6.3 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the characteristics of follicle deviation are similar between the animals that developed single or double DFs. PMID:24325149

Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, S; Pratap, N

2014-04-01

313

An international collaboration to standardize HIV-2 viral load assays: results from the 2009 ACHI(E)V(2E) quality control study.  

PubMed

Accurate HIV-2 plasma viral load quantification is crucial for adequate HIV-2 patient management and for the proper conduct of clinical trials and international cohort collaborations. This study compared the homogeneity of HIV-2 RNA quantification when using HIV-2 assays from ACHI(E)V(2E) study sites and either in-house PCR calibration standards or common viral load standards supplied to all collaborators. Each of the 12 participating laboratories quantified blinded HIV-2 samples, using its own HIV-2 viral load assay and standard as well as centrally validated and distributed common HIV-2 group A and B standards (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HelpDocs/subtypes-more.html). Aliquots of HIV-2 group A and B strains, each at 2 theoretical concentrations (2.7 and 3.7 log(10) copies/ml), were tested. Intralaboratory, interlaboratory, and overall variances of quantification results obtained with both standards were compared using F tests. For HIV-2 group A quantifications, overall and interlaboratory and/or intralaboratory variances were significantly lower when using the common standard than when using in-house standards at the concentration levels of 2.7 log(10) copies/ml and 3.7 log(10) copies/ml, respectively. For HIV-2 group B, a high heterogeneity was observed and the variances did not differ according to the type of standard used. In this international collaboration, the use of a common standard improved the homogeneity of HIV-2 group A RNA quantification only. The diversity of HIV-2 group B, particularly in PCR primer-binding regions, may explain the heterogeneity in quantification of this strain. Development of a validated HIV-2 viral load assay that accurately quantifies distinct circulating strains is needed. PMID:21813718

Damond, F; Benard, A; Balotta, Claudia; Böni, Jürg; Cotten, Matthew; Duque, Vitor; Ferns, Bridget; Garson, Jeremy; Gomes, Perpetua; Gonçalves, Fátima; Gottlieb, Geoffrey; Kupfer, Bernd; Ruelle, Jean; Rodes, Berta; Soriano, Vicente; Wainberg, Mark; Taieb, Audrey; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Genevieve; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise

2011-10-01

314

First-Order Inflationary Impact Analysis of the Proposed Standard for 2-Pentanone 29 CFR 1910.93t.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inflationary impact of the proposed OSHA standards for 2-pentanone is analyzed in comparison to predetermined thresholds for six economic criteria: compliance costs, employment, energy usage, productivity, critical materials, and market structure. Sin...

1976-01-01

315

Charge quantization and the Standard Model from the CP2 and CP3 nonlinear ?-models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate charge quantization in the Standard Model (SM) through a CP2 nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), SU(3/(SU(2×U(1), and a CP3 model, SU(4/(SU(3×U(1). We also generalize to any CPk model. Charge quantization follows from the consistency and dynamics of the NLSM, without a monopole or Grand Unified Theory, as shown in our earlier work on the CP1 model (arXiv:1309.0692). We find that representations of the matter fields under the unbroken non-abelian subgroup dictate their charge quantization under the U(1 factor. In the CP2 model the unbroken group is identified with the weak and hypercharge groups of the SM, and the Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB) has the quantum numbers of a SM Higgs. There is the intriguing possibility of a connection with the vanishing of the Higgs self-coupling at the Planck scale. Interestingly, with some minor assumptions (no vector-like matter and minimal representations) and starting with a single quark doublet, anomaly cancellation requires the matter structure of a generation in the SM. Similar analysis holds in the CP3 model, with the unbroken group identified with QCD and hypercharge, and the NGB having the up quark as a partner in a supersymmetric model. This can motivate solving the strong CP problem with a vanishing up quark mass.

Hellerman, Simeon; Kehayias, John; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

2014-04-01

316

Standard Technical Specifications, General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 2, Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3)  

SciTech Connect

This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for General Electric Plants, BWR/4, and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the BWR Owners Group`s proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS.

Not Available

1992-09-01

317

Ephesite, Na(LiAl2) [Al2Si2O10] (OH)2: I. thermal stability and standard state thermodynamic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ephesite, Na(LiAl2) [Al2Si2O10] (OH)2, has been synthesized for the first time by hydrothermal treatment of a gel of requisite composition at 300? T(° C)?700 and P_{H_2 O} upto 35 kbar. At P_{H_2 O} between 7 and 35 kbar and above 500° C, only the 2M1 polytype is obtained. At lower temperatures and pressures, the 1M polytype crystallizes first, which then inverts to the 2M1 polytype with increasing run duration. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the 1M and 2M1 poly types can be indexed unambiguously on the basis of the space groups C2 and Cc, respectively. At its upper thermal stability limit, 2M1 ephesite decomposes according to the reaction (1) 410_2004_Article_BF00380223_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} {text{Na(LiAl}}_{text{2}} {text{) [Al}}_{text{2}} {text{Si}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}_{{text{10}}} {text{] (OH)}}_{text{2}} \\ {text{ephesite}} \\ {text{ = Na[AlSiO}}_{text{4}} {text{] + LiAl[SiO}}_{text{4}} {text{] + }}? {text{ - Al}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}_{text{3}} {text{ + H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}} \\ {text{nepheline }}? {text{ - eucryptite corundum}} \\ Five reversal brackets for (1) have been established experimentally in the temperature range 590 750° C, at P_{H_2 O} between 400 and 2500 bars. The equilibrium constant, K, for this reaction may be expressed as (2) 410_2004_Article_BF00380223_TeX2GIFE2.gif log K{text{ = }}log f_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} O}^* = 7.5217 - 4388/T + 0.0234 (P - 1)T where f_{H_2 O}^* = f_{H_2 O} (P,T)/f_{H_2 O}^0(1, T), with T given in degrees K, and P in bars. Combining these experimental data with known thermodynamic properties of the decomposition products in (1), the following standard state (1 bar, 298.15 K) thermodynamic data for ephesite were calculated: H {f,298.15/0}=-6237372 J/mol, S {298.15/0}=300.455 J/K·mol, G {298.15/0}=-5851994 J/mol, and V {298.15/0}=13.1468 J/bar·mol.

Warhus, Udo; Chatterjee, Niranjan D.

1984-01-01

318

Deviating From the Norm: Body Mass Index (BMI) Differences and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Early Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine whether deviation from one’s ethnic group norm on body mass index (BMI) was related to psychosocial maladjustment among early adolescent girls, and whether specific ethnic groups were more vulnerable to maladjustment.?Methods?Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on self- and peer-report measures from an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls (N = 2,636).?Results?African Americans and Latinas had a higher mean BMI than Asians and Whites. As deviation from their ethnic group BMI norm increased, girls reported greater social anxiety, depression, peer victimization, and lower self-worth, and had lower peer-reported social status. Associations were specific to girls deviating toward obesity status. Ethnic differences revealed that Asian girls deviating toward obesity status were particularly vulnerable to internalizing symptoms.?Conclusions?Emotional maladjustment may be more severe among overweight/obese girls whose ethnic group BMI norm is furthest away from overweight/obesity status. Implications for obesity work with ethnically diverse adolescents were discussed.

Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

2013-01-01

319

Evaluation of Patient Residual Deviation and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Proton Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The residual deviations after final patient repositioning based on bony anatomy and the impact of such deviations on the proton dose distributions was investigated. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kilovoltage (kV) 'portal verification' images from 10 patients treated with passively scattered proton radiotherapy was used to estimate the residual deviation. These changes were then applied to the location of isocenter points that, in effect, moved the isocenter relative to the apertures and compensators. A composite verification plan was obtained and compared with the original clinical treatment plan to evaluate any changes in dose distributions. The residual deviations were fitted to a Gaussian distribution with {mu} = -0.9 {+-} 0.1 mm and {sigma} = 2.55 {+-} 0.07 mm. The dose distribution showed under- and overcovered dose spots with complex dose distributions both in the target volumes and in the organs at risk. In some cases, this amounts to 63.5% above the intended clinical plan. Although patient positioning is carefully verified before treatment delivery and setup uncertainties are accounted for by using compensator smearing and aperture margins, a residual shift in a patient's position can considerably affect the dose distribution.

Arjomandy, Bijan, E-mail: arjomandy_2000@yahoo.com

2011-10-01

320

A rigorous solution concept for geodesic and geodesic deviation equations in impulsive gravitational waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geodesic as well as the geodesic deviation equation for impulsive gravitational waves involve highly singular products of distributions (thetadelta,theta2delta,delta2). A solution concept for these equations based on embedding the distributional metric into the Colombeau algebra of generalized functions is presented. Using a universal regularization procedure we prove existence and uniqueness results and calculate the distributional limits of these solutions

Michael Kunzinger; Roland Steinbauer

1999-01-01

321

Calculated follicle deviation using segmented regression for modeling diameter differences in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmented linear regression alone or in combination with simple linear regression was evaluated as an objective method to calculate the beginning of follicle deviation by modeling the sequential (Experiment 1) and non-sequential or single-point (Experiment 2) differences in diameter between the future dominant (F1) and largest subordinate (F2) follicles of Wave 1 in cattle. The segmented regression consisted of Segment

D. R Bergfelt; L. H Sego; M. A Beg; O. J Ginther

2003-01-01

322

Periodic solutions for Liénard type p-Laplacian equation with two deviating arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Liénard type p-Laplacian equation with two deviating arguments ([phi]p(x'(t)))'+f(x(t))x'(t)+g1(t,x(t-[tau]1(t)))+g2(t,x(t-[tau]2(t)))=e(t) is studied. By applying the coincidence degree theory, we obtain some new results on the existence of periodic solutions to this equation. Our results improve and extend some existing ones in the literature.

Wang, Lijuan; Shao, Jianying; Meng, Hua; Xiao, Bing; Long, Fei

2009-02-01

323

Periodic solutions for a kind of Liénard equation with a deviating argument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Liénard equation with a deviating argument x''(t)+f1(t,x(t))x'(t)+f2(x(t))(x'(t))2+g(t,x(t-[tau](t)))=p(t) is studied. By applying the coincidence degree theory, we obtain some new results on the existence and uniqueness of T-periodic solutions to this equation. Our results improve and extend some existing ones in the literature.

Shao, Jianying; Wang, Lijuan; Yu, Yuehua; Zhou, Jinglei

2009-06-01

324

Standards Organizations  

Cancer.gov

Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.

325

Computing confidence intervals for standardized regression coefficients.  

PubMed

With fixed predictors, the standard method (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003, p. 86; Harris, 2001, p. 80; Hays, 1994, p. 709) for computing confidence intervals (CIs) for standardized regression coefficients fails to account for the sampling variability of the criterion standard deviation. With random predictors, this method also fails to account for the sampling variability of the predictor standard deviations. Nevertheless, under some conditions the standard method will produce CIs with accurate coverage rates. To delineate these conditions, we used a Monte Carlo simulation to compute empirical CI coverage rates in samples drawn from 36 populations with a wide range of data characteristics. We also computed the empirical CI coverage rates for 4 alternative methods that have been discussed in the literature: noncentrality interval estimation, the delta method, the percentile bootstrap, and the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap. Our results showed that for many data-parameter configurations--for example, sample size, predictor correlations, coefficient of determination (R²), orientation of ? with respect to the eigenvectors of the predictor correlation matrix, RX--the standard method produced coverage rates that were close to their expected values. However, when population R² was large and when ? approached the last eigenvector of RX, then the standard method coverage rates were frequently below the nominal rate (sometimes by a considerable amount). In these conditions, the delta method and the 2 bootstrap procedures were consistently accurate. Results using noncentrality interval estimation were inconsistent. In light of these findings, we recommend that researchers use the delta method to evaluate the sampling variability of standardized regression coefficients. PMID:24079926

Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

2013-12-01

326

Drilling highly deviated wells in Umm Shaif field: problems and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, ADMA-OPCO, started mainly drilling highly deviated wells in Umm Shaif field for development and reservoir reasons. To achieve this objective and to overcome drilling difficulties, more refined techniques have been used, namely: The use of hole cleaning and stiff 17 1/2'' bottom hole assemblies, in addition to non rotating sleeve stabilizers, which reduces lost time in 17 1/2'' phase; Turbodrilling using hydraulic stratapax bits to enable setting 9 5/8'' casing in base of Thamama V; and Turbodrilling short section of the 8 1/2'' phase which eliminates the problems in this section and cuts short most of the completion and testing difficulties. The application of the above techniques has led to ADMA-OPCO successfully drilling highly deviated wells with minimum time and low cost.

Aggour, S.B.; Rouatbi, R.

1985-03-01

327

Standardization versus Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines differences between old state-designed norm-referenced tests and new tests aligned with the curriculum. Concludes that new state tests are very similar to old ones. Discusses impact of new high-stakes standardized tests on students and teachers. Argues the new wave of standardized testing is not the answer to improving student…

Meier, Deborah

2002-01-01

328

Genomic predictors of the maximal O2 uptake response to standardized exercise training programs  

PubMed Central

Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful predictor of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In 473 sedentary adults, all whites, from 99 families of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, the heritability of gains in maximal O2 uptake (V?o2max) after exposure to a standardized 20-wk exercise program was estimated at 47%. A genome-wide association study based on 324,611 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken to identify SNPs associated with improvements in V?o2max Based on single-SNP analysis, 39 SNPs were associated with the gains with P < 1.5 × 10?4. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of the 39 SNPs identified a panel of 21 SNPs that accounted for 49% of the variance in V?o2max trainability. Subjects who carried ?9 favorable alleles at these 21 SNPs improved their V?o2max by 221 ml/min, whereas those who carried ?19 of these alleles gained, on average, 604 ml/min. The strongest association was with rs6552828, located in the acyl-CoA synthase long-chain member 1 (ACSL1) gene, which accounted by itself for ?6% of the training response of V?o2max. The genes nearest to the SNPs that were the strongest predictors were PR domain-containing 1 with ZNF domain (PRDM1); glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-d-aspartate 3A (GRIN3A); K+ channel, voltage gated, subfamily H, member 8 (KCNH8); and zinc finger protein of the cerebellum 4 (ZIC4). The association with the SNP nearest to ZIC4 was replicated in 40- to 65-yr-old, sedentary, overweight, and dyslipidemic subjects trained in Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention Through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE; n = 183). Two SNPs were replicated in sedentary obese white women exercise trained in the Dose Response to Exercise (DREW) study (n = 112): rs1956197 near dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) and rs17117533 in the vicinity of necdin (NDN). The association of SNPs rs884736 in the calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) locus and rs17581162 ?68 kb upstream from regulator of G protein signaling 18 (RGS18) with the gains in V?o2max in HERITAGE whites were replicated in HERITAGE blacks (n = 247). These genomic predictors of the response of V?o2max to regular exercise provide new targets for the study of the biology of fitness and its adaptation to regular exercise. Large-scale replication studies are warranted.

Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rice, Treva K.; Kraus, William E.; Church, Timothy S.; Sung, Yun Ju; Rao, D. C.; Rankinen, Tuomo

2011-01-01

329

Standards and Regulations on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). Part 2: Military and Special Industrial Standards, Regulations, and Reccomendations International and National Standards, Regulations, and Recommendations on Electrical Interference and Susceptibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of existing standards and regulations on electric interference in various countries is presented. Military and special industrial standards covering most of the developed countries are included.

P. Krebs

1978-01-01

330

National Skill Standards for Advanced High Performance Manufacturing. Version 2.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents and discusses the national skill standards for advanced high-performance manufacturing that were developed during a project that was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction explains the need for national skill standards. Discussed in the next three sections are the following: benefits of national…

National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

331

Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex

W. Steven; Carl Lundin

2005-01-01

332

Galaxy distances and deviations from the Hubble flow - Summary remarks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is presented of the issues addressed by the papers delivered at this conference. Papers addressing classical cosmological topics, including the distances to nearby objects, the intermediate scale distance determination, the local peculiar velocity, the local Hubble constant and other age parameters, and the density parameter from Virgo infall are reviewed. Papers discussing new cosmological developments, including large-scale inhomogeneities, large-scale deviations from Hubble flow, and the origin of the velocity and density inhomogeneities are briefly summarized. Prospects for the next 10 years are examined.

Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1986-01-01

333

Standard random number generation for MBASIC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A machine-independent algorithm is presented and analyzed for generating pseudorandom numbers suitable for the standard MBASIC system. The algorithm used is the polynomial congruential or linear recurrence modulo 2 method. Numbers, formed as nonoverlapping adjacent 28-bit words taken from the bit stream produced by the formula a sub m + 532 = a sub m + 37 + a sub m (modulo 2), do not repeat within the projected age of the solar system, show no ensemble correlation, exhibit uniform distribution of adjacent numbers up to 19 dimensions, and do not deviate from random runs-up and runs-down behavior.

Tausworthe, R. C.

1976-01-01

334

Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

1993-01-01

335

Deviations from the local field approximation in negative streamer heads  

SciTech Connect

Negative streamer ionization fronts in nitrogen under normal conditions are investigated both in a particle model and in a fluid model in local field approximation. The parameter functions for the fluid model are derived from swarm experiments in the particle model. The front structure on the inner scale is investigated in a one-dimensional setting, allowing reasonable run time and memory consumption and high numerical accuracy without introducing superparticles. If the reduced electric field immediately before the front is {<=}50 kV/(cm bar), solutions of fluid and particle model agree very well. If the field increases up to 200 kV/(cm bar), the solutions of particle and fluid model deviate, in particular, the ionization level behind the front becomes up to 60% higher in the particle model while the velocity is rather insensitive. Particle and fluid model deviate because electrons with high energies do not yet fully run away from the front, but are somewhat ahead. This leads to increasing ionization rates in the particle model at the very tip of the front. The energy overshoot of electrons in the leading edge of the front actually agrees quantitatively with the energy overshoot in the leading edge of an electron swarm or avalanche in the same electric field.

Li Chao; Brok, W. J. M.; Ebert, Ute; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M. [Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2007-06-15

336

Recent stability comparisons with the JPL linear trapped ion frequency standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 199Hg+ research frequency standards LITS-1 and LITS-2 were developed to provide continuous, reliable, high stability performance. For simplicity, a 202Hg lamp is used for state selection and a helium buffer gas for ion cooling. In a preliminary 9 day comparison between the trapped ion standards, the Allan deviation was ?y(?)=1×10-13\\/?1\\/2 and a fractional frequency stability of 6×10-16 measured for

R. L. Tjoelker; J. D. Prestage; G. J. Dick; L. Maleki

1994-01-01

337

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

338

Electroweak ZZjj production in the Standard Model and beyond in the POWHEG-BOX V2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an implementation of electroweak ZZjj production in the POWHEG BOX V2 framework, an upgrade of the POWHEG BOX program which includes a number of new features that are particularly helpful for high-multiplicity processes. We consider leptonic and semi-leptonic decay modes of the Z bosons, and take non-resonant contributions and spin correlations of the final-state particles into account. In the case of decays to leptons, we also include interactions beyond the Standard Model that arise from an effective Lagrangian which includes CP conserving and violating operators up to dimension six. We find that while leptonic distributions are very sensitive to anomalous couplings, because of the small cross-section involved, these analyses are feasible only after a high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC. We consider the cases of a 14 TeV, 33 TeV and 100 TeV machine and discuss the limits that can be placed on those couplings for different luminosities.

Jäger, Barbara; Karlberg, Alexander; Zanderighi, Giulia

2014-03-01

339

Deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing and large reactor mixing angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations for a non-zero ?13 have come from various experiments. We study a model of lepton mixing with a 2-3 flavor symmetry to accommodate the sizable ?13 measurement. In this work, we derive deviations from the tri-bimaximal (TBM) pattern arising from breaking the flavor symmetry in the neutrino sector, while the charged leptons contribution has been discussed in a previous work. Contributions from both sectors towards accommodating the non-zero ?13 measurement are presented.

Rashed, Ahmed

2013-09-01

340

DEVIATIONS FROM THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT RELATIONS DURING EARLY GALAXY EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

We utilize detailed time-varying models of the coupled evolution of stars and the H I, H{sub 2}, and CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phases in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to explore the evolution of gas-rich and/or metal-poor systems, which are expected to be numerous in the early universe. The inclusion of the CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phase and the realistic rendering of star formation as an H{sub 2}-regulated process (and the new feedback processes that this entails) allow the most realistic tracking of strongly evolving galaxies and much better comparison with observations. We find that while galaxies eventually settle into states conforming to the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) relations, significant and systematic deviations of their star formation rates (SFRs) from the latter occur, and are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such deviations occur for gas-rich galaxies during not only the early evolutionary stages but also during brief periods at later stages. Given that gas-rich and/or metal-poor states of present-epoch galaxies are expected in the early universe while a much larger number of mergers frequently reset non-isolated systems to gas-rich states, even brief periods of sustained deviations of their SFRs from those expected from the S-K relations may come to characterize significant periods of their stellar mass built-up. This indicates potentially serious limitations of S-K-type relations as reliable sub-grid elements of star formation physics in simulations of structure formation in the early universe. We anticipate that galaxies with marked deviations from the S-K relations will be found at high redshifts as unbiased inventories of total gas mass become possible with ALMA and the EVLA.

Papadopoulos, Padelis P. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Pelupessy, Federico I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2010-07-10

341

Analyses of surgically induced astigmatism and axis deviation in microcoaxial phacoemulsification.  

PubMed

To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and axis deviation after coaxial microincision superotemporal clear corneal phacoemulsification incision in eyes with differently located steep axis. This prospective, comparative study included four groups of 45 eyes with age-related cataracts; each group underwent 2.2-mm superotemporal clear corneal incision (CCI) cataract surgery. The four groups of patients were divided by location of the steep axis. Groups were matched according to symmetry of the steep axis for both right and left eyes as follows-0°-45° of steep axis for right eyes, and 136°-180° for left eyes (group 1); 46°-90° for right eyes and 91°-135° for left eyes (group 2); 91°-135° for right eyes and 46°-90° for left eyes (group 3); and 136°-180° for right eyes and 0°-45° for left eyes (group 4). Outcome measures included changes in mean total astigmatism, SIA, and axis deviation. Astigmatism was measured by manual keratometry readings before surgery and week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12 postoperatively. SIA was calculated by the vector analysis (Holladay-Cravy-Koch method). The magnitude of mean total astigmatism was lowest in group 3 and highest in group 1 at week 12. SIA was 0.39 diopters (D), 0.22 D, 0.17 D, and 0.28 D in group 1, group 2, group 3, and group 4, respectively. The change in astigmatic axis deviation was highest in group 3 (23.6 ± 16.6) (P < 0.05). Axis deviation and SIA were stable after week 4. Planning of CCI on or near the steep axis can help decrease corneal astigmatism. PMID:24081915

Ozyol, Erhan; Ozyol, Pelin

2014-06-01

342

29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...of the Act and of specific safety and health standards...ranch, bank, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health...

2011-07-01

343

29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...of the Act and of specific safety and health standards...ranch, bank, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health...

2012-07-01

344

29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...of the Act and of specific safety and health standards...ranch, bank, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative...furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health...

2010-07-01

345

Standard Technical Specifications Westinghouse Plants, Revision 4.0. Volume 2, Bases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. The changes reflected in Revision 4 result from the experience gained from plant operation using the improved STS and extensive public technical meetings and...

2012-01-01

346

Development of Proposed Standard Test Method for Spray Painting Transfer Efficiency. Volume 2. Verification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently u...

K. C. Kennedy

1988-01-01

347

Development of Minimum Physical Fitness Standards for the Canadian Armed Forces. Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken to continue development of physical fitness standards commensurate with satisfactory performance of identified common military tasks. In the present phase, MPFS II, several of the common tasks were, with permission of the CF, sub...

G. M. Andrew J. M. Stevenson J. M. Thomson J. T. Bryant S. L. French

1987-01-01

348

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dddddd... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for an affected source producing this type of PVC resin . . . You must meet this emissionlimit . . . PVC-only process vents a Vinyl chloride All...per dry standard cubic meter (ng/dscm). PVC-combined process vents a Vinyl...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (i) [Reserved] (ii) Non-methane hydrocarbons: 0.32 grams per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 4.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles which have no standard....

2013-07-01

350

Current activities of ISO TC229/WG2 on purity evaluation and quality assurance standards for carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The current standardization activities of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TC229 on "Nanotechnology" are introduced with focus on the work of WG2 (Working Group 2) for "measurement and characterization". Seven project groups of WG2 are actively preparing standard protocols (technical specifications) for characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by measurement methods such as TEM (transmission electron microscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) absorption spectroscopy, NIR-photoluminescence spectroscopy, EGA (evolved gas analysis)-GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), and Raman spectroscopy; this work is described. The features of purity evaluation of SWCNTs by these methods are also briefly described and compared. Also described are two project groups of WG2 that are preparing standard protocols for characterization of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs), aiming at the purity control by measurement of moisture content, ash content, metallic constituents, volatile content, polyaromatic hydrocarbon content, and carbon materials excluding MWCNTs. Other important properties for characterization of MWCNT, for example disorder, burning property, stacking nature, length, morphology, and inner/outer diameter, etc., are also mentioned. Finally, the importance and urgency of standardization for potential risk assessment of CNTs is briefly described, and current joint activity of ISO TC229 WG2 and WG3 for physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoscale materials for toxicological assessment is introduced. PMID:19894038

Ichimura, Shingo

2010-02-01

351

Multiple Higgs and vector boson production beyond the Standard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the electroweak symmetry breaking is originated from a strongly coupled sector, as for instance in composite Higgs models, the Higgs boson couplings can deviate from their Standard Model values. In such cases, at sufficiently high energies there could occur an onset of multiple Higgs boson and longitudinally polarised electroweak gauge boson ( V L ) production. We study the sensitivity to anomalous Higgs couplings in inelastic processes with 3 and 4 particles (either Higgs bosons or V L 's) in the final state. We show that, due to the more severe cancellations in the corresponding amplitudes as compared to the usual 2 ? 2 processes, large enhancements with respect to the Standard Model can arise even for small modifications of the Higgs couplings. In particular, we find that triple Higgs production provides the best multiparticle channel to look for these deviations. We briefly explore the consequences of multiparticle production at the LHC.

Belyaev, A.; Oliveira, A. C. A.; Rosenfeld, R.; Thomas, M. C.

2013-05-01

352

Standard Technical Specifications, General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 2, Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3)  

SciTech Connect

This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for General Electric Plants, BWR/6, and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the B&W Owners Group`s proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

Not Available

1992-09-01

353

Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS.

NONE

1995-04-01

354

Patterns of Consistency and Deviation in Therapists' Countertransference Feelings  

PubMed Central

The author addressed the question of consistency in psychotherapists' countertransference feelings. Research findings have indicated that the therapist's own personal feeling style may be more important than the patient's impact on the therapist's feelings. In this study, the feelings of 9 psychotherapists toward 28 patients were followed by using checklist self-report after each session during moderately long psychotherapies. ANOVAs and discriminant analyses showed that the therapists were very consistent in their feeling style over different patients and over time. The consistency in feelings toward the individual patients was smaller. Deviations from consistency are analyzed, and their importance for the understanding of different aspects of the countertransference is discussed. It is suggested that a meaningful use of the countertransference concept ought to be based on systematic identifications of recurrent and deviant patterns in the therapist's reactions.

Holmqvist, Rolf

2001-01-01

355

The Effects of Standard Model Extensions on W-Boson Helicity Ratios in Top Quark Decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we investigate the contributions which W boson helicity fractions in top quark decay receive from a two-Higgs doublet model, a top-color assisted technicolor (TC2) and the noncommutative extension of the Standard Model. It is shown that the deviations coming from these models are much less than the experimental sensitivity in measurement of the helicity fractions.

Etesami, S. M.; Khatiri Yanehsari, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.

2012-12-01

356

Frequency and Predictors of Patient Deviation from Prescribed Opioids and Barriers to Opioid Pain Management in Patients with Advanced Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Approximately 80% of patients with advanced cancer report pain and receive opioids. Information is limited about deviations from prescribed opioid doses and barriers to pain control, but poor opioid adherence has been reported in 49%–70% of patients. Objectives To evaluate the frequency and severity of self-reported opioid deviation and barriers to opioid pain management in outpatients with advanced cancer. Methods We surveyed 198 patients and collected pain scores (0–10), prescribed opioid dose, confidential patient-reported opioid prescription dose and intake (as long as there was no severe opioid deviation), barriers to pain management (Barriers Questionnaire-II [BQ-II]) scores, and adherence scores. Opioid deviation was defined as <70% or >130% of the prescribed dose. Results Median patient age was 55 years; 91 (46%) were female. Median pain intensity and morphine equivalent daily dose were 4 (interquartile range [IQR]=3–7) and 120 mg (IQR=45–270mg), respectively. Prescribed and patient-reported prescribed doses were highly correlated for regular (r=0.90, P<0.001) and regular plus breakthrough opioid intake (r=0.94, P<0.001). Nineteen (9.6%) patients deviated. Deviation was more frequent in males (P=0.039) and non-Whites (P=0.0270). Non-White patients had higher scores on the BQ-II than White patients (P=0.038). Low adherence scores were significantly associated with higher BQ-II scores (1.99±0.80) for lower motivation score vs. 1.61±0.77 for higher score, P=0.007; and 2.13±0.79 for lower knowledge score vs. 1.57±0.72 for higher score, P=0.001. Conclusion Very few patients reported dose deviations, which were mostly towards lower dose. More research is necessary to better characterize the frequency and predictors of opioid deviation in this population.

Nguyen, Linh M.T.; Rhondali, Wadih; De la Cruz, Maxine; Hui, David; Palmer, J. Lynn; Kang, Duck-Hee; Parsons, Henrique A.; Bruera, Eduardo

2013-01-01

357

[The methodology for the rapid experimental validation of hygienic standards for xenobiotics in different environments (2)].  

PubMed

Based on standards set up in the 1990s correlation and regression analyses were performed of relationship between maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of xenobiotics in the air of the working environment and their MPCs in the atmospheric air, water bodies (with these being recognized as health hazard from hygienic-and-toxicological standpoints) or allowable diurnal dose. Highly reliable equations of regression were obtained that rely on preliminary determination of safe level of exposure in the air of the working environment and oral-and-inhalation coefficient on the level of standards set up by results of acute and subacute experiments. PMID:9589923

Hzhehots'ky?, M R; Shtabs'ky?, B M; Fedorenko, V I; Rubl'ov, D Iu

1997-01-01

358

Adaptive Behaviors of Experts in Following Standard Protocol in Trauma Management: Implications for Developing Flexible Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts’ well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to “learn” from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees.

Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L.

2012-01-01

359

Adaptive behaviors of experts in following standard protocol in trauma management: implications for developing flexible guidelines.  

PubMed

Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts' well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to "learn" from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees. PMID:23304421

Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L

2012-01-01

360

Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

Wu, Andy

1995-01-01

361

Predicted and verified deviations from Zipf's law in ecology of competing products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zipf’s power-law distribution is a generic empirical statistical regularity found in many complex systems. However, rather than universality with a single power-law exponent (equal to 1 for Zipf’s law), there are many reported deviations that remain unexplained. A recently developed theory finds that the interplay between (i) one of the most universal ingredients, namely stochastic proportional growth, and (ii) birth and death processes, leads to a generic power-law distribution with an exponent that depends on the characteristics of each ingredient. Here, we report the first complete empirical test of the theory and its application, based on the empirical analysis of the dynamics of market shares in the product market. We estimate directly the average growth rate of market shares and its standard deviation, the birth rates and the “death” (hazard) rate of products. We find that temporal variations and product differences of the observed power-law exponents can be fully captured by the theory with no adjustable parameters. Our results can be generalized to many systems for which the statistical properties revealed by power-law exponents are directly linked to the underlying generating mechanism.

Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki

2011-08-01

362

Particle dynamics and deviation effects in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some strong field effects on test particle motion associated with the propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in the exact theory of general relativity are investigated. Two different profiles of the associated radiation flux are considered in comparison, corresponding to either constant or oscillating electric and magnetic fields with respect to a natural family of observers. These are the most common situations to be experimentally explored, and have a well known counterpart in the flat spacetime limit. The resulting line elements are determined by a single metric function, which turns out to be expressed in terms of standard trigonometric functions in the case of a constant radiation flux, and in terms of special functions in the case of an oscillating flux, leading to different features of test particle motion. The world line deviation between both uncharged and charged particles on different spacetime trajectories due to the combined effect of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is studied. The interaction of charged particles with the background radiation field is also discussed through a general relativistic description of the inverse Compton effect. Motion as well as deviation effects on particles endowed with spin are studied too. Special situations may occur in which the direction of the spin vector changes during the interaction, leading to observable effects like spin flip.

Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Haney, Maria; Ortolan, Antonello

2014-05-01

363

Study of the 2H(alpha ,gamma)6Li nuclear reaction producing 6Li in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2H(alpha ,gamma )6Li reaction dominates the production of lithium-6 in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Due to its exceedingly low cross section, this reaction has never been studied experimentally at the relevant energies, and consequently the adopted reaction rate depends on uncertain extrapolations. A direct study of the 2H(alpha ,gamma )6Li cross section is currently underway at the LUNA 400 kV accelerator, located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy. The expected data lie directly at big-bang energies. It is hoped that they help constrain non-standard lithium-6 production scenarios, by putting the standard Big Bang production on a solid experimental footing.

Anders, Michael; Bemmerer, Daniel; Gustavino, Carlo; LUNA Collaboration

364

Generalized Riccati equations for the full- and reduced-order mixed-norm H2\\/H? standard problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the mixed-norm H2\\/Hoo standard problem. Specifically, an LQG control design problem involving a constraint on H~ disturbance attenuation is addressed. It is shown that the H2\\/H~o dynamic compensator gains are completely characterized via coupled Riccati\\/Lyapunov equations. The principal result involves sufficient conditions for characterizing full- and reduced-order controllers that satisfy bounds on both H 2 and H~

Wassim M. HADDAD; Dennis S. BERNSTEIN

1990-01-01

365

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

366

P2P-8 Characterization Standard of CMUT Devices Based on Electrical Impedance Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for an electrical impedance characterization standard in air of CMUTs was reported. The electromechanical coupling factor was calculated by the low and high frequency capacity and the resonance and antiresonance frequencies measurements. The CMUT will be able to analyze and compared in terms of effective spring and mass with 1D model. The 1D model described the general behavior

Franck TESTON; Cyril Meynier; Edgard Jeanne; Nicolas Felix; Dominique Certon

2006-01-01

367

Software architecture standard for simulation virtual machine, version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Virtual Machine (SBM) is an Ada architecture which eases the effort involved in the real-time software maintenance and sustaining engineering. The Software Architecture Standard defines the infrastructure which all the simulation models are built from. SVM was developed for and used in the Space Station Verification and Training Facility.

Sturtevant, Robert; Wessale, William

1994-01-01

368

Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

369

Bridging the Opportunity Gap: How Washington Elementary Schools Are Meeting Achievement Standards. Research Report #2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4th and 7th grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) scores for the past several years have indicated that the percentage of students meeting the new higher standards is not satisfactory, although improvement is being shown every year. There are indications, however, that while some elementary and middle/junior high schools are…

Washington School Research Center, 2002

2002-01-01

370

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SAMPLE AND DATA CUSTODY (SOP-2.26)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for handling sample custody. A standardized Chain-of-Custody (CoC) Record is used to document the sample/data custody. Each participant is assigned one CoC Record for the samples/data collected at their home and/or day care center. ...

371

Diesel Exhaust Standard. Phase 2: CRC Project No. AVFL-10b.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the second phase of an effort to develop a standard diesel exhaust which may be used in the future development of diesel exhaust aftertreatment. Phase I consisted of a literature review and creation of a database of engine-out diesel ...

E. R. Fanick

2005-01-01

372

Realizing the Potential of Information Resources: Information, Technology, and Services. Track 2: Policies and Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven papers and one abstract of a paper are presented from the 1995 CAUSE conference track on policies and standards issues faced by managers of information technology at colleges and universities. The papers include: (1) "University/College Information System Structures and Policies: Do They Make a Difference? An Initial Assessment" (Bruce…

CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

373

Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach. Student Workbook. Module 1: Orientation; Module 2: Biographic Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts in spoken Standard Chinese were developed to improve and update Chinese materials to reflect current usage in Beijing and Taipei. The focus is on communicating in Chinese in practical situations. The overall course is organized into 10 modules, student workbooks, and resource modules. This workbook covers the orientation and biographic…

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

374

Avoiding the Pitfalls: A Comprehensive Approach to Meeting NCATE's Standard 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Education recognizes the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) as an accrediting body for colleges and universities that prepare educators for P-12 schools (Leibbrand, 2006). To receive NCATE accreditation colleges and universities must meet each of NCATE's six standards for high quality educator…

Schulte, Laura; Danielson, Lana; Conway, David; Clark, Paul

2006-01-01

375

36 CFR 1150.2 - Applicability: Buildings and facilities subject to guidelines and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...August 12, 1968, if the building or facility may be subject to standards for design, construction, or... (d) Any covered building or facility, as provided...is applicable to the building or facility, shall...of this section, any design, construction,...

2013-07-01

376

"The Program Evaluation Standards": How to Assess Evaluations of Educational Programs, 2nd Edition [Book Review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Program Evaluation Standards" supplies a useful framework for generating questions to raise about any evaluation plan or evaluation report to assess its pros and cons. It is a valuable "how-to" for graduate students and professionals. This second edition incorporates changes in the field in the last decade. (SLD)

Fournier, Deborah M.

1994-01-01

377

Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database. The results can be used to link regional comparisons to this CCM key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

2013-01-01

378

Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

Luaute, Jacques; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; O'Shea, Jacinta; Christophe, Laure; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Rossetti, Yves

2012-01-01

379

N2/O2/H2 Dual-Pump Cars: Validation Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method is used to measure temperature and the relative species densities of N2, O2 and H2 in two experiments. Average values and root-mean-square (RMS) deviations are determined. Mean temperature measurements in a furnace containing air between 300 and 1800 K agreed with thermocouple measurements within 26 K on average, while mean mole fractions agree to within 1.6 % of the expected value. The temperature measurement standard deviation averaged 64 K while the standard deviation of the species mole fractions averaged 7.8% for O2 and 3.8% for N2, based on 200 single-shot measurements. Preliminary measurements have also been performed in a flat-flame burner for fuel-lean and fuel-rich flames. Temperature standard deviations of 77 K were measured, and the ratios of H2 to N2 and O2 to N2 respectively had standard deviations from the mean value of 12.3% and 10% of the measured ratio.

OByrne, S.; Danehy, P. M.; Cutler, A. D.

2003-01-01

380

Possible deviations in. tau. polarization in e sup minus e sup + r arrow. tau. sup minus. tau. sup + due to exotic-lepton mixing  

SciTech Connect

The {tau} polarization {ital P}{sub {tau}}({ital s},cos{theta}) as a function of the production polar angle {theta}, the mean {tau} polarization in the forward hemisphere {l angle}{ital P}{sub {tau}}({ital s}){r angle}{sub {ital F}}, and the total mean {tau} polarization {l angle}{ital P}{sub {tau}}({ital s}){r angle}{sub {ital T}} in the process {ital e}{sup {minus}}{ital e}{sup +}{r arrow}{tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +} are reexamined with the inclusion of mixing between ordinary ({ital l}={ital e},{tau}) and exotic ({ital E}{sub {ital l}}) leptons of type (i) vector singlet (VS), (ii) vector doublet (VD), and (iii) mirror (M) for c.m. energies around the {ital Z} peak. For {radical}{ital s} {similar to}{ital M}{sub {ital Z}}, the deviations from standard-model expectations are much less for the M lepton mixing in comparison to those due to the VS or VD lepton mixing. Around the {ital Z} peak, the VS (VD) mixing induces negative (positive) deviations. At {radical}{ital s} ={ital M}{sub {ital Z}}, for the presently allowed mixing element square, {vert bar}{ital U}{sub {tau}{ital E}{tau}}{vert bar}{sup 2}=0.02, the expected relative deviations are (i) {minus}11.4% (+13.0%) in {ital P}{sub {tau}}(cos{theta}=0.75), (ii) {minus}11.8% (+13.5%) in {l angle}{ital P}{sub {tau}}({ital s}){r angle}{sub {ital F}}, and (iii) {minus}23.2% (+27.0%) in {l angle}{ital P}{sub {tau}}({ital s}){r angle}{sub {ital T}}, for VS (VD) types of mixed exotic leptons.

Singh, S.; Parashari, R.K.; Sharma, N.K. (Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India))

1990-12-01

381

Early recurrence in standard-risk medulloblastoma patients with the common idic(17)(p11.2) rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is diagnosed histologically; treatment depends on staging and age of onset. Whereas clinical factors identify a standard- and a high-risk population, these findings cannot differentiate which standard-risk patients will relapse and die. Outcome is thought to be influenced by tumor subtype and molecular alterations. Poor prognosis has been associated with isochromosome (i)17q in some but not all studies. In most instances, molecular investigations document that i17q is not a true isochromosome but rather an isodicentric chromosome, idic(17)(p11.2), with rearrangement breakpoints mapping within the REPA/REPB region on 17p11.2. This study explores the clinical utility of testing for idic(17)(p11.2) rearrangements using an assay based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). This test was applied to 58 consecutive standard- and high-risk medulloblastomas with a 5-year minimum of clinical follow-up. The presence of i17q (ie, including cases not involving the common breakpoint), idic(17)(p11.2), and histologic subtype was correlated with clinical outcome. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were consistent with literature reports. Fourteen patients (25%) had i17q, with 10 (18%) involving the common isodicentric rearrangement. The presence of i17q was associated with a poor prognosis. OS and DFS were poor in all cases with anaplasia (4), unresectable disease (7), and metastases at presentation (10); however, patients with standard-risk tumors fared better. Of these 44 cases, tumors with idic(17)(p11.2) were associated with significantly worse patient outcomes and shorter mean DFS. FISH detection of idic(17)(p11.2) may be useful for risk stratification in standard-risk patients. The presence of this abnormal chromosome is associated with early recurrence of medulloblastoma.

Bien-Willner, Gabriel A.; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Bhattacharjee, Meena B.; Patel, Kayuri U.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R.; Pfeifer, John D.; Perry, Arie

2012-01-01

382

Relative Efficacy of Prevention Counseling With Rapid and Standard HIV Testing: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (RESPECT2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Two risk-reduction counseling sessions can prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, return rates for test results are low. Study: A randomized, controlled trial compared rapid HIV testing and counseling in 1 visit with standard HIV testing and counseling in 2 visits. Main outcomes were STDs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomo- niasis, syphilis, HIV) within 12 months. Participants were 15- to 39-

Carol A. Metcalf; John M. Douglas; C Kevin Malotte; Helene Cross; Beth A. Dillon; Sindy M. Paul; Suzanne M. Padilla; Lesley C. Brookes; Catherine A. Lindsey; Robert H. Byers; Thomas A. Peterman

2005-01-01

383

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

Keeling, Joyce

2005-01-01

384

Expanding Children's Geographic World. Grade 1 Model Lesson for Standard 2. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To complete Standard 2 of the California History-Social Science Framework, first-grade students must learn to use and construct maps and consider how location, weather, and physical environments affect the way people live. Students develop basic geographic skills by focusing first on their school and then on their neighborhood. The 6-year-old…

Curtis, Mary Clair; Roth, Patsy; Porter, Priscilla

385

Age of Exploration. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.2. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 5.2 is delineated as: Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas. The Age of Exploration, which began in the late 1400s, was an important era in the discovery and development of land yet unknown to Europeans. During this period, Europeans sought new sea routes to Asia…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

386

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

387

Standard Model Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an overview of Standard Model Higgs boson studies performed at the CDF and Dzero experiments at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Combining the results of many individual analyses, most of which use the full data set available, an excess with a significance of 3.0 standard deviations with respect to the Standard Model hypothesis is observed at a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV/$c^2$. At that mass, the combined best-fit cross section is consistent with the Standard Model prediction. Constraints are also placed on the Higgs boson couplings with fermions and electroweak vector bosons and are consistent with the Standard Model predictions within the uncertainties.

Knoepfel, Kyle J.

2014-03-01

388

Screening INR deviation of local prothrombin time systems.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the reliability of local international normalised ratios (INR) using a set of three international reference preparation (IRP) certified freeze dried plasmas. METHODS: 55 centres in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland participated; 36 centres employed coagulometers and 19 a manual prothrombin time technique, all with the same batch of routine commercial thromboplastin. The plasmas had certified INR with the manual technique using a thromboplastin IRP, and results were provided graphically to participants for self assessment. An INR deviation of more than +/- 10% from the certified INR with any of the screening plasmas was regarded as unsatisfactory and clinically significant. Sets of 20 freeze dried plasmas were provided for local ISI calibrations and sets of seven freeze dried normals were provided for supplementary exercises where screening results were unsatisfactory. RESULTS: 15 of 38 coagulometers, but only three of the 19 manual prothrombin time test techniques, gave unsatisfactory results. With 10 of the 15 unsatisfactory coagulometer results the problem was resolved by local ISI calibrations with plasma calibrant sets provided. Unsatisfactory results with manual technique in all four instances were corrected by substitution of the mean result with freeze dried normal plasmas provided. CONCLUSIONS: The freeze dried plasma screening set was useful in detecting incorrect INR in a high proportion of coagulometer users and a smaller number of participants using the manual technique.

Poller, L

1998-01-01

389

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems.  

PubMed

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network. PMID:24827272

Bressloff, Paul C; Newby, Jay M

2014-04-01

390

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

2014-04-01

391

Solar energy and renewable resources in relation to the 11 PURPA standards. Guideline No. 2  

SciTech Connect

On June 20, 1979, the President directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and publish within 120 days a voluntary guideline, applying specifically to solar energy and renewable resources, for the ratemaking and other regulatory policy standards established under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). On October 12, 1979, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Notice of Proposed Voluntary Guideline and Public Hearings for Solar Energy and Renewable Resources Respecting the Federal Standards Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) (44 FR 60236, October 18, 1979). This Notice summarizes in the Preamble the public comments DOE received and presents the voluntary guideline in its final form as the Appendix hereto.

None

1980-02-01

392

Critical Factors Influencing Hospitals’ Adoption of HL7 Version 2 Standards: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data\\u000a to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the interchange of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies\\u000a communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting\\u000a HL7 are well known, only a few

Chi-Hung Lin; I-Chun Lin; Jin-Sheng Roan; Jehn-Shan Yeh

393

Global standardization of glycated hemoglobin measurement: the position of the IFCC Working Group1),2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of glycated hemoglobin is central in the monitoring of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. There are at least 30 different laboratory assays commercially available to measure the pro- portion of HbA1c in blood. In 1995 the IFCC estab- lished a Working Group (IFCC WG-HbA1c) to achieve international standardization of HbA1c measurement. The main achievements can be summarized

Andrea Mosca; Ian Goodall; Tadao Hoshino; Jan O. Jeppsson; W. Garry John; Randie R. Little; Kor Miedema; Gary L. Myers; Hans Reinauer; David B. Sacks

2007-01-01

394

2 Gbps SerDes design based on IBM Cu11 (130nm) standard cell technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a standard cell based design for a Serializer and Deserializer (SerDes) communication link. The proposed design is area, power and design time efficient as compared to conventional SerDes Designs, making it very attractive for modest budget multi-core and multi-processor ASICs with wide communication buses that are difficult to accommodate within the pin count of commonly available packaging.

Rashed Zafar Bhatti; Monty Denneau; Jeff Draper

2006-01-01

395

Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope�������® and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope�������® were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought DSS and tested per ASTM A923 method B (Charpy impact test). Method A (sodium hydroxide etch test) was performed on one half of a fractured Charpy V-notch impact sample and Method C (ferric chloride corrosion weight loss test) was performed on another half. Test results for the three cast lots and one wrought lot indicate that ASTM A923 is relevant for detecting intermetallic phases in cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 round robin study, five laboratories conducted ASTM A923 Methods A & C on cast DSS material and the lab-to-lab reproducibility of the data was determined. Two groups of samples were sent to the participants. Group 1 samples were tested per ASTM A923 Method A, group 2 samples were tested by ASTM A923 Method C. Testing procedures for this round robin study were identical to those used in the ASTM A923 applicability study. Results from this round robin indicate that there is excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility of ASTM A923 with respect to cast DSS and that ASTM A923 could be expanded to cover both wrought and cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases, Ten heats of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) in the foundry solution annealed condition were tested per ASTM A923 Methods A, B, & C. Testing of these materials per ASTM A923 was used to determine if the foundry solution anneal procedures were adequate to completely eliminate any intermetallic phases, which may have precipitated during the casting and subsequent heat treatment processes. All heats showed no sign of intermetallic phase per Method A, passed minimum Charpy impact energy requirements per Method B (> 40 ft-lbs @ -40�������°C (-40�������°F)), and showed negligible weight loss per Method C (< 10 mdd). These results indicate that the solution annealing procedure used by foundri

Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, W.

2005-09-30

396

Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought DSS and tested per ASTM A923 method B (Charpy impact test). Method A (sodium hydroxide etch test) was performed on one half of a fractured Charpy V-notch impact sample and Method C (ferric chloride corrosion weight loss test) was performed on another half. Test results for the three cast lots and one wrought lot indicate that ASTM A923 is relevant for detecting intermetallic phases in cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 round robin study, five laboratories conducted ASTM A923 Methods A & C on cast DSS material and the lab-to-lab reproducibility of the data was determined. Two groups of samples were sent to the participants. Group 1 samples were tested per ASTM A923 Method A, group 2 samples were tested by ASTM A923 Method C. Testing procedures for this round robin study were identical to those used in the ASTM A923 applicability study. Results from this round robin indicate that there is excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility of ASTM A923 with respect to cast DSS and that ASTM A923 could be expanded to cover both wrought and cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases, Ten heats of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) in the foundry solution annealed condition were tested per ASTM A923 Methods A, B, & C. Testing of these materials per ASTM A923 was used to determine if the foundry solution anneal procedures were adequate to completely eliminate any intermetallic phases, which may have precipitated during the casting and subsequent heat treatment processes. All heats showed no sign of intermetallic phase per Method A, passed minimum Charpy impact energy requirements per Method B (> 40 ft-lbs {at} -40 C (-40 F)), and showed negligible weight loss per Method C (< 10 mdd). These results indicate that the solution annealing procedure used by foundries is adequate to produce a product free from intermetallic phases.

Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, D.

2005-09-30

397

DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

NONE

1998-05-01

398

Apricoxib, a Novel Inhibitor of COX-2, Markedly Improves Standard Therapy Response in Molecularly Defined Models of Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose COX-2 is expressed highly in pancreatic cancer and implicated in tumor progression. COX-2 inhibition can reduce tumor growth and augment therapy. The precise function of COX-2 in tumors remains poorly understood, but it is implicated in tumor angiogenesis, evasion of apoptosis, and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Current therapeutic regimens for pancreatic cancer are minimally effective, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that apricoxib, a novel COX-2 inhibitor in phase II clinical trials, significantly enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine/ erlotinib in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Experimental Design Human pancreatic cell lines were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for response to apricoxib ± standard-of-care therapy (gemcitabine + erlotinib). Tumor tissue underwent posttreatment analysis for cell proliferation, viability, and EMT phenotype. Vascular parameters were also determined. Results COX-2 inhibition reduced the IC50 of gemcitabine ± erlotinib in six pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro. Furthermore, apricoxib increased the antitumor efficacy of standard combination therapy in several orthotopic xenograft models. In vivo apricoxib combination therapy was only effective at reducing tumor growth and metastasis in tumors with elevated COX-2 activity. In each model examined, treatment with apricoxib resulted in vascular normalization without a decrease in microvessel density and promotion of an epithelial phenotype by tumor cells regardless of basal COX-2 expression. Conclusions Apricoxib robustly reverses EMT and augments standard therapy without reducing microvessel density and warrants further clinical evaluation in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Kirane, Amanda; Toombs, Jason E.; Ostapoff, Katherine; Carbon, Juliet G.; Zaknoen, Sara; Braunfeld, Jordan; Schwarz, Roderich E.; Burrows, Francis J.; Brekken, Rolf A.

2013-01-01

399

Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X2Pig-2Sigmag+, X2Pig-2Deltag, X2Pig-2Sigmau+, X2Pig-2Piu transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the

A. Ramírez-Solís; R. Poteau; A. Vela; J. P. Daudey

2005-01-01

400

2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMFu): An Internal Standard for the "Traceless" Quantitation of Unknown Samples via (1)H NMR.  

PubMed

The use of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMFu) as an internal standard for the quantitation of unknown samples by (1)H NMR is described. DMFu was selected based upon its low chemical reactivity, good solubility in standard NMR solvents, appropriate volatility (bp 92 degrees C), and the chemical shifts of its two singlets (5.80 and 2.20 ppm). In particular, the widely separated singlets of DMFu offer two advantages over more traditional "single peak" internal standards (e.g., hexamethyldisiloxane): (1) they reduce the possibility for overlap between analyte and internal standard signals; and (2) they enable the chemist to assess the accuracy of integration (and ergo, the quantitation) by calculating the ratio of the two singlets and comparing the observed ratio to the theoretical value. Our experiments have shown that the precision of the ratio of DMFu singlets strongly correlates to the precision of sample quantitation, an observation which greatly simplifies the assessment of the quality of the quantitation. Utilizing this technique, we have developed straightforward conditions for (1)H NMR experiments which consistently provide quantitative results with less than 5.0% error. PMID:10813883

Gerritz; Sefler

2000-01-11

401

UWG-2, a garnet standard for oxygen isotope ratios: Strategies for high precision and accuracy with laser heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

UWG-2 is a new garnet standard for oxygen isotope analysis prepared from a single large porphyroblast that was homogeneous (±0.21‰) at the millimeter-scale before grinding. The ? 18O value of UWG-2 has been determined in seven laboratories using either a laser probe system or externally heated Ni reaction vessels. The raw laser probe value is 5.74‰ at the University of

John W. Valley; Nami Kitchen; Matthew J. Kohn; Christopher R. Niendorf; Michael J. Spicuzza

1995-01-01

402

76 FR 12712 - Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201-2, Personal Identity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...thus provides adaptability and resilience to PIV card evolution. --Sections 6.2.2, 6.2.3.1, and 6.2...verification and certificate path validation in the CHUID, BIO, and BIO-A authentication mechanisms. These signature...

2011-03-08

403

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary...Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary...emission standards] Engine power Emission standards for 2008 model year and later emergency...

2010-07-01

404

Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.  

PubMed

Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ?0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

2013-01-01

405

INDENTER TIP GEOMETRIES AND CALIBRATION PROCEDURES: DEVIATIONS IN DETERMINING COATINGS \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ISO 14577-4 standard various procedures for estimating the indenter area functions and the frame compliance Cf are proposed. Recently, a FEM-supported method performing a stepwise, trial and error simulation of nanoindentation, enabled the determination of materials stress-strain laws and moreover the precise mathe- matical description of an equivalent indenter tip geometry. An evolution of this method is presented

K.-D. Bouzakis; N. Michailidis

406

A comparison between 2.0-mm standard and 2.0-mm locking miniplates in the management of mandibular fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this clinical study was to compare effectiveness of 2.0-mm locking miniplates and screws with 2.0-mm standard\\u000a miniplates and screws in treating mandible fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  A randomized prospective study comprising of 40 samples, where 20 patients (group 1) were treated with locking plates and\\u000a 20 patients (group 2) were treated with standard miniplates. All the cases were

D. Saikrishna; Sujeeth Kumar Shetty; T. R. Marimallappa

2009-01-01

407

Congenital Penile Deviation and Straightening of the Penis Using the Nesbit-Kelâmi Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simpler and more effective technique for the treatment of congenital penile deviation is described. From a total of 80 patients operated on for congenital penile deviation, 45 were treated successfully according to this new technique.

Alpay Kelâmi

1985-01-01

408

78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...HHS). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health (MCH)...

2013-09-24

409

21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Reporting of biological product deviations...manufacturer who holds the biological product license and who had control over the product...should report a biological product deviation...step under your control, acquire...

2009-04-01

410

Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X2&Pgr;g-2?g+, X2&Pgr;g-2?g, X2&Pgr;g-2?u+, X2&Pgr;g-2&Pgr;u transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the

A. Ram?´rez-Sol?´s; R. Poteau; A. Vela; J. P. Daudey

2005-01-01

411

Revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation without acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Changing axis deviation has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation without acute myocardial infarction in a 74-year-old Italian man. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation. PMID:19923019

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

2012-03-01

412

A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than +/-0.1 mrad (~0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S.; Vasu, R. M.; Asokan, S.

2012-12-01

413

A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique  

SciTech Connect

Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than {+-}0.1 mrad ( Almost-Equal-To 0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Vasu, R. M. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokan, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Robert Bosch Centre for Cyber Physical Systems, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2012-12-15

414

A neonatal encephalopathy with seizures in standard poodle dogs with a missense mutation in the canine ortholog of ATF2.  

PubMed

Neonatal encephalopathy with seizures (NEWS) is a previously undescribed autosomal recessive disease of standard poodle puppies. Affected puppies are small and weak at birth. Many die in their first week of life. Those surviving past 1 week develop ataxia, a whole-body tremor, and, by 4 to 6 weeks of age, severe generalized clonic-tonic seizures. None have survived to 7 weeks of age. Cerebella from affected puppies were reduced in size and often contained dysplastic foci consisting of clusters of intermixed granule and Purkinje neurons. We used deoxyribonucleic acid samples from related standard poodles to map the NEWS locus to a 2.87-Mb segment of CFA36, which contains the canine ortholog of ATF2. This gene encodes activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2), which participates in the cellular responses to a wide variety of stimuli. We amplified and sequenced all coding regions of canine ATF2 from a NEWS-affected puppy and identified a T > G transversion that predicts a methionine-to-arginine missense mutation at amino acid position 51. Methionine-51 lies within a hydrophobic docking site for mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate ATF-2 so the arginine substitution is likely to interfere with ATF-2 activation. All 20 NEWS-affected puppies in the standard poodle family were homozygous for the mutant G allele. The 58 clinically normal family members were either G/T heterozygotes or homozygous for the ancestral T allele. There are no previous reports of spontaneous ATF2 mutations in people or animals; however, atf2-knockout mice have cerebellar lesions that are similar to those in puppies with NEWS. PMID:18074159

Chen, Xuhua; Johnson, Gary S; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Johnson, Gayle C; Parker, Heidi G; Patterson, Edward E; Katz, Martin L; Awano, Tomoyuki; Khan, Shahwanaz; O'Brien, Dennis P

2008-02-01

415

Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

416

Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

417

Possible deviations in Z sup 0 pair production at e sup + e sup minus colliders due to exotic lepton mixings  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the deviations from standard model predictions for the pair production of Z{sup 0} at e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders with the inclusion of mixing between ordinary and exotic leptons evaluated for the differential cross section and the longitudinal polarization asymmetry at LEP II (square root of s = 190 GeV) and at possible the next linear collider (square root of s = 600 GeV) energies. For heavy exotic leptons (m{sub E} {approx} 250 GeV) the deviations have distinctive features that could allow the possibility of distinguishing between mirror, vector-doublet and vector-singlet type of exotic lepton mixings.

Nagawat, A.K.; Singh, S.; Sharma, N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (IN))

1990-03-30

418

A 5.26 Mflips programmable analogue fuzzy logic controller in a standard CMOS 2.4 ? technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete digitally-programmable analogue fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is presented. The design of some new functional blocks and the improvement of others aim towards speed optimisation with a reasonable accuracy, as it is needed in several analogue signal processing applications. A nine-rules, two-inputs and one-output prototype was fabricated and successfully tested using a standard CMOS 2.4 ? technology showing good

Carlos Dualibe; Paul Jespers; Michel Verleysen

2000-01-01

419

Standardization Documents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standarization document is a generic term for a document used to standardize an item of supply, process, procedure, method, data, practice, or engineering approach. Standardization documents include Defense Specifications, Standards, and Handbooks; Federa...

J. Weitzner

2011-01-01

420

Standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC): a prospective, observational, multicenter study [NCT01283893  

PubMed Central

Background Extended systemic lymphadenectomy (D2) is standard procedure for surgical treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) although less extensive lymphadenectomy (D1) can be applied to early gastric cancer. Complete D2 lymphadenectomy is the mandatory procedure for studies that evaluate surgical treatment results of AGC. However, the actual extent of D2 lymphadenectomy varies among surgeons because of a lacking consensus on the anatomical definition of each lymph node station. This study is aimed to develop a consensus for D2 lymphadenectomy and also to qualify surgeons that can perform both laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy. Methods/Design This (KLASS-02-QC) is a prospective, observational, multicenter study to qualify the surgeons that will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT, which is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for AGC. Surgeons and reviewers participating in the study will be required to complete a questionnaire detailing their professional experience and specific gastrectomy surgical background/training, and the gastrectomy metrics of their primary hospitals. All surgeons must submit three laparoscopic and three open D2 gastrectomy videos, respectively. Each video will be allocated to five peer reviewers; thus each surgeon’s operations will be assessed by a total of 30 reviews. Based on blinded assessment of unedited videos by experts’ review, a separate review evaluation committee will decide whether or not the evaluated surgeon will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT. The primary outcome measure is each surgeon’s proficiency, as assessed by the reviewers based on evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. Discussion We believe that our study for standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC) will guarantee successful implementation of the subsequent KLASS-02-RCT study. After making consensus on D2 lymphadenectomy, we developed evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. We also developed a unique surgical standardization and quality control system that consists of recording unedited surgical videos, and expert review according to evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. We hope our systematic approach will set a milestone in surgical standardization that is essential for surgical clinical trials. Additionally, our methods will serve as a novel system for educating surgeons and assessing surgical proficiency. Trial registration NCT01283893.

2014-01-01

421

Measurement errors caused by radius deviation of base disc in double-disc instrument for measuring an involute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double-disc instrument for measuring an involute is introduced, whose measuring principle is the same as the 'rolling artifact method' developed by PTB. In this paper, measurement error and generation length deviation caused by radius deviation of the base disc are analyzed. In order to simplify the error compensation model and increase compensation accuracy, a new method, called the coordinate transformation method, is used to analyze measurement data, which can remove measurement errors caused by radius deviation of the base disc in theory. Two measurement experiments with different base discs prove the feasibility of the coordinate transformation method, and the consistency error of the measurements is 0.2 µm when the same involute tooth profile was measured.

Zhifeng, Lou; Liding, Wang; Xiaodong, Wang; Yong, Ma

2011-11-01

422

Expression of receptors for BMP15 is differentially regulated in dominant and subordinate follicles during follicle deviation in cattle.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to be involved in determining ovulation rate in mammals. The mechanisms through which these proteins determine follicle fate are incompletely understood. In the present study, we used cattle as a model to evaluate the regulation of BMP15 and GDF9 receptors in granulosa cells during dominant follicle (DF) selection. Before follicular deviation (day 2 of the follicular wave), BMPR2 mRNA abundance tended to be higher in the second largest follicles (F2; P<0.1) compared to the future dominant follicle (F1). At the expected time of follicular deviation (day 3), BMPR2 and BMPR1B mRNA levels were higher in subordinate follicles (SFs; P<0.05) compared to dominant follicles (DFs). After deviation (on day 4), BMPR1B mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in atretic SFs (as assessed by cleaved caspase 3) than in DFs. The fact that BMPR1B is more expressed in atretic follicles was further confirmed by using intrafollicular treatment with two agents known to induce atresia, namely an estradiol receptor antagonist (fulvestrant) and FGF10. In conclusion, the fact that BMPR-1B and -2 are more expressed in the second largest follicles before and at the expected time of follicular deviation is indicative of their inhibitory role in follicle differentiation and steroidogenesis. BMPR1B also seems to have a pivotal role during follicle regression since it is upregulated in advanced atretic follicles. PMID:24388700

Gasperin, Bernardo G; Ferreira, Rogério; Rovani, Monique T; Bordignon, Vilceu; Duggavathi, Raj; Buratini, José; Oliveira, João F C; Gonçalves, Paulo B D

2014-01-30

423

A SYNTHETIC ENVIRONMENT FOR C2 SYSTEM INTEGRATION BASED ON EMERGING INFRASTRUCTURE STANDARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain information superiority as warfighting methods and technologies evolve, increasing quantities of time critical information must be shared between C2 systems. To meet these needs, interoperability between C2 systems must be driven to a new level. A synthetic battlespace testbed environment can facilitate this interoperability by providing a realistic context within which C2 systems can operate to refine information

George F. Providakes; R. Douglas Flournoy

424

78 FR 43066 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; National Standard 2-Scientific Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...management plans (FMPs), and adds new language to the NS2 guidelines regarding the advisory...as recommended by public comments. Language was added to clarify the following...the revised NS2 guidelines maintain the language from the previous NS2 guidelines...

2013-07-19

425

40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contain SO2 in excess of 50 percent (0.50) of the potential SO2 emission rate...contain SO2 in excess of 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu) heat input from oil...lb/MMBtu); Kc = 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu); Ha = Heat...

2012-07-01

426

40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contain SO2 in excess of 50 percent (0.50) of the potential SO2 emission rate...contain SO2 in excess of 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu) heat input; or, as an...lb/MMBtu); Kc = 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu); Ha = Heat...

2010-07-01

427

40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contain SO2 in excess of 50 percent (0.50) of the potential SO2 emission rate...contain SO2 in excess of 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu) heat input; or, as an...lb/MMBtu); Kc = 215 ng/J (0.50 lb/MMBtu); Ha = Heat...

2011-07-01

428

Standard enthalpies of formation of perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa)hexanoic and perfluoro(2,5-dimethyl-3,6-dioxa)nonanoic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energies of combustion of perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa)hexanoic and perfluoro(2,5-dimethyl-3,6-dioxa)nonanoic acids are for the first time measured in a calorimeter with a rotating platinized bomb and used to calculate the standard enthalpies of formation of these compounds in the liquid state. Based on the enthalpies of formation, the contribution from the [-CF2OCF(CF3)-] group to the enthalpies of formation of perfluoro acids is calculated.

Lukyanova, V. A.; Papina, T. S.

2013-02-01

429

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 300 - Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2. A table of summary statistics for each analyte. The table should include the mean, standard deviation, and sample size for each group at each day. 3. An ANOVA table for each analyte. The table should be of the same format as...

2013-07-01

430

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 300 - Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2. A table of summary statistics for each analyte. The table should include the mean, standard deviation, and sample size for each group at each day. 3. An ANOVA table for each analyte. The table should be of the same format as...

2012-07-01

431

In vitro-induced cell-mediated immune deviation to encephalitogenic antigens.  

PubMed

The injection of antigens into the Anterior Chamber (AC) of the eye induces Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID), which is a potent form of immune deviation that is largely attributed to the effect of TGF?2 in the aqueous humor on ocular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ACAID antigen presentation via APCs and B cells leads to the generation of antigen-specific T regulatory cells. The encephalitogenic antigens Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and Myelin basic protein (MBP) have an obvious clinical relevance. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of in vitro-generated ACAID APCs or in vitro-generated ACAID B cells specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP induces specific peripheral tolerance in recipient BALB/c mice. We examined the suppression of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific inflammatory responses using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays and Local Adoptive Transfer (LAT) assays. Results indicated that MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific tolerance was generated after the intravenous injections of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID APCs, MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID B cells, and MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID T regulatory cells. The specific immune deviation was in vitro-induced, cell-mediated, and specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP. This in vitro-mediated approach for the generation of MOG35-55/MBP-specific tolerance opens up avenues for the application of ACAID as a tool for the therapy of Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and other diseases. PMID:24095895

Farooq, Shukkur M; Ashour, Hossam M

2014-01-01

432

Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X2?g-2?g+, X2?g-2?g, X2?g-2?u+, X2?g-2?u transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the same relativistic effective core potentials and especially developed basis sets to study the electronic structure of the five lowest states and the corresponding vertical and adiabatic transition energies. The calculated transition energies for three of the hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B97-2, and PBE0) are in very good agreement with the benchmark ab initio results and experimental figures. All of the other functionals largely overestimate the X2?g-2?g+ and X2?g-2?g transition energies, many of them even placing the 2?g ligand field state above the charge transfer 2?u and 2?u+ states. The relative weight of the Hartree-Fock exchange in the definition of the functional used appears to play a key role in the accurate description of the ?S? density defined by the orientation of the 3d hole (?, ?, or ?) on Cu in the field of both chlorine atoms, but no simple connection of this weight with the quality of the spectra has been found. Mulliken charges and spin densities are carefully analyzed; a possible link between the extent of spin density on the metal for the X2?g state and the performance of the various functionals was observed, suggesting that those that lead to the largest values (close to 0.65) are the ones that best reproduce these four transitions. Most functionals lead to a remarkably low ionicity for the three ligand field states even for the best performing functionals, compared to the complete active space (SCF) (21, 14) ab initio values. These findings show that not only large variational ab initio calculations can produce reliable spectroscopic results for extremely complex systems where delicate electronic correlation effects have to be carefully dealt with. However, those functionals that were recently shown to perform best for a series of molecular properties [J. Chem. Phys. 121 3405 (2004)] are not the ones that produce the best transition energies for this complex case.

Ramírez-Solís, A.; Poteau, R.; Vela, A.; Daudey, J. P.

2005-04-01

433

Comparative studies of the spectroscopy of CuCl2: DFT versus standard ab initio approaches.  

PubMed

The X2Pi g-2Sigma g+, X2Pi g-2Delta g, X2Pi g-2Sigma u+, X2Pi g-2Pi u transitions on CuCl2 have been studied using several exchange-correlation functionals from the various types of density functional theory (DFT) approaches like local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid and meta-GGA. The results are compared with the experience and with those coming from the most sophisticated nondynamic and dynamic electronic correlation treatments using the same relativistic effective core potentials and especially developed basis sets to study the electronic structure of the five lowest states and the corresponding vertical and adiabatic transition energies. The calculated transition energies for three of the hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B97-2, and PBE0) are in very good agreement with the benchmark ab initio results and experimental figures. All of the other functionals largely overestimate the X2Pi g-2Sigma g+ and X2Pi g-2Delta g transition energies, many of them even placing the 2Delta g ligand field state above the charge transfer 2Pi u and 2Sigma u+ states. The relative weight of the Hartree-Fock exchange in the definition of the functional used appears to play a key role in the accurate description of the LambdaSSigma density defined by the orientation of the 3d hole (sigma, pi, or delta) on Cu in the field of both chlorine atoms, but no simple connection of this weight with the quality of the spectra has been found. Mulliken charges and spin densities are carefully analyzed; a possible link between the extent of spin density on the metal for the X2Pi g state and the performance of the various functionals was observed, suggesting that those that lead to the largest values (close to 0.65) are the ones that best reproduce these four transitions. Most functionals lead to a remarkably low ionicity for the three ligand field states even for the best performing functionals, compared to the complete active space (SCF) (21, 14) ab initio values. These findings show that not only large variational ab initio calculations can produce reliable spectroscopic results for extremely complex systems where delicate electronic correlation effects have to be carefully dealt with. However, those functionals that were recently shown to perform best for a series of molecular properties [J. Chem. Phys. 121 3405 (2004)] are not the ones that produce the best transition energies for this complex case. PMID:15945683

Ramírez-Solís, A; Poteau, R; Vela, A; Daudey, J P

2005-04-22

434

HER2 diagnostics in gastric cancer--guideline validation and development of standardized immunohistochemical testing  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab-based therapy has been shown to confer overall survival benefit in HER2-positive patients with advanced gastric cancer in a large multicentric trial (ToGA study). Subgroup analysis identified adenocarcinomas of the stomach and gastroesophageal (GE) junction with overexpression of HER2 according to immunohistochemistry (IHC) as potential responders. Due to recent approval of trastuzumab for HER2 positive metastatic gastric and GE-junction cancer in Europe (EMEA) HER2 diagnostics is now mandatory with IHC being the primary test followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in IHC2+ cases. However, in order to not miss patients potentially responding to targeted therapy determination of a HER2-positive status for gastric cancer required modification of scoring as had been proposed in a pre-ToGA study. To validate this new HER2 status testing procedure in terms of inter-laboratory and inter-observer consensus for IHC scoring a series of 547 gastric cancer tissue samples on a tissue microarray (TMA) was used. In the first step, 30 representative cores were used to identify specific IHC HER2 scoring issues among eight French and German laboratories, while in the second step the full set of 547 cores was used to determine IHC HER2 intensity and area score concordance between six German pathologists. Specific issues relating to discordance were identified and recommendations formulated which proved to be effective to reliably determine HER2 status in a prospective test series of 447 diagnostic gastric cancer specimens.

Dietel, Manfred; Baretton, Gustavo; Arbogast, Susanne; Walch, Axel; Monges, Genevieve; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Nagelmeier, Iris; Schlake, Werner; Hofler, H.; Kreipe, H. H.

2010-01-01

435

Standard Review Plan for Environmental Restoration Program Quality Management Plans. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Manual Environmental Restoration Program Quality System Requirements (QSR) for the Hanford Site, defines all quality requirements governing Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities. The QSR requires that ER Program participants develop Quality Management Plans (QMPs) that describe how the QSR requirements will be implemented for their assigned scopes of work. This standard review plan (SRP) describes the ER program participant responsibilities for submittal of QMPs to the RL Environmental Restoration Division for review and the RL methodology for performing the reviews of participant QMPS. The SRP serves the following functions: acts as a guide in the development or revision of QMPs to assure that the content is complete and adequate; acts as a checklist to be used by the RL staff in their review of participant QMPs; acts as an index or matrix between the requirements of the QSR and implementing methodologies described in the QMPs; decreases the time and subjectivity of document reviews; and provides a formal, documented method for describing exceptions, modifications, or waivers to established ER Program quality requirements.

Not Available

1993-12-01

436

Comparing the sphere anemometer to standard sensors for 2D wind measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cup anemometers commonly used for wind energy applications are fairly robust, but suffer from several drawbacks like their limited temporal resolution, a systematic overestimation of the wind speed in turbulent flows and the inability to measure the wind direction. While sonic anemometers can measure the wind vector at a higher temporal resolution, they are more fragile and significantly more expensive. Therefore, we propose the sphere anemometer as a robust and highly-resolving alternative to standard anemometers. Designed without wearing parts, the sphere anemometer provides simultaneous wind speed and direction measurements as needed for wind turbine operation especially under challenging conditions such as offshore installation. In our contribution, we introduce the setup of the sphere anemometer which is based on the velocity-dependent deflection of a flexible tube with a sphere mounted atop. The deflection is measured in two dimensions using a light pointer, which allows for the simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction via calibration. Experimental results from wind tunnel measurements with sonic anemometer and sphere anemometer are presented, as well as first comparative measurements from the operation on the nacelle of a near-shore wind turbine.

Heisselmann, Hendrik; Hoelling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

2011-11-01

437

A Direct Confirmation of the Standard Method of Estimating Intercellular Partial Pressure of CO2  

PubMed Central

The partial pressure of CO2 inside leaves of several species was measured directly. Small gas exchange chambers were clamped above and below the same section of an amphistomatous leaf. A flowing gas stream through one chamber allowed normal CO2 and water vapor exchange. The other chamber was in a closed circuit consisting of the chamber, an infrared gas analyzer, and a peristaltic pump. The CO2 in the closed system rapidly reached a steady pressure which it is believed was identical to the CO2 pressure inside the leaf, because there was no flux of CO2 across the epidermis. This measured partial pressure was in close agreement with that estimated from a consideration of the fluxes of CO2 and vapor at the other surface.

Sharkey, Thomas D.; Imai, Katsu; Farquhar, Graham D.; Cowan, Ian R.

1982-01-01

438

A prospective evaluation of anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle, with and without resection, in the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle (ATIO) has become a popular surgical treatment for dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), particularly in patients with coexisting inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA). We wanted to assess whether adding a resection improves the outcome compared with standard anteriorization. Methods: We undertook a prospective, randomized evaluation of ATIO, with and without a 7-mm resection,

Anthony G. Quinn; Stephen P. Kraft; Catherine Day; Rod S. Taylor; Alex V. Levin

2000-01-01

439

Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

2009-01-01

440

Express - Standard. Quality - Standardization - Metrology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The articles contained in this translation cover Russian research on standards and standardization in science and technology. This document was received pursuant to a joint U.S. - USSR program to exchange standards information. The articles deal with indu...

1977-01-01

441

Emulation of petroleum well-logging D-T2 correlations on a standard benchtop spectrometer.  

PubMed

An experimental protocol is described that allows two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlations of apparent diffusion coefficient D(app) and effective transverse relaxation time T(2,eff) to be acquired on a bench-top spectrometer using pulsed field gradients (PFG) in such a manner as to emulate D(app)-T(2,eff) correlations acquired using a well-logging tool with a fixed field gradient (FFG). This technique allows laboratory-scale NMR measurements of liquid-saturated cored rock to be compared directly to logging data obtained from the well by virtue of providing a comparable acquisition protocol and data format, and hence consistent data processing. This direct comparison supports the interpretation of the well-logging data, including a quantitative determination of the oil/brine saturation. The D-T(2) pulse sequence described here uses two spin echoes (2SE) with a variable echo time to encode for diffusion. The diffusion and relaxation contributions to the signal decay are then deconvolved using a 2D numerical inversion. This measurement allows shorter relaxation time components to be probed than in conventional diffusion measurements. A brief discussion of the numerical inversion algorithms available for inverting these non-rectangular data is included. The PFG-2SE sequence described is well suited to laboratory-scale studies of porous media and short T(2) samples in general. PMID:21875819

Mitchell, J; Fordham, E J

2011-10-01

442

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

Schomer, Paul

2001-05-01

443

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

Schomer, Paul D.

2002-11-01

444

63 FR 26386 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards: Metal Roofing; Interpretative Bulletin I-2-98  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Safety Standards: Metal Roofing; Interpretative...Standards to improve the resistance of manufactured homes...Subsequent Testing of Metal Roofs In reviewing tests...higher wind standards on metal roof systems without...introduced additional resistance for the test...

1998-05-12

445

76 FR 66040 - NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release...draft NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release...the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards,...

2011-10-25

446

49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB...principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB...release of a Statement of Financial Accounting Standards by the...

2010-10-01

447

49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB...principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB...release of a Statement of Financial Accounting Standards by the...

2009-10-01

448

76 FR 7818 - Correction to Notice Soliciting Comments on Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10 and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels,'' and appears in...Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels,'' and appears in...Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels. This revised...

2011-02-11

449

40 CFR 60.483-2 - Alternative standards for valves-skip period leak detection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Alternative standards for valves-skip period leak detection...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS... Alternative standards for valvesâskip period leak detection...initially with the requirements for valves in gas/vapor service and...

2013-07-01

450

40 CFR 60.483-2a - Alternative standards for valves-skip period leak detection and repair.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Alternative standards for valves-skip period leak detection...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS... Alternative standards for valvesâskip period leak detection...initially with the requirements for valves in gas/vapor service and...

2013-07-01

451

Standard technical specifications - Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the B&W Owners Group (BWOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

NONE

1995-04-01

452

Sinonasal Headaches and Post-Operative Outcomes after Septoplasty in Patients with Nasal Septal Deviation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Investigators believe that anatomical abnormalities in the sinonasal region can be the cause of some chronic and refractory headaches that may respond well to surgical intervention. This study presents the prevalence of headache in patients with nasal septal deviation and their response to surgical treatment over a 2-year follow-up period. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and prospective study was conducted on 98 patients with nasal septal deviation who underwent septoplasty surgery in the Imam Hospital in Ahwaz. Preoperative information was acquired by asking the patients and by completing SNOT-20 questionnaires by patients. After the surgery, information about changes in the quality of headache in patients with dominant contact points in preoperative nasal endoscopy whose headache responded to topical anaesthesia with lidocaine 2%+naphazoline 0.5% was collected over a 2-year follow-up. Final data were analyzed by SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Ninety-eight patients were studied, comprising 58.2% men and 41.8% women. They ranged in age between 18 and 46 years (mean=24). Nasal obstruction (72.4%), snoring (58.1%), headache (46%) and epistaxis (17.3%) were the most frequent preoperative symptoms. The most common site of the headache was the frontal region (68.8%). Patients' headache was bilateral in 71.1% of cases. In 82.2% of patients, headache lasted less than four hours a day. The headache was pulsatile in 53.3%, sharp in 31.2% and compressive in 15.5% of cases. In the post-operative assessment, despite gradual decline in the referral patients for follow-up, a notable and gradual recovery in patients’ headache was seen with 82.8% of the patients reporting complete or partial recovery of the headache at the end of the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion: Headache is one of the most common symptoms in patients with nasal anatomical abnormalities such as septal deviation and usually responds well to surgical treatment. More studies with long-term follow-ups seems to be inevitable to determine the relationship between headaches and nasal anatomical abnormalities, accurate surgical results in patients’ recovery and the recurrence rate of headaches.

Ghazipour, Ali; Abshirini, Hassan; Hekmat shoar, Mahmood; Pursalehan, Sara

2011-01-01

453

The standard electrode potential of the Sn 4+ \\/Sn 2+ couple revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The Sn4+\\/Sn2+ redox couple is, thermodynamically, the connecting link between aqueous tin(IV) and tin(II) chemistry. Because the equilibrium\\u000a potential E°(Sn4+\\/Sn2+) was not known with sufficient accuracy, we were prompted to attempt its determination by means of a potentiometric study.\\u000a The equilibrium potential of the redox couple Sn4+\\/Sn2+ has been determined in x M HClO4 + 1 M HCl media (x = 3, 4, 5). The formal potentials determined

Tamás Gajda; Pál Sipos; Heinz Gamsjäger

2009-01-01

454

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-08-01

455

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-03-01

456

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is

Paul Schomer

2001-01-01

457

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12

Paul D. Schomer

2002-01-01

458

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PRE-CLEANING FILTERS AND XAD-2 (SOP-5.10)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP summarizes the method for pre-cleaning XAD-2 resin and quartz fiber filters. The procedure provides a cleaning method to help reduce potential background contamination in the resin and filters....

459

Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants: Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes.

NONE

1995-04-01

460

Measurement tools for the diagnosis of nasal septal deviation: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a systematic review of measurement tools utilized for the diagnosis of nasal septal deviation (NSD). Methods Electronic database searches were performed using MEDLINE (from 1966 to second week of August 2013), EMBASE (from 1966 to second week of August 2013), Web of Science (from 1945 to second week of August 2013) and all Evidence Based Medicine Reviews Files (EBMR); Cochrane Database of Systematic Review (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACP Journal Club), Health Technology Assessments (HTA), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED) till the second quarter of 2013. The search terms used in database searches were ‘nasal septum’, ‘deviation’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘nose deformities’ and ‘nose malformation’. The studies were reviewed using the updated Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Results Online searches resulted in 23 abstracts after removal of duplicates that resulted from overlap of studies between the electronic databases. An additional 15 abstracts were excluded due to lack of relevance. A total of 8 studies were systematically reviewed. Conclusions Diagnostic modalities such as acoustic rhinometry, rhinomanometry and nasal spectral sound analysis may be useful in identifying NSD in anterior region of the nasal cavity, but these tests in isolation are of limited utility. Compared to anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, and imaging the above mentioned index tests lack sensitivity and specificity in identifying the presence, location, and severity of NSD.

2014-01-01