Science.gov

Sample records for 2 standard deviations

  1. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  2. A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional with the embedding rate. It is shown that it can accurately estimate the length of the hidden message and outperform the other methods of the targeted 2LSB steganalysis in the literature. The proposed method is also more consistent with the steganalysis methods in the literature by giving the amount of difference to the expected clean image. According to the experimental results, based on analysing 3000 nevercompressed images, the proposed method is more accurate than the current targeted 2LSB steganalysis methods for low embedding rates.

  3. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  4. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  5. Estimate of standard deviation for a log-transformed variable using arithmetic means and standard deviations.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Zhang, Ji

    2003-09-15

    Analyses of study variables are frequently based on log transformations. To calculate the power for detecting the between-treatment difference in the log scale, we need an estimate of the standard deviation of the log-transformed variable. However, in many situations a literature search only provides the arithmetic means and the corresponding standard deviations. Without individual log-transformed data to directly calculate the sample standard deviation, we need alternative methods to estimate it. This paper presents methods for estimating and constructing confidence intervals for the standard deviation of a log-transformed variable given the mean and standard deviation of the untransformed variable. It also presents methods for estimating the standard deviation of change from baseline in the log scale given the means and standard deviations of the untransformed baseline value, on-treatment value and change from baseline. Simulations and examples are provided to assess the performance of these estimates. PMID:12939782

  6. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  7. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  8. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall... that the deviation is temporary, the Corporation may grant a temporary waiver pending compliance...

  9. A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orris, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

  10. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk. PMID:24323297

  11. Nativization in Brunei English: Deviation vs. Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M. -L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the variety of English spoken in Brunei (BNE), sometimes called nonstandard, is still at an early stage of development and there is little awareness among its speakers of some differences from standard English (STE). Results of a grammaticality judgment test administered to 106 university students, designed to find nonstandard verb…

  12. Data Sets Having Integer Means and Standard Deviations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudek, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the recent suggestion (by McGown and Spencer) that construction of tests for introductory statistics is facilitated if data sets have means and standard deviations that are integers. Maintains that it is fairly easy to devise data sets with integer means and standard deviations for larger samples. Explains advantages and describes…

  13. Teaching Intuitive Statistics. II. Aiding the Estimation of Standard Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovie, Patricia

    1978-01-01

    In this study, the subjects were found to produce better estimates of standard deviations by using a "range rule" than by a direct estimation procedure, particularly when the sample variances were small. No differences were found in the subjects' performance in making direct estimates of standard deviations and variances. (Author/MN)

  14. Robust estimation of standard deviation using ordered samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beedgen, R.

    1982-07-01

    A robust estimate for the standard deviation of a normal distribution is developed. We choose the contaminated normal distribution as our outlier model and demonstrate the method with two examples representing data from international interlaboratory experiments.

  15. Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

  16. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  17. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  18. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  19. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-12-31

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Field estimation of standard deviations for 3D Gaussian model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, A.; Chang, S.Y.

    1996-07-01

    The Gaussian dispersion model is the model most frequently used by environmental engineers to estimate the concentration (g/m{sup 3}), c, due to the atmospheric transport of contaminants. A method has been developed that gives analytical solutions for estimation of the standard deviations {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} in the Gaussian model from observed data without requiring knowledge of the change in wind direction. With a defined concentration radio term, R, estimates for {sigma}{sub y} can be obtained by solving the Gaussian model. By introducing a dimensionless concentration factor, c{prime}, estimates for {sigma}{sub z} can be approximated at different downwind ranges. This method can be used in field applications and also for model calibration and verification.

  1. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    PubMed

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. PMID:27131201

  2. A light-hearted look at a lion-hearted organ (or, a perspective from three standard deviations beyond the norm) part 2 (of 2 parts).

    PubMed

    Loe, Matthew J; Edwards, William D

    2004-01-01

    Throughout history, the heart has been associated not only with its life-sustaining function but also with its close ties to the human emotions. In this literature and internet review, we attempt to gather and organize information from both of these perspectives as they relate to the heart in the following 11 categories: (1) fun facts, (2) medical photography, (3) history, (4) languages (etymology), (5) nonmedical English expressions, (6) death, (7) the arts, (8) movie titles, (9) song titles, (10) Shakespeare, and (11) the Bible. Part 1 (previously published) covered the first five topics, and Part 2 will cover the last six topics. These data may be useful to those who are engaged in teaching about the cardiovascular system. PMID:15556782

  3. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  5. 7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section 400.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates...

  6. An Upper Bound on Standard Deviation as a Function of Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article disproves a conjecture that the ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the range of a set of data decreases as the number of data points increases. It also provides an alternative and more general approach for examining the standard deviation as a function of the range.

  7. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-11-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

  8. Standard Deviation and Intra Prediction Mode Based Adaptive Spatial Error Concealment (SEC) in H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Transmission of compressed video over error prone channels may result in packet losses or errors, which can significantly degrade the image quality. Therefore an error concealment scheme is applied at the video receiver side to mask the damaged video. Considering there are 3 types of MBs (Macro Blocks) in natural video frame, i. e., Textural MB, Edged MB, and Smooth MB, this paper proposes an adaptive spatial error concealment which can choose 3 different methods for these 3 different MBs. For criteria of choosing appropriate method, 2 factors are taken into consideration. Firstly, standard deviation of our proposed edge statistical model is exploited. Secondly, some new features of latest video compression standard H.264/AVC, i. e., intra prediction mode is also considered for criterion formulation. Compared with previous works, which are only based on deterministic measurement, proposed method achieves the best image recovery. Subjective and objective image quality evaluations in experiments confirmed this.

  9. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  10. Estimating crop water stress with standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  11. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  12. Deviations from Standard Italian in the Victorian H.S.C. Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streager, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    A number of observations are made of deviations from standard Italian made by students, both of Italian and non-Italian origin, in the Victorian H.S.C. examinations, with discussion of probable English, French and Italian dialectal influences. (RM)

  13. Comparison of the measurement standards of the length unit in the field of roundness deviations measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, V. G.; Kupko, V. S.; Makarevich, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    A trilateral comparison has been performed in the subject field of roundness measurement. The comparison was pilot by VNIIMS, Russia and took place between February 2014 and August 2014. The circulated standards were a roundness transfer standard in the form of a glass hemisphere and a magnification standard often referred to as a 'Flick' standard. Data from the roundness standard were processed using a Gaussian filter and a bandpass up to 50 undulations per revolution to provide a measured value of Roundness Deviation (RONt). For the magnification standard, data were also filtered and the fitted element was the circumscribed circle together with the deviation of the valleys (RONv). The results of comparisons show the correspondence of measurement uncertainties to the declared values and the compared measurement standards are equivalent. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.

  15. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  16. MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieta, Holger

    2010-02-01

    We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )

  17. Standard Deviation of Spatially-Averaged Surface Cross Section Data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.

  18. A passive autofocus system by using standard deviation of the image on a liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Pejman; Kesküla, Arko; Haus, Henry; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Aabloo, Alvo; Kiefer, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Today most of applications have a small camera such as cell phones, tablets and medical devices. A micro lens is required in order to reduce the size of the devices. In this paper an auto focus system is used in order to find the best position of a liquid lens without any active components such as ultrasonic or infrared. In fact a passive auto focus system by using standard deviation of the images on a liquid lens which consist of a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA) membrane between oil and water is proposed.

  19. Confidence Analysis of Standard Deviational Ellipse and Its Extension into Higher Dimensional Euclidean Space

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang

    2015-01-01

    Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong’s H1N1 in 2009. PMID:25769048

  20. Convective cloud identification and classification in daytime satellite imagery using standard deviation limited adaptive clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendes, Todd A.; Mecikalski, John R.; MacKenzie, Wayne M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nair, U. S.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a statistical clustering approach toward the classification of cloud types within meteorological satellite imagery, specifically, visible and infrared data. The method is based on the Standard Deviation Limited Adaptive Clustering (SDLAC) procedure, which has been used to classify a variety of features within both polar orbiting and geostationary imagery, including land cover, volcanic ash, dust, and clouds of various types. In this study, the focus is on classifying cumulus clouds of various types (e.g., "fair weather, "towering, and newly glaciated cumulus, in addition to cumulonimbus). The SDLAC algorithm is demonstrated by showing examples using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 12, Meteosat Second Generation's (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), and the Moderate Resolution Infrared Spectrometer (MODIS). Results indicate that the method performs well, classifying cumulus similarly between MODIS, SEVIRI, and GOES, despite the obvious channel and resolution differences between these three sensors. The SDLAC methodology has been used in several research activities related to convective weather forecasting, which offers some proof of concept for its value.

  1. Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, P.-S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

  2. 10 CFR 600.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) General. (1) A deviation is the use of any policy, procedure, form, standard, term, or condition which... in § 600.30 are not subject to this section. (2) A single-case deviation is a deviation which applies... class deviation is a deviation which applies to more than one financial assistance...

  3. Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  4. Transverse flowmetry of carbon particles based on photoacoustic Doppler standard deviation using an auto-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Sun, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to measure the flow velocity of carbon particle suspension perpendicular to the receiving axis of ultrasound transducer, the standard deviation of photoacoustic Doppler frequency spectrum is used to estimate the bandwidth broadening, and the spectrum standard deviation is calculated by an auto-correlation method. A 532 nm pulsed laser with the repetition rate of 20 Hz is used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals are detected using a focused PZT ultrasound transducer with the central frequency of 10 MHz. The suspension of carbon particles is driven by a syringe pump. The complex photoacoustic signal is calculated by Hilbert transformation from time domain signal before auto-correlation. The standard deviation of the Doppler bandwidth broadening is calculated by averaging the auto-correlation results of several individual A scans. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the spectrum standard deviation of the transversal carbon particle flow from 5.0 mm/s to 8.4 mm/s. The experimental results show that the auto-correlation result is approximately linearly distributed within the measuring range.

  5. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... 161.170)) (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). The agency issued the permit to facilitate market testing of a... original permit (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). FDA is inviting interested persons to participate in the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity...

  6. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation,...

  7. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation,...

  8. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation,...

  9. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation,...

  10. Comparing biomarker measurements to a normal range: when to use standard error of the mean (SEM) or standard deviation (SD) confidence intervals tests.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-05-01

    This commentary is the second of a series outlining one specific concept in interpreting biomarkers data. In the first, an observational method was presented for assessing the distribution of measurements before making parametric calculations. Here, the discussion revolves around the next step, the choice of using standard error of the mean or the calculated standard deviation to compare or predict measurement results. PMID:27045663

  11. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. PMID:26520360

  12. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncar plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincar plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states. PMID:26104469

  13. Numerical studies on a novel damage localization feature of cantilever beams using standard deviation and curvature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yonghui; Ou, Jinping

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, taking the cantilever beams as example, a novel and simple damage localization approach is proposed: the Curvature Difference Probability Method of Waveform Logarithms of Standard Deviation (CDPWLSD). Firstly, the feature, the common Logarithms of Standard Deviation (LSD) for the response signals before and after damage should be computed at every measured node. Then, the curvature changes of the waveform LSD are selected as candidates for the potentially damaged locations. Lastly, the probability of every potentially damaged element presenting in multiple identifications is considered to determine the finally damaged elements. Numerical results of both single and multiple damage cases show that the proposed approach can be used to locate damage very well. And it is still effective even if the noise level is up to 15%.

  14. Geographical Extent Feasible for Standard Deviation Calculation using 1/√N Rule regarding Ensemble Average Insolation Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    In this study, we evaluated the practical usability of so-called 1/√N rule, focusing on three factors, i.e. the geographical extent, the location of representative point, and the topological difference. First, by using the insolation data observed at 37 points mainly located in the Nobi Plain, we calculated the correlation diagram between two different standard deviations (STDs) of geographical average insolation fluctuation, i.e. STD of ensemble average insolation of N points (σe) and STD calculated with the representative point data by using 1/√N rule (σN). As the results of evaluating the slope and R2 values of regression line of correlation diagram and the P-value of χ2-test regarding frequency distribution of σe and σN, the 1/√N rule would be applicable for the area of around 20km radius. The representative point for calculating σN should be carefully selected even within the area of 15km radius. Because the difference in weather condition is much larger in the Matsumoto Basin area than in the Nobi Plain area even if the area size is the same, the 1/√N rule should be applied to smaller area than the area of 20km radius available for the Nobi Plain area.

  15. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  16. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc... source of financing. (a) Structures for raptor protection. (1) RUS standard distribution line structures... raptors to protect such birds from electric shock due to physical contact with energized wires....

  17. Internal quality control system for non-stationary, non-ergodic analytical processes based upon exponentially weighted estimation of process means and process standard deviation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rob T P; Laeven, Mark; Kardol, Wim

    2002-06-01

    The analytical processes in clinical laboratories should be considered to be non-stationary, non-ergodic and probably non-stochastic processes. Both the process mean and the process standard deviation vary. The variation can be different at different levels of concentration. This behavior is shown in five examples of different analytical systems: alkaline phosphatase on the Hitachi 911 analyzer (Roche), vitamin B12 on the Access analyzer (Beckman), prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time on the STA Compact analyzer (Roche) and PO2 on the ABL 520 analyzer (Radiometer). A model is proposed to assess the status of a process. An exponentially weighted moving average and standard deviation was used to estimate process mean and standard deviation. Process means were estimated overall and for each control level. The process standard deviation was estimated in terms of within-run standard deviation. Limits were defined in accordance with state of the art- or biological variance-derived cut-offs. The examples given are real, not simulated, data. Individual control sample results were normalized to a target value and target standard deviation. The normalized values were used in the exponentially weighted algorithm. The weighting factor was based on a process time constant, which was estimated from the period between two calibration or maintenance procedures. The proposed system was compared with Westgard rules. The Westgard rules perform well, despite the underlying presumption of ergodicity. This is mainly caused by the introduction of the starting rule of 12s, which proves essential to prevent a large number of rule violations. The probability of reporting a test result with an analytical error that exceeds the total allowable error was calculated for the proposed system as well as for the Westgard rules. The proposed method performed better. The proposed algorithm was implemented in a computer program running on computers to which the analyzers were linked on-line. Each result was evaluated on-line, and a limit violation was immediately reported. The system has performed satisfactorily in our laboratory for ten analyzers for over 1 year. PMID:12211659

  18. An improved offset generator developed for Allan deviation measurement of ultra stable frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Measuring the performance of ultra stable frequency standards such as the Superconducting Cavity Maser Oscillator (SCMO) necessitates improvement of some test instrumentation. The frequency stability test equipment used at JPL includes a 1 Hz Offset Generator to generate a beat frequency between a pair of 100 MHz signals that are being compared. The noise floor of the measurement system using the current Offset Generator is adequate to characterize stability of hydrogen masers, but it is not adequate for the SCMO. A new Offset Generator with improved stability was designed and tested at JPL. With this Offset Generator and a new Zero Crossing Detector, recently developed at JPL, the measurement flow was reduced by a factor of 5.5 at 1 second tau, 3.0 at 1000 seconds, and 9.4 at 10,000 seconds, compared against the previous design. In addition to the new circuit designs of the Offset Generator and Zero Crossing Detector, tighter control of the measurement equipment environment was required to achieve this improvement. The design of this new Offset Generator are described, along with details of the environment control methods used.

  19. Using the Standard Deviation of a Region of Interest in an Image to Estimate Camera to Emitter Distance

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Angel E.; Lazaro, José Luis; Infante, Arturo; Fernández, Pedro; Pompa-Chacón, Yamilet; Espinoza, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a camera to infrared diode (IRED) distance estimation problem was analyzed. The main objective was to define an alternative to measures depth only using the information extracted from pixel grey levels of the IRED image to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. In this paper, the standard deviation of the pixel grey level in the region of interest containing the IRED image is proposed as an empirical parameter to define a model for estimating camera to emitter distance. This model includes the camera exposure time, IRED radiant intensity and the distance between the camera and the IRED. An expression for the standard deviation model related to these magnitudes was also derived and calibrated using different images taken under different conditions. From this analysis, we determined the optimum parameters to ensure the best accuracy provided by this alternative. Once the model calibration had been carried out, a differential method to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED was defined and applied, considering that the camera was aligned with the IRED. The results indicate that this method represents a useful alternative for determining the depth information. PMID:22778608

  20. A novel algorithm for blending process monitoring of Angong Niuhuang intermediate using vector operation moving block standard deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanshan; Wu, Zhisheng; Feng, Xin; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to introduce a novel approach named Vector Operation Moving Block Standard Deviation (VO-MBSD) to characterize the original powder blend uniformity of Angong Nuihuang intermediate using NIR technology, including 400g Rhizoma Coptidis, 400g Radix Scutellariae, 400g Radix Curcumae and 400g Fructus Gardeniae. A novel blending evaluation method named VO-MBSD compared with Moving Block Standard Deviation (MBSD) was applied to characterize the blending of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) original powder including Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae, Radix Curcumae and Fructus Gardeniae. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis demonstrated these observations perfectly. OV-MBSD is the rate of change by time, which not only represents the scalar change but also the vector change. The identification accuracy of blend uniformity and end-point via VO-MBSD was the same with classical HPLC method. This method is more accuracy than original MBSD method. Compared with classical MBSD, it is appropriate for the determination of blending end-point and could be successfully implemented as an on-line monitoring tool for blending process.

  1. Reducing the Standard Deviation in Multiple-Assay Experiments Where the Variation Matters but the Absolute Value Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A.

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems’ averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

  2. Standard deviation of vertical two-point longitudinal velocity differences in the atmospheric boundary layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical estimates of wind shear in the planetary boundary layer are important in the design of V/STOL aircraft, and for the design of the Space Shuttle. The data analyzed in this study consist of eleven sets of longitudinal turbulent velocity fluctuation time histories digitized at 0.2 sec intervals with approximately 18,000 data points per time history. The longitudinal velocity fluctuations were calculated with horizontal wind and direction data collected at the 18-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 150-m levels. The data obtained confirm the result that Eulerian time spectra transformed to wave-number spectra with Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis possess inertial-like behavior at wave-numbers well out of the inertial subrange.

  3. 41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are individual and class deviations? 102-2.70 Section 102-2.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL 2-FEDERAL...

  4. Comparison of pooled standard deviation and standardized-t bootstrap methods for estimating uncertainty about average methane emission from rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Namgoo; Jung, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Yung-Seop

    2015-06-01

    The general sample standard deviation and the Monte-Carlo methods as an estimate of confidence interval is frequently being used for estimates of uncertainties with regard to greenhouse gas emission, based on the critical assumption that a given data set follows a normal (Gaussian) or statistically known probability distribution. However, uncertainty estimated using those methods are severely limited in practical applications where it is challenging to assume the probability distribution of a data set or where the real data distribution form appears to deviate significantly from statistically known probability distribution models. In order to solve these issues encountered especially in reasonable estimation of uncertainty about the average of greenhouse gas emission, we present two statistical methods, the pooled standard deviation method (PSDM) and the standardized-t bootstrap method (STBM) based upon statistical theories. We also report interesting results of the uncertainties about the average of a data set of methane (CH4) emission from rice cultivation under the four different irrigation conditions in Korea, measured by gas sampling and subsequent gas analysis. Results from the applications of the PSDM and the STBM to these rice cultivation methane emission data sets clearly demonstrate that the uncertainties estimated by the PSDM were significantly smaller than those by the STBM. We found that the PSDM needs to be adopted in many cases where a data probability distribution form appears to follow an assumed normal distribution with both spatial and temporal variations taken into account. However, the STBM is a more appropriate method widely applicable to practical situations where it is realistically impossible with the given data set to reasonably assume or determine a probability distribution model with a data set showing evidence of fairly asymmetric distribution but severely deviating from known probability distribution models.

  5. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  6. Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Chueshov, Igor; Millet, Annie

    2010-06-15

    We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

  7. 41 CFR 102-2.80 - What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR? 102-2.80 Section 102-2.80 Public Contracts and Property Management... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Regulation System Deviations § 102-2.80 What steps must an agency take...

  8. 41 CFR 102-2.80 - What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR? 102-2.80 Section 102-2.80 Public Contracts and Property Management... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Regulation System Deviations § 102-2.80 What steps must an agency take...

  9. 41 CFR 102-2.80 - What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR? 102-2.80 Section 102-2.80 Public Contracts and Property Management... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Regulation System Deviations § 102-2.80 What steps must an agency take...

  10. 41 CFR 102-2.80 - What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What steps must an agency take to deviate from the FMR? 102-2.80 Section 102-2.80 Public Contracts and Property Management... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Regulation System Deviations § 102-2.80 What steps must an agency take...

  11. Deviation from Universality in Collisions of Ultracold 6Li2 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tout; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Rvachov, Timur; Cotta, Dylan; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Collisions of 6Li2 molecules reveal a striking deviation from universal predictions based on long-range van der Waals interactions. Li2 closed-channel molecules are formed in the highest vibrational state near a narrow Feshbach resonance, and decay via two-body collisions with Li2, Li, and Na. For Li2+Li2 and Li2+Na, the decay rates agree with the universal predictions of the quantum Langevin model. In contrast, the rate for Li2+Li is exceptionally small, with an upper bound ten times smaller than the universal prediction. This can be explained by the low density of available decay states in systems of light atoms [G. Quéméner, J.-M. Launay, and P. Honvault, Phys. Rev. A 75, 050701 (2007)], for which such collisions have not been studied before. Financial support from an AFOSR MURI on Ultracold Molecules, an ARO MURI on Quantum Control of Chemical Reactions, the NSF and the ONR, ARO Grant No. W911NF-07-1-0493, with funds from the DARPA Optical Lattice Emulator program, and NSERC.

  12. Low-energy proton stopping power of N2, O2 and water vapor and deviations from Bragg's rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A modified local plasma model, based on the works of Lindhard and Winther; and Bethe, Brown, and Walske, is established. The Gordon-Kim model for molecular electron density is used to calculate stopping power of N2, O2, and water vapor for protons of energy ranging from 40 keV to 2.5 MeV, resulting in good agreement with experimental data. Deviations from Bragg's rule are evaluated and are discussed under the present theoretical model.

  13. Deviations of the exciton level spectrum in Cu2O from the hydrogen series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, F.; Krüger, S.-O.; Grünwald, P.; Stolz, H.; Scheel, S.; Aßmann, M.; Heckötter, J.; Thewes, J.; Fröhlich, D.; Bayer, M.

    2016-02-01

    Recent high-resolution absorption spectroscopy on excited excitons in cuprous oxide [Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] has revealed significant deviations of their spectrum from that of the ideal hydrogen-like series. Here we show that the complex band dispersion of the crystal, which determines the kinetic energy of electrons and holes, strongly affects the exciton binding energy. Specifically, we show that the nonparabolicity of the band dispersion is the main cause of the deviation from the hydrogen series. Experimental data collected from high-resolution absorption spectroscopy in electric fields validate the assignment of the deviation to the nonparabolicity of the band dispersion.

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  16. A model for evolution of oxygen potential and stoichiometry deviation in irradiated UO 2 fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozrin, V. D.

    2011-12-01

    A model for radial redistribution of oxygen in irradiated UO 2 fuel under conditions of temperature and fission rate gradients has been developed. The oxygen transport in irradiated fuel is considered as a two-scale problem. On the local scale defined by the grain size, irradiated fuel is considered as a multi-phase system including solid solution of fission products in UO 2 matrix, solid precipitates (metal phase, grey phase of complex ternary compounds, the phase of condensed CsI) formed at the gas/solid interface and the gas phase in the intergranular bubbles. Intraganular transport of fission products is described by a set of diffusion equations which are supplemented by the condition of partial thermochemical equilibrium in the subsystem "precipitates & gas phase". The boundary conditions are formulated basing on thermochemical equilibrium on the interface of subsystems "solid solution" and "precipitates & gas phase". Calculation of the partial thermochemical equilibrium yields local values of the oxygen chemical potential and the deviation from fuel stoichiometry. On the global scale defined by the fuel pellet size, spatial variations of the oxygen potential caused by the temperature gradients or the presence of sources/sinks at the pellet boundary determine thermal diffusion fluxes resulting in redistribution of oxygen. The whole set of equations describing local equilibration and the transport in the local and global scales is solved in a self-consistent manner. The model results for radial distribution of oxygen potential of UO 2 calculated for typical reactor operating conditions and the fuel burnup up ˜100 MW d/kg HM are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  17. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  18. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility. PMID:27035621

  19. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841–0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994–0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008–1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility. PMID:27035621

  20. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  1. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  2. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  3. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  4. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the deviation and nuclear power reactor(s) affected; (e) A statement as to whether the deviation has... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE...

  5. Planning and drilling geothermal energy extraction hole EE-2: a precisely oriented and deviated hole in hot granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Helmick, C.; Koczan, S.; Pettitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    During the preceding work (Phase I) of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Project at Fenton Hill, two holes were drilled to a depth of nearly 3048 m (10,000 ft) and connected by a vertical hydraulic fracture. In this phase, water was pumped through the underground reservoir for approximately 417 days, producing an energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t). Energy Extraction Hole No. 2 (EE-2) is the first of two deep holes that will be used in the Engineering-Resource Development System (Phase II) of the ongoing HDR Project of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This phase of the work consists of drilling two parallel boreholes, inclined in their lower, open-hole sections at 35/sup 0/ to the vertical and separated by a vertical distance of 366 m (1200 ft) between the inclined parts of the drill holes. The holes will be connected by a series of vertical, hydraulically produced fractures in the Precambrian granitic rock complex. EE-2 was drilled to a depth of 4660 m (15,289 ft), where the bottom-hole temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F). Directional drilling techniques were used to control the azimuth and deviation of the hole. Upgrading of the temperature capability of existing hardware, and development of new equipment was necessary to complete the drilling of the hole in the extremely hot, hard, and abrasive granitic formation. The drilling history and the problems with bits, directional tools, tubular goods, cementing, and logging are described. A discussion of the problems and recommendations for overcoming them are also presented.

  6. Deviation from the Boltzmann distribution in vibrational populations for a CO 2 molecule in a pulsed DF-CO 2 laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravy, B. G.; Kirjanov, V. I.; Vasiljev, G. K.

    1983-11-01

    The output/input energy ratio has been measured for an atmospheric DF-CO 2 chemical transfer amplifier at pulsewidths τp = 100-150 ns. The comparison between the obtained data and the theoretically predicted values leads to the conclusion that a remarkable deviation from the Boltzmann distribution in vibrational populations for a CO 2 molecule does occur under experimental conditions. The phenomenon is tentatively accounted for by the asymmetric stretch mode energy escape via the upper lying vibrational states, or by the disturbance of the Boltzmann distribution during the pulse.

  7. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  8. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  9. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  10. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  11. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  12. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... class deviation requests shall be submitted to the CPO per (HSAR) 48 CFR subpart 3001.70 including... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior...

  13. 41 CFR 102-38.30 - How does an executive agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which are distinct from the standard deviation process and specific to the requirements of the Federal... agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part? 102-38.30 Section 102-38.30 Public Contracts... executive agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part? Refer to §§ 102-2.60 through...

  14. Iron and Cobalt Complexes of 2,6-Diacetylpyridine-bis(R-thiosemicarbazone) (R=H, phenyl) Showing Unprecedented Ligand Deviation from Planarity

    PubMed Central

    Panja, Anangamohan; Campana, Charles; Leavitt, Christopher; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Eichhorn, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The syntheses, characterization, and single-crystal X-ray crystal structures are reported for four complexes of iron and cobalt with the pentadentate ligands, 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(thiosemicarbazone) (H2L1) and 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis-(phenylthiosemicarbazone) (H2L2), including a cobalt dimer displaying a deviation from planarity which is unprecedented for this class of ligands and allows the ligand to occupy five positions of a pseudo-octahedral coordination sphere. This dimer reacts with KCN to produce a mononuclear complex of relevance to the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. PMID:20161238

  15. A light-hearted look at a lion-hearted organ (or, a perspective from three standard deviations beyond the norm). Part 1 (of two parts).

    PubMed

    Loe, Matthew J; Edwards, William D

    2004-01-01

    Throughout history, the heart has been associated not only with its life-sustaining function but also with its close ties to the human emotions. In this literature and Internet review, we attempt to gather and organize information from both of these perspectives as they relate to the heart in the following 11 categories: (1) fun facts, (2) medical photography, (3) history, (4) languages (etymology), (5) nonmedical English expressions, (6) death, (7) the arts, (8) movie titles, (9) song titles, (10) Shakespeare, and (11) the Bible. Part 1 will cover the first five topics, and Part 2 will cover the last six topics. These data may be useful to those who are engaged in teaching about the cardiovascular system. PMID:15358343

  16. Global optimization of data quality checks on 2-D and 3-D networks of GPR cross-well tomographic data for automatic correction of unknown well deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.

    2010-03-15

    Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of the method to a large network of field data show that the technique is sensitive to data errors varying between neighboring tomograms.

  17. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-01-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods (“Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions” [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the ‘ranking’ and ‘which-won-where’ plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields. PMID:27222865

  18. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    PubMed

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields. PMID:27222865

  19. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  20. Standardized development of computer software. Part 2: Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This monograph contains standards for software development and engineering. The book sets forth rules for design, specification, coding, testing, documentation, and quality assurance audits of software; it also contains detailed outlines for the documentation to be produced.

  1. Low angle deviation from the anisotropic effective mass model in epitaxial YBa2(Cu1-xZnx)3O7-δ thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marneffe, J.-F.; Schroeder, J.; Deltour, R.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Wyder, P.

    1997-08-01

    The magnetic field effect on the electrical in-plane resistivity ϱab has been investigated for high quality c-axis oriented YBa2(Cu1-xZnx)3O7-δ thin films (x=0.02 and 0.04) by magnetoresistance measurements up to 20 Teslas for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the a-b plane, at different temperatures below Tc. Deviation in the scaling behaviour expected from the anisotropic effective mass model is observed for small misalignement between the magnetic field direction and the superconducting CuO2 planes, which is attributed to the intrinsic pinning effect. The Zn doping influence on the anisotropic ratio γ = ξab/ξc is studied from the high angle scaling properties of the film.

  2. Spatial correlations of foF2 deviations and their implications for global ionospheric models: 1. Ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Leo F.; Wilkinson, Phillip J.

    2009-04-01

    The deviations of foF2 from the monthly median, ΔfoF2, have been calculated for each UT hour of each month for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2006, for 10 ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The linear correlation coefficients between simultaneous (same UT) values of ΔfoF2 for 45 station pairs have then been calculated for each hour for the 48 months. Since mixing up magnetically quiet and disturbed days can lead to deceptive correlations that correspond to neither quiet nor disturbed days, most of the analysis has been restricted to magnetically quiet days, defined as Ap < 25. On a monthly basis, it is found that the correlation coefficients are significantly lower for months with no magnetically disturbed days. In general, the correlation coefficients decrease with decreasing solar activity, from 2002/2003 to 2006. It is inferred that the deviations that lead to the observed correlation coefficients are due to changes in the solar wind, and the consequent effects on neutral winds, electric fields, temperature, and composition. The magnitudes of the measured correlation coefficients have implications for the F2 region correlation lengths used in global ionospheric models. For the Australian ionosondes and for quiet days, the inferred north-south correlation length would be ˜1000 km, while the east-west correlation length would be ˜1500 km, with somewhat lower values for winter and low solar activity. The lower limit is not well defined because the shortest station separation is 857 km. Shorter station separations are considered in a companion paper.

  3. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  4. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  5. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  6. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  7. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  8. [Immunogenetics of immunoglobulins of the American mink. VI. Deviation from Mendelian segregation for Cgamma-allotypes H2, H3 and H4].

    PubMed

    Fomicheva, I I; Baranov, O K

    1987-08-01

    The non-expression of parental allotype among mink F1 offsprings of monohybrid analyzing crosses was established for C gamma-allotypes. A phenotype ratio 0:1, instead of the expected Mendelian 1:1, was observed in some families. The non-expression of allotype may occur in the progeny of mink with normal allotypic specificity. Deviations of allotypic expression had both qualitative and quantitative nature and did not depend on the direction of crossings. Sometimes, the appearance of allotype in a mink could not be expected on the basis of its pedigree. Instability of expression and inheritance of H2, H3 and H4 in many families may have masked the allelic or linkage relationships of these genetic markers. PMID:3666449

  9. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, 30.201-4; the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and regulations at 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR appendix); and part 50). Submit requests per (HSAR) 48 CFR...

  10. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior...

  11. Band gap estimation from temperature dependent Seebeck measurement—Deviations from the 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max} relation

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Zachary M.; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-01-12

    In characterizing thermoelectric materials, electrical and thermal transport measurements are often used to estimate electronic band structure properties such as the effective mass and band gap. The Goldsmid-Sharp band gap, E{sub g} = 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max}, is a tool widely employed to estimate the band gap from temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient measurements. However, significant deviations of more than a factor of two are now known to occur. We find that this is when either the majority-to-minority weighted mobility ratio (A) becomes very different from 1.0 or as the band gap (E{sub g}) becomes significantly smaller than 10 k{sub B}T. For narrow gaps (E{sub g} ≲ 6 k{sub B}T), the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics applied by Goldsmid-Sharp break down and Fermi-Dirac statistics are required. We generate a chart that can be used to quickly estimate the expected correction to the Goldsmid-Sharp band gap depending on A and S{sub max}; however, additional errors can occur for S < 150 μV/K due to degenerate behavior.

  12. Explorations in Statistics: Standard Deviations and Standard Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in "Advances in Physiology Education" provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle…

  13. Revisiting N2 fixation in the North Atlantic Ocean: Significance of deviations from the Redfield Ratio, atmospheric deposition and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Lomas, M. W.; Bates, N. R.

    2013-09-01

    The average oceanic nitrate-to-phosphate molar ratio (NO3-:PO43-≈16:1, referred to as the Redfield Ratio) in subsurface waters, which is similar to the average ratio of particulate nitrogen (N)-to-phosphorus (P) in phytoplankton, is the cornerstone in calculating geochemical estimates of N2 fixation and denitrification rates. Any deviations from this canonical Redfield Ratio in intermediate ocean waters, expressed as N* (a measure of NO3- in excess or deficit of 16×PO43-), provides an integrated estimate of net N fluxes into and out of the ocean. In well-oxygenated ocean basins such as the North Atlantic Ocean, N* estimates are usually positive and can be used to infer that rates of N2 fixation exceed rates of denitrification. We use this approach to estimate N2 fixation over the last two decades (1988-2009) based on data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda. Our results indicate that interpretation of the N* tracer as an estimate of N2 fixation should be undertaken with caution, as N2 fixation is not the only process that results in a positive N* estimate. The impacts of a locally variable nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio, relative to the fixed Redfield Ratio, in the suspended particulate matter as well as in the subsurface water nutrients and atmospheric N deposition on N* variability were examined. Furthermore, we explored the role of climate modes (i.e., North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation) on N* variability. We found that N* in the subsurface waters was significantly affected by these factors and hence previous estimates of N2 fixation using this technique might have been substantially overestimated. Our revised estimate of N2 fixation in the North Atlantic Ocean (0°N-50°N, 20°W-80°W) is 12.2±0.9×1011 mol N yr-1, and based on long-term BATS data provides better constraints than both earlier indirect and direct estimates N2 fixation.

  14. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section 365.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each insured state nonmember bank...

  15. 50 CFR 600.315 - National Standard 2-Scientific Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards § 600.315 National Standard 2—Scientific Information. (a) Standard 2. Conservation and management... fishery management depends, in part, on the timely availability, quality, and quantity of scientific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 2-Scientific...

  16. 40 CFR 140.2 - Scope of standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.2 Scope of standard. The standard adopted herein applies only to vessels on which a marine sanitation device has been installed. The standard does not require the installation of a marine sanitation device on any vessel that is not so equipped. The standard applies to vessels owned...

  17. Computer generation of random deviates.

    PubMed

    Cormack, J; Shuter, B

    1991-06-01

    The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications, such as the simulation of physical processes, numerical evaluation of complex mathematical formulae and the modeling of decision processes. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. PMID:1747086

  18. 15 CFR 230.2 - Identification of Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of Standard Reference Materials. 230.2 Section 230.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS...

  19. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  20. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  1. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  2. 41 CFR 101-29.301-2 - Federal Standardization Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Federal Standardization... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.3-Responsibilities § 101-29.301-2 Federal Standardization Handbook. The Assistant... Standardization Handbook.” The Federal Standardization Handbook sets forth operating procedures and...

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.301-2 - Federal Standardization Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Federal Standardization... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.3-Responsibilities § 101-29.301-2 Federal Standardization Handbook. The Assistant... Standardization Handbook.” The Federal Standardization Handbook sets forth operating procedures and...

  4. 50 CFR 600.315 - National Standard 2-Scientific Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standards § 600.315 National Standard 2—Scientific Information. (a) Standard 2. Conservation and management... fishery management depends, in part, on the timely availability, quality, and quantity of scientific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Standard...

  5. 50 CFR 600.315 - National Standard 2-Scientific Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Standards § 600.315 National Standard 2—Scientific Information. (a) Standard 2. Conservation and management... fishery management depends, in part, on the timely availability, quality, and quantity of scientific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Standard...

  6. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Item standardization code. 101-30.701-2 Section 101-30.701-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code...

  7. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Item standardization code. 101-30.701-2 Section 101-30.701-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code...

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item standardization code. 101-30.701-2 Section 101-30.701-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code...

  9. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item standardization code. 101-30.701-2 Section 101-30.701-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code...

  10. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall...

  11. 40 CFR 140.2 - Scope of standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MARINE SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.2 Scope of standard. The standard adopted herein applies only to vessels on which a marine sanitation device has been installed. The standard does not require the installation of...

  12. 7 CFR 653.2 - Technical standards and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical standards and criteria. 653.2 Section 653.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.2 Technical standards and...

  13. 7 CFR 653.2 - Technical standards and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Technical standards and criteria. 653.2 Section 653.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.2 Technical standards and...

  14. 41 CFR 101-29.301-2 - Federal Standardization Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Handbook. 101-29.301-2 Section 101-29.301-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.3-Responsibilities § 101-29.301-2 Federal Standardization Handbook. The Assistant... Standardization Handbook.” The Federal Standardization Handbook sets forth operating procedures and...

  15. 41 CFR 101-29.301-2 - Federal Standardization Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Handbook. 101-29.301-2 Section 101-29.301-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.3-Responsibilities § 101-29.301-2 Federal Standardization Handbook. The Assistant... Standardization Handbook.” The Federal Standardization Handbook sets forth operating procedures and...

  16. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and...

  17. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and...

  18. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt...

  19. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and...

  20. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Authorizations § 21.609 Approval for deviation. (a) Each manufacturer...

  1. Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo

    2009-11-01

    We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S/Z, in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.

  2. Standards in Practice, Grades K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crafton, Linda K.

    Viewing the English language arts standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association as a point of departure rather than a final destination, this book presents a number of ways to increase student ownership of learning. The book details a pedagogy that recognizes, respects, and builds from…

  3. The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129

  4. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS § 365.2 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each insured state... extensions of credit that are secured by liens on or interests in real estate, or that are made for...

  5. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal standard barrels. 241.2 Section..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel... form or dimensions, is a legal standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, or other dry commodities...

  6. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... will be permitted only in unusual circumstances. SSA may apply more restrictive requirements to a...

  7. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  8. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  9. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  10. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  11. 7 CFR 36.2 - Initiating action on grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS PROCEDURES BY WHICH THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE DEVELOPS, REVISES, SUSPENDS, OR TERMINATES.... Any standardization action should reflect the broad interest of individuals or an industry involved...

  12. 2AFC assessment of contrast threshold for a standardized target using a monochrome LCD monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchou, Philip; Flynn, Michael J.; Peterson, Edward

    2004-05-01

    The DICOM Gray Scale Display Function (GSDF) relates display contrast to the contrast threshold derived from the Barton Model (CBM) of the human visual system. We have measured the contrast threshold (CT) using a monochrome medical LCD monitor and graphics card under the conditions defined by the DICOM standard and compared the results to the Barten Model. A two Alternative Forced Choice (2AFC) observer performance test was used to measure contrast threshold. The 2AFC tests were given once to a large group of observers with varied medical imaging experience. A small subset of this group was tested multiple times over several months in order to examine intraobserver variability. The mean relative contrast (CT/CBM) associated with a 75% detection rate was found to be 0.508, with a standard deviation of 0.176. For the intraobserver tests, results improved after the first 3 trials. The mean CT/CBM values (and standard deviation) for the next 9 tests were 0.0980 (0.107), 0.244 (0.0928), and 0.398 (0.0855). The results indicate that contrast substantially less than 1 CT/CBM is detected based on the statistical criteria used. This can be explained based on the criteria for detection used in the classical observer tests that form the basis for the Barten model. Additionally, our data indicates significant differences amongst observers.

  13. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  14. 28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose; standards for measuring compliance. 55.2 Section 55.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.2 Purpose; standards for measuring compliance....

  15. Development and verification of NASA Standard Initiator-2 (NSI-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin-Roberts, Linda

    1988-01-01

    The results of verification testing under NASA Contract NAS9-17249 are summarized in this Final Report. An Appendix is published separately. The report contains a brief discussion of design elements, test results, and a discussion of the latter. The contract was awarded for development and demonstration of design modifications to the NASA Standard Initiator-1 (NSI-1), resulting in the development of NSI-2. The intent of the project was to develop and prove the following design features: (1) Protection from premature initiation due to electrostatic potential by means other than a spark gap; (2) Development of an integral insulated charge cup for use with a zirconium/potassium perchlorate type mixture; (3) Improved cost and reliability figures by the use of a deposited ridge; and (4) Elimination of dudding as a result of the pyrotechnic shock effect, the movement of the primer composition away from the bridge circuit.

  16. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  17. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  18. Quantification and visualization of carotid segmentation accuracy and precision using a 2D standardized carotid map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Ukwatta, Eranga; Shavakh, Shadi; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a framework for vascular image segmentation evaluation. Since the size of vessel wall and plaque burden is defined by the lumen and wall boundaries in vascular segmentation, these two boundaries should be considered as a pair in statistical evaluation of a segmentation algorithm. This work proposed statistical metrics to evaluate the difference of local vessel wall thickness (VWT) produced by manual and algorithm-based semi-automatic segmentation methods (ΔT) with the local segmentation standard deviation of the wall and lumen boundaries considered. ΔT was further approximately decomposed into the local wall and lumen boundary differences (ΔW and ΔL respectively) in order to provide information regarding which of the wall and lumen segmentation errors contribute more to the VWT difference. In this study, the lumen and wall boundaries in 3D carotid ultrasound images acquired for 21 subjects were each segmented five times manually and by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The (absolute) difference measures (i.e., ΔT, ΔW, ΔL and their absolute values) and the pooled local standard deviation of manually and algorithmically segmented wall and lumen boundaries were computed for each subject and represented in a 2D standardized map. The local accuracy and variability of the segmentation algorithm at each point can be quantified by the average of these metrics for the whole group of subjects and visualized on the 2D standardized map. Based on the results shown on the 2D standardized map, a variety of strategies, such as adding anchor points and adjusting weights of different forces in the algorithm, can be introduced to improve the accuracy and variability of the algorithm.

  19. Quantification and visualization of carotid segmentation accuracy and precision using a 2D standardized carotid map.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Bernard; Ukwatta, Eranga; Shavakh, Shadi; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a framework for vascular image segmentation evaluation. Since the size of vessel wall and plaque burden is defined by the lumen and wall boundaries in vascular segmentation, these two boundaries should be considered as a pair in statistical evaluation of a segmentation algorithm. This work proposed statistical metrics to evaluate the difference of local vessel wall thickness (VWT) produced by manual and algorithm-based semi-automatic segmentation methods (ΔT) with the local segmentation standard deviation of the wall and lumen boundaries considered. ΔT was further approximately decomposed into the local wall and lumen boundary differences (ΔW and ΔL respectively) in order to provide information regarding which of the wall and lumen segmentation errors contribute more to the VWT difference. In this study, the lumen and wall boundaries in 3D carotid ultrasound images acquired for 21 subjects were each segmented five times manually and by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The (absolute) difference measures (i.e., ΔT, ΔW, ΔL and their absolute values) and the pooled local standard deviation of manually and algorithmically segmented wall and lumen boundaries were computed for each subject and represented in a 2D standardized map. The local accuracy and variability of the segmentation algorithm at each point can be quantified by the average of these metrics for the whole group of subjects and visualized on the 2D standardized map. Based on the results shown on the 2D standardized map, a variety of strategies, such as adding anchor points and adjusting weights of different forces in the algorithm, can be introduced to improve the accuracy and variability of the algorithm. PMID:23656804

  20. 9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance with standards. 2.100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100 Compliance...

  1. 9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance with standards. 2.100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100 Compliance...

  2. 9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance with standards. 2.100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100 Compliance...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix C2 to Part 305 - Standard Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix C to 10 CFR part 430, subpart B. Load patterns shall conform to the operating normal for the model... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Dishwashers C2 Appendix C2 to Part... Appendix C2 to Part 305—Standard Dishwashers Range Information “Standard” includes dishwasher models with...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix C2 to Part 305 - Standard Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appendix C to 10 CFR part 430, subpart B. Load patterns shall conform to the operating normal for the model... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Dishwashers C2 Appendix C2 to Part... Appendix C2 to Part 305—Standard Dishwashers Range Information “Standard” includes dishwasher models with...

  5. 9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with standards. 2.100 Section 2.100 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100 Compliance...

  6. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. APHIS will supply a copy of...

  7. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act,...

  8. Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…

  9. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 9 CFR 2.100 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with standards. 2.100... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.100 Compliance with... subchapter for the humane handling, care, treatment, housing, and transportation of animals. (b) Each...

  13. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 12 CFR 1720.2 - Safety and soundness standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety and soundness standards. 1720.2 Section... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS § 1720.2 Safety and soundness standards. Policy guidances as may be adopted from time to time by OFHEO, addressing safety and soundness...

  16. 14 CFR 125.3 - Deviation authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation authority. 125.3 Section 125.3... OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 125.3 Deviation authority. (a... deviation authority providing relief from specified sections of part 125. This deviation authority will...

  17. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  18. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  19. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  20. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  1. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  2. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  3. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  4. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  5. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  6. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  7. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 1401.404... THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a) The Director, PAM, is authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or DIAR provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  9. Cooperative Effects of Corticosteroids and Catecholamines upon Immune Deviation of the Type-1/Type-2 Cytokine Balance in Favor of Type-2 Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Sams, Clarence F.; Marshall, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show strong associations between stress and altered immune function. In vivo studies of chronic and acute stress have demonstrated that cognitive stressors are strongly correlated with high levels of catecholamines (CT) and corticosteroids (CS). Although both CS and CT individually can inhibit the production of T-helper 1 (TH1, type-1 like) cytokines and simultaneously promote the production of T-helper 2 (TH2, type-2 like) cytokines in antigen-specific and mitogen stimulated human leukocyte cultures in vitro, little attention has been focused on the effects of combination CT and CS in immune responses that may be more physiologically relevant. We therefore investigated the combined effects of in vitro CT and CS upon the type-1/type-2 cytokine balance of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a model to study the immunomodulatory effects of superimposed acute and chronic stress. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in type-1 cytokine production (IFN-gamma) and a significant increase in type-2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10) in our CS+CT incubated cultures when compared to either CT or CS agents alone. Furthermore, variable enhancement of type-1/type-2 immune deviation occurred depending upon when the CT was added. The data suggest that CS can increase the sensitivity of PBMC to the immunomodulatory effects of CT and establishes an in vitro model to study the combined effects of in vivo type-1/type-2 cytokine alterations observed in acute and chronic stress.

  10. 2 CFR 215.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 215.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall require recipients to...

  11. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  12. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  13. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  14. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  15. A study on the calibration of pitch-angle deviation for airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lixing; Hao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2013-05-01

    Airborne Lidar measurement technology, as an efficient way of acquiring three-dimensional geographic information, plays an important role in building DSM and DEM rapidly. Because the airborne Lidar measurement system usually integrates multiple devices including GPS receiver, INS, laser rangefinder and CCD camera, the relative geometric position and attitude relationships among these devices must be accurately measured in order to get the points with high precision and thereby satisfy the accuracy requirements of produced DSM and DEM. It is proved that the misalignment of airborne Lidar system, which is represented by angle deviations of yaw, pitch and roll, is the most significant source of systematic error in airborne Lidar measurement. In this paper, the effect of pitch angle error on the 3D coordinates of measured point is firstly analyzed. On this basis, a calibration method of the pitch angle deviation for airborne Lidar system by using the geometric characteristics of spire houses is put forward. The proposed pitch angle deviation calibration method consists of four key steps: (1) Initial pitch angle calculation. In the light of the offset distance between the ridge lines of the same house acquired by airborne Lidar system flying in opposite directions, an initial pitch angle deviation can be calculated. After separating the effect of pitch angle deviation, the rectified laser point cloud data are obtained. (2) Roof plane equation determination. The plane equations of both roof slopes are determined by fitting algorithms with the 3D coordinates of points located in the same spire roof. (3) Distance standard error calculation. The distance of each point to the roof plane is computed and applied to the calculation of distance standard error. (4) Final pitch angle deviation calculation. Taking the distance standard error as the overlapping criterion, the pitch angle deviation correction is iteratively calculated according to the aforesaid procedure until the distance standard error is less than a given value. The final pitch angle deviation is the sum of all the pitch angle deviation corrections. Experiments show that the proposed calibration method is correct and effective.

  16. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  17. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-2 Compliance... applicable standards. (1) In the case of representative testing a new test vehicle from another...

  18. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-2 Compliance... applicable standards. (1) In the case of representative testing a new test vehicle from another...

  19. 29 CFR 1912.2 - Types of standards advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.2 Types of... committees which have been, or may be established from time to time, to assist in the development...

  20. 21. c, 1915 Historic plan, standard 2 beam girder bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. c, 1915 Historic plan, standard 2 beam girder bridge. United Construction Company, Albany, New York. Generic plan typical of Prescott Bridge. Source: New Hampshire Department of Transportation - Prescott Bridge, Spanning Lamprey River on Prescott Road, Raymond, Rockingham County, NH

  1. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  2. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  3. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  4. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  5. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  6. Variability of Ocular Deviation in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In strabismus, the fixating eye conveys the direction of gaze while the fellow eye points at a peripheral location in space. The stability of the eyes may be reduced by the absence of a common target. OBJECTIVE To quantify the stability of eye position in strabismus and to measure variability in the ocular deviation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From 2010 to 2014, a prospective comparative case study of 25 patients with alternating exotropia with normal visual acuity in each eye and 25 control individuals was conducted in a laboratory at a tertiary eye center. A video eye tracker was used to measure the position of each eye while participants alternated fixation on the center of a cross under dichoptic conditions or scanned pictures of natural scenes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Spatial and temporal variability in the position of the fixating eye and the nonfixating eye in patients with strabismus and control individuals, quantified by the log area of ellipses containing 95% of eye positions or mean SDs of eye position. RESULTS In the 25 patients with strabismus, the mean (SD) age was 28 (14) years (range, 8–55 years) and the mean (SD) ocular deviation was 14.2° (5.9°) (range, 4.4°–22.4°). In the patients with strabismus, the mean position variability (1.80 log units; 95% CI, 1.66–1.93) for the deviating eye was greater than for the fixating eye (1.26 log units; 95% CI, 1.17–1.35) (P < .001). The fixating eye of patients with strabismus was more variable in position than the fixating eye of individuals without strabismus (0.98 log units; 95% CI, 0.88–1.08) (P < .005). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients with strabismus, even without amblyopia, the deviated eye is more variable in position than the fixating eye. Both eyes are less stable in position than the eyes of control individuals, which indicates that strabismus impairs the ability to fixate targets steadily. Saccades contribute to variability of the deviation angle because they are less conjugate in patients with strabismus. PMID:26562632

  7. 33 CFR 155.5012 - Deviation from response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation from response plan. 155.5012 Section 155.5012 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Nontank Vessel Response Plans § 155.5012 Deviation...

  8. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  9. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  10. 48 CFR 245.608-2 - Standard screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard screening. 245.608-2 Section 245.608-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-2...

  11. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations and... registration form. The registrant shall acknowledge receipt of and shall agree to comply with the...

  12. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations and... registration form. The registrant shall acknowledge receipt of and shall agree to comply with the...

  13. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations and... registration form. The registrant shall acknowledge receipt of and shall agree to comply with the...

  14. 40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.157-2 Section 205.157-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2 Compliance with...

  15. 40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Compliance with standards. 205.157-2 Section 205.157-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2 Compliance with...

  16. 40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.157-2 Section 205.157-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2 Compliance with...

  17. 40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.157-2 Section 205.157-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157-2 Compliance with...

  18. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  19. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  20. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  1. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  2. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  3. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  4. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.403 Individual deviations. (1) Individual...

  5. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  6. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  7. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  8. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  9. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  10. 49 CFR 71.2 - Annual advancement of standard time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 3(b) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(b)) provides that “it is the express intent of... Annual advancement of standard time. (a) The Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(a)), as amended... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual advancement of standard time. 71.2...

  11. High precision calibration for 2D optical standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Gan, Xiaochuan; Xue, Zi; Ye, Xiaoyou; Wang, Heyan; Gao, Hongtang

    2012-10-01

    Photomask is a kind of 2-D optical standard with etched orthogonal coordinates made of a glass substrate chrominged or filmed with other metal. In order to solve the problems of measurement and traceability of ultra precision photomasks used in advanced manufacturing industry, 2-D photomask optical standard was calibrated in high precision laser two coordinate standard device. A high precision differential laser interferometer system was used for a length standard, a high magnification optical micro vision system was used for precision optical positioning feedback. In this paper, a image measurement model was purposed; A sampling window auto identification algorithm was designed. Grid stripe image could be identified and aimed at automatically by this algorithm. An edge detection method based on bidirection progressive scanning and 3-sigma rule for eliminating outliers in sampling window was found. Dirty point could be removed with effect. Edge detection error could be lowered. By this means, the measurement uncertainty of 2-D optical standard's ruling span was less than 0.3 micrometer (k=2).

  12. Observations on the Reliability of Rubidium Frequency Standards on Block 2/2A GPS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieter, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, the block 2/2A Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are equipped with two rubidium frequency standards. These frequency standards were originally intended to serve as the back-ups to two cesium frequency standards. As the constellation ages, the master Control Station is forced to initialize and increasing number or rubidium frequency standards. Unfortunately the operational use of these frequency standards has not lived up to initial expectations. Although the performance of these rubidium frequency standards has met and even exceeded GPS requirements, their reliability has not. The number of unscheduled outage times and the short operational lifetimes of the rubidium frequency standards compare poorly to the track record of the cesium frequency standards. Only a small number of rubidium frequency standards have actually been made operational. Of these, a large percentage have exhibited poor reliability. If this trend continues, it is unlikely that the rubidium frequency standards will help contribute to the navigation payload meeting program specification.

  13. The Effect of Type of Punishment on Resistance to Deviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.

    The comparative effectiveness of an aversive stimulus, withholding of resources, withdrawal of love and reasoning, when used alone and combined with praise, was assessed in the standard laboratory punishment paradigm using 120 first and second graders as subjects. Resistance to deviation was used as the measure of punishment effectiveness. Sex of

  14. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  15. GPS Block 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    The underlying philosophy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture is to utilize two frequency sources, one fixed frequency reference source and one system frequency source, and to couple the system frequency source to the reference frequency source via a sample data loop. The system source is used to provide the basic clock frequency and timing for the space vehicle (SV) and it uses a voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) with high short term stability. The reference source is an atomic frequency standard (AFS) with high long term stability. The architecture can support any type of frequency standard. In the system design rubidium, cesium, and H2 masers outputting a canonical frequency were accommodated. The architecture is software intensive. All VCXO adjustments are digital and are calculated by a processor. They are applied to the VCXO via a digital to analog converter.

  16. Large deviations in the random sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmett, Geoffrey

    1997-05-01

    The proportion [rho]k of gaps with length k between square-free numbers is shown to satisfy log[rho]k=[minus sign](1+o(1))(6/[pi]2) klogk as k[rightward arrow][infty infinity]. Such asymptotics are consistent with Erdos's challenge to prove that the gap following the square-free number t is smaller than clogt/log logt, for all t and some constant c satisfying c>[pi]2/12. The results of this paper are achieved by studying the probabilities of large deviations in a certain random sieve, for which the proportions [rho]k have representations as probabilities. The asymptotic form of [rho]k may be obtained in situations of greater generality, when the squared primes are replaced by an arbitrary sequence (sr) of relatively prime integers satisfying [sum L: summation operator]r1/sr<[infty infinity], subject to two further conditions of regularity on this sequence.

  17. Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

  18. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  19. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed

  20. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., disclose in writing the Contractor's cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through... Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2, the... regulation in 48 CFR part 9903 and as to any cost adjustment demanded by the United States, such failure...

  1. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., disclose in writing the Contractor's cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through... Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2, the... regulation in 48 CFR part 9903 and as to any cost adjustment demanded by the United States, such failure...

  2. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., disclose in writing the Contractor's cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through... Accounting Standards (MAY 2014) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2, the... regulation in 48 CFR part 9903 and as to any cost adjustment demanded by the United States, such failure...

  3. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., disclose in writing the Contractor's cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through... Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2, the... regulation in 48 CFR part 9903 and as to any cost adjustment demanded by the United States, such failure...

  4. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., disclose in writing the Contractor's cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through... Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2, the... regulation in 48 CFR part 9903 and as to any cost adjustment demanded by the United States, such failure...

  5. LANDSAT 2 cumulative non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referred month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  6. 2 CFR 215.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 215.21 Section 215.21 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  7. Deviation from quark number scaling of the anisotropy parameter v2 of pions, kaons, and protons in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of the anisotropy parameter v2 of identified hadrons (pions, kaons, and protons) as a function of centrality, transverse momentum pT, and transverse kinetic energy KET at midrapidity (|η|<0.35) in Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are presented. Pions and protons are identified up to pT= 6 GeV/c, and kaons up to pT= 4 GeV/c, by combining information from time-of-flight and aerogel Čerenkov detectors in the PHENIX Experiment. The scaling of v2 with the number of valence quarks (nq) has been studied in different centrality bins as a function of transverse momentum and transverse kinetic energy. A deviation from previously observed quark-number scaling is observed at large values of KET/nq in noncentral Au + Au collisions (20-60%), but this scaling remains valid in central collisions (0-10%).

  8. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Rozell, E. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The S2S Search Interface Framework provides tools and services to build customized user interfaces. It also serves as a focal point for repository managers to develop science data services and reusable components for search interfaces. The framework has been used to design a faceted browsing platform for web services, including OpenSearch and SAWSDL. This exemplar faceted browsing platform has been applied in our development of search interfaces for 1) an international open government dataset catalog and 2) a metadata catalog for biological and chemical oceanography. S2S was designed from the ground up using open standards and technologies. The framework was initially created to develop "data dashboard" interfaces on top of OpenSearch services, but has been generalized to support web services and standards with semantic annotation capabilities. We apply OWL, a W3C standard for ontologies on the Web, to create a vocabulary for the description of framework metadata. Our faceted browsing platform is heavily focused on the use of jQuery; we have created reusable user interface "widgets" that leverage OpenLayers and MapServer technology in geospatial selection and visualization, which can be used in this and future platforms. The use of open standards and technologies has enabled rapid iterations over software development lifecycles, and has kept the framework agile as new use cases and ideas have emerged.

  9. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  10. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  11. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  12. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  13. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  14. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  15. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  16. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  17. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  18. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  19. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  20. 41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation....

  1. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  2. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary, after consultation with the Office of...

  3. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....

  4. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....

  5. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  6. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  7. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  8. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  9. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  10. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  11. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  12. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  13. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  14. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  15. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  16. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  17. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the... regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48 CFR...

  18. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

  19. 48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class...

  20. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

  1. 48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class...

  2. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. Anat Rec, 299:295-306, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26677010

  3. Effect of deviation from stoichiometric composition on structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, CoxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.2 to 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Nlebedim, I. C.; Snyder, J. E.; Moses, A. J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2012-02-10

    The effects of deviation from stoichiometric composition on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2 to 1.0), are presented. Both CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} have a spinel crystal structure, and it might be expected that intermediate compositions would have the same structure. However, results show that synthesis via the ceramic method leads to the development of a secondary {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Both structural and magnetic properties are altered depending on the concentration of the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Saturation magnetization is at a maximum for the stoichiometric composition (i.e., x = 1.0) and thereafter decreases with x. In attempts to achieve the properties required for application, the ceramic method offers the ability to selectively adjust the concentrations of both CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases.

  4. Effect of deviation from stoichiometric composition on structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, CoxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.2 to 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; Snyder, J. E.; Moses, A. J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of deviation from stoichiometric composition on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite, CoxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.2 to 1.0), are presented. Both CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4 have a spinel crystal structure, and it might be expected that intermediate compositions would have the same structure. However, results show that synthesis via the ceramic method leads to the development of a secondary α-Fe2O3 phase. Both structural and magnetic properties are altered depending on the concentration of the α-Fe2O3 phase. Saturation magnetization is at a maximum for the stoichiometric composition (i.e., x = 1.0) and thereafter decreases with x. In attempts to achieve the properties required for application, the ceramic method offers the ability to selectively adjust the concentrations of both CoFe2O4 and α-Fe2O3 phases.

  5. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Applied Physics, B57, pp 131-139, April 1993

  6. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  7. Skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Diana; Fouladvand, Mohammad; Lalwani, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for the treatment of episodic vertigo associated with Ménière's disease is generally well tolerated. Although auditory and vestibular symptoms following intratympanic gentamicin are well known, visual disturbance has not been previously described. In this report, we describe two patients with Ménière's disease who developed sudden onset of binocular vertical diplopia due to skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy. The skew deviation and diplopia resolved spontaneously and completely within 6 to 8 weeks without therapy. Development of diplopia due to skew deviation should be discussed as a potential complication in patients undergoing intratympanic gentamicin therapy. PMID:21344424

  8. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  9. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  10. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  11. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  12. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  13. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  14. Axis-1 diode simulations I: standard 2-inch cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2011-01-11

    The standard configuration of the DARHT Axis-I diode features a 5.08-cm diameter velvet emitter mounted in the flat surface of the cathode shroud. The surface of the velvet is slightly recessed {approx}2.5 mm. This configuration produces a 1.75 kA beam when a 3.8-MV pulse is applied to the anode-cathode (AK) gap. This note addresses some of the physics of this diode through the use of finite-element simulations.

  15. Standardized strapdown inertial component modularity study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, J.

    1974-01-01

    To obtain cost effective strapdown navigation, guidance and stabilization systems to meet anticipated future needs a standardized modularized strapdown system concept is proposed. Three performance classes, high, medium and low, are suggested to meet the range of applications. Candidate inertial instruments are selected and analyzed for interface compatibility. Electronic packaging and processing, materials and thermal considerations applying to the three classes are discussed and recommendations advanced. Opportunities for automatic fault detection and redundancy are presented. The smallest gyro and accelerometer modules are projected as requiring a volume of 26 cubic inches and 23.6 cubic inches, respectively. Corresponding power dissipation is projected as 5 watts, and 2.6 watts respectively.

  16. Special ergodic theorems and dynamical large deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleptsyn, Victor; Ryzhov, Dmitry; Minkov, Stanislav

    2012-11-01

    Let f : M → M be a self-map of a compact Riemannian manifold M, admitting a global SRB measure μ. For a continuous test function \\varphi\\colon M\\to R and a constant α > 0, consider the set Kφ,α of the initial points for which the Birkhoff time averages of the function φ differ from its μ-space average by at least α. As the measure μ is a global SRB one, the set Kφ,α should have zero Lebesgue measure. The special ergodic theorem, whenever it holds, claims that, moreover, this set has a Hausdorff dimension less than the dimension of M. We prove that for Lipschitz maps, the special ergodic theorem follows from the dynamical large deviations principle. We also define and prove analogous result for flows. Applying the theorems of Young and of Araújo and Pacifico, we conclude that the special ergodic theorem holds for transitive hyperbolic attractors of C2-diffeomorphisms, as well as for some other known classes of maps (including the one of partially hyperbolic non-uniformly expanding maps) and flows.

  17. Fatigue, pilot deviations and time of day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Susan P.

    1989-01-01

    The relationships between pilot fatigue, pilot deviations, reported incidents, and time of day are examined. A sample of 200 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports were analyzed from 1985 and 200 reports from 1987, plus 100 reports from late 1987 and early 1988 that were selected because of possible association with fatigue. The FAA pilot deviation data and incident data were analyzed in relation to denominator data that summarized the hourly operations (landings and takeoffs of scheduled flights) at major U.S. airports. Using as numerators FAA data on pilot deviations and incidents reported to the FAA, the rates by time of day were calculated. Pilot age was also analyzed in relation to the time of day, phase of flight, and type of incident.

  18. Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343

  19. Geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.; Atazadeh, K.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of a geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the general relativity equivalent equations for f (T ) gravity, which are in the modified gravity form such as f (R ) gravity. Then, we obtain the geodesic deviation equation within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the f (T ) gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of the Mattig relation.

  20. Laser-scanning angle deviation microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, M.-H.; Shih, B.-Y.; Lai, C.-W.

    2007-01-08

    A microscope manifesting a dynamic range of several microns and an axial (or height) resolution of 1 nm is presented. It is based on the method of angle deviation due to nonfocal plane reflection and the application of surface plasmon resonance effect as well as the technique of heterodyne interferometry. The deviation angle and the induced phase difference between two rays are proportional to the departure from the focal plane. Using the common-path heterodyne interferometry to scan the specimen and measure the phase difference distribution, the surface profile would be obtained in real time.

  1. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  2. Large Deviations: Advanced Probability for Undergrads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the branch of probability called "large deviations," rates of convergence (e.g. of the sample mean) are considered. The theory makes use of the moment generating function. So, particularly for sums of independent and identically distributed random variables, the theory can be made accessible to senior undergraduates after a first course in…

  3. 29 CFR 95.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND WITH COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS, FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 95.4 Deviations. The Office of...

  4. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  5. Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

  6. 7 CFR 2502.3 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 2502.3 Section 2502.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CAREER AND EMPLOYMENT (ACE) GRANTS PROGRAM General Information § 2502.3...

  7. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a

  8. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent...

  9. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent...

  10. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  18. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  19. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  20. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  1. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  2. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  3. Extensions to the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Buchholz, G.

    2011-11-01

    Since several years, the irradiation facility for beta radiation, the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2 developed at PTB, has been in worldwide use for the performance of irradiations with calibrated beta sources. Due to recent developments in eye tumor therapy, in eye lens dosimetry, and in soft- and hardware technology, several extensions have been added to the BSS 2. These extensions are described in this paper: 1. The possibility of using a 106Ru/106Rh beta source was added as this radionuclide is often used in tumor therapy. 2. The (small) contribution due to photon radiation was included in the dose (rate) reported by the BSS 2, as this was missing in the past. 3. The quantity personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm, Hp(3), was implemented due to recent findings on the radio sensitivity of the eye lens regarding cataract induction and the subsequent lowering of the dose limit from 150 mSv down to 20 mSv per year; 4. The correction for ambient conditions (air temperature, pressure, and relative humidity) was improved in order to adequately handle the quantity Hp(3) and in order to extend the range of use beyond 25°C. 5. A checksum test was added to the software to secure the calibration data against (un)intended changes. 6. The connection of the PC and the BSS 2 has been changed to a network interface (TCP/IP) in order to be able to use up-to-date computers not containing a parallel and a serial port. 7. A rod phantom was added in order to make sure the mechanical set-up is of high quality. All these extensions have been implemented in the PTB's BSS 2 model. The routine implementation of extension 1 is still under investigation by the manufacturer. The commercially available BSS 2 will contain extensions 2 to 6 starting approximately in 2012, while extension 7 has already been incorporated since 2011. Extensions 2 to 4 will also be available for old BSS 2 versions via a software update, starting approximately at the beginning of 2012. Extension 6 will be available via hardware change by the manufacturer.

  4. Clinical Implications of Septal Deviation in Lateralized Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Seok; Ryu, Yoon-Jong; Rhee, Jihye; Seok, Jungirl; Han, Sungjun; Jin, Hong Ryul; Kim, Dae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Results of butanol threshold tests (BTTs) have shown that birhinal olfaction tends to converge toward monorhinal olfaction of the dominant nostril. However, birhinal olfaction may also be worse than dominant-side monorhinal olfaction. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of deviated nasal septum on birhinal olfaction in patients with lateralized olfaction and to examine the effect of septoplasty in these patients. Methods A retrospective study with planned data collection was conducted in 518 patients who underwent BTTs. Lateralized olfaction was defined as monorhinal BTT scores that differed by >2 between sides. Underestimated birhinal olfaction was defined as a birhinal BTT score >2 lower than the dominant nostril monorhinal BTT score. Patients with lateralized olfaction were divided into 2 groups: group 1, underestimated birhinal olfaction; and group 2, without underestimated birhinal olfaction. Results Among 518 patients, 112 with lateralized olfaction were enrolled in this study. Group 1 included 23 patients (20.5%) and group 2 included 89 patients (79.5%). The severity of septal deviation (ratio of the distance of narrower side to wider side) did not differ between the 2 groups. Septal deviation to the dominant nostril was more common in group 1 than group 2 (73.9% vs. 37.6%; P=0.002). Five patients with septal deviation to the dominant nostril with underestimated birhinal olfaction underwent septoplasty. Improved lateralized olfaction occurred in all 5 patients postoperatively (P=0.041). Conclusion Septal deviation of the dominant nostril in patients with lateralized olfaction is associated with underestimated birhinal olfaction. Septoplasty may improve olfaction by increasing airflow in the dominant olfactory side. PMID:26976025

  5. Standard spacecraft economic analysis. Volume 2: Findings and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, E. D.; Large, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The comparative program costs associated with use of various standardized spacecraft for Air Force space test program missions to be flown on the space shuttle were studied in two phases. In the first phase, a variety of procurement mixes composed of existing or programmed NASA standard spacecraft designs and an Air Force standard spacecraft design were considered. The second phase dealt with additional procurement options using an upgraded version of an existing NASA design. The results of both phases are discussed.

  6. 2 CFR 200.318 - General procurement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 200...-Federal entity is encouraged to use value engineering clauses in contracts for construction projects...

  7. Primary Standards Laboratory report, 2nd half 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) operates a system-wide primary standards and calibration program for the US Department of Energy, Albuquerque Field Office (DOE/AL). The PSL mission is as follows: to develop and maintain primary standards; to calibrate electrical, physical, and radiation reference standards for customer laboratories (DOE/AL nuclear weapon contractors); to conduct the technical surveys and measurement audits of these laboratories; and to recommend and implement system-wide improvements. This report summarizes activities of the PSL for the second half of 1993 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL Standards and Calibration Program. Specific areas covered include development projects, improvement projects, calibration and special measurements, surveys and audits, customer service, and significant events. Appendixes include certifications and reports;; a discussion about commercial calibration laboratories; PSL memoranda (PSLM); test numbers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS); and DOE/PSL memoranda on the Standards and Calibration Program with emphasis on traceability of PSL calibrations.

  8. On deviations from ideal Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Bruels, H.K.; Lefebvre, M.H.; Berghmans, J.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental data shows that under certain conditions, measured detonation velocities exhibit deviations from theoretical values computed according to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) model. The purpose of this paper is to investigate why in some circumstances such deviations occur. A Zeldovitcb-von Neuman-Doring model (ZND) taking into account the specific chemical kinetics of the mixture, enables one to identify a critical parameter: the effective chemical reaction length. This parameter is mainly related to the chemical composition of the reactive mixture. It is shown that the ratio of this parameter to the dimension of the tube where the velocity measurements are carried out can explain deviations from ideal values. This simple model has been applied to a series of existing experimental data characterized by such deviations. Different initial conditions, namely, (1) mixtures near detonation limits, (2) low initial pressures, and (3) mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons, are investigated. All data show that the velocity deficit, {Delta}D{sub CJ}, is an increasing, but not necessarily linear, function of the ratio reaction length/dimension of the tube, d{sub rea}/d{sub tube}. To support this statement, a detailed one dimensional numerical computation has been performed, taking into account both nonstationary hydrodynamics and detailed chemical kinetics. These computations end tip with a detonation wave traveling at the ideal Chapman-Jouguet velocity. This suggests that the deviation from the CJ values ought to be explained by parameters taking into account the relative size of the surrounding of the detonation wave; d{sub rea}/d{sub tube} is such a parameter. In the present paper, the following mixtures are investigated: (1) hydrogen-oxygen mixtures near the detonation limits; (2) H{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, and Ar mixtures at low pressures; and (3) hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons (CF{sub 3}H).

  9. Large deviations for Markov processes with resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylahn, Janusz M.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Touchette, Hugo

    2015-12-01

    Markov processes restarted or reset at random times to a fixed state or region in space have been actively studied recently in connection with random searches, foraging, and population dynamics. Here we study the large deviations of time-additive functions or observables of Markov processes with resetting. By deriving a renewal formula linking generating functions with and without resetting, we are able to obtain the rate function of such observables, characterizing the likelihood of their fluctuations in the long-time limit. We consider as an illustration the large deviations of the area of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with resetting. Other applications involving diffusions, random walks, and jump processes with resetting or catastrophes are discussed.

  10. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  11. On large deviations for ensembles of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khrychev, D A

    2013-11-30

    The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  12. 20 CFR 619.2 - Data exchange standardization for ICON.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for ICON. (a) XML is the data exchange standard for the real-time ICON applications. These... Identification Inquiry. (b) All SWAs using real-time ICON applications must comply with this XML data...

  13. 29 CFR 1912.2 - Types of standards advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards in areas where there is frequent rulemaking and the use of ad hoc committees is impractical; and (b) Ad hoc committees which are established to render advice in particular rulemaking proceedings....

  14. 29 CFR 1912.2 - Types of standards advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards in areas where there is frequent rulemaking and the use of ad hoc committees is impractical; and (b) Ad hoc committees which are established to render advice in particular rulemaking proceedings....

  15. 29 CFR 1912.2 - Types of standards advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards in areas where there is frequent rulemaking and the use of ad hoc committees is impractical; and (b) Ad hoc committees which are established to render advice in particular rulemaking proceedings....

  16. 29 CFR 1912.2 - Types of standards advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards in areas where there is frequent rulemaking and the use of ad hoc committees is impractical; and (b) Ad hoc committees which are established to render advice in particular rulemaking proceedings....

  17. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  18. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  19. On deviations in Ruedenberg energy formula for molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, K. D.

    1981-01-01

    The deviation Δ=E-3/2ɛkνkɛk in the Ruedenberg2 energy formula is discussed in terms of atomic parameters. The formula Δ˜ɛa(Eza-21ee) is found to give good approximation to Δ. Ea and Veea represent the core energy and interelectronic energy of the constitutent atoms in the molecule.(AIP)

  20. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or....e., an established National TEMPEST standard (e.g., NACSEM 5100, NACSIM 5100A) or a standard used...

  1. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or....e., an established National TEMPEST standard (e.g., NACSEM 5100, NACSIM 5100A) or a standard used...

  2. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or....e., an established National TEMPEST standard (e.g., NACSEM 5100, NACSIM 5100A) or a standard used...

  3. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or....e., an established National TEMPEST standard (e.g., NACSEM 5100, NACSIM 5100A) or a standard used...

  4. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  5. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  6. 48 CFR 239.7408-2 - Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... construction labor standards for special construction. 239.7408-2 Section 239.7408-2 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7408-2 Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction. (a) The construction labor standards in FAR Subpart...

  7. 48 CFR 239.7408-2 - Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction labor standards for special construction. 239.7408-2 Section 239.7408-2 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7408-2 Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction. (a) The construction labor standards in FAR Subpart...

  8. 48 CFR 239.7408-2 - Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... construction labor standards for special construction. 239.7408-2 Section 239.7408-2 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7408-2 Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction. (a) The construction labor standards in FAR Subpart...

  9. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  10. Large deviations in single-file diffusion.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib

    2014-08-15

    We apply macroscopic fluctuation theory to study the diffusion of a tracer in a one-dimensional interacting particle system with excluded mutual passage, known as single-file diffusion. In the case of Brownian point particles with hard-core repulsion, we derive the cumulant generating function of the tracer position and its large deviation function. In the general case of arbitrary interparticle interactions, we express the variance of the tracer position in terms of the collective transport properties, viz., the diffusion coefficient and the mobility. Our analysis applies both for fluctuating (annealed) and fixed (quenched) initial configurations. PMID:25170732

  11. Classification of Ceres HST albedo deviation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; McFadden, L. A.; Blewett, T. D.; Scipioni, F.; Longobardo, A.; Li, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    With a mean diameter of 952 km, dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Here we classify Hubble Space Telescope (HST) albedo deviation map of Ceres calculated in three bands, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification method. The data are available in the PDS Small Bodies Node and are described in [1]. Our classification allows the identification of regions of interest on Ceres, and to distinguish areas with similar spectral characteristics. Our work is in support of the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres in 2015.

  12. Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the reactor mixing angle {θ }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {θ }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}ν {P}ν , where Ul and {U}ν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}ν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {θ }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{δ }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.

  13. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The barrier fluid is not in VHAP service and, if the pump is covered by standards under 40 CFR part 60... employ a gas chromatography column to limit the response of the monitor to VHAP, at the option of the... fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a...

  14. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The barrier fluid is not in VHAP service and, if the pump is covered by standards under 40 CFR part 60... employ a gas chromatography column to limit the response of the monitor to VHAP, at the option of the... fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a...

  15. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The barrier fluid is not in VHAP service and, if the pump is covered by standards under 40 CFR part 60... employ a gas chromatography column to limit the response of the monitor to VHAP, at the option of the... fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a...

  16. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The barrier fluid is not in VHAP service and, if the pump is covered by standards under 40 CFR part 60... employ a gas chromatography column to limit the response of the monitor to VHAP, at the option of the... fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a...

  17. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The barrier fluid is not in VHAP service and, if the pump is covered by standards under 40 CFR part 60, is not in VOC service. (3) Each barrier fluid system is equipped with a sensor that will detect... fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a...

  18. Trade Electricity. Lighting--Level 2. Standardized Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of nine modules on lighting, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The nine modules cover the following subjects: armored cable, rigid conduit, electrical metallic tubing, services and meters, fluorescent lighting, metal molding, wiremold, Romex,

  19. Trade Electricity. Lighting--Level 2. Standardized Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of nine modules on lighting, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The nine modules cover the following subjects: armored cable, rigid conduit, electrical metallic tubing, services and meters, fluorescent lighting, metal molding, wiremold, Romex,…

  20. National Standards for Quality Online Courses: Version 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. "National Standards for Quality Online Courses" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other…

  1. Mitigation of multiple fractures from deviated wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Hainey, B.W.; Weng, X.; Stoisits, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    While over six hundred Kuparuk A Sand wells have been hydraulically fractured or re-fractured successfully from deviated wellbores, a number of wells in the field have not responded to the conventional fracture treatments. In these wells, the conventional design resulted in premature, near-wellbore screenouts, with low proppant placement, and consequently, poor productivity. A symptom common to each of the failed treatments was a near-wellbore friction pressure loss too high to be explained by perforation restriction or simple fracture twisting and turning. An extensive analytical study of hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation from deviated wellbores suggested multiple fractures as a mechanism to account for the abnormally high near-wellbore friction pressure loss and the reduction in fracture width. A model was developed (XFRAC) which correlates these responses to formation stress, wellbore parameters and treatment conditions. A counter-intuitive fracture treatment which employed lower pumping rates combined with higher viscosity fracturing fluids was designed to minimize the formation of multiple fractures and increase fracture width. This unconventional design has been successfully pumped in eleven wells which exhibited the premature screenout problem. Proppant placement was increased over ten fold with a tripling of post-frac production rates and a 35 percent increase in estimated recovery.

  2. Perception via the deviated eye in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

    2012-07-25

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color ("red" or "blue") revealed which eye's image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  3. Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  4. 40 CFR 60.693-2 - Alternative standards for oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative standards for oil-water separators. 60.693-2 Section 60.693-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum...

  5. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 4: Standardized subsystem modules analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The capability to analyze payloads constructed of standardized modules was provided for the planning of future mission models. An inventory of standardized module designs previously obtained was used as a starting point. Some of the conclusions and recommendations are: (1) the two growth factor synthesis methods provide logical configurations for satellite type selection; (2) the recommended method is the one that determines the growth factor as a function of the baseline subsystem weight, since it provides a larger growth factor for small subsystem weights and results in a greater overkill due to standardization; (3) the method that is not recommended is the one that depends upon a subsystem similarity selection, since care must be used in the subsystem similarity selection; (4) it is recommended that the application of standardized subsystem factors be limited to satellites with baseline dry weights between about 700 and 6,500 lbs; and (5) the standardized satellite design approach applies to satellites maintainable in orbit or retrieved for ground maintenance.

  6. 49 CFR 71.2 - Annual advancement of standard time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Annual advancement of standard time. (a) The Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(a)), as amended... easternmost time zone portion from this requirement. (b) Section 3(b) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(b)) provides that “it is the express intent of Congress * * * to supersede any and all...

  7. 49 CFR 71.2 - Annual advancement of standard time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Annual advancement of standard time. (a) The Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(a)), as amended... easternmost time zone portion from this requirement. (b) Section 3(b) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260a(b)) provides that “it is the express intent of Congress * * * to supersede any and all...

  8. Fast self contained exponential random deviate algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Julio F.

    1997-03-01

    An algorithm that generates random numbers with an exponential distribution and is about ten times faster than other well known algorithms has been reported before (J. F. Fernández and J. Rivero, Comput. Phys. 10), 83 (1996). That algorithm requires input of uniform random deviates. We now report a new version of it that needs no input and is nearly as fast. The only limitation we predict thus far for the quality of the output is the amount of computer memory available. Performance results under various tests will be reported. The algorithm works in close analogy to the set up that is often used in statistical physics in order to obtain the Gibb's distribution. N numbers, that are are stored in N registers, change with time according to the rules of the algorithm, keeping their sum constant. Further details will be given.

  9. 40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2220 Section 60.2220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2220 Section 60.2220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid...

  11. 2 CFR 200.419 - Cost accounting standards and disclosure statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accounting standards located at 48 CFR 9905.501, 9905.502, 9905.505, and 9905.506. CAS-covered contracts... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost accounting standards and disclosure... Institutions of Higher Education § 200.419 Cost accounting standards and disclosure statement. (a) An IHE...

  12. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 2: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 2, in conjunction with Volume 3, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  13. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section 60.42b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42c Section 60.42c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...

  15. 10 CFR 2.811 - Filing of standard design certification application; required copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of standard design certification application... LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rulemaking § 2.811 Filing of standard design certification... standard design certification, including all amendments to the applications, must be sent either by...

  16. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Toms; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behaviorsuch fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momentain other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  17. Raypath deviation under stable and unstable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Denis; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin; Forand, Luc; Potvin, Guy

    2005-10-01

    Ray-bending resulting from atmospheric refraction in the maritime environment has been shown to potentially produce significant effects on electro-optical target detection and imaging. Positive bending makes possible detection beyond the horizon while negative bending reduces the maximum inter-vision range (MIVR) and is likely to produce severe image distortion or mirages. It has been shown by many authors that these phenomena can be efficiently described using ray-tracing in conjunction with bulk estimations of the refractivity profiles based on the Monin-Obhukov theory. In this paper, the accuracy of bulk methods to describe ray bending is assessed by examining angular deviations of apparent target elevations with respect to the meteorological conditions. Prediction accuracy is shown for a large spectrum of conditions, characterized by the air-sea temperature difference, by combining measurements collected in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the use of bulk profiles as opposed to profiles measured at sea by using a buoy is discussed.

  18. Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

  19. Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.P. )

    1993-11-22

    A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

  20. Stochastic quantum Zeno by large deviation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardini, Stefano; Gupta, Shamik; Saverio Cataliotti, Francesco; Smerzi, Augusto; Caruso, Filippo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quantum measurements are crucial for observing the properties of a quantum system, which, however, unavoidably perturb its state and dynamics in an irreversible way. Here we study the dynamics of a quantum system being subjected to a sequence of projective measurements applied at random times. In the case of independent and identically distributed intervals of time between consecutive measurements, we analytically demonstrate that the survival probability of the system to remain in the projected state assumes a large deviation (exponentially decaying) form in the limit of an infinite number of measurements. This allows us to estimate the typical value of the survival probability, which can therefore be tuned by controlling the probability distribution of the random time intervals. Our analytical results are numerically tested for Zeno-protected entangled states, which also demonstrate that the presence of disorder in the measurement sequence further enhances the survival probability when the Zeno limit is not reached (as it happens in experiments). Our studies provide a new tool for protecting and controlling the amount of quantum coherence in open complex quantum systems by means of tunable stochastic measurements.

  1. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  2. A Standardized Interpolation of Temperature Using Rhodium-Iron Resistance Thermometers Over the Interval 4.2 K to 24.5 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew, W. L.; Rusby, R. L.; Lin, P.; Lipinski, L.; Steur, P. P. M.; Ricketson, B. W. A.

    2015-08-01

    The worldwide history and present state of development of rhodium-iron resistance thermometers (RIRTs) is briefly reviewed. A standardized interpolation method using RIRTs with the nominal composition of 0.5 % Fe (by mole) is presented, with examples using data taken from 60 RIRTs made from a variety of wire batches and sources worldwide over the last 40 years. The parameterization exploits the favorable characteristics of the Cragoe reduced resistance and a suitably reduced temperature . A reference function which approximates the average characteristics of selected wire is derived for use over the interval 0.65 K to 24.5561 K on the ITS-90. The deviations of real RIRT data from this reference function are examined, and simple four-parameter Fourier-series solutions for the resulting deviation curves are presented. Despite the fact that the wire samples may be of different origins or state-of-anneal, it was found that the interpolations are successful for most of the samples studied over the 4.2 K to 24.5561 K interval, at the level of 1 standard uncertainty or less. This method would allow for calibrations of most RIRTs over this interval using only six calibration points, permitting an efficiency not achievable using the common least-squares curve-fitting calibration methods. The potential of this formalism for a standardized interpolation scheme using RIRTs is discussed.

  3. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors. PMID:23509944

  4. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. (a)...

  5. Successful treatment of open jaw and jaw deviation dystonia with botulinum toxin using a simple intraoral approach.

    PubMed

    Moscovich, Mariana; Chen, Zhongxing Peng; Rodriguez, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia that involves the mouth, jaw, and/or tongue. It can be classified as idiopathic, tardive dystonia or secondary to other neurological disorders and subdivided into jaw opening, jaw closing, jaw deviation and lip pursing. The muscles involved in jaw opening dystonia are usually the digastrics and lateral pterygoids. It is known that the lateral pterygoids may be approached both internally and externally. The external approach is the most common; however neurologists experienced in treating patients with botulinum toxin can safely and with no extra cost perform the intraoral procedure. We report our experience in the treatment of jaw opening and jaw deviation dystonia using the intraoral injection approach. Eight patients were selected from the University of Florida with a clinical diagnosis of open jaw/jaw deviation dystonia. All of them were injected with onabotulinum toxin A using the internal approach and the clinical global impression scale was applied. The mean age of the patients was 67 (standard deviation [SD] 10.2) years, with a disease duration of 10.2 (SD 7.7) years and the mean distance they traveled to our institution was 448 km (278 miles). After treatment, six patients scored as very much improved in the clinical global impression scale and two patients scored as much improved. Only one patient reported an adverse event of nasal speech following one of the injections that improved after 4 weeks. Botulinum toxin injections for open jaw/jaw deviation dystonia can be safely performed with the intraoral approach without the need of special devices other than electromyography. PMID:25541097

  6. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturer may use more parameters): (a) Engine type. (1) Gasoline—two stroke cycle. (2) Gasoline—four stroke cycle. (3) Diesel—two stroke cycle. (4) Diesel—four stroke cycle. (5) Rotary—wankel. (6) Turbine....

  7. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer may use more parameters): (a) Engine type. (1) Gasoline—two stroke cycle. (2) Gasoline—four stroke cycle. (3) Diesel—two stroke cycle. (4) Diesel—four stroke cycle. (5) Rotary—wankel. (6) Turbine....

  8. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturer may use more parameters): (a) Engine type. (1) Gasoline—two stroke cycle. (2) Gasoline—four stroke cycle. (3) Diesel—two stroke cycle. (4) Diesel—four stroke cycle. (5) Rotary—wankel. (6) Turbine....

  9. Faint Standard Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph

    2000-07-01

    Fainter standard stars are needed for the flux calibration of COS, while reobservations are required to check for variability and to improve S/N. The four pure hydrogen WD standard stars from the original FASTEX proposal 8423 will satisfy these requirements and provide useful new standards for the community. Since these stars are selected by D. Finley to be pure hydrogen, the models provide the shape of flux reference, while the STIS CCD spectrum sets the absolute level of the fluxes. The UV STIS spectra are also required to measure the small or negligible interstellar reddening. In addition, even fainter standards are required for the prism modes on ACS. The faint stars of NGC6681 observed first in cal proposal 8422 are appropriate but must be reobserved to verify stability and improve the S/N. Finally, Bohlin {2000, AJ, July} found a 2-3 sigma deviation of the observed flux of HZ43 and G191B2B from their models. An additional pair of observation of these two stars will i mprove the broadband statistics by doubling the number of observed low dispersion spectra from 2 to 4 and should resolve the question of whether the deviations from the model are due to instrumental effects or to problems with the model atmospheres.

  10. 28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.2 Purpose... to conduct elections in the language of certain “language minority groups” in addition to English. (b... applicable language minority groups to participate effectively in the electoral process. This...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix C2 to Part 305 - Standard Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C2... appendix C to 10 CFR part 430, subpart B. Load patterns shall conform to the operating normal for the...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix C2 to Part 305 - Standard Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C2... appendix C to 10 CFR part 430, subpart B. Load patterns shall conform to the operating normal for the...

  13. 40 CFR 205.157-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 205.157-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... of testing by the Administrator and selective enforcement auditing with regard to each vehicle... Auditing verify according to the requirements of (b)(1) and/or (c)(1) of this section any configurations...

  14. 28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.2 Purpose... to conduct elections in the language of certain “language minority groups” in addition to English. (b... applicable language minority groups to participate effectively in the electoral process. This...

  15. SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence)

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Davies, Louise; Goodman, Daisy; Batalden, Paul; Davidoff, Frank; Stevens, David

    2015-01-01

    In the past several years, the science of health care improvement has advanced considerably. In this article, we describe the development of SQUIRE 2.0 and its key components. We undertook the revision between 2012 and 2015 using (1) interviews and focus groups to evaluate SQUIRE 1.0 plus feedback from an international steering group, (2) face-to-face consensus meetings to develop interim drafts, and (3) pilot testing with authors and a public comment period. SQUIRE 2.0 emphasizes 3 key components of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value, and safety of health care: formal and informal theory in planning, implementing, and evaluating improvement work; the context in which the work is done; and the study of the intervention(s). SQUIRE 2.0 is intended for reporting the range of methods used to improve health care, recognizing that they can be complex and multidimensional. It provides common ground to share these discoveries in the scholarly literature (www.squire-statement.org). PMID:26497490

  16. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  2. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  3. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  4. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  6. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  7. 43 CFR 4750.3-2 - Qualification standards for private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualification standards for private... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-2 Qualification standards for private maintenance. (a) To qualify to receive a wild horse or burro for private maintenance,...

  8. 43 CFR 4750.3-2 - Qualification standards for private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualification standards for private... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-2 Qualification standards for private maintenance. (a) To qualify to receive a wild horse or burro for private maintenance,...

  9. 43 CFR 4750.3-2 - Qualification standards for private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualification standards for private... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-2 Qualification standards for private maintenance. (a) To qualify to receive a wild horse or burro for private maintenance,...

  10. 43 CFR 4750.3-2 - Qualification standards for private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualification standards for private... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-2 Qualification standards for private maintenance. (a) To qualify to receive a wild horse or burro for private maintenance,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel.../J heat input (0.80 lb/MMBtu) derived from liquid fossil fuel or liquid fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) 520 ng/J heat input (1.2 lb/MMBtu) derived from solid fossil fuel or solid fossil fuel and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel.../J heat input (0.80 lb/MMBtu) derived from liquid fossil fuel or liquid fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) 520 ng/J heat input (1.2 lb/MMBtu) derived from solid fossil fuel or solid fossil fuel and...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...—Tier 3 Standards for Category 2 Engines Below 3700 kW a Displacement (L/cyl) Maximum engine power Model... Category 2 engines with per-cylinder displacement above 15.0 liters if maximum engine power is at or above... may alternatively certify some or all of your engine families to a PM emission standard of 0.20...

  14. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel.../J heat input (0.80 lb/MMBtu) derived from liquid fossil fuel or liquid fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) 520 ng/J heat input (1.2 lb/MMBtu) derived from solid fossil fuel or solid fossil fuel and...

  15. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 234 225 33,000 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  16. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 234 225 33,000 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  17. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  18. Development and verification of NASA Standard Initiator-2 (NSI-2): Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is the Appendix to the Final Report on the results of verification testing on NASA Contract NAS9-17249. The test results are presented graphically in the Appendix. The Final Report is a brief discussion of design elements, test results, and a discussion of the latter. The contract was awarded for development and demonstration of design modifications to the NASA Standard Initiator-1 (NSI-1), resulting in the development of NSI-2. The intent of the project was to develop and prove the following design features: (1) Protection from premature detonation due to electrostatic potential by means other than a spark gap; (2) Development of an integral insulated charge cup for use with a zirconium/potassium perchlorate type mixture; (3) Improved cost and reliability figures by the use of a deposited bridge; and (4) Elimination of dudding as a result of the pyrotechnic shock effect, the movement of the primer composition away from the bridge circuit.

  19. Effect of foot deformity on conventional mechanical axis deviation and ground mechanical axis deviation during single leg stance and two leg stance in genu varum.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sameer Shrikrishna; Shetty, Gautam M; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Kim, Tae Young; Hur, Chung Yong

    2007-12-01

    We assessed the effect of foot deformity on the loading axis of lower limbs in 33 patients with genu varum (25 bilateral and eigth unilateral) caused by varying etiologies including achondroplasia, cerebral palsy, prior trauma, rickets, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and primary osteoarthritis using single leg stance and both leg stance radiographs. Deviation at the knee from the hip ankle line (conventional) and hip foot line (centre of hip to centre of heel) was calculated. A comparison was made between single leg stance and two leg stance for tibiocalcaneal angle, mechanical axis angle, knee and ankle joint line convergence angle, conventional mechanical axis deviation (MADC) and ground mechanical axis deviation (MADG). In addition comparisons were also made among three groups formed depending on the tibiocalcaneal angle and MADC-MADG difference for all the above measurements. Mechanical axis deviation (calculated using the two methods) varied with the talocalcaneal angle and single leg stance. Patients with a fixed subtalar varus and with severe genu varum, where the normal compensatory subtalar eversion could not compensate showed that conventional mechanical axis deviation was significantly higher by 3.4+/-2.4 mm and ground mechanical axis deviation degrees was significantly higher by 3.8+/-3.2 mm in single leg stance when compared to two leg stance (p<.0001). Foot deformity should be included during preoperative evaluation and planning for knee deformity correction. PMID:17825567

  20. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time αi(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy ΩDE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  1. Determination of real machine-tool settings and minimization of real surface deviation by computerized inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  2. Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114

  3. A performance standards approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    2009-06-15

    The CO{sub 2} emission performance standard policies outlined in this paper could complement a cap-and-trade program that puts a price on carbon and serve to significantly reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from coal use for electricity generation. Emission performance standards have a long history in the United States and have been successfully used to control emissions of various air pollutants from electric generators. This paper explores the rationale for using emission performance standards and describes the various types of performance standard policies. Emission performance standards that address CO{sub 2} emissions could promote the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology coupled with new and existing coal-fueled electric power plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.3053 Section 60.3053 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2958 Section 60.2958 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting §...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2780 Section 60.2780 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.3053 Section 60.3053 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2780 Section 60.2780 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and...

  9. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-02-10

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  10. MUSiC—An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-02-01

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  11. 40 CFR 60.482-2a - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pumps in light liquid... Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.482-2a Standards: Pumps in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each pump in light liquid service shall be monitored monthly to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.482-2 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pumps in light liquid..., 2006 § 60.482-2 Standards: Pumps in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each pump in light liquid service... in § 60.482-1(c) and (f) and paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section. A pump that...

  13. 40 CFR 60.482-2a - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pumps in light liquid... Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.482-2a Standards: Pumps in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each pump in light liquid service shall be monitored monthly to...

  14. NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and HIDH (Human Integration Design Handbook)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis; Fitts, David; Stroud, Kenneth; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the review and re-issuance of the NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and the Human Integration Design Handbook. These standards were last updated in 1995. The target date for the release is September 2009.

  15. 75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... on a proposed revision to Voluntary Product Standard (PS) 2-04, Performance Standard for Wood-Based... assess the acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single-floor... acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single- floor application,...

  16. 2 CFR 180.850 - What is the standard of proof in a debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the evidence. (b) If the proposed debarment is based upon a conviction or civil judgment, the standard... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the standard of proof in a debarment action? 180.850 Section 180.850 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  17. FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L; Bunch, Dr David S.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

  18. WA1ms: A ∼2.61 Ga muscovite standard for 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, Fred; Frew, Adam; Joly, Aurore; Mayers, Celia; Evans, Noreen J.

    2014-09-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar dating technique requires the use of neutron fluence monitors (standards) to allow calculation of the age of a sample. Precise calibration of these standards is crucial to obtaining accurate ages and decreasing the uncertainties associated with 40Ar/39Ar dates. Few fully intercalibrated 40Ar/39Ar standards with a sufficient total fusion grain-to-grain reproducibility are currently in use in the argon community. For Precambrian samples, only Hb3gr hornblende (∼1.08 Ga) yields sufficient grain-to-grain reproducibility and has an appropriate age for acceptable argon isotopic ratio measurements. Here, we present chemical and intercalibration results for a new ∼2.61 Ga standard. WA1ms is a muscovite extracted from an Archaean shear zone in the Lake Johnston greenstone belt, Western Australia. In situ trace element analysis by ELA-ICPMS revealed consistent K contents, subtle zonation and intra-grain and grain-to-grain heterogeneities in Rb, Sr, Ti, and Fe but a lack of mineral inclusions.WA1ms has been investigated over 3 irradiations ranging from 25 to 40 h, in two reactors, with several disc positions and three grains sizes and has been calibrated against FCs and GA1550, and Hb3gr. Overall, we carried out 48 total fusion and 4 step-heating experiments of WA1ms crystals. Flat age spectra and average F-value (40Ar∗/39ArK) relative standard deviations ranging from of 0.43% to 0.60% (P = 0.15-0.83) for 47/48 analyses demonstrate the reproducibility of WA1ms and its suitability as a reliable 40Ar/39Ar standard. We calculated R[WA1ms/FCs] = 205.59 ± 0.25, R[WA1ms/GA1550] = 57.25 ± 0.06 and R[WA1ms/Hb3gr] = 3.9713 ± 0.014 (all with P > 0.14) allowing direct comparison between WA1ms and any standards in used in the community, provided that they have been calibrated against any of the three standards used in the calibration and regardless of the age adopted for each of these standards. The recently revised decay constant values and standard ages proposed by Renne et al. (2011) yield a weighted mean age of 2614.2 ± 1.5 Ma (±0.055%; P = 0.8; 1σ) for WA1ms against the three standards. When calibrated solely against FCs in order to minimize correlated errors between FCs vs. GA1550 and Hb3gr, we calculate a preferred age of 2613.0 ± 2.4 Ma (±0.09%) which is recommended when using this standard. Additionally, this corresponds to a 40Ar∗/40K value of (0.3375 ± 0.0057) × 10-1 for WA1ms, which is independent of the value of the decay constant used for calculation and allows recalculation of the age of WA1ms for any preferred set of decay constants and standard ages. Using the constants proposed by Steiger and Jäger (1977) directly calculated from the three R-values, yields an age of 2598.2 ± 3.5 Ma corresponding to an identical, although less precise 40Ar∗/40K value of (0.3375 ± 0.0086) × 10-1. Benefits of this standard include: (1) an increased relative precision per crystal analyzed relative to other standards for Proterozoic and Archaean samples, (2) no post-irradiation waiting time due to the absence of Ca (no need to wait for 37ArCa decay), and (3) loading of standard grains that are optically different from the unknown (e.g., pyroxene or hornblende) to avoid standard-unknown mixing. WA1ms is freely available to the 40Ar/39Ar community.

  19. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section. See 40 CFR part 1036 for CH4 or N2O standards that apply to engines used in these... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for...

  20. ECG-Based Detection of Early Myocardial Ischemia in a Computational Model: Impact of Additional Electrodes, Optimal Placement, and a New Feature for ST Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Axel; Schulze, Walther H. W.; Jiang, Yuan; Wilhelms, Mathias; Luik, Armin; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG), however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs). Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2–11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold. PMID:26587538

  1. J-2X Engine Continues to Set Standards - Duration: 66 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Testing of the next-generation J-2X rocket engine continues to set standards. Last fall, the engine attained 100 percent power in just its fourth test and became the fastest U.S. rocket engine to a...

  2. Compliance with the new PM2.5 standard -- attainment or non-attainment?

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    The revisions to the United States (US) national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) will have an impact on a number of counties and metropolitan areas in the US. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added two new PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 micrometers) standards in July 1997 which included: (1) a new annual PM2.5 standard of 15 ug (micrograms)/m{sup 3} and (2) a new 24-hour PM2.5 standard of 65 ug/m{sup 3}. Some reports indicated that the EPA initially projected that as many as 150 counties in the US will not be able to attain the new PM2.5 standards. This paper examines three sources of PM2.5/PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10.0 micrometers) ratios for 67 monitoring locations in the US and Canada. Based on the minimum, mean, and maximum PM2.5/PM10 ratios, estimates of the number of Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the US that could potentially exceed the new annual PM2.5 standard were made. Additionally, a theoretical estimate of the number of counties that would exceed the new 24-hour standard was made based on 1995 PM10 EPA Trends reports data. The mean ratio of PM2.5/PM10 calculated in this paper was 0.53. Based on this mean ratio, about 54 MSAs in the US could be expected to exceed the 15 ug/m{sup 3} annual PM2.5 standard. Using the minimum (0.36) and maximum (0.76) PM2.5/PM10 ratios, the number of MSAs exceeding the 15 up/m{sup 3} standard would be 6 and 180, respectively. Using the same PM2.5/PM10 ratios, the theoretical number of counties exceeding the new 24-hour standard PM2.5 concentration would be 35, 6, and 109 based on the mean, minimum, and maximum ratios, respectively.

  3. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones as markers for irradiated foodstuffsI. Synthesis of saturated and unsaturated standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, M.; Ndiaye, B.; Hasselmann, C.; Marchioni, E.

    1999-07-01

    The reaction scheme suggested for the synthesis of 2-alkylcyclobutanone standards, the key step being a Wittig reaction between a protected ketoaldehyde and phosphoranes with alkyl chains of variable length, has made it possible to prepare different 2-alkylcyclobutanones with saturated alkyl chains (C6 to C14) (in yields varying from 27 to 36%) as well as 2-alkylcyclobutanones with monounsaturated chains (C12 and C14) (in yields of 23 and 17%). In addition, the 2-alkylcyclobutanones synthesized with an odd number of carbon atoms in the saturated alkyl chain, especially 2-undecylcyclobutanone (C11), might be utilized as internal standards when assaying these chemical compounds by GC/MS.

  4. The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

  5. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.2 - Variances from safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances from safety and health standards. 1926.2 Section 1926.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General § 1926.2...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.2 - Variances from safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Variances from safety and health standards. 1926.2 Section 1926.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General § 1926.2...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.2 - Variances from safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances from safety and health standards. 1926.2 Section 1926.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General § 1926.2...

  9. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  10. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  11. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  12. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  13. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  14. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  15. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  16. 78 FR 43066 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; National Standard 2-Scientific Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ...This final action amends the guidelines for National Standard 2 (NS2) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) regarding scientific information. Consistent with the President's memo on Scientific Integrity (March 9, 2009) and NOAA Administrative Order 202-735D, the revised NS2 guidelines are intended to ensure the highest level of integrity and strengthen public......

  17. 48 CFR 570.704 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deviations to provisions and clauses. 570.704 Section 570.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... contracting officer also needs an approved deviation to modify the language of a provision or clause...

  18. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  19. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  3. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  4. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  5. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89 Deviations from scheduled processes. Whenever any process operation deviates from the scheduled process for any... processor of the acidified food shall either: (a) Fully reprocess that portion of the food by a...

  6. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  7. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  8. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  9. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  10. Welding deviation detection algorithm based on extremum of molten pool image contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong; Jiang, Lipei; Li, Yunhua; Xue, Long; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The welding deviation detection is the basis of robotic tracking welding, but the on-line real-time measurement of welding deviation is still not well solved by the existing methods. There is plenty of information in the gas metal arc welding(GMAW) molten pool images that is very important for the control of welding seam tracking. The physical meaning for the curvature extremum of molten pool contour is revealed by researching the molten pool images, that is, the deviation information points of welding wire center and the molten tip center are the maxima and the local maxima of the contour curvature, and the horizontal welding deviation is the position difference of these two extremum points. A new method of weld deviation detection is presented, including the process of preprocessing molten pool images, extracting and segmenting the contours, obtaining the contour extremum points, and calculating the welding deviation, etc. Extracting the contours is the premise, segmenting the contour lines is the foundation, and obtaining the contour extremum points is the key. The contour images can be extracted with the method of discrete dyadic wavelet transform, which is divided into two sub contours including welding wire and molten tip separately. The curvature value of each point of the two sub contour lines is calculated based on the approximate curvature formula of multi-points for plane curve, and the two points of the curvature extremum are the characteristics needed for the welding deviation calculation. The results of the tests and analyses show that the maximum error of the obtained on-line welding deviation is 2 pixels(0.16 mm), and the algorithm is stable enough to meet the requirements of the pipeline in real-time control at a speed of less than 500 mm/min. The method can be applied to the on-line automatic welding deviation detection.

  11. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  12. Marine microbial biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology (M2B3) data reporting and service standards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Contextual data collected concurrently with molecular samples are critical to the use of metagenomics in the fields of marine biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology. We present here Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (M2B3) standards for “Reporting” and “Serving” data. The M2B3 Reporting Standard (1) describes minimal mandatory and recommended contextual information for a marine microbial sample obtained in the epipelagic zone, (2) includes meaningful information for researchers in the oceanographic, biodiversity and molecular disciplines, and (3) can easily be adopted by any marine laboratory with minimum sampling resources. The M2B3 Service Standard defines a software interface through which these data can be discovered and explored in data repositories. The M2B3 Standards were developed by the European project Micro B3, funded under 7th Framework Programme “Ocean of Tomorrow”, and were first used with the Ocean Sampling Day initiative. We believe that these standards have value in broader marine science. PMID:26203332

  13. Estimation of the standard molal heat capacities, entropies and volumes of 2:1 clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Barbara; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1994-11-01

    The dearth of accurate values of the thermodynamic properties of 2:1 clay minerals severely hampers interpretation of their phase relations, the design of critical laboratory experiments and geologically realistic computer calculations of mass transfer in weathering, diagenetic and hydrothermal systems. Algorithms and strategies are described below for estimating to within 2% the standard molal heat capacities, entropies, and volumes of illites, smectites and other 2:1 clay minerals. These techniques can also be used to estimate standard molal thermodynamic properties of fictive endmembers of clay mineral solid solutions. Because 2:1 clay minerals like smectite and vermiculite are always hydrated to some extent in nature, contribution of interlayer H 2O to their thermodynamic properties is considered explicitly in the estimation of the standard molal heat capacities, entropies, and volumes of these minerals. Owing to the lack of accurate calorimetric data from which reliable values of the standard molal heat capacity and entropy of interlayer H 2O can be retrieved, these properties were taken in a first approximation to be equal to those of zeolitic H 2O in analcite. The resulting thermodynamic contributions per mole of interlayer H 2O to the standard molal heat capacity, entropy, and volume of hydrous clay minerals at 1 bar and 25°C are 11.46 cal mol -1, 13.15 cal mol -1 K -1 and 17.22 cm 3 mol, respectively. Estimated standard molal heat capacities, entropies and volumes are given for a suite of smectites and illites commonly used in models of clay mineral and shale diagenesis.

  14. Linear and angular deviations of implants placed in experimental casts with stereolithographic drill guides fixed by o'ring ortho implant devices.

    PubMed

    Novellino, Marcelo Michele; Sesma, Newton; Lagan, Dalva Cruz; Ferrari, Glais

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the introduction of a device, resulting from the combination of an o'ring attachment with an orthodontic implant (o'ring ortho implant, O'ROI), to affix the surgical template of CAD/CAM-guided implant surgery contribute to minimizing the deviations in the position and inclination of implants at the time of their placement. Ten models simulating bone tissue were fabricated and randomly divided into 2 groups: 5 with the scanning and surgical template of the usual technique, representing the Control Group (C), and 5 with scanning and surgical templates fixed by o'ring ortho implants (O'ROI), representing the Test Group (T). Forty implants measuring 411 mm were placed in the groups, using the respective templates. The results were evaluated by the fusion of CT images of the planned and placed implants. The locations and axes were compared. There were no statistically significant differences for the angular (Tukey's test F = 1.06 and p = 0. 3124) and linear (ANOVA F = 2.54 and p = 0.11) deviations. However, the angular values of Group T showed a lower standard deviation in comparison with those of Group C. The use of o'ring ortho implants (O'ROI) is able to minimize the angular and linear deviation of implants at the time of their placement. PMID:24173263

  15. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  17. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  18. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  19. 48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment... Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price Adjustment—Standard Supplies. As prescribed in 16.203-4(a), insert the... specified in subparagraph (c)(1), upon approval by the chief of the contracting office. Economic...

  20. 48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment... Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price Adjustment—Standard Supplies. As prescribed in 16.203-4(a), insert the... specified in subparagraph (c)(1), upon approval by the chief of the contracting office. Economic...

  1. 48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment... Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price Adjustment—Standard Supplies. As prescribed in 16.203-4(a), insert the... specified in subparagraph (c)(1), upon approval by the chief of the contracting office. Economic...

  2. 48 CFR 239.7408-2 - Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction. 239.7408-2 Section 239.7408-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION...

  3. 48 CFR 239.7408-2 - Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of construction labor standards for special construction. 239.7408-2 Section 239.7408-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION...

  4. 48 CFR 1913.505-2 - Board order forms in lieu of Optional and Standard Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Board order forms in lieu of Optional and Standard Forms. 1913.505-2 Section 1913.505-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SMALL PURCHASES AND OTHER SIMPLIFIED PURCHASE PROCEDURES Purchase...

  5. 48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment... Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price Adjustment—Standard Supplies. As prescribed in 16.203-4(a), insert the... specified in subparagraph (c)(1), upon approval by the chief of the contracting office. Economic...

  6. 48 CFR 52.216-2 - Economic Price Adjustment-Standard Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment... Clauses 52.216-2 Economic Price Adjustment—Standard Supplies. As prescribed in 16.203-4(a), insert the... specified in subparagraph (c)(1), upon approval by the chief of the contracting office. Economic...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the WHO International Standard for HIV-2 RNA Determined by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Claire; Morris, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard for HIV-2 RNA nucleic acid assays was characterized by complete genome deep sequencing. The entire coding sequence and flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs), including minority species, were assigned subtype A. This information will aid design, development, and evaluation of HIV-2 RNA amplification assays. PMID:26847885

  8. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard. 239.7102-2 Section 239.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and...

  9. Constructs Assessed by the GARS-2: Factor Analysis of Data from the Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    The GARS-2 (Gilliam 2006) is widely used for autism screening; however, the validity of its three conceptually-derived subscales has not been evaluated. In this study, exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses of data from matched subgroups of the standardization sample did not support the GARS-2 subscale structure. EFAs identified…

  10. Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allow the system to reach the ideal optimum. However, we still expect the system to have a higher probability of reaching a state with a higher value of the proposed indirect measure of fitness. In systems of many components, this implies that the largest deviations are expected in those components with less impact on the indirect measure of fitness. Here, we show that this simple probabilistic rule explains deviations from optimality in two very different biological systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this rule successfully explains the experimental deviations of the position of neurons from the configuration of minimal wiring cost. In Escherichia coli, the probabilistic rule correctly obtains the structure of the experimental deviations of metabolic fluxes from the configuration that maximizes biomass production. This approach is proposed to explain or predict more data than optimization theory while using no extra parameters. Thus, it can also be used to find and refine hypotheses about which constraints have shaped biological structures in evolution. PMID:19918070

  11. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. Methods We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. Results We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Conclusion Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment. PMID:26491488

  12. CGGTTS-Version 2E : an extended standard for GNSS Time Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defraigne, P.; Petit, G.

    2015-10-01

    The standard for GNSS time transfer was first defined in 1984, associated to the use of GPS signals, which were at that time degraded by the Selective Availability. It was updated at a few instances to follow the evolution of GPS, of the receivers, and the inclusion of GLONASS. With the emergence of additional navigation systems like Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, the standard has to be further adapted. This paper prepared by the CCTF Working Group on GNSS Time Transfer details the associated extended standard, named CGGTTS for Common GNSS Generic Time Transfer Standard, and the corresponding Version 2E of the format.Full paper The full paper is available online at: http://metrologia.bipm.org/guides-stds-conventions/2015/G1.pdf

  13. 76 FR 7818 - Correction to Notice Soliciting Comments on Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Standard PS 2-10 (75 FR 66734). The title of the notice incorrectly gave the title of Proposed Voluntary... correct title of the proposed standard is ``Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels... ``Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels,'' and appears in the body of the notice. NIST...

  14. Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei

    2010-02-15

    The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

  15. Insulation Characteristics of CO2 Gas for Non-standard Lightning Impulse Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Tetsuhiko; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    To improve GIS insulation specifications, it is important to recognize the insulation characteristics under oscillatory overvoltage waveforms occurring in the field. The actual lightning surge waveform (called non-standard lightning impulse waveform) in actual substations is different from the standard lightning impulse waveform (1.2/50μs). The actual lightning surge waveform generally rises steeply, however, the decay of the overvoltage is large, and the insulation requirements are not as severe as those of the standard lightning impulse waveform. Since SF6 gas was identified as a greenhouse gas at COP3 in 1997, alternative insulation gases to SF6 have been investigated. The CO2 gas insulation is one of the candidates, which is a natural gas and has lower global warming potential (GWP). V-t characteristics with CO2 showed a steep decline than SF6 and the effects of oscillation on the insulation characteristics with CO2 are not definite under the condition of frequency up to 4.0MHz. This paper describes the insulation characteristics of CO2 gas for single-frequency oscillatory waveforms with various frequencies from 5.3 to 20.0MHz and damping ratios. From experimental investigation, similarly to SF6, it might be possible to reduce the test voltage of CO2 gas insulation system by evaluating actual lightning surge waveform in terms of the equivalent standard lightning impulse waveform.

  16. [Standardized total fertility rates by prefectures].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Kasahara, R

    1983-10-01

    Data on standardized total fertility rates in Japan by prefecture are presented. A table shows 7 age divisions of women ranging from 15-49 on the national level as well as in Tokyo. The ratio of married females to total number of females in the nation, then the ratio of the number of births in Tokyo to the number of married females in Tokyo, and finally the ratio of the former to the latter are calculated. Data indicating normal and standard fertility rates in 1970, 1972, 1975, and 1980 are given for the nation as well as for each prefecture in Japan. Another table gives normal and standard fertility rates for the nation and each prefecture in 1972, 1977, 1982, and 1987. Using these data, the maximum and minimum normal as well as standardized total fertility rates for 1970, 1975, and 1980, are presented in addition to the distribution ranges, averages, standard deviations, and fluctuation coefficients. In 1980, the Okinawa prefecture had the maximum normal (2.378) and standardize (2.376) total fertility rates, Tokyo had the minimum normal fertility rate (1.437), and Toyama had the minimum standardized fertility rate (1.562). In 1980, the average standardized fertility rate in Japan was 1.781, the distribution range was .814, the standard deviation was .145, and the fluctuation coefficient was 8.1%. PMID:12155000

  17. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more...

  18. A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bokai

    2016-03-01

    In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.

  19. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  20. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...