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Sample records for 2 3-dimensional cross

  1. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  2. From 2-dimensional cephalograms to 3-dimensional computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2005-05-01

    Computed tomography is entering the orthodontic specialty as a mainstream diagnostic modality. Radiation exposure and cost have decreased significantly, and the diagnostic value is very high compared with traditional radiographic options. However, 3-dimensional data present new challenges and need a different approach from traditional viewing of static images to make the most of the available possibilities. Advances in computer hardware and software now enable interactive display of the data on personal computers, with the ability to selectively view soft or hard tissues from any angle. Transfer functions are used to apply transparency and color. Cephalometric measurements can be taken by digitizing points in 3-dimensional coordinates. Application of 3-dimensional data is expected to increase significantly soon and might eventually replace many conventional orthodontic records that are in use today. PMID:15877045

  3. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions

    PubMed Central

    DiCesare, Christopher A.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Noehren, Brian W.; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach. Purpose: To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 weeks. Coefficients of multiple correlation were calculated to assess the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures during the landing phase of the movement. Results: Between-centers reliability for kinematic waveforms in the frontal and sagittal planes was good, but moderate in the transverse plane. Between-centers reliability for kinetic waveforms was good in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the single-leg cross drop task has moderate to good reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures across institutions after implementation of a standardized testing protocol. Clinical Relevance: Multicenter collaborations can increase study numbers and generalize results, which is beneficial for studies of relatively rare phenomena, such as ACL injury. An important step is to determine the reliability of risk assessments across institutions before a multicenter collaboration can be initiated. PMID:26779550

  4. S2PLOT: a Straightforward Library for Advanced 3-dimensional Scientific Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    S2PLOT is a user-oriented programming library for generating and exploring 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific plots and diagrams. It provides a lightweight interface---inspired by the simple yet widely-used PGPLOT---to produce hardware-accelerated visualisations of point, line, image and volumetric data. S2PLOT provides C and FORTRAN interfaces, and supports monoscopic, stereoscopic and curved (eg. dome) display devices. PGPLOT-savvy astronomers can usually write their first S2PLOT program in less than ten minutes. In this paper, we introduce the latest S2PLOT version and highlight major new additions to the library, including volume rendering and isosurfacing of astronomical data. We describe a simple extension that enables the embedding of large-area FITS images directly into S2PLOT programs using standard World Coordinate Systems, and we introduce the Python interface to S2PLOT.

  5. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  6. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  7. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  8. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlgans, Stephanie; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden ; Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  9. The 3-dimensional kinematics of the walking gait cycle of children aged between 10 and 24 months: cross sectional and repeated measures.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw; Marques-Bruna; Salo; Messenger

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the 3-dimensional kinematics of 'normal' walking gait in young children. A cross sectional study using nine children aged between 10 and 24 months, filmed whilst walking at natural speed, was undertaken using two gen-locked video cameras. The children were at different stages of walking development (from 0.5 to 10 months of independent walking (IW)). Repeated measures were taken from two of the children at 10 and 17 months of age and then at 18 and 24 months respectively. 3-dimensional video digitisation techniques utilising the DLT algorithm were used to obtain variables of the gait cycle. The position and movement of the arms were identified as potential motor development patterns. Ranges of movement and motion patterns observed in other variables are useful to determine 'normal' walking gait in such young children. The knees and hips were flexed throughout the gait cycle. Inter-limb asymmetries were observed for the knee angle pattern and for the stance and swing phase time. The mean stance phase time and double support time were 4 and 15% (respectively) greater than in adult's gait. The findings of this study are useful as a guide to research, teaching and clinical professions in this area of biomechanics. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. PMID:10200371

  10. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L

    2013-05-01

    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system. PMID:23570580

  11. Fine designing 3-dimensional ZnO nanowalls with TiO2 nanoparticles for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Bayatloo, Elham

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we report a low-cost low-temperature hydrothermal technique for covering 3-dimensional (3-D) electrodeposited ZnO nanowall with thin layer of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on FTO substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell application, in a way that morphology and crystal structure of ZnO nanowalls were preserved. Comparing photovoltaic characteristics of devices with and without TiO2-coating layer, it was revealed that the 3-D ZnO/TiO2-nanostructured photoanode resulted in a 35 % cell performance improved mostly because of enhancement of short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc). The XRD pattern showed that 3-D ZnO nanowalls and TiO2 compose of wurtzite and anatase phases, respectively.

  12. Threat object identification performance for LADAR imagery: comparison of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Matthew A.; Driggers, Ronald G.; Redman, Brian; Krapels, Keith A.

    2006-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the change in human observer range performance when LADAR imagery is presented in stereo 3D vice 2D. It compares the ability of observers to correctly identify twelve common threatening and non-threatening single-handed objects (e.g. a pistol versus a cell phone). Images were collected with the Army Research Lab/Office of Naval Research (ARL/ONR) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging LADAR. A perception experiment, utilizing both military and civilian observers, presented subjects with images of varying angular resolutions. The results of this experiment were used to create identification performance curves for the 2D and 3D imagery, which show probability of identification as a function of range. Analysis of the results indicates that there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in performance between 2D and 3D imagery.

  13. Measuring the volume of uterine fibroids using 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and comparison with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nikica; Zivković, Kreiimir; Despot, Albert; Paić, Josip; Zelić, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was clinical testing of the reliability and usability of three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) technology. The ultimate aim and purpose of this study was to establish ultrasound methods, standards and protocols for determining the volume of any gynecologic organ or tumor. The study included 31 women in reproductive age and postmenopause. All patients were examined with a RIC 5-9 3D-endovaginal probe (4.3-7.5 MHz) on a Voluson 730 Pro ultrasound device. The volume of myomas was measured by using the existing 2D and 3D ultrasound methods on the above mentioned device. All patients underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy due to clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed uterine myomas indicating operative intervention. After the operation, the pathologist determined the volume of removed myomas by measuring them in a gauge bowl containing water, i.e. using Archimedes' principle (lift), serving as the control group with histopathologic diagnosis. A total of 155 myoma volumes were processed on 2D display, 31 myoma volumes were preoperatively measured on 3D display and 31 myoma volumes were measured by the pathologist. The values of US measurements for each US method were expressed as mean value of all measurements of myoma volumes. Statistical processing of the results and Student's t-test for independent samples revealed that the 2nd examined US method (measuring of myoma by using an ellipse and the longer tumor diameter) and 4th examined US method (measuring of myoma by using the longer and shorter tumor diameters together with establishing their mean values) in 2D US technique, as well as the 6th examined US method in 3D US technique showed no significant measurement differences in comparison with control measurement in a gauge bowl containing water (p < 0.05), indicating acceptability of the US methods for verifying tumor volumes. The standard error in determining the volume of myomas by the above US methods varied

  14. How Technology Can Impact Surgeon Performance: A Randomized Trial Comparing 3-Dimensional versus 2-Dimensional Laparoscopy in Gynecology Oncology.

    PubMed

    Fanfani, Francesco; Rossitto, Cristiano; Restaino, Stefano; Ercoli, Alfredo; Chiantera, Vito; Monterossi, Giorgia; Barbati, Giulia; Scambia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial (Canadian Task Force classification I) aimed to compare 2-dimension (2-D) versus 3-dimensional (3-D) laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial and cervical cancer patients. Between December 2014 and March 2015, 90 patients were enrolled: 29 (32.2%) with early or locally advanced cervical cancer after neoadjuvant treatment and 61 (67.8%) with early-stage endometrial cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo 2-D (Group A, n = 48 [53.3%]) or 3-D (Group B, n = 42 [46.7%)]) laparoscopy. Baseline characteristics were superimposable in the 2 groups. Median operative time was similar in the 2 groups. Median estimated blood loss during lymphadenectomy was significantly lower in Group B than in Group A (38 mL [range, 0-450] vs 65 mL [range, 0-200]; p = .033). In cervical cancer patients operative time of pelvic lymphadenectomy performed by "novice" surgeons (those with <10 procedures performed) was statistically significantly lower in Group B (p = .047). No differences in perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications were observed between the 2 groups. The 2-D and 3-D systems can be used safely in laparoscopic hysterectomy. However, the 3-D system could provide key benefits to intraoperative techniques and postoperative outcomes in reducing operative time for "expert" surgeons and in enhancing surgical precision for "novice" surgeons. PMID:27046747

  15. Self-assembled 3-dimensional arrays of Au@SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles for enhanced optical nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Hori, Mamiko; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Nogami, Masayuki

    2005-04-01

    Homogeneous SiO 2 coated Au nanoparticles were prepared and assembled into densely-packed 3-dimensional arrays by a simple "one-step" route based on the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LBL) technique. Every layer of films exhibited densely packed 2-dimensional arrays of Au@SiO 2 composite nanoparticles and the film thickness was controllable through the number of deposition cycles. These multilayer films exhibited high effective packing density of composite nanoparticles (0.57). Those arrays also exhibited enhanced third-order optical nonlinear responses and ultra-fast response times. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the seven layer arrays was estimated to be 1.7 × 10 -9 esu at 532 nm and the response time was as fast as several picoseconds. The enhancement of the optical nonlinearity was calculated according to the electrostatic approximation by solution of Laplace's equation under the boundary conditions appropriate to the model of core-shell nanoparticles, and mainly attributed to localized electric-field effects.

  16. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, James M. Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  17. Crossed ferric oxide nanosheets supported cobalt oxide on 3-dimensional macroporous Ni foam substrate used for diesel soot elimination under self-capture contact mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunmei; Li, Xingang; Zha, Yuqing; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Tiandou; Meng, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets supported cobalt oxide nanoparticles on three-dimensionally macroporous nickel foam substrate (xCo/Fe-NF) was designed and successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal and impregnation route. These catalysts showed high catalytic soot combustion activities under self-capture contact mode. The three-dimensional macroporous structures of Ni foam and the crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets constituted macroporous voids can greatly increase the contact efficiency between soot particulates and catalysts. The interaction between Co and Fe facilitated the activation of the Fe-O bond and increased the amounts of active oxygen species, thus improving the redox property of the catalysts. The 0.6Co/Fe-NF catalyst exhibited the highest turnover frequency (TOF) for soot combustion, which is in good accordance with the largest amount of active oxygen species. Based upon the catalytic performance and multiple characterization results, two reaction pathways for soot oxidation are identified, namely, the direct oxidation by the activated oxygen species via oxygen vacancies and the NOx-aided soot oxidation.Crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets supported cobalt oxide nanoparticles on three-dimensionally macroporous nickel foam substrate (xCo/Fe-NF) was designed and successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal and impregnation route. These catalysts showed high catalytic soot combustion activities under self-capture contact mode. The three-dimensional macroporous structures of Ni foam and the crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets constituted macroporous voids can greatly increase the contact efficiency between soot particulates and catalysts. The interaction between Co and Fe facilitated the activation of the Fe-O bond and increased the amounts of active oxygen species, thus improving the redox property of the catalysts. The 0.6Co/Fe-NF catalyst exhibited the highest turnover frequency (TOF) for soot combustion, which is in good accordance with the largest amount of active oxygen

  18. Crossed ferric oxide nanosheets supported cobalt oxide on 3-dimensional macroporous Ni foam substrate used for diesel soot elimination under self-capture contact mode.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunmei; Li, Xingang; Zha, Yuqing; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Tiandou; Meng, Ming

    2016-03-21

    Crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets supported cobalt oxide nanoparticles on three-dimensionally macroporous nickel foam substrate (xCo/Fe-NF) was designed and successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal and impregnation route. These catalysts showed high catalytic soot combustion activities under self-capture contact mode. The three-dimensional macroporous structures of Ni foam and the crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets constituted macroporous voids can greatly increase the contact efficiency between soot particulates and catalysts. The interaction between Co and Fe facilitated the activation of the Fe-O bond and increased the amounts of active oxygen species, thus improving the redox property of the catalysts. The 0.6Co/Fe-NF catalyst exhibited the highest turnover frequency (TOF) for soot combustion, which is in good accordance with the largest amount of active oxygen species. Based upon the catalytic performance and multiple characterization results, two reaction pathways for soot oxidation are identified, namely, the direct oxidation by the activated oxygen species via oxygen vacancies and the NOx-aided soot oxidation. PMID:26509240

  19. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  20. Atomic layer deposition conformality and process optimization: Transitioning from 2-dimensional planar systems to 3-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson Cleveland, Erin Darcy

    Conformal coatings are becoming increasingly important as technology heads towards the nanoscale. The exceptional thickness control (atomic scale) and conformality (uniformity over nanoscale 3D features) of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has made it the process of choice for numerous applications found in microelectronics and nanotechnology with a wide variety of ALD processes and resulting materials. While its benefits derive from self-limited saturating surface reactions of alternating gas precursors, process optimization for ALD conformality is often difficult as process parameters, such as dosage, purge, temperature and pressure are often interdependent with one another, especially within the confines of an ultra-high aspect ratio nanopore. Therefore, processes must be optimized to achieve self-limiting saturated surfaces and avoid parasitic CVD-like reactions in order to maintain thickness control and achieve uniformity and conformality at the atomic level while preserving the desired materials' properties (electrical, optical, compositional, etc.). This work investigates novel approaches to optimize ALD conformality when transitioning from a 2D planar system to a 3D ultra-high aspect ratio nanopore in the context of a cross-flow wafer-scale reactor used to highlight deviations from ideal ALD behavior. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) is used as a versatile platform to analyze TiO2 ALD profiles via ex-situ SEM, EDS and TEM. Results of TiO2 ALD illustrate enhanced growth rates that can occur when the precursors titanium tetraisopropoxide and ozone were used at minimal saturation doses for ALD and for considerably higher doses. The results also demonstrate that ALD process recipes that achieve excellent across-wafer uniformity across full 100 mm wafers do not produce conformal films in ultra-high aspect ratio nanopores. The results further demonstrate that conformality is determined by precursor dose, surface residence time, and purge time, creating large depletion

  1. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  2. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  3. Morphology-controlled MnO2-graphene oxide-diatomaceous earth 3-dimensional (3D) composites for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhong Quan; Li, Min; Li, Fei; Zhu, Shi Jin; Liu, Xiao Ying; Zhang, Yu Xin; Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wei; He, Shi Xuan

    2016-01-21

    3-Dimensional (3D) composites based on a unique combination of MnO2-nanostructures, graphene oxide nanosheets and porous Diatomaceous Earth (DE) microparticles (GO-DE@MnO2) were synthesized and explored for application in high-performance supercapacitors. To explore the influence of the structural properties of MnO2 nanostructures on supercapacitor performances, several MnO2 structures with nanosheet and nanowire morphologies were synthesized and characterized. The prepared GO-DE@MnO2 composites with MnO2 nanosheets due to their higher conductivity and higher surface area showed a larger specific capacitance of 152.5 F g(-1) and a relatively better cycle stability (83.3% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 2 A g(-1)), indicating great potential for application in supercapacitors. PMID:26645931

  4. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  5. Impact of the bifurcation angle on major cardiac events after cross-over single stent strategy in unprotected left main bifurcation lesions: 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Kisaki; Domei, Takenori; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Goya, Masahiko; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the bifurcation angle (BA) between the left main (LM) and the main branch on clinical outcomes after single stenting has never been documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the BA on clinical outcomes after single cross-over LM to left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenting. A total of 170 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in unprotected LM bifurcation with successful single cross-over stenting from the LM into the LAD were enrolled. The main vessel angle between the LM and the LAD was computed in end-diastole before PCI with three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) software. The patients were classified into three groups according to tertiles of the main vessel angle. The cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, any revascularization including target lesion revascularization) rates throughout a 12-month period were compared between the three groups. Baseline patient characteristics were not a significant difference between the three groups. Compared to the high angle group, the low angle group had a significantly higher incidence of MACE (p = 0.041). In conclusion, this study revealed that low BA between the LM and the LAD had an adverse clinical impact after single cross-over LM to LAD stenting. PMID:25628958

  6. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Shoulder Complex Kinematics in Individuals With and Without Shoulder Pain, Part 2: Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    LAWRENCE, REBEKAH L.; BRAMAN, JONATHAN P.; STAKER, JUSTIN L.; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.; LUDEWIG, PAULA M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To compare differences in glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals during shoulder motion performed in 3 planes of humerothoracic elevation. BACKGROUND Numerous clinical theories have linked abnormal glenohumeral kinematics, including decreased glenohumeral external rotation and increased superior translation, to individuals with shoulder pain and impingement diagnoses. However, relatively few studies have investigated glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations in this population. METHODS Transcortical bone pins were inserted into the scapula and humerus of 12 a symptomatic and 10 symptomatic participants for direct bone-fixed tracking using electromagnetic sensors. Glenohumeral joint angular positions and linear translations were calculated during active shoulder flexion, abduction, and scapular plane abduction. RESULTS Differences between groups in angular positions were limited to glenohumeral elevation, coinciding with a reduction in scapulothoracic upward rotation. Symptomatic participants demonstrated 1.4 mm more anterior glenohumeral translation between 90° and 120° of shoulder flexion and an average of 1 mm more inferior glenohumeral translation throughout shoulder abduction. CONCLUSION Differences in glenohumeral kinematics exist between symptomatic and a symptomatic individuals. The clinical implications of these differences are not yet understood, and more research is needed to understand the relationship between abnormal kinematics, shoulder pain, and pathoanatomy. PMID:25103132

  7. Structural Evolution of Chemically-Driven RuO2 Nanowires and 3-Dimensional Design for Photo-Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonmo; Lee, Jae Won; Ye, Byeong Uk; Chun, Sung He; Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyunwoong; Lee, Heon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Myung Hwa; Baik, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    Growth mechanism of chemically-driven RuO2 nanowires is explored and used to fabricate three-dimensional RuO2 branched Au-TiO2 nanowire electrodes for the photostable solar water oxidation. For the real time structural evolution during the nanowire growth, the amorphous RuO2 precursors (Ru(OH)3·H2O) are heated at 180 °C, producing the RuO2 nanoparticles with the tetragonal crystallographic structure and Ru enriched amorphous phases, observed through the in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope images. Growth then proceeds by Ru diffusion to the nanoparticles, followed by the diffusion to the growing surface of the nanowire in oxygen ambient, supported by the nucleation theory. The RuO2 branched Au-TiO2 nanowire arrays shows a remarkable enhancement in the photocurrent density by approximately 60% and 200%, in the UV-visible and Visible region, respectively, compared with pristine TiO2 nanowires. Furthermore, there is no significant decrease in the device’s photoconductance with UV-visible illumination during 1 day, making it possible to produce oxygen gas without the loss of the photoactvity. PMID:26149583

  8. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  9. 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic large-scale de novo patterning by mammalian cells through phase separation.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Elise; Liu, Weijia; Martin, Kim C; Yuan, Xiaofei; Yin, Huabing; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues. PMID:26857385

  10. Graphene-based nanocomposites for structural and functional applications: using 2-dimensional materials in a 3-dimensional world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samorì, P.; Kinloch, I. A.; Feng, X.; Palermo, V.

    2015-09-01

    Graphene-based composites are currently the only application of graphene already commercialized on a large scale. However, the performance of such products is not comparable to that of pristine graphene sheets, measured at the nanoscale, which easily outperform well-established materials such as steel, silicon, or copper. A key reason for this difference in properties is that it is not yet fully understood how two-dimensional (2D) -based composites work at the nanoscale level and, more importantly, what is the ultimate performance (mechanical, electrical, etc.) that can be achieved when they are included in a bulk material. In the first year of the ramp-up phase of the Flagship, the ‘Nanocomposites’ work package has studied how to improve the processing, interaction, and performance of graphene and related materials (GRMs) in three-dimensional (3D) composites. This article offers a quick overview of some of the main results obtained within this rapidly evolving field.

  11. 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic large-scale de novo patterning by mammalian cells through phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Cachat, Elise; Liu, Weijia; Martin, Kim C.; Yuan, Xiaofei; Yin, Huabing; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues. PMID:26857385

  12. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of 3-Dimensional vs 2-Dimensional and High-Definition vs Standard-Definition Neuroendoscopy: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P.; Di Marco, Aimee; Pratt, Philip; Nandi, Dipankar; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the potential benefits of 3-dimensional (3-D) vs 2-dimensional (2-D) and high-definition (HD) vs standard-definition (SD) endoscopic visualization have long been recognized in other surgical fields, such endoscopes are generally considered too large and bulky for use within the brain. The recent development of 3-D and HD neuroendoscopes may therefore herald improved depth perception, better appreciation of anatomic details, and improved overall surgical performance. OBJECTIVE: To compare simultaneously the effectiveness of 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. METHODS: Ten novice neuroendoscopic surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was adopted to compare 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. The primary outcomes were time to task completion and accuracy. The secondary outcomes were perceived task workload using the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Task Load Index and subjective impressions of the endoscopes using a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Time to task completion was significantly shorter when using the 3-D vs the 2-D neuroendoscopy (P = .001), and accuracy of probe placement was significantly greater when using the HD vs the SD neuroendoscopy (P = .009). We found that 3-D endoscopy significantly improved perceived depth perception (P < .001), HD endoscopy significantly improved perceived image quality (P < .001), and both improved participants’ overall impression (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional neuroendoscopy and HD neuroendoscopy have differing but complementary effects on surgical performance, suggesting that neither alone can completely compensate for the lack of the other. There is therefore strong preclinical evidence to justify 3-D HD neuroendoscopy. ABBREVIATIONS: HD, high definition SD, standard definition PMID:24220007

  14. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  15. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  16. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  17. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  18. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  19. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  20. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  1. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  2. Young children’s ability to use 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional symbols to show placements of body touches and hidden objects

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Nicole; London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated 3- to 5-year-old children’s ability to use dolls and human figure drawings as symbols to map body touches. In Experiment 1 stickers were placed on different locations of children’s bodies, and they were asked to indicate the location of the sticker using three different symbols: a doll, a human figure drawing, and the adult researcher. Performance on the tasks increased with age, but many 5-year-olds did not attain perfect performance. Surprisingly, younger children made more errors on the 2D human figure drawing task compared to the 3D doll and adult tasks. In Experiment 2, we compared children’s ability to use 3D and 2D symbols to indicate body touch as well as to guide their search for a hidden object. We replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for the body touch task: for younger children, 3D symbols were easier to use than 2D symbols. However, the reverse pattern was found for the object locations task with children showing superior performance using 2D drawings over 3D models. Though children showed developmental improvements in using dolls and drawings to show where they were touched, less than two-thirds of the 5-year-olds performed perfectly on the touch tasks. Developmental as well as forensic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25781003

  3. Wind-tunnel tests on a 3-dimensional fixed-geometry scramjet inlet at M = 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. N.; Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a baseline scramjet inlet model having fixed geometry and swept leading edges at M = 2.30, 2.96, 3.95, and 4.60 in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The unit Reynolds number of the tests was held constant at 6.56 million per meter (2 million per foot). The objectives of the tests were to establish inlet performance and starting characteristics in the lower Mach number range of operation (less than M = 5). Surface pressures obtained on the inlet components are presented, along with the results of the internal flow surveys made at the throat and capture stations of the inlet. Contour plots of the inlet-flow-field parameters such as Mach numbers, pressure recovery, flow capture, local static and total pressure ratios at the survey stations are shown for the test Mach numbers.

  4. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La2CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C. E.; Brewer, J. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La2CuO(4-y) are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  5. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  6. Effects of 3 dimensional crystal geometry and orientation on 1D and 2D time-scale determinations of magmatic processes using olivine and orthopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Thomas; Krimer, Daniel; Costa, Fidel; Hammer, Julia

    2014-05-01

    One of the achievements in recent years in volcanology is the determination of time-scales of magmatic processes via diffusion in minerals and its addition to the petrologists' and volcanologists' toolbox. The method typically requires one-dimensional modeling of randomly cut crystals from two-dimensional thin sections. Here we address the question whether using 1D (traverse) or 2D (surface) datasets exploited from randomly cut 3D crystals introduces a bias or dispersion in the time-scales estimated, and how this error can be improved or eliminated. Computational simulations were performed using a concentration-dependent, finite-difference solution to the diffusion equation in 3D. The starting numerical models involved simple geometries (spheres, parallelepipeds), Mg/Fe zoning patterns (either normal or reverse), and isotropic diffusion coefficients. Subsequent models progressively incorporated more complexity, 3D olivines possessing representative polyhedral morphologies, diffusion anisotropy along the different crystallographic axes, and more intricate core-rim zoning patterns. Sections and profiles used to compare 1, 2 and 3D diffusion models were selected to be (1) parallel to the crystal axes, (2) randomly oriented but passing through the olivine center, or (3) randomly oriented and sectioned. Results show that time-scales estimated on randomly cut traverses (1D) or surfaces (2D) can be widely distributed around the actual durations of 3D diffusion (~0.2 to 10 times the true diffusion time). The magnitude over- or underestimations of duration are a complex combination of the geometry of the crystal, the zoning pattern, the orientation of the cuts with respect to the crystallographic axes, and the degree of diffusion anisotropy. Errors on estimated time-scales retrieved from such models may thus be significant. Drastic reductions in the uncertainty of calculated diffusion times can be obtained by following some simple guidelines during the course of data

  7. 1-Dimensional AgVO3 nanowires hybrid with 2-dimensional graphene nanosheets to create 3-dimensional composite aerogels and their improved electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liying; Xu, Yimeng; Lei, Yong; Liu, Haimei

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous composite aerogels have been synthesized via an innovative in situ hydrothermal method assisted by a freeze-drying process. In this hybrid structure, one-dimensional (1D) AgVO3 nanowires are uniformly dispersed on two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheet surfaces and/or are penetrated through the graphene sheets, forming 3D porous composite aerogels. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the composite aerogels exhibit high discharge capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability.Three-dimensional (3D) porous composite aerogels have been synthesized via an innovative in situ hydrothermal method assisted by a freeze-drying process. In this hybrid structure, one-dimensional (1D) AgVO3 nanowires are uniformly dispersed on two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheet surfaces and/or are penetrated through the graphene sheets, forming 3D porous composite aerogels. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the composite aerogels exhibit high discharge capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Preparation, characterization, SEM images, XRD patterns, and XPS of AgVO3/GAs. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06899d

  8. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  9. Biochemical Applications Of 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Marc J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the 3-dimensional fluorescence of complex mixtures of bioloquids such as human serum, serum ultrafiltrate, human urine, and human plasma low density lipoproteins. The total fluorescence of human serum can be divided into a few peaks. When comparing fluorescence topograms of sera, from normal and cancerous subjects, we found significant differences in tryptophan fluorescence. Although the total fluorescence of human urine can be resolved into 3-5 distinct peaks, some of them. do not result from single fluorescent urinary metabolites, but rather from. several species having similar spectral properties. Human plasma, low density lipoproteins possess a native fluorescence that changes when submitted to in-vitro autoxidation. The 3-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated the presence of 7 fluorophores in the lipid domain, and 6 fluorophores in the protein. dovain- The above results demonstrated that 3-dimensional fluorescence can resolve the spectral properties of complex ,lxtures much better than other methods. Moreover, other parameters than excitation and emission wavelength and intensity (for instance fluorescence lifetime, polarization, or quenchability) may be exploited to give a multidl,ensio,a1 matrix, that is unique for each sample. Consequently, 3-dimensio:Hhal fluorescence as such, or in combination with separation techniques is therefore considered to have the potential of becoming a useful new H.ethod in clinical chemistry and analytical biochemistry.

  10. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  11. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  12. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  13. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  14. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  15. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  16. A rotational stereoscopic 3-dimensional movement aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Webster, W R; Panthradil, J T; Conway, D M

    1998-06-01

    A stereoscopic rotational movement aftereffect (MAE) and a stereoscopic bi-directional MAE were generated by rotation of a cyclopean random dot cylinder in depth and by movement of two cyclopean random dot planes in opposite directions, respectively. Cross-adaptational MAEs were also generated on each other, but not with stimuli lacking any disparity. Cross-adaptation MAEs were generated between stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic random dot stimuli moving in the one X/Y plane. Spontaneous reversals in direction of movement were observed with bistable stimuli lacking disparity. Two models of the middle temporal area were considered which might explain both the stereoscopic MAEs and the spontaneous reversals. PMID:9797953

  17. Generation and 3-Dimensional Quantitation of Arterial Lesions in Mice Using Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Wu, Junxi; Miller, Eileen; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and analysis of vascular lesions in appropriate animal models is a cornerstone of research into cardiovascular disease, generating important information on the pathogenesis of lesion formation and the action of novel therapies. Use of atherosclerosis-prone mice, surgical methods of lesion induction, and dietary modification has dramatically improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and the potential of new treatments. Classically, analysis of lesions is performed ex vivo using 2-dimensional histological techniques. This article describes application of optical projection tomography (OPT) to 3-dimensional quantitation of arterial lesions. As this technique is non-destructive, it can be used as an adjunct to standard histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Neointimal lesions were induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery whilst atherosclerotic lesions were generated by administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesions were examined using OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission followed by complementary histological and immunohistochemical analysis. OPT clearly distinguished lesions from the underlying vascular wall. Lesion size was calculated in 2-dimensional sections using planimetry, enabling calculation of lesion volume and maximal cross-sectional area. Data generated using OPT were consistent with measurements obtained using histology, confirming the accuracy of the technique and its potential as a complement (rather than alternative) to traditional methods of analysis. This work demonstrates the potential of OPT for imaging atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. It provides a rapid, much needed ex vivo technique for the routine 3-dimensional quantification of vascular remodelling. PMID:26067588

  18. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  19. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... item in Red Cross disaster relief. It will urge disaster victims displaced from their homes to...

  20. Protalign: a 3-dimensional protein alignment assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Meads, D; Hansen, M D; Pang, A

    1999-01-01

    Protein fold recognition (sometimes called threading) is the prediction of a protein's 3-dimensional shape based on its similarity to a protein of known structure. Fold predictions are low resolution; that is, no effort is made to rotate the protein's component amino acid side chains into their correct spatial orientations. The goal is simply to recognize the protein family member that most closely resembles the target sequence of unknown structure and to create a sensible alignment of the target to the known structure (i.e., a structure-sequence alignment). To facilitate this type of structure prediction, we have designed a low resolution molecular graphics tool. ProtAlign introduces the ability to interact with and edit alignments directly in the 3-dimensional structure as well as in the usual 2-dimensional layout. It also contains several functions and features to help the user assess areas within the alignment. ProtAlign implements an open pipe architecture to allow other programs to access its molecular graphics capabilities. In addition, it is capable of "driving" other programs. Because amino acid side chain orientation is not relevant in fold recognition, we represent amino acid residues as abstract shapes or glyphs much like Lego (tm) blocks and we borrow techniques from comparative flow visualization using streamlines to provide clean depictions of the entire protein model. By creating a low resolution representation of protein structure, we are able to at least double the amount of information on the screen. At the same time, we create a view that is not as busy as the corresponding representations using traditional high resolution visualization methods which show detailed atomic structure. This eliminates distracting and possibly misleading visual clutter resulting from the mapping of protein alignment information onto a high resolution display of the known structure. This molecular graphics program is implemented in Open GL to facilitate porting to

  1. Real-time Interpolation for True 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Image Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    We compared trilinear interpolation to voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms for fast and accurate processing of true 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) image volumes. In this study, the computational efficiency and interpolation accuracy of the 3 methods were compared on the basis of a simulated 3DUS image volume, 34 clinical 3DUS image volumes from 5 patients, and 2 experimental phantom image volumes. We show that trilinear interpolation improves interpolation accuracy over both the voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms yet achieves real-time computational performance that is comparable to the voxel nearest neighbor algrorithm (1–2 orders of magnitude faster than the distance-weighted algorithm) as well as the fastest pixel-based algorithms for processing tracked 2-dimensional ultrasound images (0.035 seconds per 2-dimesional cross-sectional image [76,800 pixels interpolated, or 0.46 ms/1000 pixels] and 1.05 seconds per full volume with a 1-mm3 voxel size [4.6 million voxels interpolated, or 0.23 ms/1000 voxels]). On the basis of these results, trilinear interpolation is recommended as a fast and accurate interpolation method for rectilinear sampling of 3DUS image acquisitions, which is required to facilitate subsequent processing and display during operating room procedures such as image-guided neurosurgery. PMID:21266563

  2. Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Newsletter. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yasumasa, Ed.

    This international newsletter, published since 1968, provides cross-cultural and cross-national midi-communications in social psychology. Usually included are: 1) notices of international conferences, institutes, or seminars, 2) a list of new publications, 3) letters to the editor, 4) announcements, and 5) a bibliography of cross-cultural…

  3. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  4. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  5. 3-Dimensional Portrait of the Female CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemasters, Linda; Roach, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Dobie and Hummel (2001) asserted that the school superintendency is the most male-dominated position within the field of education. According to a 1992 study, 72% of educators were women; however, only 13.2% of superintendents are women (Glass, 1992). The most recent survey by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) found that…

  6. 3-Dimensional Terraced NAND (3D TNAND) Flash Memory-Stacked Version of Folded NAND Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Gil Sung; Park, Il Han; Lee, Jong Duk; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    We propose a 3-dimensional terraced NAND flash memory. It has a vertical channel so it is possible to make a long enough channel in 1F2 size. And it has 3-dimensional structure whose channel is connected vertically along with two stairs. So we can obtain high density as in the stacked array structure, without silicon stacking process. We can make NAND flash memory with 3F2 cell size. Using SILVACO ATLAS simulation, we study terraced NAND flash memory characteristics such as program, erase, and read. Also, its fabrication method is proposed.

  7. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  8. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  9. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  10. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  11. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  12. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  14. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  15. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF MOVEABLE BRIDGES CROSSING THE SOUTH BRANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF MOVEABLE BRIDGES CROSSING THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CHICAGO RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE SEARS TOWER - Chicago River Bascule Bridges, Spanning Chicago River & its north & south branches, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra. PMID:25621533

  17. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  18. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  19. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chafe, Susan; Moughan, Jennifer; McCormick, Beryl; Wong, John; Pass, Helen; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Arthur, Douglas W.; Petersen, Ivy; White, Julia; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again.

  20. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by Steven C. Linke; (3)…

  1. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  2. Towards non-AdS holography in 3-dimensional higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Michael; Grumiller, Daniel; Rashkov, Radoslav

    2012-03-01

    We take the first steps towards non-AdS holography in higher spin gravity. Namely, we propose a variational principle for generic 3-dimensional higher spin gravity that accommodates asymptotic backgrounds beyond AdS, like asymptotically Schrödinger, Lifshitz or warped AdS spacetimes. As examples we study in some detail the four sl(2) embeddings of spin-4 gravity and provide associated geometries, including an asymptotic Lifshitz black hole.

  3. Homer2 regulates alcohol and stress cross-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Quadir, Sema G; Santos, Jaqueline Rocha Borges Dos; Campbell, Rianne R; Wroten, Melissa G; Singh, Nimrita; Holloway, John J; Bal, Sukhmani K; Camarini, Rosana; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2016-05-01

    An interaction exists between stress and alcohol in the etiology and chronicity of alcohol use disorders, yet a knowledge gap exists regarding the neurobiological underpinnings of this interaction. In this regard, we employed an 11-day unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) procedure to examine for stress-alcohol cross-sensitization of motor activity as well as alcohol consumption/preference and intoxication. We also employed immunoblotting to relate the expression of glutamate receptor-related proteins within subregions of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) to the manifestation of behavioral cross-sensitization. UCMS mice exhibited a greater locomotor response to an acute injection of 2 g/kg alcohol than unstressed controls and this cross-sensitization extended to alcohol intake (0-20 percent), as well as to the intoxicating and sedative properties of 3 and 5 g/kg alcohol, respectively. Regardless of prior alcohol injection (2 g/kg), UCMS mice exhibited elevated NAC shell levels of mGlu1α, GluN2b and Homer2, as well as lower phospholipase Cβ within this subregion. GluN2b levels were also lower within the NAC core of UCMS mice. The expression of stress-alcohol locomotor cross-sensitization was associated with lower mGlu1α within the NAC core and lower extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity within both NAC subregions. As Homer2 regulates alcohol sensitization, we assayed also for locomotor cross-sensitization in Homer2 wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice. WT mice exhibited a very robust cross-sensitization that was absent in KO animals. These results indicate that a history of mild stress renders an animal more sensitive to the psychomotor and rewarding properties of alcohol, which may depend on neuroplasticity within NAC glutamate transmission. PMID:25916683

  4. Updated compilation of electron-Cl2 scattering cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, J.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2012-06-01

    We present a set of cross sections for electron scattering from ground state neutral chlorine molecules in the energy range from 0.01 to 100 eV. This cross section set is based on the recommendations in the review paper by Christophorou and Olthoff (1999 J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 28 131) and on more recently published theoretical and experimental results. These cross sections are used as input to a Boltzmann equation solver to yield the electron energy distribution as a function of E/N, the ratio of the electric field strength to neutral density, from which electron transport and rate coefficients (swarm parameters) in gas mixtures containing Cl2 are obtained. Reasonable agreement with the more reliable of the measured swarm parameters is obtained after slightly adjusting the magnitudes of some of the cross sections. While this agreement validates to some extent the cross section set, it is important to note that swarm data in Cl2-containing mixtures are limited and that there is a critical need for further measurements.

  5. 17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 19371938, AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 1937-1938, AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU STREAM ON THE BEACH (80' ALTITUDE). VIEW UPSTREAM INTO WAIKOLU VALLEY. NOTE RAIN-PRODUCING CLOUD COVER GATHERED AT THE HEAD OF THE VALLEY. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  6. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 2, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon Marcus); (2) Scholarship…

  7. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 2, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) "Effectiveness and Efficiency": The University System of Maryland's Campaign to Control Costs and Increase Student Aid (Kay Mills); (2) Remote Access: Western Governors University…

  8. Electron collision cross sections for H{sub 2} II

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Wada, H.; Ikuta, N.

    1993-12-01

    It is now an open but serious problem that the vibrational excitation cross sections of H{sub 2} molecule theoretically obtained by Morrison and that deduced by England from the swarm data disagree to each other. The results of beam experiment, on the other hand, agree with the theoretical cross section. Examinations in order to find the cause of these discrepancies have been carried out using the FTI method. The authors obtained the cross sections which fit to the drift velocity data and the D{sub {tau}}/{mu} data independently, but it has been impossible to obtain a cross section that fits to both of them. Theoretically derived cross section for vibrational excitation by Morrison can not give swarm parameters that agree with the data of swarm experiments. These facts show that there may be a fault in the present swarm theory. A possible cause of errors is the anisotropy in scatterings which has not been strictly included to the analyses.

  9. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  10. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  11. 3-Dimensional Imaging Modalities for Phenotyping Genetically Engineered Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powell, K. A.; Wilson, D.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of 3-dimensional (3D) digital imaging modalities are available for whole-body assessment of genetically engineered mice: magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT), optical projection tomography (OPT), episcopic and cryoimaging, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Embryo and adult mouse phenotyping can be accomplished at microscopy or near microscopy spatial resolutions using these modalities. MRM and microCT are particularly well-suited for evaluating structural information at the organ level, whereas episcopic and OPT imaging provide structural and functional information from molecular fluorescence imaging at the cellular level. UBM can be used to monitor embryonic development longitudinally in utero. Specimens are not significantly altered during preparation, and structures can be viewed in their native orientations. Technologies for rapid automated data acquisition and high-throughput phenotyping have been developed and continually improve as this exciting field evolves. PMID:22146851

  12. Hadronic Production of psi(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of {psi}(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb{sup -1} and 800 pb{sup -1}, respectively. The decay {psi}(2S) {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} is used to reconstruct {psi}(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y({psi}(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the p{sub T} range is 2.0 GeV/c {le} p{sub T} ({psi}(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT {ge} 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with p{sub T} ({psi}(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced {psi}(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as p{sub T} increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  13. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. PMID:26743416

  14. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  15. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:21989708

  16. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  17. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  18. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  19. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  20. Cross-coupling of propargylated arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene.

    PubMed

    Parshina, Lidiya N; Grishchenko, Lyudmila A; Larina, Lyudmila I; Novikova, Lyubov N; Trofimov, Boris A

    2016-10-01

    Novel pharmacologically prospective derivatives of arabinogalactan (a polysaccharide from larch wood) containing acetylenic and thiophene moieties have been obtained in up to 90% yield by cross-coupling of propargylic ethers of arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene. The reaction proceeds in the presence of the catalytic system Pd(Ph3P)4/CuBr/LiBr and piperidine in DMSO at 80-85°С. An advantageous feature of the synthesis is that it requires 5-25 times lesser catalytic loading than in common Sonogashira protocols thus making the reaction particularly beneficial to synthesize pharmaceutically-oriented polysaccharides. PMID:27312616

  1. Video Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Video-Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and testing video-based sensors for automated spacecraft guidance for several years, and the next generation of video sensor will have tracking rates up to 100 Hz and will be able to track multiple reflectors and targets. The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) developed over the past several years has performed well in testing and met the objective of being used as the terminal guidance sensor for an automated rendezvous and capture system. The first VGS was successfully tested in closed-loop 3-degree-of-freedom (3- DOF) tests in 1989 and then in 6-DOF open-loop tests in 1992 and closed-loop tests in 1993-4. Development and testing continued, and in 1995 approval was given to test the VGS in an experiment on the Space Shuttle. The VGS flew in 1997 and in 1998, performing well for both flights. During the development and testing before, during, and after the flight experiments, numerous areas for improvement were found. The VGS was developed with a sensor head and an electronics box, connected by cables. The VGS was used in conjunction with a target that had wavelength-filtered retro-reflectors in a specific pattern, The sensor head contained the laser diodes, video camera, and heaters and coolers. The electronics box contained a frame grabber, image processor, the electronics to control the components in the sensor head, the communications electronics, and the power supply. The system works by sequentially firing two different wavelengths of laser diodes at the target and processing the two images. Since the target only reflects one wavelength, it shows up well in one image and not at all in the other. Because the target's dimensions are known, the relative positions and attitudes of the target and the sensor can be computed from the spots reflected from the target. The system was designed to work from I

  2. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  3. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  4. The Investigation of Accuracy of 3 Dimensional Models Generated From Point Clouds with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Kutalmis; Erkaya, Halil

    2013-04-01

    In Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) applications, it is necessary to take into consideration the conditions that affect the scanning process, especially the general characteristics of the laser scanner, geometric properties of the scanned object (shape, size, etc.), and its spatial location in the environment. Three dimensional models obtained with TLS, allow determining the geometric features and relevant magnitudes of the scanned object in an indirect way. In order to compare the spatial location and geometric accuracy of the 3-dimensional model created by Terrestrial laser scanning, it is necessary to use measurement tools that give more precise results than TLS. Geometric comparisons are performed by analyzing the differences between the distances, the angles between surfaces and the measured values taken from cross-sections between the data from the 3-dimensional model created with TLS and the values measured by other measurement devices The performance of the scanners, the size and shape of the scanned objects are tested using reference objects the sizes of which are determined with high precision. In this study, the important points to consider when choosing reference objects were highlighted. The steps up to processing the point clouds collected by scanning, regularizing these points and modeling in 3 dimensions was presented visually. In order to test the geometric correctness of the models obtained by Terrestrial laser scanners, sample objects with simple geometric shapes such as cubes, rectangular prisms and cylinders that are made of concrete were used as reference models. Three dimensional models were generated by scanning these reference models with Trimble Mensi GS 100. The dimension of the 3D model that is created from point clouds was compared with the precisely measured dimensions of the reference objects. For this purpose, horizontal and vertical cross-sections were taken from the reference objects and generated 3D models and the proximity of

  5. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities.

    PubMed

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2011-07-15

    Songbirds are well known for their ability to learn their vocalizations by imitating conspecific adults. This uncommon skill has led to many studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological processes involved in vocal learning. Canaries display a variable, seasonally dependent, vocal behavior throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize the number of detectable brain regions, including most of the areas involved in song perception, learning, and production. The brain atlas can readily be used to determine the stereotactic location of delineated brain areas at any desirable head angle. Alternatively the brain data can be used to determine the ideal orientation of the brain for stereotactic injections, electrophysiological recordings, and brain sectioning. The 3-dimensional canary brain atlas presented here is freely available and is easily adaptable to support many types of neurobiological studies, including anatomical, electrophysiological, histological, explant, and tracer studies. PMID:21565273

  6. Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, John, Ed.

    The Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter, an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, reports on recent publications and research in cross-cultural psychology. Notes on international conferences in the field are followed by annotations of new publications. In addition, recent research projects are…

  7. Using gpfs 2.2 to enable a cross platform accessibility of singlestorage

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Will

    1994-12-01

    With IBM's aid I have conducted a cross compatibility test of GPFS 2.2 between an IBM F50 Power2 running AIX 5.2 ML/3 and 8 Dual Pentium 4/2.2 GHz running Redhat 9.0. The objective was to demonstrate a single shared instance of the file system and storage between the disparate operating systems and hardware systems. The cross compatibility test was successful. The chronology of events that led to this successful test are documented below.

  8. AFCI-2.0 Library of Neutron Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.; Hoblit,S.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sonzogni,A.; Talou,P.; Chadwick,M.B.; Hale.G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G.

    2011-06-26

    Neutron cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. The covariances refer to central values given in the 2006 release of the U.S. neutron evaluated library ENDF/B-VII. The preliminary version (AFCI-2.0beta) has been completed in October 2010 and made available to the users for comments. In the final 2.0 release, covariances for a few materials were updated, in particular new LANL evaluations for {sup 238,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were adopted. BNL was responsible for covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work, while LANL was in charge of covariances for light nuclei and for actinides.

  9. ENVISAT RA-2/MWR Cross-Calibration and Validation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Ra-2/Mwr Cross-Calibration; Validation Team

    2003-04-01

    ESA launched its environmental research satellite, ENVISAT, on 1 March 2002. It carries a suite of 10 instruments offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. In particular ENVISAT carries a radar altimeter (RA-2), a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a precise tracking system (DORIS). The evaluation of the quality of the ENVISAT Altimetry geophysical data products, the validation against in-situ data and models and the cross-calibration on ERS-2 and other flying altimeters has been performed during the commissioning phase within a team of scientists drawn up from the pre-launch announcement of opportunity. An overview of the objective and approach will be recalled and the results obtained from this teamwork will be presented.

  10. Cross sections for production of H(2p, 2s, 1s) by electron collisional dissociation of H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation function of H Ly-alpha from the astrophysically important dissociation of electron-excited H2 over the range 10-700 eV has been measured. The analysis predicts the cross section to energies higher than the present experimental limit, and it is found that the predicted shape is in close agreement with measured results. At 6 eV the cross section is dominated by the electric dipole first Born component, while at 100 eV the electric dipole component constitutes 73 percent of the total H(2p) cross section. The cross sections of the H(2s) and H(1s) components are calculated.

  11. A 3-dimensional Analysis of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isensee, Karl

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the nearby supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Easily resolvable supernova remnants such as Cas A provide a unique opportunity to test supernova explosion models. Additionally, we can observe key processes in the interstellar medium as the ejecta from the initial explosion encounter Cas A's powerful shocks. In order to accomplish these science goals, we used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to create a high resolution spectral map of select regions of Cas A, allowing us to make a Doppler reconstruction of its 3-dimensional structure structure. In the center of the remnant, we find relatively pristine ejecta that have not yet reached Cas A's reverse shock or interacted with the circumstellar environment. We observe O, Si, and S emission. These ejecta can form both sheet-like structures as well as filaments. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers of the star, are observed to be coincident in some regions, and separated by >500 km s -1 in others. Observed ejecta traveling toward us are, on average, ˜800 km s -1 slower than the material traveling away from us. We compare our observations to recent supernova explosion models and find that no single model can simultaneously reproduce all the observed features. However, models of different supernova explosions can collectively produce the observed geometries and structures of the emission interior to Cas A's reverse shock. We use the results from the models to address the conditions during the supernova explosion, concentrating on asymmetries in the shock structure. We also predict that the back surface of Cassiopeia A will begin brightening in ∼30 years, and the front surface in ˜100 years. We then used similar observations from 3 regions on Cas A's reverse shock in order to create more 3-dimensional maps. In these regions, we observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the

  12. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  13. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  14. Cross sections for the production of N2(+), N(+) + N2(2+) and N(2+) by electron impact on N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, E.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    Cross sections for the production of N2(+), N(+) + N2(2+) and N(2+) by electron impact on N2 have been measured for an energy range from threshold to 1000 eV. These cross sections have been fitted to an empirical formula for future use in modeling various plasmas. Considerable differences from some previous data have been found.

  15. Partial (gamma)-Ray Cross Sections for the Reaction 239Pu(n,2n(gamma)i) and the 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Beacker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; McNabb, D.P.; Garrett, P.E.; Archer, D.; McGrath, C.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Chen, H.; Ormand, W.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Johns, G.D.; Drake, D.; Young, P.G.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Wilburn, W.S.

    2001-09-14

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for production of discrete {gamma} rays in the {sup 239}Pu(n,2n{gamma}i){sup 238}Pu reaction have been measured. The experiments were performed at LANSCE/WNR on the 60R flight line. Reaction {gamma}-rays were measured using the large-scale Compton-suppressed array of Ge detectors, GEANIE. The motivation for this experiment, an overview of the partial {gamma}-ray cross-section measurement, and an introduction to the main experimental issues will be presented. The energy resolution of the Ge detectors allowed identification of reaction {gamma} rays above the background of sample radioactivity and fission {gamma} rays. The use of planar Ge detectors with their reduced sensitivity to neutron interactions and improved line shape was also important to the success of this experiment. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections are presented for the 6{sub 1}{sup +} {yields} 4{sub 1}{sup +} member of the ground state rotational band in {sup 238}Pu, together with miscellaneous other {gamma}-ray partial cross sections. The n,2n reaction cross section shape and magnitude as a function of neutron energy was extracted from these partial cross sections using nuclear modeling (enhanced Hauser-Feshbach) to relate partial {gamma}-ray cross sections to the n,2n cross section. The critical nuclear modeling issue is the ratio of a partial cross section to the reaction channel cross section, and not the prediction of the absolute magnitude.

  16. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  17. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  18. Quantification of mitral apparatus dynamics in functional and ischemic mitral regurgitation using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Federico; Corsi, Cristiana; Sugeng, Lissa; Caiani, Enrico G; Weinert, Lynn; Mor-Avi, Victor; Cerutti, Sergio; Lamberti, Claudio; Lang, Roberto M

    2008-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) and MR in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ISC-MR) usually occurs as a result of mitral annulus (MA) dilatation and papillary muscle displacement secondary to global left ventricle remodelling. We propose a method to determine MA area and motion throughout the cardiac cycle and to define papillary muscle position in 3-dimensional space using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 24 healthy individuals, and in 30 patients with DCM-MR (n = 15) or ISC-MR (n = 15). Significant intergroup differences were noted in MA surface area (control: 6.4 +/- 1.7 cm(2); DCM-MR: 11.1 +/- 2.6 cm(2); ISC-MR: 9.0 +/- 2.0 cm(2)) and in peak MA motion (control: 8.7 +/- 3.0 mm; DCM-MR: 3.4 +/- 1.7 mm; ISC-MR: 4.9 +/- 1.5 mm). In patients with DCM-MR, papillary muscle symmetry was preserved, whereas in patients with ISC-MR, papillary tethering lengths were unequal as a result of wall-motion abnormalities. Our methodology for dynamic volumetric measurements of the mitral apparatus allows better understanding of MR mechanisms. PMID:17681731

  19. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  20. National CrossTalk. Volume 17, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues.…

  1. National CrossTalk. Volume 18, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues.…

  2. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  3. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between PM2.5 and meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 pollution has become one of the most serious air pollution in China. The cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological factors (i.e., temperature, air pressure, relative humidity and wind speed) in Beijing and Hong Kong are discussed in this paper. We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) to analyze the cross-correlations, and study further the asymmetric characteristics of cross-correlations by multifractal asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-ADCCA). The experimental results show that the cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and four meteorological factors are multifractal and anti-persistent, and the strength of multifractality of Beijing is stronger than that of Hong Kong. Meanwhile, the cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological factors are asymmetric, and the asymmetric cross-correlations are multifractal.

  4. Parametrization of electron impact ionization cross sections for CO, CO2, NH3 and SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.; Nguyen, Hung P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron impact ionization and dissociative ionization cross section data of CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, and SO2, measured in the laboratory, were parameterized utilizing an empirical formula based on the Born approximation. For this purpose an chi squared minimization technique was employed which provided an excellent fit to the experimental data.

  5. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  6. Evaluation of the 3-Dimensional, Weight-bearing Orientation of the Normal Adult Knee

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Denis; Shah, Ritesh R.; Nunley, Ryan M.; Barrack, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional, weight-bearing images corrected for rotation to establish normative data of limb alignment and joint line orientation in asymptomatic, adult knees. One hundred adults (200 lower extremities) were recruited to receive weight-bearing, simultaneous biplanar imaging of both lower extremities. Multiple radiographic parameters were measured from 3D images, corrected for limb rotation. 70.0% of knees were in neutral, 19.5% in varus, and 10.5% in valgus overall alignment. Only 31 % of knees possessed both a neutral mechanical axis and the absence of joint line obliquity. There was substantial agreement between the 2D and 3D images for overall mechanical alignment (κ=0.77), but only a moderate agreement for joint line obliquity (κ=0.58). A substantial portion of asymptomatic adults possess either a varus or valgus mechanical alignment and joint line obliquity, PMID:24315446

  7. 3-dimensional interactive space (3DIS); A new dimension in asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, S. ); Veitch, J. ); West, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 3DIS security system which uses standard CCTV cameras to create 3-Dimensional detection zones around valuable assets within protected areas. An intrusion into a zone changes light values and triggers an alarm that is annunciated, while images from multiple cameras are recorded. 3DIS lowers nuisance alarm rates and provides superior automated surveillance capability. Performance is improved over 2-D systems because activity around, above or below the zone does to cause an alarm. Invisible 3-D zones protect assets as small as a pin or as large as a 747 jetliner. Detection zones are created by excising subspaces from the overlapping fields of view of two or more video cameras. Hundred of zones may co-exist, operating simultaneously. Intrusion into any 3-D zone will cause a coincidental change in light values, triggering an alarm specific to that space.

  8. Cross-signaling in metabotropic glutamate 2 and serotonin 2A receptor heteromers in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Baki, Lia; Fribourg, Miguel; Younkin, Jason; Eltit, Jose Miguel; Moreno, Jose L; Park, Gyu; Vysotskaya, Zhanna; Narahari, Adishesh; Sealfon, Stuart C; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Logothetis, Diomedes E

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that co-expression of the Gi-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2R) and the Gq-coupled serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor (2AR) in Xenopus oocytes (Fribourg et al. Cell 147:1011-1023, 2011) results in inverse cross-signaling, where for either receptor, strong agonists suppress and inverse agonists potentiate the signaling of the partner receptor. Importantly, through this cross-signaling, the mGlu2R/2AR heteromer integrates the actions of psychedelic and antipsychotic drugs. To investigate whether mGlu2R and 2AR can cross-signal in mammalian cells, we stably co-expressed them in HEK293 cells along with the GIRK1/GIRK4 channel, a reporter of Gi and Gq signaling activity. Crosstalk-positive clones were identified by Fura-2 calcium imaging, based on potentiation of 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) responses by the inverse mGlu2/3R agonist LY341495. Cross-signaling from both sides of the complex was confirmed in representative clones by using the GIRK channel reporter, both in whole-cell patch-clamp and in fluorescence assays using potentiometric dyes, and further established by competition binding assays. Notably, only 25-30 % of the clones were crosstalk-positive. The crosstalk-positive phenotype correlated with (a) increased colocalization of the two receptors at the cell surface, (b) lower density of mGlu2R binding sites and higher density of 2AR binding sites in total membrane preparations, and (c) higher ratios of mGlu2R/2AR normalized surface protein expression. Consistent with our results in Xenopus oocytes, a combination of ligands targeting both receptors could elicit functional crosstalk in a crosstalk-negative clone. Crosstalk-positive clones can be used in high-throughput assays for identification of antipsychotic drugs targeting this receptor heterocomplex. PMID:26780666

  9. Transport coefficients and cross sections for electrons in N2O and N2O/N2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupljanin, S.; de Urquijo, J.; Šašić, O.; Basurto, E.; Juárez, A. M.; Hernández-Ávila, J. L.; Dujko, S.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2010-04-01

    A standard swarm analysis of electron scattering cross sections in nitrous oxide (N2O) is presented. The experimental results for drift velocities and effective ionization coefficients (differences between the ionization and attachment coefficients), obtained over an extended range of E/N (electric field normalized to the gas number density) by the pulsed-Townsend technique, are compared with the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. Our analysis shows that commonly used sets of cross sections have to be modified in order to fit the new experimental data, in particular the dissociative cross sections for attachment and electronic excitation (with a threshold energy of around 4.0 eV). Using a single set of cross sections it was possible to fit both the data for pure N2O and those for the N2O/N2 mixtures with 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% N2O.

  10. Selection of massive bone allografts using shape-matching 3-dimensional registration

    PubMed Central

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Cartiaux, Olivier; Cornu, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Massive bone allografts are used when surgery causes large segmental defects. Shape-matching is the primary criterion for selection of an allograft. The current selection method, based on 2-dimensional template comparison, is inefficient for 3-dimensional complex bones. We have analyzed a 3-dimensional (3-D) registration method to match the anatomy of the allograft with that of the recipient. Methods 3-D CT-based registration was performed to match the shapes of both bones. We used the registration to align the allograft volume onto the recipient's bone. Hemipelvic allograft selection was tested in 10 virtual recipients with a panel of 10 potential allografts, including one from the recipient himself (trap graft). 4 observers were asked to visually inspect the superposition of allograft over the recipient, to classify the allografts into 4 categories according to the matching of anatomic zones, and to select the 3 best matching allografts. The results obtained using the registration method were compared with those from a previous study on the template method. Results Using the registration method, the observers systematically detected the trap graft. Selections of the 3 best matching allografts performed using registration and template methods were different. Selection of the 3 best matching allografts was improved by the registration method. Finally, reproducibility of the selection was improved when using the registration method. Interpretation 3-D CT registration provides more useful information than the template method but the final decision lies with the surgeon, who should select the optimal allograft according to his or her own preferences and the needs of the recipient. PMID:20175643

  11. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  12. Total Cross Section Measurements and Velocity Distributions of Hyperthermal Charge Transfer in Xe2+ + N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael; Prince, Benjamin; Bemish, Raymond

    Guided-ion beam measurements of the charge exchange (CEX) cross section for Xe2+ + N2 are reported for collision energies ranging from 0.3 to 100 eV in the center-of-mass frame. Measured total XS decrease from 69.5 +/-0.3 Angstroms2 (Angs.) at the lowest collision energies to 40 Angs.2at 100 eV. The product N2+CEX cross section is similar to the total CEX cross section while those of the dissociative product, N+, are less than 1Angs.2 for collision energies above 9 eV. The product N2+CEXcross section measured here are much larger than the total optical emission-excitation cross sections for the N2+(A) and (B) state products determined previously in the chemiluminescence study of Prince and Chiu suggesting that most of the N2+products are in the X state. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of both the Xe+ and N2+products suggest two different CEX product channels. The first leaves highly-vibrationally excited N2+products with forward scattered Xe+ (LAB frame) and releases between 0.35 to 0.6 eV translational energy for collisions below 17.6 eV. The second component decreases with collisional energy and leaves backscattered Xe+ and low-vibrational states of N2+.At collision energies above 17.6 eV, only charge exchange involving minimal momentum exchange remains in the TOF spectra. AFOSR 13RV07COR.

  13. Rotational Energy Transfer Cross Sections in N2-N2 Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotational inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS, also called centrifugal sudden) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigid-rotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range and for even j - even j collisions only. Both the CC and CS cross sections have been obtained with and without exchange symmetry, whereas exchange is neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well. At total energies between 113 to 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. The deviation decrease with increasing energy, indicating that the CS approximation can be used as a substitute at higher energies when the CC calculations become impractical. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp-1), shows significant differences between the two. In addition, the IOS results exhibits sensitivity to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subjected to bigger errors. At total energy 113 cm(exp -1) and above, the average deviation between state-to-state cross sections calculated with even and odd exchange symmetries is 1.5%.

  14. SO_2 Absorption Cross Sections and N_2 VUV Oscillator Strengths for Planetary Atmosphere Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Stark, G.; Rufus, J.; Pickering, J. C.; Cox, G.; Huber, K. P.

    1998-09-01

    The determination of the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Io from Hubble Space Telescope observations in the 190-220 nm wavelength region requires knowledge of the photoabsorption cross sections of SO_2 at temperatures ranging from about 110 K to 300 K. We are engaged in a laboratory program to measure SO_2 absorption cross sections with very high resolving power (lambda /delta lambda =~ 450,000) and at a range of temperatures appropriate to the Io atmosphere. Previous photoabsorption measurements, with lambda /delta lambda =~ 100,000, have been unable to resolve the very congested SO_2 spectrum, and, thus, to elucidate the temperature dependence of the cross sections. Our measurements are being performed at Imperial College, London, using an ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. We will present our recently completed room temperature measurements of SO_2 cross sections in the 190-220 nm region and plans for extending these to ~ 195 K. Analyses of Voyager VUV occultation measurements of the N_2-rich atmospheres of Titan and Triton have been hampered by the lack of fundamental spectroscopic data for N_2, in particular, by the lack of reliable f-values and line widths for electronic bands of N_2 in the 80-100 nm wavelength region. We are continuing our program of measurements of band oscillator strengths for the many (approximately 100) N_2 bands between 80 and 100 nm. We report new f-values, derived from data obtained at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan) synchrotron radiation facility with lambda /delta lambda =~ 130,000, of 37 bands in the 80-86 nm region and 21 bands in the 90-95 nm region. We have also begun the compilation of a searchable archive of N_2 data on the World Wide Web; see http://cfa-www.harvard. edu/amp/data/n2/n2home.html. The archive, covering the spectroscopy of N_2 between 80 and 100 nm, will include published and unpublished (14) N_2, (14) N(15) N, and (15) N_2 line lists and spectroscopic identifications, excited state energy

  15. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  16. JEF 2.2 Cross Section Library for the MCNP Monte Carlo Code.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-11-24

    Version 01 This continuous energy cross-section data library for MCNP is based on the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE format). The present library was satisfactorily tested in thermal and fast criticality benchmarks. For analyses below 20 MeV, MCJEF22NEA.BOLlB was applied also in cell and core calculations dedicated to the study of the subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS).

  17. Rigid supersymmetric backgrounds of 3-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knodel, Gino; Lisbão, Pedro; Liu, James T.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a non-relativistic off-shell formulation of three dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity was proposed as the c → ∞ limit of three dimensional mathcal{N} = 2 super-gravity [1]. In the present paper we study supersymmetric backgrounds within this theory. Using integrability constraints for the non-relativistic Killing spinor equations, we explicitly construct all maximally supersymmetric solutions, which admit four supercharges. In addition to these solutions, there are 1/2 -BPS solutions with reduced supersymmetry. We give explicit examples of such backgrounds and derive necessary conditions for backgrounds preserving two supercharges. Finally, we address how supersymmetric backgrounds of mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity are connected to the solutions found here in the c → ∞ limit.

  18. Rigid supersymmetric backgrounds of 3-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knodel, Gino; Lisbão, Pedro; Liu, James T.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a non-relativistic off-shell formulation of three dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity was proposed as the c → ∞ limit of three dimensional {N} = 2 super-gravity [1]. In the present paper we study supersymmetric backgrounds within this theory. Using integrability constraints for the non-relativistic Killing spinor equations, we explicitly construct all maximally supersymmetric solutions, which admit four supercharges. In addition to these solutions, there are 1/2 -BPS solutions with reduced supersymmetry. We give explicit examples of such backgrounds and derive necessary conditions for backgrounds preserving two supercharges. Finally, we address how supersymmetric backgrounds of {N} = 2 supergravity are connected to the solutions found here in the c → ∞ limit.

  19. The effect of intersystem crossings in N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Galvão, B. R. L. Poveda, L. A.

    2015-05-14

    The transitions between quartet and doublet states of the NH{sub 2} molecule are studied for the first time, allowing the evaluation of the N({sup 4}S) + H{sub 2} reactive channel. High level ab initio calculations of the spin-orbit coupling are performed over the whole configurational space of the NH{sub 2} molecule and fitted to a proposed analytic form. Quasiclassical trajectories coupled with the surface hopping method are employed to calculate reaction cross section and rate constants. The reaction is largely affected by the initial rovibrational states of H{sub 2}, while the formation of long-lived complexes enhances the reaction probability.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of Cl sub 2 O sub 2 between 210 and 410 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, J.B.; Orlando, J.J.; Howard, C.J. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )

    1990-01-25

    The ultraviolet and infrared absorption cross sections of Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} have been measured. The transient Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule was produced by using the gas-phase reaction ClO + ClO + M {yields} Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} + M. Three independent ClO radical source reactions were used in this study: Cl + O{sub 3}, Cl + Cl{sub 2}O, and Cl + OClO. The Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} UV absorption spectrum was recorded over the range 200-450 nm with a diode array spectrometer over the temperature range 205-250 K. The Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} infrared absorption spectrum was recorded with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer over the range 500-2,000 cm{sup {minus}1}. Both spectrometers were optically coupled to a fast flow multipass absorption cell. The UV absorption spectrum of Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a structureless continuum with a peak at 245 nm. The measurable absorption extends out to 410 nm. The UV absorption cross section at the peak of the spectrum, 245 nm, was measured to be (6.5{sub {minus}0.5}{sup +0.8}) {times} 10{sup {minus}18} cm{sup 2}. Infrared absorption features centered at 560, 653, and 750 cm{sup {minus}1} have been assigned to the Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule. The present results are compared with other reported UV and IR measurements and the sources of discrepancies are discussed. The role of Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} in atmospheric chemistry and in particular the Antarctic ozone hole are discussed.

  1. Synthesis of G-N2-(CH2)3-N2-G Trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-links

    PubMed Central

    Gruppi, Francesca; Salyard, Tracy L. Johnson; Rizzo, Carmelo J.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of G-N2-(CH2)3-N2-G trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) in a 5′-CG-3′ and 5′-GC-3′ sequence from oligodeoxynucleotides containing N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-fluoro-O6-(trimethylsilylethyl)inosine is presented. Automated solid-phase DNA synthesis was used for unmodified bases and modified nucleotides were incorporated via their corresponding phosphoramidite reagent by a manual coupling protocol. The preparation of the phosphoramidite reagents for incorporation of N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine is reported. The high-purity trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-link product is obtained through a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between the N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-fluoro-O6-(trimethylsilylethyl)inosine containing oligodeoxynucleotides. PMID:25431636

  2. Development and applications of 3-dimensional integration nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Eunmi; Son, Hyungbin; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Unlike conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar structures, signal or power is supplied through through-silicon via (TSV) in three-dimensional (3D) integration technology to replace wires for binding the chip/wafer. TSVs have becomes an essential technology, as they satisfy Moore's law. This 3D integration technology enables system and sensor functions at a nanoscale via the implementation of a highly integrated nano-semiconductor as well as the fabrication of a single chip with multiple functions. Thus, this technology is considered to be a new area of development for the systemization of the nano-bio area. In this review paper, the basic technology required for such 3D integration is described and methods to measure the bonding strength in order to measure the void occurring during bonding are introduced. Currently, CMOS image sensors and memory chips associated with nanotechnology are being realized on the basis of 3D integration technology. In this paper, we intend to describe the applications of high-performance nano-biosensor technology currently under development and the direction of development of a high performance lab-on-a-chip (LOC). PMID:24749469

  3. Phase transitions in a 3 dimensional lattice loop gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Richard; Nebia-Rahal, F.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate, via Monte Carlo simulations, the phase structure of a system of closed, nonintersecting but otherwise noninteracting, loops in 3 Euclidean dimensions. The loops correspond to closed trajectories of massive particles and we find a phase transition as a function of their mass. We identify the order parameter as the average length of the loops at equilibrium. This order parameter exhibits a sharp increase as the mass is decreased through a critical value, the behavior seems to be a crossover transition. We believe that the model represents an effective description of the broken-symmetry sector of the 2+1 dimensional Abelian Higgs model, in the extreme strong coupling limit. The massive gauge bosons and the neutral scalars are decoupled, and the relevant low-lying excitations correspond to vortices and antivortices. The functional integral can be approximated by a sum over simple, closed vortex loop configurations. We present a novel fashion to generate nonintersecting closed loops, starting from a tetrahedral tessellation of three space. The two phases that we find admit the following interpretation: the usual Higgs phase and a novel phase which is heralded by the appearance of effectively infinitely long loops. We compute the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator and that of the Polyakov loop operator. The Wilson loop exhibits perimeter law behavior in both phases implying that the transition corresponds neither to the restoration of symmetry nor to confinement. The effective interaction between external charges is screened in both phases, however there is a dramatic increase in the polarization cloud in the novel phase as shown by the energy shift introduced by the Wilson loop.

  4. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  5. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC. PMID:26046692

  6. 3-DIMENSIONAL Numerical Modeling on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel in Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenming; An, Hui; Amin, Maghbouli; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    A 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling is conducted on a direct injection diesel engine fueled by biodiesel using multi-dimensional software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN. To accurately predict the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated agents of the biodiesel fuel, a multicomponent advanced combustion model consisting of 69 species and 204 reactions combined with detailed oxidation pathways of methyl decenoate (C11H22O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2) and n-heptane (C7H16) is employed in this work. In order to better represent the real fuel properties, the detailed chemical and thermo-physical properties of biodiesel such as vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid viscosity and surface tension were calculated and compiled into the KIVA4 fuel library. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) formation mechanisms were also embedded. After validating the numerical simulation model by comparing the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate curves with experimental results, further studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of combustion chamber design on flow field, subsequently on the combustion process and performance of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. Research has also been done to investigate the impact of fuel injector location on the performance and emissions formation of diesel engine.

  7. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  8. Cross Currents: A Journal of Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume VII, Number 2, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerry, Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles and book reviews: (1) "Teaching Language to Young Learners," by J. Dennis; (2) "Language Development through Writing," by E. Weiner and L. Smith; (3) "Communicative Interference," by L. Loveday; (4) "Challenges for Curriculum Design," by P. Knowles; (5) "Tapping the Imagination in Advanced ESL…

  9. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  10. Fabrication of a 3-dimensional nanostructured binary colloidal crystal within a confined channel.

    PubMed

    Gorey, Brian; Smyth, Malcolm R; Morrin, Aoife; White, Blánaid

    2014-12-15

    The reproducible fabrication of nanostructured 3Dimensional (3D) binary colloidal crystal (bCC) in a defined geometric space through a simple one step process is detailed. This method allows for the potential fabrication of a bCC in a sealed μchip within a defined area or channel by capillary forces, unlike other bCC formation methods such as dip-drawing, where the substrate must be submerged in a suspension to form a bCC, or bCC monolayers, which are fabricated at the water air interface. Through simple variation in volume fraction ratio (VF(S/L)) of nano-(denoted small, S) and macro-sized (denoted large, L) polystyrene (PS) spheres and diameter size ratio (D(S/L)), the manipulation of bCC structures was also achieved. Variation of nano-sized PS sphere number within the interstitial voids formed between neighbouring macro-sized spheres enabled the reproducible fabrication of LS2 and LS6 structures, which contain 1 and 3 nano-spheres respectively in each interstitial void. It must be noted that while VF(S/L) allows for control of the final LSn structure, thickness of bCC formation in this manner is independent of VFS/L. PMID:25268825

  11. The 3-dimensional, 4-channel model of human visual sensitivity to grayscale scrambles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andrew E; Chubb, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Previous research supports the claim that human vision has three dimensions of sensitivity to grayscale scrambles (textures composed of randomly scrambled mixtures of different grayscales). However, the preattentive mechanisms (called here "field-capture channels") that confer this sensitivity remain obscure. The current experiments sought to characterize the specific field-capture channels that confer this sensitivity using a task in which the participant is required to detect the location of a small patch of one type of grayscale scramble in an extended background of another type. Analysis of the results supports the existence of four field-capture channels: (1) the (previously characterized) "blackshot" channel, sharply tuned to the blackest grayscales; (2) a (previously unknown) "gray-tuned" field-capture channel whose sensitivity is zero for black rising sharply to maximum sensitivity for grayscales slightly darker than mid-gray then decreasing to half-height for brighter grayscales; (3) an "up-ramped" channel whose sensitivity is zero for black, increases linearly with increasing grayscale reaching a maximum near white; (4) a (complementary) "down-ramped" channel whose sensitivity is maximal for black, decreases linearly reaching a minimum near white. The sensitivity functions of field-capture channels (3) and (4) are linearly dependent; thus, these four field-capture channels collectively confer sensitivity to a 3-dimensional space of histogram variations. PMID:24932891

  12. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  13. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  14. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $$2\\ell2\

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search formore » anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.« less

  15. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  16. 5-Lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase-2 cross-talk through cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lötzer, Katharina; Jahn, Steffen; Kramer, Cornelia; Hildner, Markus; Nüsing, Rolf; Funk, Colin D; Habenicht, Andreas J R

    2007-11-01

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway generates lipid mediators, i.e. the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) LTC(4)/LTD(4) and LTB(4). CysLT receptors are expressed in endothelial cells (EC) and EC cysLT(2)-R activation induces diverse pro-inflammatory genes in vitro. We now report that LTD(4) promotes formation of an atherosclerosis-protective and anti-thrombotic eicosanoid by markedly up-regulating EC cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CysLT-induced COX-2 transcripts were transiently up-regulated as determined by microarray and QRT-PCR analyses though COX-2 protein remained elevated for several hours. Prostacyclin formation, measured as its stable metabolite 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), was increased several fold in LTD(4)-stimulated ECs, and was inhibited by the COX-2-specific inhibitor, NS-398. COX-2 up-regulation was Ca(2+)-dependent and was partially blocked by cyclosporin A indicating that the 5-LO/COX-2 cross-talk involved signaling through a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) dependent pathway. Since prostacyclin is a major blood vessel-protective and anti-thrombotic eicosanoid, the EC cysLT(2)-R may limit its otherwise pro-inflammatory actions through a protective Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT-dependent COX-2 feedback loop. PMID:17991613

  17. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. PMID:27162278

  18. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  19. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:24649670

  20. Cross sections for the production of energetic cations by electron impact on N2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iga, I.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Katayama, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dissociative ionization cross sections for the production of singly charged energetic ions by electron impact on N2 and CO2 have been measured. The ions were divided into two groups: one with energies less than 1 eV and the other with energies greater than 1 eV. The ions detected were N+ from N2 and C+, O+, and CO+ from CO2. The electron impact energy range, and cross section data on ions is given.

  1. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  2. H2O2-treated actin: assembly and polymer interactions with cross-linking proteins.

    PubMed Central

    DalleDonne, I; Milzani, A; Colombo, R

    1995-01-01

    During inflammation, hydrogen peroxide, produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, provokes cell death mainly by disarranging filamentous (polymerized) actin (F-actin). To show the molecular mechanism(s) by which hydrogen peroxide could alter actin dynamics, we analyzed the ability of H2O2-treated actin samples to polymerize as well as the suitability of actin polymers (from oxidized monomers) to interact with cross-linking proteins. H2O2-treated monomeric (globular) actin (G-actin) shows an altered time course of polymerization. The increase in the lag phase and the lowering in both the polymerization rate and the polymerization extent have been evidenced. Furthermore, steady-state actin polymers, from oxidized monomers, are more fragmented than control polymers. This seems to be ascribable to the enhanced fragility of oxidized filaments rather than to the increase in the nucleation activity, which markedly falls. These facts; along with the unsuitability of actin polymers from oxidized monomers to interact with both filamin and alpha-actinin, suggest that hydrogen peroxide influences actin dynamics mainly by changing the F-actin structure. H2O2, via the oxidation of actin thiols (in particular, the sulfhydryl group of Cys-374), likely alters the actin C-terminus, influencing both subunit/subunit interactions and the spatial structure of the binding sites for cross-linking proteins in F-actin. We suggest that most of the effects of hydrogen peroxide on actin could be explained in the light of the "structural connectivity," demonstrated previously in actin. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 9 PMID:8599677

  3. Reliability of Aortic Stenosis Severity Classified by 3-Dimensional Echocardiography in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimi; Seo, Yoshihiro; Ishizu, Tomoko; Nakajima, Hideki; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Izumo, Masaki; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Otsuji, Yutaka; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of aortic valve area (AVA) by Doppler echocardiography-derived left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) remains controversial. We hypothesized that AVA estimated from directly measured LVSV by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) on the continuity equation might be more accurate in classifying aortic stenosis (AS) severity. We retrospectively enrolled 265 patients with moderate-to-severe AS with preserved ejection fraction. Indexed AVA (iAVA) was calculated using LVSV derived by 2D Doppler (iAVADop), Simpson's method (iAVASimp), and 3DE (iAVA3D). During a median follow-up period of 397 days (interquartile range 197 to 706 days), 135 patients experienced the composite end point (cardiac death 9%, aortic valve replacement 24%, and cardiovascular event 27%). Estimated iAVA3D and iAVASimp were significantly smaller than iAVADop and moderately correlated with peak aortic jet velocity. Upper septal hypertrophy was a major cause of discrepancy between iAVADop and iAVA3D methods. Based on the optimal cut-off point of iAVA for predicting peak aortic jet velocity >4.0 m/s, 141 patients (53%) were classified as severe AS and 124 patients (47%) as moderate AS by iAVADop. Indexed AVA3D classified 118 patients (45%) as severe and 147 patients (55%) as moderate AS. Of the 124 patients with moderate AS by iAVADop, 22 patients (18%) were reclassified as severe AS by iAVA3D and showed poor prognosis (hazard ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.0; p = 0.001). In conclusion, 3DE might be superior in classifying patients with AS compared with Doppler method, particularly in patients with upper septal hypertrophy. PMID:27287062

  4. TAF4 Inactivation Reveals the 3 Dimensional Growth Promoting Activities of Collagen 6A3

    PubMed Central

    Duluc, Isabelle; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4−/− MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4−/− MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4−/− MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4−/− MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth. PMID:24498316

  5. Effect of Watching 3-Dimensional Television on Refractive Error in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. Results The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Conclusions Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children. PMID:25646061

  6. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Wientjes, Michael G.; Yeung, Bertrand Z.; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity.Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30 mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,1-20 mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44 mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30 mol% DOTAP and ≤10 mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposomesize increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomessuggestsconcentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135 nm diameter, -49 to +44 mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10 mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoralsubcompartments within spheroids. PMID:24995948

  7. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  8. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  9. 3-dimensional root phenotyping with a novel imaging and software platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of 3-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform’s capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and ...

  10. 3-DIMENSIONAL MEASURED AND SIMULATED FLOW FOR SCOUR NEAR SPUR DIKES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve understanding of the flow and scour processes associated with spur dikes more fully, 3-dimensional flow velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at a closely spaced grid over a fixed flat bed with a submerged spur dike. Some 2592 three-dimensional velocities around a...

  11. Characterization of Students' Reasoning and Proof Abilities in 3-Dimensional Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Angel; Pegg, John; Lawrie, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on a research aimed to identify and characterize secondary school students' reasoning and proof abilities when working with 3-dimensional geometric solids. We analyze students' answers to two problems asking them to prove certain properties of prisms. As results of this analysis, we get, on the one side, a characterization…

  12. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  13. Carotid-Sparing TomoHelical 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chae-Seon; Oh, Dongryul; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Yong Chan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jin Sung; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). Conclusion TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage. PMID:25761477

  14. Electron Collision Cross Sections for the Cl2 Molecule from Electron Transport Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    The measured electron transport coefficients (electron drift velocity, Townsend first ionization coefficient, electron attachment coefficient, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient) in pure Cl2 have been analyzed to derive the currently best available electron collision cross section set of the elastic and inelastic electron collision cross sections for the Cl2 molecule using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients calculated using the derived cross sections are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present electron collision cross section set for the Cl2 molecule is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing Cl2 molecules.

  15. 2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE Bald Eagle CrossCut Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  16. Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the O(+)(4S) + CO2 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.

    1991-12-01

    Results are presented on measurements of absolute state-selected total cross sections for O2(+), CO2(+), CO(+), and C(+) produced in the reaction between O(+)(4S) and CO2, which were conducted in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.2-150 eV. It was found that, with increasing collisional energy, the cross section of O2(+) dropped off rapidly and became essentially zero at Ecm above 3 eV. The dependence of O2(+) cross section on the Ecm is consistent with a collision complex mechanism for the reaction between O(+)(4S) and CO2 yielding CO2(+) + O. The values for O2(+) obtained in this experiment were significantly higher than those reported by Rutherford and Vroom (1976).

  17. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $2\\ell2\

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search for anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.

  18. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Yang, Yanan; Sun, Li; Ahn, Young-Ho; Pankova, Daniela; Puperi, Daniel S.; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kim, Min P.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Rodriguez, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L.; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid; Pati, Debananda; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Burns, Alan R.; Creighton, Chad J.; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Zal, Tomasz; Grande-Allen, K. Jane; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde–derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma. PMID:25664850

  19. Multigroup 3-Dimensional Neutron Diffusion Nodal Code System with Thermohydraulic Feedbacks.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-02-07

    Version 01 GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation on coarse mesh in 1D, 2D, and 3D Cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks) as well as power distributions and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  20. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery. PMID:23254802

  1. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  2. Bcr is a substrate for Transglutaminase 2 cross-linking activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is a multi-domain protein that contains a C-terminal GTPase activating protein (GAP) domain for Rac. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) regulates Bcr by direct binding to its GAP domain. Since TG2 has transglutaminase activity that has been implicated in the response to extreme stress, we investigated if Bcr can also act as a substrate for TG2. Results We here report that activation of TG2 by calcium caused the formation of covalently cross-linked Bcr. Abr, a protein related to Bcr but lacking its N-terminal oligomerization domain, was not cross-linked by TG2 even though it forms a complex with it. A Bcr mutant missing the first 62 amino acid residues remained monomeric in the presence of activated TG2, showing that this specific domain is necessary for the cross-linking reaction. Calcium influx induced by a calcium ionophore in primary human endothelial cells caused cross-linking of endogenous Bcr, which was inhibited by the TG2 inhibitor cystamine. Treatment of cells with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia-mimetic that causes cellular stress, also generated high molecular weight Bcr complexes. Cross-linked Bcr protein appeared in the TritonX-100-insoluble cell fraction and further accumulated in cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor. Conclusions Bcr thus represents both an interacting partner under non-stressed conditions and a target of transglutaminase activity for TG2 during extreme stress. PMID:21310073

  3. STAT2 Is Required for TLR-Induced Murine Dendritic Cell Activation and Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Michael H; Chakhtoura, Marita; Green, Benjamin L; Kotredes, Kevin P; Chain, Robert W; Sriram, Uma; Gamero, Ana M; Gallucci, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    TLR-stimulated cross-presentation by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) is important in host defense and antitumor immunity. We recently reported that cDCs lacking the type I IFN signaling molecule STAT2 are impaired in cross-presenting tumor Ags to CD8(+) T cells. To investigate how STAT2 affects cross-presentation, we determined its requirements for dendritic cell activation. In this study, we report that STAT2 is essential for the activation of murine female cDCs upon TLR3, -4, -7, and -9 stimulation. In response to various TLR ligands, Stat2(-/-) cDCs displayed reduced expression of costimulatory molecules and type I IFN-stimulated genes. The cDC responses to exogenous IFN-α that we evaluated required STAT2 activation, indicating that the canonical STAT1-STAT2 heterodimers are the primary signaling transducers of type I IFNs in cDCs. Interestingly, LPS-induced production of IL-12 was STAT2 and type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) dependent, whereas LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 was STAT2 and IFNAR independent, suggesting a specific role of the IFNAR-STAT2 axis in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by LPS in cDCs. In contrast, R848- and CpG-induced cytokine production was less influenced by the IFNAR-STAT2 axis. Short kinetics and IFNAR blockade studies showed that STAT2 main function is to transduce signals triggered by autocrine type I IFNs. Importantly, Stat2(-/-) cDCs were deficient in cross-presenting to CD8(+) T cells in vitro upon IFN-α, CpG, and LPS stimulation, and also in cross-priming and licensing cytotoxic T cell killers in vivo. We conclude that STAT2 plays a critical role in TLR-induced dendritic cell activation and cross-presentation, and thus is vital in host defense. PMID:27233962

  4. Visible-Light-Triggered Cross-Linking of DNA Duplexes by Reversible [2+2] Photocycloaddition of Styrylpyrene.

    PubMed

    Doi, Tetsuya; Kawai, Hayato; Murayama, Keiji; Kashida, Hiromu; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-18

    Reversible photo-cross-linking of a DNA duplex through the [2+2] photocycloaddition of styrylpyrene is reported. Styrylpyrene moieties on d-threoninol linkers were introduced into complementary positions on DNA strands. Irradiation of the styrylpyrene pair in the duplex with visible light at λ=455 nm induced a [2+2] photocycloaddition between styrylpyrenes that cross-linked the two strands of the duplex. Two diastereomers were formed after [2+2] photocycloaddition as a result of rotation of the styrylpyrene residues. Also, the cycloreversion reaction was induced by UV light at λ=340 nm, which reversibly yielded the uncross-linked strands. PMID:27299696

  5. Supercritical CO2 Migration under Cross-Bedded Structures: Outcrop Analog from the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Allen, J.; Han, W.; Lu, C.; McPherson, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Jurassic aeolian sandstones (e.g. Navajo and White Rim Sandstones) on the Colorado Plateau of Utah have been considered potential sinks for geologic CO2 sequestration due to their regional lateral continuity, thickness, high porosity and permeability, presence of seal strata and proximity to large point sources of anthropogenic CO2. However, aeolian deposits usually exhibit inherent internal complexities induced by migrating bedforms of different sizes and their resulting bounding surfaces. Therefore, CO2 plume migration in such complex media should be well defined and successively linked in models for better characterization of the plume behavior. Based on an outcrop analog of the upper Navajo Sandstone in the western flank of the San Rafael Swell, Utah, we identified five different bedform types with dune and interdune facies to represent the spatial continuity of lithofacies units. Using generated 3D geometrical facies patterns of cross-bedded structures in the Navajo Sandstone, we performed numerical simulations to understand the detailed behavior of CO2 plume migration under the different cross-bedded bedforms. Our numerical simulation results indicate that cross-bedded structures (bedform types) play an important role on governing the rate and directionality of CO2 migration, resulting in changes of imbibition processes of CO2. CO2 migration tends to follow wind ripple laminations and reactivation surfaces updip. Our results suggest that geologically-based upscaling of CO2 migration is crucial in cross-bedded formations as part of reservoir or basin scale models. Furthermore, comparative modeling studies between 3D models and 2D cross-sections extracted from 3D models showed the significant three-dimensional interplay in a cross-bedded structure and the need to correctly capture the geologic heterogeneity to predict realistic CO2 plume behavior. Our outcrop analog approach presented in this study also demonstrates an alternative method for assessing geologic

  6. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  7. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  8. Electron-Capture Cross Sections of Ground-State O2+ Recoil Ions in Slow Collisions with H2 and O2

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Asad T.; Gray, Tom J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the measured total charge-transfer (electron-capture) cross sections for the ground state O2+ (X2Πg) ions with H2 and O2 molecular gases in the collision energy range between 0.50 and 2 keV. The time-of-flight technique has been used to measure the fast neutral products from O2+ charge transfer reactions. The analyzed process has cross sections that continue to increase slowly, as a function of incident energy. Measured cross sections for O2++H2, O2 systems are compared with previously available experimental and theoretical results in the literature.

  9. Mechanisms of Cross-protection by Influenza Virus M2-based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza virus vaccines are based on strain-specific surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) antigens and effective only when the predicted vaccine strains and circulating viruses are well-matched. The current strategy of influenza vaccination does not prevent the pandemic outbreaks and protection efficacy is reduced or ineffective if mutant strains emerge. It is of high priority to develop effective vaccines and vaccination strategies conferring a broad range of cross protection. The extracellular domain of M2 (M2e) is highly conserved among human influenza A viruses and has been utilized to develop new vaccines inducing cross protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus. However, immune mechanisms of cross protection by M2e-based vaccines still remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we review immune correlates and mechanisms conferring cross protection by M2e-based vaccines. Molecular and cellular immune components that are known to be involved in M2 immune-mediated protection include antibodies, B cells, T cells, alveolar macrophages, Fc receptors, complements, and natural killer cells. Better understanding of protective mechanisms by immune responses induced by M2e vaccination will help facilitate development of broadly cross protective vaccines against influenza A virus. PMID:26557805

  10. Creating 3-dimensional Models of the Photosphere using the SIR Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonhofer, S.; Utz, D.; Jurčák, J.; Pauritsch, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lemmerer, B.

    A high-resolution 3-dimensional model of the photospheric magnetic field is essential for the investigation of magnetic features such as sunspots, pores or smaller elements like single flux tubes seen as magnetic bright points. The SIR code is an advanced inversion code that retrieves physical quantities, e.g. magnetic field, from Stokes profiles. Based on this code, we developed a program for automated inversion of Hinode SOT/SP data and for storing these results in 3-dimensional data cubes in the form of fits files. We obtained models of the temperature, magnetic field strength, magnetic field angles and LOS-velocity in a region of the quiet sun. We will give a first discussion of those parameters in regards of small scale magnetic fields and what we can obtain and learn in the future.

  11. Conditioned Media From Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Accelerates Healing in 3-Dimensional Skin Cultures.

    PubMed

    Collawn, Sherry S; Mobley, James A; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Chow, Louise T

    2016-04-01

    Wound healing involves a number of factors that results in the production of a "closed" wound. Studies have shown, in animal models, acceleration of wound healing with the addition of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC). The cause for the positive effect which these cells have on wound healing has not been elucidated. We have previously shown that addition of ADSC to the dermal equivalent in 3-dimensional skin cultures accelerates reepithelialization. We now demonstrate that conditioned media (CM) from cultured ADSC produced a similar rate of healing. This result suggests that a feedback from the 3-dimensional epithelial cultures to ADSC was not necessary to effect the accelerated reepithelialization. Mass spectrometry of CM from ADSC and primary human fibroblasts revealed differences in secretomes, some of which might have roles in the accelerating wound healing. Thus, the use of CM has provided some preliminary information on a possible mode of action. PMID:26954733

  12. CO2/light gas separation performance of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium) gel membranes as a function of ionic liquid loading and cross-linker content

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2012-04-15

    A series of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium)-RTIL gel membranes was synthesized and evaluated for room-temperature, ideal CO2/N-2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H-2 separation performance. The membranes were formed by photo-polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized cross-linking (i.e., di-functional) and non-cross-linking (i.e., mono-functional) vinylimidazolium RTIL monomers with nonpolymerizable, "free RTIL." The effect of free RTIL ([emim][Tf2N]) loading on CO2 separation performance was evaluated by varying RTIL loading at three levels (45, 65, and 75 wt.%). The effect of cross-linker content on CO2 separation performance was also evaluated by varying the copolymer composition of cross-linked membranes from 5 to 100 mol% di-functional monomer. The substituent on the monofunctional RTIL monomer was also varied to investigate the effect of substituent structure and chemistry on CO2 separation performance. CO2 permeability was dramatically increased with higher loading of free RTIL. Increased RTIL loading had no effect on CO2/N-2 or CO2/CH4 permeability selectivity, but significantly improved CO2/H-2 permeability selectivity. Reducing the cross-linking monomer concentration generally improved CO2 permeability. However, anomalous permeability and selectivity behavior was observed below critical concentrations of cross-linker. The effect of the substituent on the monofunctional monomer on CO2 separation performance was minimal compared to the effects of RTIL loading and copolymer composition. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  14. Evaluation of the 239Pu(n,2n) Integrated Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D P; Anderson, J D; Bauer, R W; Becker, J A; Dietrich, F; Navratil, P; Chadwick, M B; Young, P G

    2001-01-25

    Recently, new cross section measurements by the GEANIE collaboration have been published for {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n{gamma}) [Ber00] and {sup 235}U(n, 2n{gamma}) [You00] from threshold to 20 MeV. When combined with nuclear reaction calculations [Che00, Cha99, Cha01], these measurements provide the most accurate information available on the shape and magnitude of the {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n) cross section for incident neutron energies, E{sub n} {approx}< 14 MeV. This new data has prompted a re-evaluation of the {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n) {sup 238}Pu reaction cross section considering all available experimental data. The data prior to the measurement of Bernstein et al. [Ber00] is illustrated in Figure 1a. These data sets were considered by previous evaluations [ENDL] of the {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n) cross section. The most precise experiment was an activation measurement done by Lougheed et al. [Lou00] for incident neutron energies, E{sub n}, between 13-15 MeV. In addition, there were two neutron-counting experiments, one by Mather et al. [Mat72] and one by Frehaut et al. [Fre85]. These two measurements cover a wide incident neutron range, with data points from threshold to E{sub n} {approx} 14 MeV. The available data sets are in poor agreement with each other and in some cases do not meet basic expectations. These experiments will be reviewed in detail. The new contributions to this evaluation are (1) the GEANIE data coupled with reaction modeling, illustrated in Figure 1b, and (2) the systematic use of other nuclear data in order to put constraints on the shape and magnitude of the {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n) cross section. The approach of this evaluation has been to use consistency arguments supported by nuclear data to resolve the measurement differences, with the goal of providing: (1) A comprehensive picture of our knowledge on the {sup 239}Pu(n, 2n) cross section; and (2) A new evaluation including the best possible estimate of the cross section and a one-sigma estimate the uncertainties. This

  15. Elastic positron scattering by C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Differential cross sections and virtual state formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Claudia R.C. de; Varella, Marcio T. do N; Lima, Marco A.P.; Silva, Euclimar P. da

    2003-12-01

    We present calculated elastic differential cross sections for positron-acetylene scattering, obtained by using the Schwinger multichannel method. Our results are in very good agreement with quasielastic experimental data of Kauppila et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 192, 162 (2002)]. We also discuss the existence of a virtual state (zero-energy resonance) in e{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} collisions, based on the behavior of the integral cross section and of the s-wave phase shift. As expected the fixed-nuclei cross section and annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff}) present the same energy dependence at very low impact energies. As the virtual state energy approaches zero, the magnitude of both cross section and Z{sub eff} are extremely enhanced (at zero impact energy). The possibility of shifting from a low-lying virtual state to a shallow bound state is not expected to significantly affect room-temperature annihilation rates.

  16. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  17. Relative high-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Appadoo, D. R. T.

    2015-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used to record absorption cross sections of ethane, C2H6, in the far-infrared with very high spectral resolution (up to 0.00096 cm-1). C2H6 is present in the atmospheres of the Gas Giant planets and Titan but the vapor pressure at relevant atmospheric temperatures (i.e., between 70 and 200 K) is low. This makes laboratory measurements difficult. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique "enclosive flow" cold cell, located at the Australian Synchrotron, that enables high-resolution absorption cross sections of gaseous C2H6 to be recorded at 90 K.

  18. Systematics of (n,2n) and (n,3n) Cross Sections.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-10-08

    Version 00 SC2N3N can be used to calculate the (n2n) and (n3n) cross section in the energy region from threshold to about 25 MeV with the systematics parameters which well reproduce the experiment in the mass region of 23.le.A.le.238 (especially between 45 and 197.)

  19. Potential curves for Na2/+/ and resonance charge transfer cross sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.; Allison, A. C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    A mode potential method, applied earlier to the positively charged diatomic lithium molecule Li2(+), is used to calculate the six lowest potential energy curves of Na2(+). Charge transfer cross sections are calculated for Li(+) on Li and for Na(+) on Na and found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  20. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2

  1. BOXER: Fine-flux Cross Section Condensation, 2D Few Group Diffusion and Transport Burnup Calculations

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-01

    Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format (ETOBOX).

  2. 70 Group Neutron Fast Reactor Cross Section Set Based on JENDL-2B.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1984-02-06

    Version 00 These multigroup cross sections are used in fast reactor calculations. The benchmark calculations for the 23 fast critical assemblies used in the benchmark tests of JFS-2 were performed with one-dimensional diffusion theory by using the JFS-3-J2 set.

  3. Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling of Brominated 2,1-Borazaronaphthalenes with Potassium Alkenyltrifluoroborates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of 3-bromo-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes with potassium alkenyltrifluoroborates. Twenty-seven alkenyl-substituted azaborines have been synthesized through this method, providing access to a family of 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes with alkenyl substitution at the C3 position. PMID:25356980

  4. Tabulation of hybrid theory calculated e-N2 vibrational and rotational cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational excitation cross sections of N2 by electron impact are tabulated. Integrated cross sections are given for transitions v yields v prime where o=or v=or 8 in the energy range 0.1 eV=or E=or 10 eV. The energy grid is chosen to be most dense in the resonance region (2 to 4 eV) so that the substructure is present in the numerical results. Coefficients in the angular distribution formula (differential scattering cross section) for transitions v=0 yields v prime = or 8 are also numerically given over the same grid of energies. Simultaneous rotation-vibration coefficients are also given for transitions v=o,j=o; 1 yields v prime=o, j=o,2,4; 1,3,5. All results are obtained from the hybrid theory.

  5. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  6. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  7. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  8. Helium Atom Scattering from C2H6, F2HCCH3, F3CCH2F and C2F6 in Crossed Molecular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Markus; Seidel, Wolfhart

    1997-10-01

    Rotationally unresolved differential cross sections were measured in crossed molecular beam experiments by scattering Helium atoms from Ethane, 1,1-Difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane and Hexafluoroethane. The damping of observed diffraction oscillations was used to extract anisotropic interaction potentials for these scattering systems applying the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Binary macroscopic parameters such as second heterogeneous virial coefficients and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity were computed from these potentials and compared to results from macroscopic experiments.

  9. Single-Molecule Imaging of DNA Pairing by RecA Reveals a 3-Dimensional Homology Search

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Anthony L.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    DNA breaks can be repaired with high-fidelity by homologous recombination. A ubiquitous protein that is essential for this DNA template-directed repair is RecA1. After resection of broken DNA to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), RecA assembles on this ssDNA into a filament with the unique capacity to search and find DNA sequences in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) that are homologous to the ssDNA. This homology search is vital to recombinational DNA repair, and results in homologous pairing and exchange of DNA strands. Homologous pairing involves DNA sequence-specific target location by the RecA-ssDNA complex. Despite decades of study, the mechanism of this enigmatic search process remains unknown. RecA is a DNA-dependent ATPase, but ATP hydrolysis is not required for DNA pairing and strand exchange2,3, eliminating active search processes. Using dual optical trapping to manipulate DNA, and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image DNA pairing, we demonstrate that both the three-dimensional conformational state of the dsDNA target and the length of the homologous RecA-ssDNA filament play important roles in the homology search. We discovered that as the end-to-end distance of the target dsDNA molecule is increased, constraining its available 3-dimensional conformations, the rate of homologous pairing decreases. Conversely, when the length of the ssDNA in the nucleoprotein filament is increased, homology is found faster. We propose a model for the DNA homology search process termed “intersegmental contact sampling”, wherein the intrinsic multivalent nature of the RecA nucleoprotein filament is employed to search DNA sequence space within 3-dimensional domains of DNA, exploiting multiple weak contacts to rapidly search for homology. Our findings highlight the importance of the 3-dimensional conformational dynamics of DNA, reveal a previously unknown facet of the homology search, and provide insight into the mechanism of DNA target location by this member of a

  10. Temperature dependent absorption cross-sections of HNO3 and N2O5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattigan, Oliver V.; Harwood, Matthew H.; Jones, Rod L.; Cox, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections for HNO3 and N2O5 have been measured in the wavelength region 220-450 nm, using a dual beam diode array spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.3 nm. The results for both compounds are in good agreement with recommended values at room temperature. However, the cross-sections of both HNO3 and N2O5 show a marked reduction with decreasing temperature in the range 295-233 K. The calculated photolysis rate of HNO3 at the low temperatures and high solar zenith angles characteristic of the polar winter and spring is significantly lower than previously estimated.

  11. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 μm have been obtained for ethane, C2H6. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C2H6 cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  12. Observations and Modeling of 3-Dimensional Cloud and Aerosol Fields from the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Davis, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the detailed 3-dimensional structure of clouds and atmospheric aerosols is vital for correctly modeling their radiative effects and interpreting optical remote sensing measurements of scattered sunlight. We will describe a set of new observations made by the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) from the ground and from the NASA ER-2 aircraft. MSPI is being developed and tested at JPL as a payload for the preliminary Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (PACE) satellite mission, which is expected to fly near the end of the decade. MSPI builds upon experience gained from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) currently orbiting on NASA's Terra satellite. Ground-MSPI and Air-MSPI are two prototype cameras operating in the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) range mounted on gimbals that acquire imagery in a pushbroom fashion, including polarization in selected spectral bands with demonstrated high polarimetric accuracy (0.5% uncertainty in degree of linear polarization). The spatial resolution of Ground-MSPI is 1 m for objects at a distance of 3 km. From the operational altitude of the ER-2, Air-MSPI has a ground resolution of approximately 10 m at nadir. This resolution, coupled with good calibration and high polarimetric performance means that MSPI can be used to derive radiatively important parameters of aerosols and clouds using intensity and polarization information together. As part of the effort for developing retrieval algorithms for the instrument, we have employed an extremely flexible 3-dimensional vector radiative transfer code. We will show example imagery from both MSPI cameras and describe how these scenes are modeled using this code. We will also discuss some of the important unknowns and limitations of this observational approach.

  13. Electron swarm parameters in pure C2H2 and in C2H2-Ar mixtures and electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Electron swarm parameters (the drift velocity and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient) were measured in pure C2H2 and also in C2H2-Ar mixtures containing 0.517% and 5.06% acetylene over wide E/N ranges. These swarm parameters were analysed using a Boltzmann equation analysis and a set of electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule was derived so that it was consistent with the present swarm data and published ionization coefficient. The present result suggested the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the elastic momentum transfer cross section at 0.08 eV and prominent threshold and resonance peaks in the ν4/ν5 vibrational excitation cross section. The present cross section set was also confirmed to be consistent with the published experimental total cross section of C2H2.

  14. Cross section of the impact single ionization of B2+ by H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dan-Dan; Qi, Yue-Ying; Hu, Ya-Hua; Ning, Li-Na

    2013-05-01

    The ionization process of B2+ by H+ impact is studied using the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) method and the modified free electron peak approximation (M-FEPA), respectively. Total, single-, and double-differential cross sections from 1s and 2s orbitals are presented for the energy range from 10 keV/u to 10 MeV/u. Comparison between the results from the two methods demonstrates that the total and single-differential cross sections for the high-energy incident projectile case can be well evaluated using the simple M-FEPA model. Moreover, the M-FEPA model reproduces the essential features of the binary-encounter (BE) bump in the double-differential cross sections. Thus, the BE ionization mechanism is discussed in detail by adopting the M-FEPA model. In particular, the double- and singledifferential cross sections from the 2s orbital show a high-energy hip, which is different from those from the 1s orbital. Based on Ref. [1], the Compton profiles of B2+ for 1s and 2s orbitals are given, and the hips in DDCS and SDCS from the 2s orbital are explained.

  15. High resolution measurements of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, C.; Semkova, V.; Bouland, O.; Dessagne, P.; Fernandez, A.; Gunsing, F.; Nästren, C.; Noguère, G.; Ottmar, H.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Romain, P.; Rudolf, G.; Somers, J.; Wastin, F.

    2010-06-01

    Measurements of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section have been performed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Geel in the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission (EC) JRC and French laboratories from CNRS and the Commissariat à L’Energie Atomique (CEA) Cadarache. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed by JRC Karlsruhe into suitable Am241O2 samples embedded in Al2O3 matrices specifically designed for these measurements. The irradiations were carried out at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section was determined relative to the Al27(n,α)Na24 standard cross section. The measurements were performed in four sessions, using quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the H2(d,n)He3 and the H3(d,n)He4 reactions. The induced activity was measured by standard γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector. Below 15 MeV, the present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier. Above 15 MeV, these measurements allowed the experimental investigation of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section for the first time. The present data are in good agreement with predictions obtained with the talys code that uses an optical and fission model developed at CEA.

  16. Differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of N sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, M.J.; Teubner, P.J.O. )

    1990-02-01

    Differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of the first ten electronic states of N{sub 2} have been determined at five incident energies ranging from 15 to 50 eV. These differential cross sections were obtained for the scattering range 10{degree}--90{degree} by analyzing electron-energy-loss spectra in N{sub 2} at a number of fixed scattering angles within that range. The present study represents a comprehensive remeasurement of the earlier work of Cartwright and co-workers (Phys. Rev. A 16, 1013 (1977)) and was undertaken with a view to resolving certain anomalies which have been reported in the literature when the earlier cross-section set has been applied to model calculations of swarm parameters.

  17. S-193 scatterometer backscattering cross section precision/accuracy for Skylab 2 and 3 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.; Pounds, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for measuring the precision and accuracy with which the S-193 scatterometer measured the background cross section of ground scenes are described. Homogeneous ground sites were selected, and data from Skylab missions were analyzed. The precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the scatterometer-acquired backscattering cross section. In special cases, inference of the precision of measurement was made by considering the total range from the maximum to minimum of the backscatter measurements within a data segment, rather than the standard deviation. For Skylab 2 and 3 missions a precision better than 1.5 dB is indicated. This procedure indicates an accuracy of better than 3 dB for the Skylab 2 and 3 missions. The estimates of precision and accuracy given in this report are for backscattering cross sections from -28 to 18 dB. Outside this range the precision and accuracy decrease significantly.

  18. PRECO-D2: program for calculating preequilibrium and direct reaction double differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbach, C.

    1985-02-01

    The code PRECO-D2 uses the exciton model for preequilibrium nuclear reactions to describe the emission of particles with mass numbers of 1 to 4 from an equilibrating composite nucleus. A distinction is made between open and closed configurations in this system and between the multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components of the preequilibrium cross section. Additional MSD components are calculated semi-empirically to account for direct nucleon transfer reactions and direct knockout processes involving cluster degrees of freedom. Evaporation from the equilibrated composite nucleus is included in the full MSC cross section. Output of energy differential and double differential cross sections is provided for the first particle emitted from the composite system. Multiple particle emission is not considered. This report describes the reaction models used in writing PRECO-D2 and explains the organization and utilization of the code. 21 refs.

  19. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for 16,171,18O and 2H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal neutron capture γ -ray spectra for 16,17,18O and 2H have been measured with guided cold neutron beams from the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) reactor and the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) on natural and O,1817 enriched D2O targets. Complete neutron capture γ -ray decay schemes for the 16,17,18O(n ,γ ) reactions were measured. Absolute transition probabilities were determined for each reaction by a least-squares fit of the γ -ray intensities to the decay schemes after accounting for the contribution from internal conversion. The transition probability for the 870.76-keV γ ray from 16O(n ,γ ) was measured as Pγ(871 )=96.6 ±0.5 % and the thermal neutron cross section for this γ ray was determined as 0.164 ±0.003 mb by internal standardization with multiple targets containing oxygen and stoichiometric quantities of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon whose γ -ray cross sections were previously standardized. The γ -ray cross sections for the O,1817(n ,γ ) and 2H(n ,γ ) reactions were then determined relative to the 870.76-keV γ -ray cross section after accounting for the isotopic abundances in the targets. We determined the following total radiative thermal neutron cross sections for each isotope from the γ -ray cross sections and transition probabilities; σ0(16O )=0.170 ±0.003 mb; σ0(17O )=0.67 ±0.07 mb; σ0(18O )=0.141 ±0.006 mb; and σ0(2H )=0.489 ±0.006 mb.

  20. The vibrational dependence of dissociative recombination: Cross sections for N2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical ab initio calculations are reported of the cross sections for dissociative recombination of the lowest four excited vibrational levels of N_2^ + at electron energies from 0.001 to 1.0 eV. Rydberg vibrational levels contributing to the cross section structures are identified as are dissociative channels contributing more than 10-16 cm2 to the total cross sections. In contrast to the prior study of v = 0 (S. L. Guberman, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074309 (2012)), which showed 2 3Πu to be the dominant dissociative channel, 43Πu is dominant for v = 1. Both 2 and 43Πu are major routes for dissociative recombination from v = 2-4. Other routes including 23 Σ _u^{+ }, 33Πu, 21Πu, 23Πg, 21 Σ _g^ +, 11Δg, and b^' 1} Σ _u^{+ } are significant in narrow energy ranges. The results show that minor dissociative routes, included here for N_2^ +, must be included in theoretical studies of other molecular ions (including the simplest ions H_2^ + and H_3^ +) if cross section agreement is to be found with future high resolution dissociative recombination experiments. The calculated predissociation lifetimes of the Rydberg resonances are used in a detailed comparison to two prior storage ring experiments in order to determine if the prior assumption of isotropic atomic angular distributions at "zero" electron energy is justified. The prior experimental assumption of comparable cross sections for v = 0-3 is shown to be the case at "zero" but not at nonzero electron energies. Circumstances are identified in which indirect recombination may be visualized as a firefly effect.

  1. Dual gold photoredox C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross couplings - development and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Gauchot, Vincent; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2016-08-01

    A dual visible light photoredox and gold-catalysed C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross coupling is described. The success of this mild, oxidant- and base-free cross coupling is highly dependent on the amount of water added. Mechanistic studies show two distinct pathways depending on the gold catalyst employed: transmetallation of the arylboronic acid with gold(i) occurs prior to oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) using cationic gold(i) catalysts, whereas oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) precedes transmetallation using neutral gold(i) catalysts. PMID:27461567

  2. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  3. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  4. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  5. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  6. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  7. (γ,2n) Reaction Cross Section Calculations on Several Structural Fusion Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A.; Özdoğan, H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the theoretical photo-neutron cross-sections produced by (γ,2n) reactions for several structural fusion materials such as 51V, 55Mn, 58Ni, 90,91,92,94Zr, and 181Ta have been carried out for incident photon energies up to 40 MeV. Reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy have been calculated theoretically using the PCROSS and TALYS 1.2 computer codes. TALYS 1.2 default and pre-equilibrium models have been used to calculate the pre-equilibrium photo-neutron cross-sections. For the reaction equilibrium component, PCROSS Weisskopf-Ewing model calculations have been preferred. The calculated results have been compared with each other and against the experimental data in the existing databases EXFOR. Generally, TALYS 1.2 default and pre-equilibrium model cross-section calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data for all reactions along the incident photon energy in this study. Pre-equilibrium option can be recommended, if experimental data are not available or are unlikely to be produced due to the experimental difficulty.

  8. Intersystem Crossing Pathways in the Noncanonical Nucleobase 2-Thiouracil: A Time-Dependent Picture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation mechanism after ultraviolet irradiation of 2-thiouracil has been investigated using nonadiabatic dynamics simulations at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. It is found that after excitation the S2 quickly relaxes to S1, and from there intersystem crossing takes place to both T2 and T1 with a time constant of 400 fs and a triplet yield above 80%, in very good agreement with recent femtosecond experiments in solution. Both indirect S1 → T2 → T1 and direct S1 → T1 pathways contribute to intersystem crossing, with the former being predominant. The results contribute to the understanding of how some noncanonical nucleobases respond to harmful ultraviolet light, which could be relevant for prospective photochemotherapeutic applications. PMID:27167106

  9. Intersystem Crossing Pathways in the Noncanonical Nucleobase 2-Thiouracil: A Time-Dependent Picture.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-06-01

    The deactivation mechanism after ultraviolet irradiation of 2-thiouracil has been investigated using nonadiabatic dynamics simulations at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. It is found that after excitation the S2 quickly relaxes to S1, and from there intersystem crossing takes place to both T2 and T1 with a time constant of 400 fs and a triplet yield above 80%, in very good agreement with recent femtosecond experiments in solution. Both indirect S1 → T2 → T1 and direct S1 → T1 pathways contribute to intersystem crossing, with the former being predominant. The results contribute to the understanding of how some noncanonical nucleobases respond to harmful ultraviolet light, which could be relevant for prospective photochemotherapeutic applications. PMID:27167106

  10. Water uptake by a maize root system - An explicit numerical 3-dimensional simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Daniel; Schnepf, Andrea; Klepsch, Sabine; Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for plant growth and function. An accurate modelling of the unsaturated flow is not only substantial to predict water uptake but also important to describe nutrient movement regarding water saturation and transport. In this work we present a model for water uptake. The model includes the simultaneous flow of water inside the soil and inside the root network. Water saturation in the soil volume is described by the Richards equation. Water flow inside the roots' xylem is calculated using the Poiseuille law for water flow in a cylindrical tube. The water saturation in the soil as well as water uptake of the root system is calculated numerically in three dimensions. We study water uptake of a maize plant in a confined pot under different supply scenarios. The main improvement of our approach is that the root surfaces act as spatial boundaries of the soil volume. Therefore water influx into the root is described by a surface flux instead of a volume flux, which is commonly given by an effective sink term. For the numerical computation we use the following software: The 3-dimensional maize root architecture is created by a root growth model based on L-Systems (Leitner et al 2009). A mesh of the surrounding soil volume is created using the meshing software DistMesh (Persson & Strang 2004). Using this mesh the partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a. Modelling results are related to accepted water uptake models from literature (Clausnitzer & Hopmans 1994, Roose & Fowler 2004, Javaux et al 2007). This new approach has several advantages. By considering the individual roots it is possible to analyse the influence of overlapping depletion zones due to inter root competition. Furthermore, such simulations can be used to estimate the influence of simplifying assumptions that are made in the development of effective models. The model can be easily combined with a nutrient

  11. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  12. Isomeric cross section of the {sup 197}Au(n,2n) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsinganis, A.; Diakaki, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Mara, E.; Papadopoulos, C. T.; Vlastou, R.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2011-02-15

    In the present work, the {sup 197}Au(n,2n) reaction cross section is experimentally determined relative to the {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na reaction at incident neutron energies of 9.0-10.5 MeV by means of the activation technique. The quasimonoenergetic fast neutron beam was produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction at the 5.5-MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the National Centre of Scientific Research (NCSR) ''Demokritos'' and was studied to determine the contribution of background 'parasitic' neutrons using the multiple foil activation technique and the SULSA unfolding code. The cross sections for the population of the second isomeric state (12{sup -}) of {sup 196}Au and the sum of the ground (2{sup -}) and first isomeric state (5{sup -}) population cross sections were independently determined. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the MCNP code. Theoretical calculations of the above cross sections in the 8-25 MeV region were carried out with the use of the STAPRE-F, EMPIRE, and TALYS codes, which were also compared in their implementation of the generalized superfluid model. The theoretical results are compared with previous work in the same mass region, and the strong dependence on the level scheme of the nuclei involved was revealed.

  13. A new TLR2 agonist promotes cross-presentation by mouse and human antigen presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Santone, Melissa; Aprea, Susanna; Wu, Tom Y H; Cooke, Michael P; Mbow, M Lamine; Valiante, Nicholas M; Rush, James S; Dougan, Stephanie; Avalos, Ana; Ploegh, Hidde; De Gregorio, Ennio; Buonsanti, Cecilia; D'Oro, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Cross-presentation is the process by which professional APCs load peptides from an extracellularly derived protein onto class I MHC molecules to trigger a CD8+ T cell response. The ability to enhance this process is therefore relevant for the development of antitumor and antiviral vaccines. We investigated a new TLR2-based adjuvant, Small Molecule Immune Potentiator (SMIP) 2.1, for its ability to stimulate cross-presentation. Using OVA as model antigen, we demonstrated that a SMIP2.1-adjuvanted vaccine formulation induced a greater CD8+ T cell response, in terms of proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic activity, than a non-adjuvanted vaccine. Moreover, using an OVA-expressing tumor model, we showed that the CTLs induced by the SMIP2.1 formulated vaccine inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Using a BCR transgenic mouse model we found that B cells could cross-present the OVA antigen when stimulated with SMIP2.1. We also used a flow cytometry assay to detect activation of human CD8+ T cells isolated from human PBMCs of cytomegalovirus-seropositive donors. Stimulation with SMIP2.1 increased the capacity of human APCs, pulsed in vitro with the pp65 CMV protein, to activate CMV-specific CD8+ T cells. Therefore, vaccination with an exogenous antigen formulated with SMIP2.1 is a successful strategy for the induction of a cytotoxic T cell response along with antibody production. PMID:26024409

  14. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

  15. CTLs directed against HER2 specifically cross-react with HER3 and HER4.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Heinke; Gebhard, Kerstin; Krönig, Holger; Neudorfer, Julia; Busch, Dirk H; Peschel, Christian; Bernhard, Helga

    2008-06-15

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been targeted as a breast cancer-associated Ag by T cell-based immunotherapeutical strategies such as cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell transfer. The prerequisite for a successful T cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the HER2-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human cytotoxic T cell clones directed against the HER2(369-377) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. Those HER2-reactive CTLs, which were also tumor lytic, exhibited a similar lysis pattern dividing the targets in lysable and nonlysable tumor cells. Several HER2-expressing tumor cells became susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis after IFN-gamma treatment and, in parallel, up-regulated molecules of the Ag-presenting machinery, indicating that the tumor itself also contributes to the success of CTL-mediated killing. Some of the HER2(369-377)-reactive T cells specifically cross-reacted with the corresponding peptides derived from the family members HER3 and/or HER4 due to a high sequence homology. The epitopes HER3(356-364) and HER4(361-369) were endogenously processed and contributed to the susceptibility of cell lysis by HER cross-reacting CTLs. The principle of "double" or "triple targeting" the HER Ags by cross-reacting T cells will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. PMID:18523278

  16. Electron-impact dissociation cross sections of vibrationally excited He_{2}^{+} molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, R.; Baluja, K. L.; Janev, R. K.; Laporta, V.

    2016-01-01

    Electron-impact cross sections for the dissociation process of vibrationally excited He2+ molecular ion, as a function of the incident electron energy are calculated for the dissociative transition \\text{X}{{ }2}Σu+\\to \\text{A}{{ }2}Σg+ by using the R-matrix method in the adiabatic-nuclei approximation. The potential energy curves for the involved electronic states and transition dipole moment, also calculated with the R-matrix method, were found to be in good agreement with the results reported in literature. The vibrationally resolved dissociation cross sections of He2+(v) exhibit a resonant structure around 7 eV. The observed strong variation of the magnitude of this structure with the vibrational level is explained in terms of the overlap of initial and final (continuum) state wave functions in the Franck–Condon region.

  17. Visible-ultraviolet absorption cross sections for NO2 as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mcdaniel, A. H.; Shetter, R. E.; Madronich, S.

    1988-01-01

    A redetermination of the temperature dependence of the absorption cross-section (sigma) of NO2 in the visible-ultraviolet region was made in order to provide a more reliable data base for the calculation of NO2 photolysis rates in the atmosphere. Experiments over a wide range of temperatures and NO2 concentrations were conducted. The integral of a plot of sigma versus the inverse of the wavelength was essentially independent of temperature. Increasing temperature produced a shift of the spectrum toward longer wavelengths, resulting in a small negative temperature dependence of sigma over the 264-400 nm range and a small positive dependence over the 450-649 nm range. Increasing temperature produced broadening of individual spectral features, resulting in a systematic lowering of peaks and filling of valleys. Recommended cross sections are presented for use in tropospheric NO2 photolysis rate calculations.

  18. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe(2+) + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J

    2016-07-28

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363

  19. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe2+ + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2016-07-01

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.

  20. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  1. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  2. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  3. Morphological Control of Cells on 3-Dimensional Multi-Layer Nanotopographic Structures.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Noh, Young-Mu; Song, Hwan-Moon; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) environment is known to play an important role in the process of various cell regulatory mechanisms. We have investigated the ability of 3-dimensional ECM geometries to induce morphological changes in cells. Bi-layer polymeric structures with submicron scale stripe patterns were fabricated using a two-step nano-imprinting technique, and the orientation angle (θ(α)) of the upper layer was controlled by changing its alignment with respect to the orientation of the bottom layer. When cells were grown on the mono-layer stripe structure with a single orientation, they elongated along the direction of the stripe pattern. On bi-layer polymer structures, the cell morphologies gradually changed and became rounded, with an increase of θα up to 90 degrees, but the polarities of these cells were still aligned along the orientation of the upper layer. As a result, we show that the polarity and the roundness of cells can be independently regulated by adjusting the orientation of 3-dimensional hierarchical ECM topography. PMID:26505024

  4. Realization of integral 3-dimensional image using fabricated tunable liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheol Joong; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting has been widely studied for various optical applications such as optical switch, sensor, prism, and display. In this study, vari-focal liquid lens array is developed using electrowetting principle to construct integral 3-dimensional imaging. The electrowetting principle that changes the surface tension by applying voltage has several advantages to realize active optical device such as fast response time, low electrical consumption, and no mechanical moving parts. Two immiscible liquids that are water and oil are used for forming lens. By applying a voltage to the water, the focal length of the lens could be tuned as changing contact angle of water. The fabricated electrowetting vari-focal liquid lens array has 1mm diameter spherical lens shape that has 1.6mm distance between each lens. The number of lenses on the panel is 23x23 and the focal length of the lens array is simultaneously tuned from -125 to 110 diopters depending on the applied voltage. The fabricated lens array is implemented to integral 3-dimensional imaging. A 3D object is reconstructed by fabricated liquid lens array with 23x23 elemental images that are generated by 3D max tools. When liquid lens array is tuned as convex state. From vari-focal liquid lens array implemented integral imaging system, we expect that depth enhanced integral imaging can be realized in the near future.

  5. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume XI, Number 2, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas within the areas of communication, language skills acquisition and instruction, and cross-cultural training and learning includes these articles: "Oral Interactive Testing at a Japanese University" (Eloise Pearson); "Classroom Organisation and the Teacher" (Armand…

  6. Benchmarking of calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections using the 3-D, MC codes PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, MCNPX_HI, and NUCFRG2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Niita, K.; Sato, T.; Townsend, L.; Farmer, C.; Pinsky, L.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Gomes, I.

    Particles and heavy ions are used in various fields of nuclear physics, medical physics, and material science, and their interactions with different media, including human tissue and critical organs, have therefore carefully been investigated both experimentally and theoretically since the 1930s. However, heavy-ion transport includes many complex processes and measurements for all possible systems, including critical organs, would be impractical or too expensive; e.g. direct measurements of dose equivalents to critical organs in humans cannot be performed. A reliable and accurate particle and heavy-ion transport code is therefore an essential tool in the design study of accelerator facilities as well as for other various applications. Recently, new applications have also arisen within transmutation and reactor science, space and medicine, especially radiotherapy, and several accelerator facilities are operating or planned for construction. Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of particles and heavy ions is also necessary for estimating radiation damage to equipment used on space vehicles, to calculate the transport of the heavy ions in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) through the interstellar medium, and the evolution of the heavier elements after the Big Bang. Concerns about the biological effect of space radiation and space dosimetry are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration astronaut missions, both in relation to the International Space Station and to manned interplanetary missions in near future. Radiation protection studies for crews of international flights at high altitude have also received considerable attention in recent years. There is therefore a need to develop accurate and reliable particle and heavy-ion transport codes. To be able to calculate complex geometries, including production and transport of protons, neutrons, and alpha particles, 3-dimensional transport using Monte Carlo (MC) technique must be used. Today

  7. Electron collisions with methyl-substituted ethylenes: Cross section measurements and calculations for 2-methyl-2-butene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmytkowski, Czesław; Stefanowska, Sylwia; Zawadzki, Mateusz; Ptasińska-Denga, ElŻbieta; MoŻejko, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    We report electron-scattering cross sections determined for 2-methyl-2-butene [(H3C)HC = C(CH3)2] and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene [(H3C)2C = C(CH3)2] molecules. Absolute grand-total cross sections (TCSs) were measured for incident electron energies in the 0.5-300 eV range, using a linear electron-transmission technique. The experimental TCS energy dependences for the both targets appear to be very similar with respect to the shape. In each TCS curve, three features are discernible: the resonant-like structure located around 2.6-2.7 eV, the broad distinct enhancement peaking near 8.5 eV, and a weak hump in the vicinity of 24 eV. Theoretical integral elastic (ECS) and ionization (ICS) cross sections were computed up to 3 keV by means of the additivity rule (AR) approximation and the binary-encounter-Bethe method, respectively. Their sums, (ECS+ICS), are in a reasonable agreement with the respective measured TCSs. To examine the effect of methylation of hydrogen sides in the ethylene [H2C = CH2] molecule on the TCS, we compared the TCS energy curves for the sequence of methylated ethylenes: propene [H2C = CH(CH3)], 2-methylpropene [H2C = C(CH3)2], 2-methyl-2-butene [(H3C)HC = C(CH3)2], and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene [(H3C)2C = C(CH3)2], measured in the same laboratory. Moreover, the isomeric effect is also discussed for the C5H10 and C6H12 compounds.

  8. Chitosan derivatives cross-linked with iodinated 2,5-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydrofuran for non-invasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Paulomi; Das, Manisit; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Das, Dipankar; Datta, Sayanti; Pal, Sagar; Panda, Asit Baran; Dhara, Santanu

    2014-10-22

    Radiopaque polymer derivatives were successfully prepared through surface diffusion mediated cross-linking of chitosan with iodinated 2,5-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydrofuran. The incorporation of iodine in 2,5-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydrofuran was validated by (1)H NMR and mass spectroscopy. The cross-linking of the glucosamine moieties of chitosan with the iodinated product was confirmed by (13)C NMR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Radiography analysis proved inherent opacity of the iodinated fibrous sheets and microspheres that were comparable to the X-ray visibility of aluminum hollow rings of equivalent thickness and commercially available radiopaque tape, respectively. Microscopic studies evidenced retention of the fiber/microsphere morphology after the iodination/cross-linking reactions. The effects of iodination/cross-linking on the mechanical and biodegradation properties of fibers were studied by nanoindentation and enzymatic assay, respectively. In vitro and in vivo studies established the nontoxic, biodegradable nature of radiopaque derivatives. Iodinated fiber mesh implanted in a rabbit model was significantly X-ray opaque compared to the uncross-linked fiber mesh and medical grade surgical swabs. Further, opacity of the iodinated mesh was evident even after 60 days, though the intensity was reduced, which indicates the biodegradable nature of the iodinated polymer. The opacity of the iodinated sutures was also established in the computed tomography images. Finally, the sufficient in vivo contrast property of the radiopaque microspheres in the gastrointestinal tract indicates its possible role in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25265599

  9. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312

  10. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312