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1

Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

2014-12-01

2

A balloon-borne instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-8000 keV energy range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. The instrument is configured for a particular balloon flight with either of two sets of high purity germanium detectors. In one configuration, the instrument uses an array of three coaxial detectors (effective volume equal to or approximately 230 cubic cm) inside an NaI (T1) shield and collimator (field of view equal to or approximately 16 deg FWHM) and operates in the 80 to 8000 keV energy range. In the other configuration, three planar detectors (effective area equal to or approximately square cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (field of view equal to or approximately 5 deg x 10 deg FWHM) are optimized for the 20 to 200 keV energy range. In a typical one day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is less than or approximately .0008 ph/cm/s square (coaxial array: 80 to 2000 keV) and less than or approximately .0003 ph/square cm/s (planar array: 50 to 150 keV).

Paciesas, W. S.; Baker, R.; Boclet, D.; Brown, S.; Cline, T.; Costlow, H.; Durouchoux, P.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Hameury, J. M.

1983-01-01

3

Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

2013-04-01

4

Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data  

SciTech Connect

The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

2000-05-01

5

Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV  

SciTech Connect

The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

Derrien, H

2005-12-05

6

plutonium isotopic analysis in the 30 KeV to 210 KeV range  

SciTech Connect

Low-Energy Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (LEGS) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed in the 1980s. In 1999, it was modified to include a physical-based model for the energy dependent efficiency. It uses the gamma rays in the energy range from approximately 30 keV to 210 keV, except the 100-keV region. This energy region provides intense, well-separated gamma rays from the principal isotopes of plutonium. For applications involving small quantities (mg to g) of freshly separated plutonium in various chemical forms, it is ideally suited for accurate real-time or near real-time isotopic analysis. Since the last modification, LEGS has been incorporated into the FRAM code (Fixed-energy Response-function Analysis with Multiple efficiency), version 4. FRAM v4 is capable of analyzing the peaks in the whole energy range from 30 keV to 1 MeV, including the X-ray region. The new capability of analyzing the peaks in the 100-keV region greatly enhances the plutonium analysis in the 30 keV to 2 10 keV ranges of the traditional LEGS. We now can analyze both the freshly separated and aged plutonium with greater accuracy.

Vo, Duc T.; Li, T. K. (Tien K.)

2001-01-01

7

2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: a progress report.  

PubMed

When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s(2)-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s(2)-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns gate time) digital x-ray camera is being developed [G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)] to extend the system to "four-frame" and markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. [At present, time-integrating Fuji BAS-TR2025 image plate (scanned with a Fuji BAS-5000 device) forms the time-integrated image-plane detector.]. PMID:19044569

Bennett, G R; Smith, I C; Shores, J E; Sinars, D B; Robertson, G; Atherton, B W; Jones, M C; Porter, J L

2008-10-01

8

2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time) digital x-ray camera is being developed [G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)] to extend the system to "four-frame" and markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. [At present, time-integrating Fuji BAS-TR2025 image plate (scanned with a Fuji BAS-5000 device) forms the time-integrated image-plane detector.

Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

2008-10-01

9

2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s{sup 2}-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing 'two-frame' imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s{sup 2}-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns gate time) digital x-ray camera is being developed [G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)] to extend the system to 'four-frame' and markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. [At present, time-integrating Fuji BAS-TR2025 image plate (scanned with a Fuji BAS-5000 device) forms the time-integrated image-plane detector.].

Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States)

2008-10-15

10

Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona  

SciTech Connect

The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

Mirzoeva, I. K., E-mail: colombo2006@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

11

FISM 2.0: Improved Spectral Range, Resolution, and Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was first released in 2005 to provide accurate estimates of the solar VUV (0.1-190 nm) irradiance to the Space Weather community. This model was based on TIMED SEE as well as UARS and SORCE SOLSTICE measurements, and was the first model to include a 60 second temporal variation to estimate the variations due to solar flares. Along with flares, FISM also estimates the tradition solar cycle and solar rotational variations over months and decades back to 1947. This model has been highly successful in providing driving inputs to study the affect of solar irradiance variations on the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere, lunar dust charging, as well as the Martian ionosphere. The second version of FISM, FISM2, is currently being updated to be based on the more accurate SDO/EVE data, which will provide much more accurate estimations in the 0.1-105 nm range, as well as extending the 'daily' model variation up to 300 nm based on the SOLSTICE measurements. with the spectral resolution of SDO/EVE along with SOLSTICE and the TIMED and SORCE XPS 'model' products, the entire range from 0.1-300 nm will also be available at 0.1 nm, allowing FISM2 to be improved a similar 0.1nm spectral bins. FISM also will have a TSI component that will estimate the total radiated energy during flares based on the few TSI flares observed to date. Presented here will be initial results of the FISM2 modeling efforts, as well as some challenges that will need to be overcome in order for FISM2 to accurately model the solar variations on time scales of seconds to decades.

Chamberlin, Phillip C.

2012-01-01

12

Studies of Transport Properties and Critical Temperature Suppression Mechanism in Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) Oxygen(x) Thin Films Irradiated with 20 TO 120 KEV Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present comprehensive studies of the effects of 20 to 120 keV electron irradiation on rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{x} thin films. Above 60 keV, T_{c } of irradiated samples is suppressed accompanied by a significant increase in residual resistivity, while the carrier concentration remains relatively unchanged. The plane oxygen defects produced by irradiation are found to be responsible for T_{c} suppression. The II suppression mechanism is discussed within several theoretical frameworks. Though in qualitative agreement with d-wave pairing symmetry, our results show a T_{c} suppression rate three times as slow as predicted by the theory when resistivity data are used to extract the impurity scattering rate. Alternatively, phase fluctuations theory gives a qualitative description as well. The displacement energy of plane oxygen is found to be 8.3 eV, which corresponds to a threshold electron energy 58 keV. Finally, an empirical relation is proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient.

Lin, Jiunn-Yuan

13

The Hard X-ray 20-40 keV AGN Luminosity Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have compiled a complete, significance limited extragalactic sample based on approximately 25,000 deg(sup 2) to a limiting flux of 3 x 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second. (approximately 7,000 deg(sup 2)) to a flux limit of 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second)) in the 20 - 40 keV band with INTEGRAL. We have constructed a detailed exposure map to compensate for effects of non-uniform exposure. The flux-number relation is best described by a power-law with a slope of alpha = 1.66 plus or minus 0.11. The integration of the cumulative flux per unit area leads to f(sub 20-40 keV) = 2.6 x 10(exp -10) ergs per square centimeter per second per sr(sup -1) which is about 1% of the known 20-40 keV X-ray background. We present the first luminosity function of AGN in the 20-40 keV energy range, based on 68 extragalactic objects detected by the imager IBIS/ISGRI on-board INTEGRAL. The luminosity function shows a smoothly connected two power-law form, with an index of gamma (sub 1) = 0.9 below, and gamma (sub 2) = 2.2 above the turn-over luminosity of L(sub *), = 4.6 x 10(sup 43) ergs per second. The emissivity of all INTEGRAL AGNs per unit volume is W(sub 20-40keV)(greater than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) = 2.8 x 10(sup 38) ergs per second h(sup 3)(sub 70) Mpc(sup -3). These results are consistent with those derived in the 2-20keV energy band and do not show a significant contribution by Compton-thick objects. Because the sample used in this study is truly local (z(raised bar) = 0.022)), only limited conclusions can be drawn for the evolution of AGNs in this energy band. But the objects explaining the peak in the cosmic X-ray background are likely to be either low luminosity AGN (L(sub x) less than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) or of other type, such as intermediate mass black holes, clusters, and star forming regions.

Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Shrader, C. R.; Gehrels, N.; Produit, N.

2006-01-01

14

Systematic Errors in Primary Acoustic Thermometry in the Range 2-20 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief review of the fundamental principles of acoustic thermometry in the range 2-20 K, its systematic errors are analysed in depth. It is argued that the ultrasonic technique suffers from certain sources of error which are virtually impossible to assess quantitatively except on the basis of certain conjectures about the excitation of the thermometer's resonant cavity. These are

A. R. Colclough

1973-01-01

15

High angular resolution cosmic X-ray astronomy observations in the energy range 0.15-2 keV and XUV observations of nearby stars from an attitude controlled rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of a two dimensional focusing Wolter Type I mirror system for X-ray and XUV astronomical observations from an Astrobee F sounding rocket is described. The mirror design goal will have a one degree field, a 20-arc seconds resolution, an effective area of about 50 sq cm at 1 keV and 10 sq cm at 0.25 keV on axis. A star camera provides aspect data to about 15-arc seconds. Two detectors are placed at the focus with an interchange mechanism to allow a detector change during flight. The following specific developments are reported: (1) position sensitive proportional counter development; (2) channel plate multiplier development; (3) telescope mirror development and payload structure; (4) Australian rocket flight results; (5) Comet Kohoutek He I observation; and (6) Vela, Puppis A, and Gem-Mon bright patch observations.

Garmire, G. P.

1974-01-01

16

R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

1997-11-01

17

Thermal conductivity of highly porous Si in the temperature range 4.2 to 20 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experimental results of the thermal conductivity k of highly porous Si in the temperature range 4.2 to 20 K, obtained using the direct current (dc) method combined with thermal finite element simulations. The reported results are the first in the literature for this temperature range. It was found that porous Si thermal conductivity at these temperatures shows a plateau-like temperature dependence similar to that obtained in glasses, with a constant k value as low as 0.04 W/m.K. This behavior is attributed to the presence of a majority of non-propagating vibrational modes, resulting from the nanoscale fractal structure of the material. By examining the fractal geometry of porous Si and its fractal dimensionality, which was smaller than two for the specific porous Si material used, we propose that a band of fractons (the localized vibrational excitations of a fractal lattice) is responsible for the observed plateau. The above results complement previous results by the authors in the temperature range 20 to 350 K. In this temperature range, a monotonic increase of k with temperature is observed, fitted with simplified classical models. The extremely low thermal conductivity of porous Si, especially at cryogenic temperatures, makes this material an excellent substrate for Si-integrated microcooling devices (micro-coldplate).

Valalaki, Katerina; Nassiopoulou, Androula Galiouna

2014-06-01

18

183W Resonance Parameter Evaluation in the Neutron Energy Range Up to 5 keV  

SciTech Connect

We generated a preliminary set of resonance parameters for {sup 183}W in the neutron energy range of thermal up to 5 keV. In the analyzed energy range, this work represents a significant improvement over the current resonance evaluation in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library limited up to 2.2 keV. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation to fit, with the R-matrix code SAMMY, the high-resolution measurements performed in 2007 at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA) facility. The transmission data and the capture cross sections calculated with the set of resonance parameters are compared with the experimental values, and the average properties of the resonance parameters are discussed.

Pigni, Marco T [ORNL] [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL] [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

19

Complex Refractive Index of Ammonium Nitrate in the 2-20 micron Spectral Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorbance/transmittance spectral data for ammonium sulfate (AMS), calcium carbonate (CAC) and ammonium nitrate (AMN), comparisons were made with previously published complex refractive indices data for AMS and CAC to infer experimental parameters to determine the imaginary refractive index for AMN in the infrared wavelength range from 2 to 20 microns. Kramers-Kronig mathematical relations were applied to calculate the real refractive index for the three compositions. Excellent agreement for AMS and CAC with the published values was found, validating the complex refractive indices obtained for AMN. Backscatter calculations using a lognormal size distribution for AMS, AMN, and CAC aerosols were performed to show differences in their backscattered spectra.

Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Norman, Mark L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Cutten, Dean R.

2002-01-01

20

A Strong Excess in the 20-100 keV Emission of NGC 1365  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new Suzaku observation of the obscured active galactic nucleus in NGC 1365, revealing an unexpected excess of X-rays above 20 keV of at least a factor ~2 with respect to the extrapolation of the best-fitting 3-10 keV model. Additional Swift-BAT and Integral-IBIS observations show that the 20-100 keV is concentrated within ~1.5 arcmin from the center of the galaxy, and is not significantly variable on timescales from days to years. A comparison of this component with the 3-10 keV emission, which is characterized by a rapidly variable absorption, suggests a complex structure of the circumnuclear medium, consisting of at least two distinct components with rather different physical properties, one of which covers >80% of the source with a column density N H ~ 3-4×1024 cm-2. An alternative explanation is the presence of a double active nucleus in the center of NGC 1365.

Risaliti, G.; Braito, V.; Laparola, V.; Bianchi, S.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Maiolino, R.; Matt, G.; Reeves, J.; Salvati, M.; Wang, J.

2009-11-01

21

Measurement of the {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}) cross section from 20 meV to 500 keV with a high efficiency, highly segmented 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} detector  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}){sup 238}Np cross section has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 500 keV using the DANCE array at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new facility allows experiments with submilligram samples and is therefore well suited to investigate isotopes with half-lives as low as a few hundred days. In this benchmark measurement, only 0.42 mg of {sup 237}Np was sufficient to determine differential cross sections relative to the well-known resonance at 0.5 eV. The thermal cross section was measured to {sigma}{sub 2200m/s}=177{+-}5 barn, {sigma}{sub kT=25.3meV}=167{+-}4 barn and the resonance integral to RI=693{+-}6 barn.

Esch, E.-I.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Glover, S. E.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Mertz, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Reifarth, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Greife, U.; Hatarik, A. M.; Hatarik, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2008-03-15

22

Rise time in 20-32 keV impulsive X-radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new property of the X-ray impulsive component observed in solar flares is discussed, giving attention to the relation between the slope of the electron power spectrum and the rise time in the 20-32 keV X-ray spike. This particular energy range was chosen because it offered the greatest number of impulsive events while being sufficiently high to avoid contamination by soft X radiation. It is found for the thin-target model that the electron spectrum tends to be softer when the acceleration rate is smaller.

Vorpahl, J. A.; Takakura, T.

1974-01-01

23

X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and imaginary components of the atomic form factor of zinc over the energy range of 7.2-15.2 keV  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of zinc are measured in a high-accuracy experiment between 7.2 and 15.2 keV with an absolute accuracy of 0.044% and 0.197%. This is the most accurate determination of any attenuation coefficient on a bending-magnet beamline and reduces the absolute uncertainty by a factor of 3 compared to earlier work by advances in integrated column density determination and the full-foil mapping technique described herein. We define a relative accuracy of 0.006%, which is not the same as either the precision or the absolute accuracy. Relative accuracy is the appropriate parameter for standard implementation of analysis of near-edge spectra. Values of the imaginary components f'' of the x-ray form factor of zinc are derived. Observed differences between the measured mass attenuation coefficients and various theoretical calculations reach a maximum of about 5% at the absorption edge and up to 2% further than 1 keV away from the edge. The measurements invite improvements in the theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients of zinc.

Rae, Nicholas A.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Hester, James R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, Victoria 3168 (Australia); La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

2010-02-15

24

High-resolution spectra of 20-300 keV hard X-rays from electron precipitation over Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, a set of liquid-nitrogen-cooled germanium hard X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers was flown aboard a high-altitude balloon from McMurdo, Antarctica, for solar, astrophysical, and terrestrial observations. This flight was the first circumnavigation ({approximately}9-day duration) of the Antarctic continent by a large (800,000-cubic-meter) balloon. Bremsstrahlung hard X-ray emission extending up to {approximately}300 keV, from the precipitation of high-energy electrons, was observed on six separate occasions over the auroral zone, all during low geomagnetic activity (K{sub p}{le} 2+). All events were consistent with emission at the trapping boundary; observation over the polar cap showed no precipitation. The authors present the first high-resolution ({Delta}E {approximately}2 keV) full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectra of this hard X-ray emission in the energy range 20-300 keV. The observed count spectra are deconvolved by model-independent techniques to photon spectra and then to the precipitating electron spectra. The spectral hardness shows all inverse relation with L as expected. This result suggests that high-resolution spectroscopy could be extremely effective in characterizing electron precipitation if coupled with imaging capability. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Smith, D.M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lin, R.P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, A.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

1995-10-01

25

Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

2013-04-01

26

Continuous slowing-down approximation range of 50-keV--100-MeV electrons  

SciTech Connect

The Wilson theory has been modified for the calculation of the continuous slowing-down approximation (CSDA) range of 50-keV--100-MeV electrons in the absorbers of atomic numbers from 1 to 92 and in some detector materials, minerals, organic compounds, and gaseous compounds. A correction factor which depends on energy as well as on atomic number is evaluated. Values of the CSDA range obtained by the present approach have shown an agreement with reported values within a discrepancy of 6--7%. An attempt has also been made to correlate the CSDA range with the available experimentally measured projected range. Calculated projected range and experimentally measured projected range are found to be in good agreement.

Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, D.K.

1981-03-01

27

Elastic electron scattering and vibrational excitation of isoxazole molecules in the energy range from 2 to 20 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering and the excitation of the C-H vibrational modes of isoxazole molecules were measured in the energy range from 2 to 20 eV and over the scattering angle range from 10° to 180°. The cross sections at the scattering angles of and above 90° were accessible with the use of a magnetic angle changer. The differential cross sections were integrated to yield integral and momentum transfer cross sections. The negative ion resonances in the elastic scattering at 2.7 eV and in the vibrational excitation of isoxazole at 5.5 and 10 eV were observed. The present cross sections for elastic scattering are compared with the corresponding results in furan.

Linert, Ireneusz; Zubek, Mariusz

2012-08-01

28

Sputtering and surface structure modification of gold thin films deposited onto silicon substrates under the impact of 20-160 keV Ar+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induced sputtering and surface state modification of Au thin films bombarded by swift Ar+ ions under normal incident angle have been studied over an energy range of (20-160) keV using three complementary techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sputtering yields determined by RBS measurements using a 2 MeV 4He+ ion beam were found to be consistent with previous data measured within the Ar+ ion energy region E ? 50 keV, which are thus extended to higher bombarding energies. Besides, the SEM and XRD measurements clearly point out that the irradiated Au film surfaces undergo drastic modifications with increasing the Ar+ ion energy, giving rise to the formation of increasingly sized grains of preferred (1 1 1) crystalline orientations. The relevance of different sputtering yield models for describing experimental data is discussed with invoking the observed surface effects induced by the Ar+ ion irradiation.

Mammeri, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Ammi, H.; Dib, A.

2014-10-01

29

Attenuation in the Chest Wall of 20 keV X-rays from an Inhaled Radioactive Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXTERNAL counting of the low intensity L uranium X-rays (energies 13.6, 16.9 and 20.2 keV) is a promising technique for the estimation of insoluble compounds of plutonium in the human lung. These low energy radiations are, however, very easily absorbed in the tissues of the chest wall; the half-value thickness (HVT) is about 0.7 cm of soft tissue and only

J. Rundo; B. T. Taylor; D. V. Booker; D. Newton; D. Scargill

1968-01-01

30

A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -2/ counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive /sup 12/C, /sup 23/Na, /sup 39/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 85/Rb, /sup 87/Rb, and /sup 133/Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative /sup 12/C and /sup 13/CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10/sup -7/ Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode.

Friedman, P.G.

1986-11-25

31

Comparison of solar flare X-ray producing and escaping electrons from about 2 to 100 keV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using observations from the ISEE-3 spacecraft, the X-ray producing electrons and escaping electons from a solar flare on November 8, 1978 are compared. The instantaneous 5 to 75 keV electron spectrum in the X-ray producing region is computed from the observed bremsstrahlung X-ray spectrum. Assuming that energy loss by Coulomb collisions (thick target) is the dominant electron loss process, the accelerated electron spectrum is obtained. The energy spectrum of the escaping electrons observed from 2 to 100 keV differs significantly from the spectra of the X-ray producing electrons and of the accelerated electrons, even when the energy loss which the escaping electrons experienced during their travel from the sun to the earth is taken into account. The observations are consistent with a model where the escaping electons come from an extended X-ray producing region, which ranges from the chromosphere to high in the corona. In this model, the low energy escaping electrons (2-10 keV) come from the higher part of the extended X-ray source where the overlying column density is low, while the high energy electrons (20-100 keV) come from the entire X-ray source.

Pan, L.-D.; Lin, R. P.; Kane, S. R.

1984-01-01

32

100 keV electron backscattered range and coefficient for silicon.  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the range and intensity of backscattered electrons in silicon from a 100 keV source using a process independent method. Backscattered electrons contributed to the total dose of features written in a negative tone electron beam resist. Instead of measuring the height of the resist and using a contrast curve to convert the resist height to dose, the heights of the features were made equal by adjusting the backscattered contribution through dose assignments. Creating features of equal height eliminated the need to use a contrast curve to convert from resist height to total dose. Also, it allowed for measurements of the backscattered contribution from larger distances. Using a circularly symmetric torus pattern, the three-dimensional backscatter problem was reduced to a 1-dimensional Gaussian form. The authors measured the range of the backscattered electrons, {beta}, to be 31.08 {+-} 0.06 {micro}m. By varying the writing dose of the pattern, we determined the backscatter coefficient, {eta}, to be 0.63 {+-} 0.03.

Czaplewski, D.A.; Ocola, L.E. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

2012-01-01

33

The Perseus and Coma clusters of galaxies at energies above 20 keV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the Perseus and Coma clusters of galaxies were made on June 21, 1974, with a balloon-borne X-ray telescope (energies of approximately 20-150 keV). No positive detection was made. The data favor a thermal bremsstrahlung mechanism for the X-ray production in the Perseus cluster of galaxies over the inverse Compton mechanism. In the case of the Coma cluster of galaxies, the data are inconclusive with respect to determining the origin of the X-rays.

Scheepmaker, A.; Ricker, G. R.; Brecher, K.; Ryckman, S. G.; Ballintine, J. E.; Doty, J. P.; Downey, P. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

1976-01-01

34

Microchannel plate pinhole camera for 20 to 100 keV x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and construction of a sensitive pinhole camera for imaging suprathermal x-rays. Our device is a pinhole camera consisting of four filtered pinholes and microchannel plate electron multiplier for x-ray detection and signal amplification. We report successful imaging of 20, 45, 70, and 100 keV x-ray emissions from the fusion targets at our Novette laser facility. Such imaging reveals features of the transport of hot electrons and provides views deep inside the target.

Wang, C.L.; Leipelt, G.R.; Nilson, D.G.

1984-10-03

35

Calculation of electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over the energy range from 0.01 eV to 2 keV  

SciTech Connect

This paper report results of calculation of the total cross section Q{sub T} for electron impact on NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over a wide range of incident energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. Total cross sections Q{sub T} (elastic plus electronic excitation) for incident energies below the ionization threshold of the target were calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package and cross sections at higher energies were derived using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to give self-consistent values where they overlap. The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results.

Limbachiya, Chetan [P. S. Science College, Kadi 382 715, Gujarat (India); Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V. P. and R. P. T. P. Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

2011-04-15

36

Contrasting physics in wire array z pinch sources of 1-20 keV emission on the Z facilitya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imploding wire arrays on the 20 MA Z generator have recently provided some of the most powerful and energetic laboratory sources of multi-keV photons, including ˜375 kJ of Al K-shell emission (h? ˜ 1-2 keV), ˜80 kJ of stainless steel K-shell emission (h? ˜ 5-9 keV) and a kJ-level of Mo K-shell emission (h? ˜ 17 keV). While the global implosion dynamics of these different wire arrays are very similar, the physical process that dominates the emission from these x-ray sources fall into three broad categories. Al wire arrays produce a column of plasma with densities up to ˜3 × 1021 ions/cm3, where opacity inhibits the escape of K-shell photons. Significant structure from instabilities can reduce the density and increase the surface area, therefore increase the K-shell emission. In contrast, stainless steel wire arrays operate in a regime where achieving a high pinch temperature (achieved by thermalizing a high implosion kinetic energy) is critical and, while opacity is present, it has less impact on the pinch emissivity. At higher photon energies, line emission associated with inner shell ionization due to energetic electrons becomes important.

Ampleford, D. J.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Laspe, A. R.; Flanagan, T. M.; Moore, N. W.; Sinars, D. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Harding, E. C.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chong, Y.-K.; Apruzese, J. P.; Velikovich, A. L.; Dasgupta, A.; Ouart, N.; Sygar, W. A.; Savage, M. E.; Moore, J. K.; Focia, R.; Wagoner, T. C.; Killebrew, K. L.; Edens, A. D.; Dunham, G. S.; Jones, M. C.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen, D. S.; Wu, M.; Carlson, A. L.; Kernahan, M. D.; Ball, C. R.; Scharberg, R. D.; Mulville, T. D.; Breden, E. W.; Speas, C. S.; Olivas, G.; Sullivan, M. A.; York, A. J.; Justus, D. W.; Cisneros, J. C.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Cleveland, M.; Vigil, M. P.; Robertson, G.; Sandoval, D.; Cox, C.; Maurer, A. J.; Graham, D. A.; Huynh, N. B.; Toledo, S.; Molina, L. P.; Lopez, M. R.; Long, F. W.; McKee, G. R.; Porter, J. L.; Herrmann, M. C.

2014-05-01

37

20-150-keV proton-impact-induced ionization of uracil: Fragmentation ratios and branching ratios for electron capture and direct ionization  

SciTech Connect

Fragmentation ratios and branching ratios are measured for ionization and dissociative ionization for 20-150 keV (0.9-2.4v{sub 0}) proton collisions with gas-phase uracil molecules. Through event-by-event determination of the postcollision projectile charge, it is possible for such a key biomolecule to distinguish between electron capture (EC) by the incident proton and direct ionization (DI) without projectile neutralization. While the same fragment ion groups are observed in the mass spectra for both processes, EC induces dissociation with greater efficiency than DI in the impact energy range of 35-150 keV (1.2-2.4v{sub 0}). In this range EC is also less abundant than DI with a branching ratio for EC/total ionization of <50%. Moreover, whereas fragmentation ratios do not change with energy in the case of EC, DI mass spectra show a tendency for increased fragmentation at lower impact energies.

Tabet, J.; Eden, S.; Feil, S.; Abdoul-Carime, H.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2010-01-15

38

Performance of LAPEX and its spectroscopic capabilities in the 20--300 keV energy band to observe SN1987a  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations of SN1987a both in the 1--10 keV and in the 10--350 keV energy range detected X-ray emission from the source with a very hard spectrum, a power law with ..cap alpha..approx.1.4, and a flux of approx.10 mCrab at 30 keV. We describe the performances of the LAPEX experiment for observation of SN1987a. In the 20--300 keV operative energy band of LAPEX, the following goals can be achieved: detection of emission lines due to Co/sup 57/ (122 keV) and Ti/sup 44/ (67.9 and 78.4 keV), elements that could be produced in the supernova explosion; measurement of the comptonized spectrum from the expanding ejecta; investigation on possible coherent pulsations due to a newly born pulsar down to timescales of approx.0.1 ms. In the following, a thorough description of the payload and of its performances will be given.

Frontera, F.; Basili, A.; Dal Fiume, D.; Franceschini, T.; Landini, G.; Morelli, E.; Pamini, M.; Poulsen, J.M.; SIlvestri, S.; Costa, E.; and others

1988-09-25

39

K X-ray production cross sections in aluminium for 15, 20 and 25 keV protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-energy particle accelerator has been used to determine experimentally low-energy X-ray production cross sections through the irradiation of thick targets with ions with energies up to 25 keV/ion charge by measuring thick target yields. We obtained aluminium K- X-ray production cross sections values of 8.4 × 10-4, 1.3 × 10-3 and 1.8 × 10-3 barn for 15, 20 and 25 keV protons, respectively. Although there are no results in the literature for such low-energy impinging protons for comparison, the results presented here are in good agreement with the general trend exhibited for higher energy ranges.

do Carmo, S. J. C.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Trindade, A. M. F.; Conde, C. A. N.

2012-12-01

40

Spectral Constraints on SEYFERT-2 Galaxies as Major Contributors to the Hard 3-100-KEV X-Ray Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that the flat spectrum of the X-ray background (XRB) above 3 keV and below ~15 keV could be explained by the superposition of absorbed sources at different redshifts. To explain the steepening of the XRB spectrum above ~15 keV, the intrinsic source spectrum should cut off at ~50-100 keV, as observed in NGC 4151 and galactic black hole candidates. Here, assuming that Seyfert 2 galaxies are Seyfert 1 galaxies obscured by intervening matter in the line of sight, as postulated by the unified model, and that they provide the major contribution to the XRB in the 3-100 keV energy range, we derive some constraints on their spectrum and evolution, and indicate, in view of future ASCA measurements, the use of iron spectral features as a test of the model.

Matt, G.; Fabian, A. C.

1994-03-01

41

A DATABASE OF >20 keV ELECTRON GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF INTERPLANETARY TRANSPORT AT 1 AU  

SciTech Connect

We use interplanetary transport simulations to compute a database of electron Green's functions, i.e., differential intensities resulting at the spacecraft position from an impulsive injection of energetic (>20 keV) electrons close to the Sun, for a large number of values of two standard interplanetary transport parameters: the scattering mean free path and the solar wind speed. The nominal energy channels of the ACE, STEREO, and Wind spacecraft have been used in the interplanetary transport simulations to conceive a unique tool for the study of near-relativistic electron events observed at 1 AU. In this paper, we quantify the characteristic times of the Green's functions (onset and peak time, rise and decay phase duration) as a function of the interplanetary transport conditions. We use the database to calculate the FWHM of the pitch-angle distributions at different times of the event and under different scattering conditions. This allows us to provide a first quantitative result that can be compared with observations, and to assess the validity of the frequently used term beam-like pitch-angle distribution.

Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B. [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

2012-10-15

42

Evaluation of neutron cross sections for fissile and fertile nuclides in the keV range  

SciTech Connect

Procedures for evaluation of radiative capture, elastic and inelastic processes, and fission in the keV region of neutron energies are described. The use of theoretical tools along with the available ENDF utility codes allows the evaluator to extend and expand upon the experimental data, which are often sparse or discrepant. A few problems with the utility codes are noted, and suggestions, made for improvement and extension. Some ENDF/B-V cross sections for important nuclei are plotted in detail, and show significant need for improvement in the shape of the individual partial cross sections to be consistent with theoretical predictions within the constraints of the experimental data. In particular, uranium and plutonium isotopic evaluations, which are of critical importance to fast reactors, deserve careful attention with improved methodology. 8 figures.

Weston, L.W.

1980-01-01

43

FHBS calculation of ionized electron angular and energy distribution following the p+H collision at 20 keV  

E-print Network

A Finite Hilbert Basis Set (FHBS) method to calculate the angular and energy distribution of ejected electrons in an ion-atom collision is presented. This method has been applied to the p + H collision at 20 keV impact energy. An interference effect...

Fu, Jun

2004-11-15

44

Absolute neutron detection efficiency calibration of a stilbene organic scintillator in the energy range 2 to 20 MeV with the associated particle technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associated particle technique (APT) has been used with neutrons from D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He reactions to measure the absolute neutron detection efficiency of a stilbene detector (3.81 cm diameter, 1.27 cm thick) in the energy range 2-20 MeV as a function of the light collection threshold. The measurements have been carried out using thin Ti-T and home made

R. Cherubini; G. Moschini; R. Nino; R. Policroniades; A. Varela

1988-01-01

45

Measurements and assessment of 12C(d,p?)13C reaction cross sections in the deuteron energy range 740-2000 keV for analytical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total cross sections of the 12C(d,p?1)13C (E? = 3089 keV), 12C(d,p?2)13C (E? = 3684 keV) and 12C(d,p?3)13C (E? = 3854 keV) reactions, as well as differential cross sections for (d,po), (d,p1) reactions and (d,d0) elastic scattering were determined in the 740-2000 keV deuteron energy range using a self-supporting natural carbon foil and detecting the gamma-rays and particles simultaneously. In order to test the validity of the measured gamma-ray producing cross sections, benchmark experiments were performed using kapton foils with two different thicknesses. Both the obtained gamma- and particle production cross section results were compared with data existing in literature, and in the case of (d,po) the experimental differential cross section data were compared also with the theoretical evaluated values.

Csedreki, L.; Uzonyi, I.; Szíki, G. Á.; Szikszai, Z.; Gyürky, Gy.; Kiss, Á. Z.

2014-06-01

46

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of some boron compounds and the trommel sieve waste in the energy range 15.746– 40.930 keV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass attenuation coefficients of some boron compounds (H3BO3,Na2B4O7 and B3Al2O3) and the trommel sieve waste (TSW) have been measured by using an extremely narrow collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range 15.746–40.930keV. The characteristic K? and K? X-rays of Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr passed through H3BO3,Na2B4O7, B3Al2O3 and TSW were detected with a high-resolution Si(Li) detector.

Orhan ?çelli; Salih Erzeneo?lu; Recep Boncukçuo?lu

2003-01-01

47

Thermal expansion and phase changes of 16Kh12V2FTaR steel in temperature range from 20 to 1000 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of investigation of thermal expansion of 16Kh12V2FTaR steel in the temperature range 20-1000 °C. Measurements were carried out by dilatometric method with the error (1.5-2)×10-7 K-1. The temperature dependences of thermal coefficient of linear expansion of steel have been obtained in ferrite-martensite and ferrite-perlite states, and reference tables have been calculated. Influence of samples cooling rate on martensite phase formation is shown.

Kozlovskii, Yu. M.; Stankus, S. V.; Yatsuk, O. S.; Agazhanov, A. Sh.; Komarov, S. G.; Anufriyev, I. S.

2014-01-01

48

Search for inclusive oscillations of muon neutrinos in the mass range, 20 <. delta. m/sup 2/ < 900 eV/sup 2/  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive search for inclusive neutrino oscillations has been performed using two similar detectors running simultaneously at different locations in the Fermilab dichromatic muon-neutrino beam. The preliminary results show no significant oscillation signal and rule out inclusive oscillations of muon neutrinos into any other type of neutrons for 20 < ..delta..m/sup 2/ < 900 eV/sup 2/ and sin/sup 2/(2 theta) > 0.03 to 0.10.

Haber, C.; Auchincloss, P.; Blair, R.; Ruiz, M.; Sciulli, F.; Shaevitz, M.; Smith, W.H.; Zhu, R.; Garfinkle, D.; Merritt, F.

1983-07-01

49

Strength of the Ec.m.=1113 keV resonance in 20Ne(p,?)21Na  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 20Ne(p,?)21Na reaction is the starting point of the NeNa cycle, which is an important process for the production of intermediate mass elements. The Ec.m.=1113 keV resonance plays an important role in the determination of stellar rates for this reaction since it is used to normalize experimental direct capture yields at lower energies. The commonly accepted strength of this resonance, ??=1.13±0.07 eV, has been misinterpreted as the strength in the center-of-mass frame when it is actually the strength in the laboratory frame. This has motivated a new measurement of the Ec.m.=1113 keV resonance strength in 20Ne(p,?)21Na using the DRAGON recoil mass spectrometer. The DRAGON result, 0.972±0.11 eV, is in good agreement with the accepted value when both are calculated in the same frame of reference.

Christian, G.; Hutcheon, D.; Akers, C.; Connolly, D.; Fallis, J.; Ruiz, C.

2013-09-01

50

Emission Lines between 1 and 2 keV in Cometary X-Ray Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the detection of new cometary X-ray emission lines in the 1.0-2.0 keV range using a sample of comets observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and ACIS spectrometer. We have selected five comets from the Chandra sample with good signal-to-noise spectra. The surveyed comets are C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), 153P/2002 (Ikeya-Zhang), 2P/2003 (Encke), and C/2008 8P (Tuttle). We modeled the spectra with an extended version of our solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission model. Above 1 keV, we find Ikeya-Zhang to have strong emission lines at 1340 and 1850 eV which we identify as being created by SWCX lines of Mg XI and Si XIII, respectively, and weaker emission lines at 1470, 1600, and 1950 eV formed by SWCX of Mg XII, Mg XI, and Si XIV, respectively. The Mg XI and XII and Si XIII and XIV lines are detected at a significant level for the other comets in our sample (LS4, MH, Encke, 8P), and these lines promise additional diagnostics to be included in SWCX models. The silicon lines in the 1700-2000 eV range are detected for all comets, but with the rising background and decreasing cometary emission, we caution that these detections need further confirmation with higher resolution instruments.

Ewing, Ian; Christian, Damian J.; Bodewits, Dennis; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J.

2013-01-01

51

Analysis of 20 KEV Electron Induced X-Ray Production in Skull, Femur/tibia Bones of Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hind-limb suspension (HLS) of rats is a NASA validated model of simulated weightlessness. This study examines the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system of rats to assess whether or not exposure of rats to HLS for one week will induce alteration of structural features in selected bones. Four groups of rats were used: two unsuspended controls and two suspended groups. Body weight, food, and water intake were monitored daily before and after suspension. X-rays were measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(li) detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provided the 20 keV electron beam. X-ray data were collected from square cross sections between 100 ?m2 and 104 ?m2. The bones were measured for elemental levels of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon from both control and HLS rats. The average body weight of all HLS groups decreased compared to their respective unsuspended controls. Food and water intake was also lower in both suspended groups. A correlation among HLS and control samples in terms of the distribution of the primary elements was found in the bone tissue when analyzed as a function of position along the hind-leg and within the cross sections.

Mehta, Rahul; Watson, Alec; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

2010-04-01

52

http://www.sedimentaryores.net/Cascades/MtStHelens/Cascade%20Range%20Lahars.pdf Cascade Range Lahars (Volcanic Debris Flows) JB Maynard 2010  

E-print Network

mm to 1m; matrix Helens/Cascade%20Range%20http://www.sedimentaryores.net/Cascades/MtStHelens/Cascade%20Range%20Lahars.pdf Cascade Range these are made up of fragile or altered lithologies. Has a trimodal size distribution: megaclasts >1 m; clasts 2

Maynard, J. Barry

53

Creation of 2-5 keV and 5-10 keV sky maps using XMM-Newton data  

E-print Network

Sky maps are powerful visualisation tools for quicklook analysis of extended sources. The latest sky map in soft X-rays (0.1-2.4 keV) has been created in 90ies using ROSAT data. By analyzing publically available data from XMM-Newton X-ray mission we constructed new sky maps in two energy bands -- 2-5 keV and 5-10 keV, complementary to ROSAT data, covering about 1% of all sky, and included them to our web-based tool http://skyview.virgoua.org.

Savchenko, Denis

2014-01-01

54

A Novel Approach to Measure the Cross Section of the 18O(p, ?)15N Resonant Reaction in the 0-200 keV Energy Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18O(p, ?)15N reaction is of primary importance to pin down the uncertainties, due to nuclear physics input, affecting present-day models of asymptotic giant branch stars. Its reaction rate can modify both fluorine nucleosynthesis inside such stars and oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios, which allow one to constrain the proposed astrophysical scenarios. Thus, an indirect measurement of the low-energy region of the 18O(p, ?)15N reaction has been performed to access, for the first time, the range of relevance for astrophysical application. In particular, a full, high-accuracy spectroscopic study of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been performed and the strengths deduced to evaluate the reaction rate and the consequences for astrophysics.

La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Banu, A.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Crucillà, V.; Goldberg, V.; Gulino, M.; Irgaziev, B.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Mrazek, J.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Trzaska, W.; Tumino, A.

2010-01-01

55

Mu-2 ranging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

1977-01-01

56

20-100 keV properties of cataclysmic variables detected in the INTEGRAL/IBIS survey  

E-print Network

Analysis of INTEGRAL/IBIS survey observations has revealed that the rare intermediate polar and asynchronous polar cataclysmic variables are consistently found to emit in the 20-100 keV energy band, whereas synchronous polars and the common non-magnetic CVs rarely do so. From the correlation of a candidate INTEGRAL/IBIS survey source list with a CV catalogue, 15 CV detections by IBIS have been established including a new INTEGRAL source IGR J06253+7334. The properties of these sources and 4 additional CV candidates are discussed in the context of their 20-100 keV emission characteristics and we conclude that the INTEGRAL mission is an important tool in the detection of new magnetic CV systems. Furthermore, analysis of the time-averaged spectra of CVs detected by INTEGRAL indicate that although there is little difference between the spectral slopes of the different sub-types, intermediate polars may be considerably more luminous than polars in the soft gamma-ray regime. We also present the detection of an unusual high-energy burst from V1223 Sgr discovered by inspection of the IBIS light-curve. Additionally, we have compared the IBIS and optical AAVSO light-curves of SS Cyg and extracted IBIS spectra during single periods of optical outburst and quiescence. We find that the 20-100 keV flux is an order of magnitude greater during optical quiescence. This is in agreement with previous studies which show that the hard X-ray component of SS Cyg is suppressed during high accretion states

E. J. Barlow; C. Knigge; A. J. Bird; A. J. Dean; D. J. Clark; A. B. Hill; M. Molina; V. Sguera

2006-07-20

57

Measurement of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air for x-rays in the range from 3 to 60 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given.

Buhr, H.; Büermann, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Rabus, H.

2012-12-01

58

Microcollimator for micrometer-wide stripe irradiation of cells using 20-30 keV X rays.  

PubMed

Abstract Pataky, K., Villanueva, G., Liani, A., Zgheib, O., Jenkins, N., Halazonetis, D. J., Halazonetis, T. D. and Brugger, J. Microcollimator for Micrometer-Wide Stripe Irradiation of Cells Using 20-30 keV X Rays. Radiat. Res. 172, 252-259 (2009). The exposure of subnuclear compartments of cells to ionizing radiation is currently not trivial. We describe here a collimator for micrometer-wide stripe irradiation designed to work with conventional high-voltage X-ray tubes and cells cultured on standard glass cover slips. The microcollimator was fabricated by high-precision silicon micromachining and consists of X-ray absorbing chips with grooves of highly controlled depths, between 0.5-10 microm, along their surfaces. These grooves form X-ray collimating slits when the chips are stacked against each other. The use of this device for radiation biology was examined by irradiating human cells with X rays having energies between 20-30 keV. After irradiation, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), a nuclear protein that is recruited at sites of DNA double-strand breaks, clustered in lines corresponding to the irradiated stripes. PMID:19630530

Pataky, Kristopher; Villanueva, Guillermo; Liani, Andre; Zgheib, Omar; Jenkins, Nathan; Halazonetis, Demetrios J; Halazonetis, Thanos D; Brugger, Juergen

2009-08-01

59

Optimum condition of efficiency functions for HPGe ?-ray detectors in the 121-1408 keV energy range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum condition of three commonly used functions in the Genie 2000 ? spectra analysis software have been studied in the 121-1408 keV energy range. The three functions are applied for fitting the full-energy peak efficiency of the HPGe gamma-ray detector. A detailed procedure to obtain the optimum condition is described. The HPGe detector is calibrated at 11 cm by three radioactive sources of point form (152Eu, 137Cs, 60Co) providing 11 energy peaks. After data processing, results shows that the three functions used in the Genie 2000 gamma spectra analysis software fit best at orders 3-5. Lastly the standard radioactive source 133Ba is chosen to validate the results. Differences between the standard activity of 133Ba and the result obtained from the fitting functions are below 1.5%. Therefore the optimum orders of the three functions used in the Genie 2000 ? spectra analysis software are 3-5 with the 11 energy peaks.

Chen, Zhi-Lin; Song, Guo-Yang; Mu, Long; Wang, He-Yi; Xing, Shi-Xiong; Guo, Hong-Bo; Liao, Zhen-Xing; Chen, Ping; Hua, Sheng

2010-05-01

60

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

2014-10-01

61

Decline of the 2-10 keV Emission from Eta Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using processed data from the X-ray Telescope on Swift reveals a peak flux on July 16, 2014 of 0.046 photons s-1cm-2 (3.37 & plusmn0.15 & times;10-10 ergs s-1cm-2).

Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; Owocki, Stan

2014-07-01

62

The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

2007-01-01

63

Calibration of Xray CCDs with an ErectField Grating Spectrometer in the 0.2 1.5 keV band.  

E-print Network

Calibration of X­ray CCDs with an Erect­Field Grating Spectrometer in the 0.2 ­ 1.5 keV band. G been calibrated in the 0.25­1.5 keV spectral range using an erect­field grating spectrometer X­ray CCDs developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratories for the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have

64

Teflon impregnated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by 80 keV Xe+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effect of 80 keV Xe+ ion irradiation on the morphological and optical responses of TiO2 nanoparticles spread over commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon). These nanoparticles were synthesized via a convenient, sol-gel approach with titanium isopropoxide as the main precursor. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies we found that, the nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase and with a preferential orientation of crystallites along (1 0 1) plane. Upon irradiation at a fluence of 1.25 × 1017 ions/cm2, the nanoparticle dimension was found to increase from a value of ˜9 nm to ˜20-30 nm. Essentially, particle growth is predicted as a consequence of swelling behavior accompanied by the formation of Xe van der Waal crystals in isolated regions of nano-titania. Evidence of nanoripples was also witnessed on the surface of the irradiated nano-titania. The morphological evolution was assessed both by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies (AFM and TEM) independently. From the UV-Vis optical absorption studies, the estimated optical band gap was found to drop with increasing fluence, while refractive index exhibited a remarkable improvement. Photoluminescence (PL) studies have revealed that, the band edge emission and those due to the self trapped excitons (STE) and other oxygen vacancy related ones were manifested considerably as a result of Xe ion irradiation.

Khanam, Rizwin; Paul, Nibedita; Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

2014-10-01

65

Energy loss of 18 keV electrons in gaseous T2 and quench condensed D2 lms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the energy loss of fast electrons at an energy of 18 keV have been performed on molecules of hydrogen isotopes, gaseous T2 and frozen D2. Whereas in the case of gaseous T2 the values of total inelastic cross-section (tot; gaseous =( 3:40 0:07) 10 18 cm2 for E =1 8:6 keV), average energy loss (\\

V. N. Aseev; A. I. Belesev; A. I. Berlev; E. V. Geraskin; O. V. Kazachenko; Yu. E. Kuznetsov; V. M. Lobashev; R. P. Ostroumov; N. A. Titov; S. V. Zadorozhny; Yu. I. Zakharov; J. Bonn; B. Bornschein; L. Bornschein; E. W. Otten; M. Przyrembel; Ch. Weinheimer; A. Saenz

66

An experimental study on linear differential scattering coefficients of the radioactive compounds UO 2(C 2H 3O 2) 2 · 2H 2O and Th(NO 3) 4 · 5H 2O at 60 keV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear differential scattering coefficients at 60 keV have been measured for UO2(C2H3O2)2·2H2O (uranyl-acetate) and Th(NO3)4·5H2O (thorium-nitrate) radioactive compounds at seven angles ranging from 60° to 120° at intervals 10°. The obtained results have been compared with relativistic and non-relativistic theoretical values.

Orhan ?çelli

2004-01-01

67

Modeling the Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings below 2 keV  

E-print Network

The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory is a high spectral The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory is a highModeling the Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings below 2 keV K.A. Flanagana, T.H. Markerta, J

68

Experimental Binding Energies for the Metal Complexes [Mg(CH3OH)n](2+), [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+), and [Sr(CH3OH)n](2+) for n in the Range 4-20.  

PubMed

A supersonic source of clusters has been used to prepare neutral complexes of methanol in association with an alkaline earth metal atom. From these complexes the following metal-containing dications have been generated through electron ionization: [Mg(CH3OH)n](2+), [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+), and [Sr(CH3OH)n](2+), and for n in the range 4-20, kinetic energy release measurements following the evaporation of a single molecule have been undertaken using a high resolution mass spectrometer. Using finite heat bath theory, these data have been transformed into binding energies for individual methanol molecules attached to each of the three cluster systems. In the larger complexes (n > 6) the results exhibit a consistent trend, whereby the experimental binding energy data for all three metal ions are similar, suggesting that the magnitude of the charge rather than charge density influences the strength of the interaction. From a comparison with data recorded previously for (CH3OH)nH(+) it is found that the 2+ charge on a metal ion has an effect on the binding energy of molecules in complexes containing up to 20 solvent molecules. The results recorded for [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+) show evidence of a very marked transition between n = 6 and 7, which is thought to coincide with the completion of a primary solvation shell and the onset of molecules starting to occupy a second and most probably a third shell. PMID:25231925

Bruzzi, E; Stace, A J

2014-10-01

69

3 keV to 2 MeV observations of four gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous X and gamma ray spectra were obtained for four gamma ray burst events using satellite instrumentation. The P78-1 satellite proportional counters recorded X-ray data in the 3-10 keV range, while Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ISEE 3 sensors had a 3 keV lower limit for events. The positively correlated data covered the events GB 790307, 790325, 790504, and 790731. The time histories of the X and gamma ray energies did not correlate well. The post-gamma ray phase of GB 790307 displayed features of simple cooling, and in conjunction with soft X-ray data suggested an origin in an optically thin fireball. However, the data were equally well-fitted by a model of an emitting hot spot on a neutron star. The data negated any concept that gamma ray bursts evolve similarly to classical X-ray bursts.

Laros, J. G.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Shulman, S.; Fritz, G.

1984-11-01

70

Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Web is growing and changing from a paradigm of static publishing to one of participation and interaction. This change has implications for people with disabilities who rely on access to the Web for employment, information, entertainment, and increased independence. The interactive and collaborative nature of Web 2.0 can present access problems for some users. There are some best practices which can be put in place today to improve access. New specifications such as Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) and IAccessible2 are opening the doors to increasing the accessibility of Web 2.0 and beyond.

Gibson, Becky

71

The solubility of fullerene C 70 in monocarboxylic acids C n ? 1 H 2 n ? 1 COOH ( n = 1–9) over the temperature range 20–80°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal (20°C) solubility of fullerene C70 in solvents of the homologous series of monocarboxylic acids C\\u000a n ? 1H2n ? 1COOH (n = 1–9) and polythermal solubility over the temperature range 20–80°C of fullerene C70 in solvents of the homologous series of monocarboxylic acids C\\u000a n ? 1H2n ? 1COOH (n = 4–9) were studied. The corresponding solubility diagrams

K. N. Semenov; N. A. Charykov; O. V. Arapov; V. A. Keskinov; A. K. Pyartman; M. S. Gutenev; O. V. Proskurina; M. Yu. Matuzenko; V. V. Klepikov

2008-01-01

72

The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keY from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

2007-01-01

73

An improved long counter for neutron fluence measurement with a flat response over a wide energy range from 1 keV to 15 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new long counter has been developed with a flat energy response over a wide range from 1 keV to 15 MeV. It consists of five 3He proportional counter tubes and a number of carefully designed polyethylene moderators. The structure of this detector was determined by careful Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated results show that the efficiency of this counter is uniform from 1 keV neutron energy to 15 MeV. Calibration was performed on an Am-Be source and the accelerator-produced monoenergetic D-D and D-T neutron sources. Fluctuation of the response curve is less than 10% over this energy range.

Hu, Q. Y.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, D.; Guo, H. S.; Yang, G. Z.; Li, B. J.; Ye, F.; Si, F. N.; Liu, J.; Fu, Y. C.; Ning, J. M.; Yang, J.; Yang, H. H.; Wang, W. C.

2014-12-01

74

Marketing 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no doubt that today's student is much more savvy with using computers than the students of years gone by. This tech generation eagerly embraces the Internet, online searching, and the newer Web 2.0 technologies. This latter platform provides users with the ability to interact in a large virtual world, share/take (upload/download)…

Germain, Carol Anne

2008-01-01

75

Solar wind control of Earth's H+ and O+ outflow rates in the 15eV to 33keV energy range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's high-latitude outflow of H+ and O+ ions has been examined with the Toroidal Imaging Mass-Angle Spectrograph instrument on the Polar satellite in the 15-eV to 33-keV energy range over an almost 3-year period near solar minimum (1996–1998). This outflow is compared with solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data from the Wind spacecraft, the latter having been

O. W. Lennartsson; H. L. Collin; W. K. Peterson

2004-01-01

76

870. 8-keV gamma ray from PuO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

A /sup 252/Cf neutron source and an /sup 241/Am alpha source were used with isotopically enriched water containing 43.9% /sup 17/O and 43.1% /sup 18/O, to study the (n,n'UPSILON) and (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'UPSILON) reactions in /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O. The production yields for the 870.8-keV gamma ray from /sup 17/O and the 1982.2-keV gamma ray from /sup 18/O were measured. In addition, the average cross sections over the /sup 252/Cf fission neutron spectrum for /sup 17/O(n,n'UPSILON)/sup 17/O and /sup 18/O(n,n'UPSILON)/sup 18/O were determined.

Hsu, H.H.

1981-01-01

77

Dense ion clouds of 0.1 - 2 keV ions inside the CPS-region observed by Astrid2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Astrid-2 satellite taken between April and July 1999 show several examples of dense ion clouds in the 0.1 2 keV energy range inside the inner mag-netosphere, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. These inner magnetospheric ion clouds are found predomi-nantly in the early morning sector, suggesting that they could have originated from substorm-related ion injections on

S. H. Høymork; M. Yamauchi; Y. Ebihara; Y. Narita; O. Norberg; D. Winningham

2001-01-01

78

A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of Si atoms in molecular dynamics simulations of successive bombardment with 20keV C60 projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important factor that determines the possible lateral resolution in sputter depth profiling experiments is ion induced lateral displacement of substrate atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to model the successive bombardment of Si with 20 keV C60 at normal incidence. A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of atoms that originate from the topmost layer is presented and

K. D. Krantzman; E. L. Cook; A. Wucher; B. J. Garrison

2011-01-01

79

A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of Si atoms in molecular dynamics simulations of successive bombardment with 20keV C 60 projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important factor that determines the possible lateral resolution in sputter depth profiling experiments is ion induced lateral displacement of substrate atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to model the successive bombardment of Si with 20keV C60 at normal incidence. A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of atoms that originate from the topmost layer is presented and discussed.

K. D. Krantzman; E. L. Cook; A. Wucher; B. J. Garrison

2011-01-01

80

Detection of interplanetary electrons from 18 keV to 1.8 MeV during solar quiet times, 1. On the origin of 200 KeV interplanetary electrons, 2.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quiet time component of interplanetary electrons having energies above solar wind energies and below those characterized as cosmic radiation was observed. Its energy spectrum falls with energy from 18 keV to 1.8 MeV, but it shows a feature in the 100 to 300 keV range. The observed temporal variations of the intensity suggest that the 18 to 100 keV portion is solar and the 0.3 to 1.8 MeV portion is galactic in origin. Solar and terrestrial neutron decay electrons appear inadequate to explain the 100 to 300 keV feature.

Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Fisk, L. A.

1972-01-01

81

A large scale height galactic component of the diffuse 2-60 keV background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffuse 2-60 keV X-ray background has a galactic component clearly detectable by its strong variation with both galactic latitude and longitude. This galactic component is typically 10 percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic center, half that strong toward the anticenter, and extrapolated to a few percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic poles. It is acceptably modeled by a finite radius emission disk with a scale height of several kiloparsecs. The averaged galactic spectrum is best fitted by a thermal spectrum of kT about 9 keV, a spectrum much softer than the about 40 keV spectrum of the extragalactic component. The most likely source of this emission is low luminosity stars with large scale heights such as subdwarfs. Inverse Compton emission from GeV electrons on the microwave background contributes only a fraction of the galactic component unless the local cosmic ray electron spectrum and intensity are atypical.

Iwan, D.; Marshall, F. E.; Boldt, E. A.; Mushotzky, R.; Shafer, R. A.; Stottlemyer, A.

1982-01-01

82

On the vectorial photoelectric effect at 2.69 keV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experiments conducted to study the vectorial photoelectric effect with CsI, Al2O3 and Si photocathodes at 2.69 keV indicate null results. Detailed analysis shows that previously measured modulation can be well explained by geometrical misalignment and a combination of the asymmetric shape of the incident X-ray beam and a small detection area of the photoelectron detector. After the elimination of the sources of spurious modulation, we observed a modulation factor of less than 3 percent for a grazing incidence angle as small as 5 deg. There is no observable difference in the pulse height distribution between s and p states.

Shaw, P. S.; Hanany, S.; Liu, Y.; Church, E. D.; Fleischman, J.; Kaaret, P.; Novick, R.; Santangelo, A.

1991-01-01

83

Biosimilars 2.0  

PubMed Central

In the European Union, biosimilar products have been approved since 2006 under an abbreviated pathway that leverages their similarity to an existing “reference” biological product. The products approved to date are based on recombinant versions of endogenous proteins with well-understood structures and pharmacology, but complicated safety and immunogenicity profiles. The period during the 2000s that included the first reviews, approvals, sale and use of biosimilars is referred to herein as “Biosimilars 1.0.” Over the next several years, a new and advanced tranche of biosimilars will be developed for complex reference products, including medicines used in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. A global market for biosimilars is developing and this may well foreshadow the beginning of the second era of product development. This Biosimilars 2.0 period will likely be characterized by the development of complex products, global harmonization of standards and the increasing demand for long-term monitoring of pharmaceuticals. The products developed in this period should exhibit high levels of fidelity to the reference products and should be rigorously evaluated in analytical, non-clinical and clinical comparisons. Additionally, Biosimilars 2.0 manufacturers should strive for transparency in their labels and take proactive strides to be accountable to providers and patients for the quality of their products. An important opportunity now exists for the healthcare community, industry and regulators to work in partnership, to outline the appropriate standards for these products and to facilitate increased access while meeting patients' needs. PMID:21512318

Miletich, Joseph; Grampp, Gustavo; Mounho, Barbara

2011-01-01

84

Inferno 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inferno, created at Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs, is a new operating system that could be the "Unix for the next century." Created by the same research lab that invented C++ and Unix, Inferno's primary goal is to operate seamlessly within a heterogeneous network environment. By abstracting resource interfaces to a common format, Inferno provides a general way to access all resources, both local and remote. Beyond that, the operating system is portable across many platforms and networks, and applications written in Limbo, the Inferno programming language, are also portable and lightweight. Impossible to describe in a single paragraph, the Inferno operating system is a fascinating leap ahead in networking and systems technology. Inferno is useful for research, development, learning, and many other possibilities. Freely available, Inferno 2.0 runs on Win95/NT, Solaris, and Linux.

1998-01-01

85

Study of natMg(d,d0) reaction at detector angles between 90° and 170°, for the energy range Ed,lab=1660-1990 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the study of the natMg(d,d0) is presented for the energy range Ed,lab = 1660-1990 keV (in steps of 5 keV), for detector angles between 90° and 170°. Elastic scattering data for two forward angles (55° and 70°) were also obtained. In order to validate the obtained experimental results a thick Mg sample with Au evaporated on top was fabricated and benchmarking measurements were performed at various deuteron beam energies. The results of the present work are complementary to the recently published 24Mg(d,p0,1,2) reaction cross section data, thus facilitating the simultaneous depth profiling study of magnesium by both the d-NRA and EBS techniques.

Patronis, N.; Aslanoglou, X.; Axiotis, M.; Georgiadou, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Misaelides, P.; Paneta, V.

2014-10-01

86

Sub-arcsec X-Ray Telescope for Imaging The Solar Corona In the 0.25 - 1.2 keV Band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed an X-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing X-rays with grazing incidence optics. The telescope was built with spherical optics for all of its components, utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical (as opposed to aspherical) optics. We tested the prototype X-ray telescope in the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope features 2 degee graze angles with tungsten coatings, yielding a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV with a peak effective area of 0.8 sq cm at 0.83 keV. Results from X-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) verify 0.5 arcsecond performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the X-ray telescope's response to the Sun show that the current design would be capable of recording 10 half arcsecond images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight.

Gallagher, Dennis; Cash, Webster; Jelsma, Schuyler; Farmer, Jason

1996-01-01

87

Interaction of 30 keV O3+ ions with Al2O3 nanocapillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of 30 keV O3+ ions with capillaries in an Al2O3 membrane was studied. The charge state distribution and the angular distribution of the ions transmitted through the capillaries were measured. Shifts of the transmission profile centroid by twice of the capillary tilt angle ? and double-peak structure in the transmission profile were found. Difficulties exist in determination of the impact point location on the capillary wall and the scattering angle for each collision to interpret the observed 2? shift phenomenon. The transmission profile width and ion guiding ability of the concerned capillaries for the used projectile ions were analyzed. Comparison of the present guiding angle and the prediction of scaling laws was conducted. Further work concerning the influence of the material and its surface treatment on the guiding properties is needed.

Xi, F. Y.; Lv, H. Y.

2014-11-01

88

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range  

SciTech Connect

We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

2010-11-12

89

A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of Si atoms in molecular dynamics simulations of successive bombardment with 20-keV C 60 projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important factor that determines the possible lateral resolution in sputter depth profiling experiments is ion induced lateral displacement of substrate atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to model the successive bombardment of Si with 20 keV C60 at normal incidence. A statistical analysis of the lateral displacement of atoms that originate from the topmost layer is presented and discussed. From these results, it is determined that the motion is isotropic and can be described mathematically by a simple diffusion equation. A “diffusion coefficient” for lateral displacement is determined to be 3.5 Å2/impact. This value can be used to calculate the average lateral distance moved as a function of the number of impacts. The maximum distance an atom may move is limited by the time that it remains on the surface before it is sputtered. After 800 impacts, 99% of atoms from the topmost layer have been removed, and the average distance moved by these atoms is predicted to be 100 Å. Although the behavior can be described mathematically by the diffusion equation, the behavior of the atoms is different than what is thought of as normal diffusion. Atoms are displaced a large distance due to infrequent large hops.

Krantzman, K. D.; Cook, E. L.; Wucher, A.; Garrison, B. J.

2011-07-01

90

Measurement of the {sup 19}F(p,{gamma}){sup 20}Ne reaction and interference terms from E{sub c.m.}=200-760 keV  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 19}F(p,{gamma}){sup 20}Ne reaction represents the only breakout path for the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle operating at temperatures below T=0.1 GK, an energy regime important for main-sequence hydrogen burning as well as hydrogen burning in asymptotic giant branch stars. Large experimental uncertainties exist due to unknown low energy direct and resonant reaction contributions that have been difficult to study because of the high {gamma}-ray background from the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{sub 2}{gamma}) reaction. A new detection technique has been developed at the University of Notre Dame to measure the {sup 19}F(p,{gamma}) and {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{sub i}{gamma}) reactions over an energy range of E{sub c.m.}=200-760 keV. The analysis was carried out in a Breit-Wigner framework. This allowed a new determination of the resonance parameters as well as a first measurement of the signs of the interference terms. Partial widths and resonance strengths are reported for the resonances in this region.

Couture, A.; Beard, M.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; Lamm, L.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Brien, S.; Palumbo, A.; Stech, E.; Strandberg, E.; Tan, W.; Uberseder, E.; Ugalde, C.; Wiescher, M.; Azuma, R. [Nuclear Science Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M55 1A7 (Canada)

2008-01-15

91

Determination of the branching ratio for the {sup 209}Bi (n, {gamma}) {sup 210}Bi reaction from 500 eV to 20 keV  

SciTech Connect

Energy differential neutron capture cross section measurements have been performed to determine the branching ratio for the {sup 209}Bi(n, {gamma}) reaction. The measurements were carried out at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). The capture measurements were performed at a 12 m flight path using three High-Purity Germanium detectors. The experimental set-up was optimized to reduce the prompt background due to scattered neutrons. Several {gamma}-ray spectra corresponding to the {sup 209}Bi + n resonances up to 20 keV were deduced. The results of a preliminary data analysis are given in this paper. (authors)

Borella, A. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91911 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Belgya, T. [II, CRC HAS, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berthomieux, E. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91911 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Colonna, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Domingo-Pardo, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Gunsing, F. [II, CRC HAS, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Marrone, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Martinez, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain); Massimi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Mastinu, P. M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Milazzo, P. M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Schillebeeckx, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagliente, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Tain, J. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Terlizzi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Wynants, R. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

2006-07-01

92

ART: Surveying the Local Universe at 2-11 keV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Rontgen Telescope (ART) is a medium-energy x-ray telescope system proposed for the Russian-led mission Spectrum Rontgen-Gamma (SRG). Optimized for performance over the 2-11-keV band, ART complements the softer response of the SRG prime instrument-the German eROSITA x-ray telescope system. The anticipated number of ART detections is 50,000-with 1,000 heavily-obscured (N(sub H)> 3x10(exp 23)/sq cm) AGN-in the SRG 4-year all-sky survey, plus a comparable number in deeper wide-field (500 deg(sup 2) total) surveys. ART's surveys will provide a minimally-biased, nearly-complete census of the local Universe in the medium-energy x-ray band (including Fe-K lines), at CCD spectral resolution. During long (approx.100-ks) pointed observations, ART can obtain statistically significant spectral data up to about 15 keY for bright sources and medium-energy x-ray continuum and Fe-K-line spectra of AGN detected with the contemporaneous NuSTAR hard-x-ray mission.

O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Adams, M. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Bubarev, M. V.; Hassinger, G.; Pravlinski, M.; Predehl, P.; Romaine, S. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Urry, C. M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.

2008-01-01

93

~ 0,2 , , , , -20, , ,  

E-print Network

energy and material and thickness of the protective screen, the measuring point at some distance from electrons = 0.1, 0.51, 2.5, and 6.0 GeV. The information presented may be useful in designing protection of direct high-energy bremsstrahlung beam by means of local protective screens V.G. Barkova, V.Ya. Chudaev

94

Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

2011-02-08

95

THEORIZING WEB 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the conceptual problems surrounding popular definitions of Web 2.0 and proposes an alternative approach to understanding the cultural dimension of Web 2.0. Drawing parallels between the discursive and analytical challenges of Web 2.0 and online communities, this article suggests that a theoretical framework, based on Bourdieu's theory of field and habitus, can be applied to theorizing Web

Felicia Wu Song

2010-01-01

96

2,0 superconformal anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (2,0) supersymmetric Wess-Zumino-Polyakov, action is constructed and the (2,0) superconformal anomaly is given. The anomalous Ward-identity in the right sector is derived and the known operator product expansion of the N = 2 superstress energy tensor ...

T. Lhallabi

1992-01-01

97

Web 2.0, Library 2.0, and Librarian 2.0:Preparing for the 2.0 World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a global conversation going on right now about the next generation of the web. It's happening under the name of Web 2.0. It's the McLuhanesque hot web where true human interaction takes precedence over merely `cool' information delivery and e-mail. It's about putting information into the real context of our users' lives, research, work and play. Concurrently, a group of information professionals are having a conversation about the vision for what Library 2.0 will look like in this Web 2.0 ecosystem. Some are even going so far as to talk about Web 3.0! Web 2.0 is coming fast and it's BIG! What are the skills and competencies that Librarian 2.0 will need? Come and hear an overview of Web 2.0 and a draft vision for Library 2.0 and an opinion about what adaptations we'll need to make to thrive in this future scenario. Let's talk about the Librarian 2.0 in our users' future!

Abram, S.

2007-10-01

98

Augmented Reality 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively producing and distributing geo-referenced AR content. This combination of widely used mobile hardware and Web 2.0 software allows the development of a new type of AR platform that can be used on a global scale. In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality 2.0 concept and present existing work on mobile AR and web technologies that could be used to create AR 2.0 applications.

Schmalstieg, Dieter; Langlotz, Tobias; Billinghurst, Mark

99

Mid-crust fluid and water-rock interaction kinetic experiments and their geophysical significance: 2. syenite-water interaction in the temperature range from 20 to 435°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics Experiments on syenite-water interactions were carried out in a horizontally-mounted packed bed reactor in the temperature range from 20 to 435°C and at pressures of 23-36 MPa. The net dissolution rates (mol/minute/m2 or mol/s/m2) normalized to their specific surface area (A) are calculated using the following expression: -r = (Ci - C0) / [t (A/V) ?i] where Ci is the output concentration of species i, C0 is the initial concentration of species i, A is the total reactive surface area of the mineral (m2), t is the average fluid residence time, and V is the volume of the pressure vessel (mL), i.e., liquid volume. ?i is the stoichiometric coefficient of the ith element in the mineral formula (Zhang R.H. et al., 2000). Thus, the dissolution rates of syenite in water and the electric conductance can be measured simultaneously at temperature from 20 to 435°C and at pressure from 23-36MPa. The results indicated that the release rates of Si, Al, K and Na of the syenite increase with increasing temperature, and reached maximum values at 400°C. The release rates of Ca, Mg reached maximum values at 200°C. The release rates of Fe reached maximum values at 374°C. Another important impact factor of the reaction between syenite and water is pressure. The release rates of Si did not vary with pressure, as pressure was changed from 23 to 36 MPa. The release rates of K and Al in syenite increase with increasing pressure. The maximum release rates (rM) of Ni and Cu are reached at 300°C, 23 MPa, and the rM (Zn) is at 374°C, 23MPa. But the rM (Mn) is reached at low temperature (25°C) and 31MPa. The rM (Sr) and rM (Ba) are present at low temperature (20-200°C) and 23 MPa, The rM (Mo) is at 350°C and 23 MPa. The rM of Pb is present at 400°C, 23 MPa. The most metals (Si, Ca and ore-forming elements) easily release into aqueous solutions at 23 MPa. If increasing pressure from 23 to 36 MPa, most molar concentration ratio of metal Mi vs Si, Mi/MSi in the effluent solutions decreases with pressure. The in situ measurements of electric conductances of the water-rock interaction system at temperature range from 20-435°C, 23-36MPa were performed using the flow system. The in situ measurements of electric conductances combined the kinetic experiments found that the maximum electric conductances are present at 374-390°C, 23-36MPa, and simultaneously the maximum release rates of Si, Al, K are reached at the same temperature range. These results provide useful information for estimating the behavior of crustal fluids and the geophysical nature of the mid-crust. Note: These studies reported here have been supported by the Ministry of Land and Resources and the Ministry of Science and Technology: k[2013]01-062-014, SinoProbe-07-02-03, SinoProbe-03-01-2A, 20010302 and project of Anhui Province (2010G28). Key words: chemical kinetics, critical state, syenite-water interaction, electric conductance, high conductivity zone, high temperature experiment.

Zhang, X.; Zhang, R.; Hu, S.

2013-12-01

100

Guiding of 60 keV O6+ Ions through Nanocapillaries in an Uncoated Al2O3 Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure the transmission of O6+ ions with a higher energy of 60keV (in turn a higher value of Ep\\/q) through capillaries in an uncoated Al2O3 membrane, and obtain agreements with previously reported results in general angular distribution of the transmitted ions and the transmission profile width variation with capillary tilt angle. The transmission fractions as a function of the

Xi-Meng Chen; Fa-Yuan Xi; Xi-Yu Qiu; Jian-Xiong Shao; Ying Cui; Guang-Zhi Sun; Jun Wang; Yi-Feng Chen; Hui-Ping Liu; Yong-Zhi Yin; Feng-Jun Lou; Xing-An Wang; Jun-Kui Xu; Chun-Lin Zhou

2008-01-01

101

Ionic fragmentation of CO and H2O under impact of 10 keV electrons: kinetic energy release distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissociative ionization of COq+ (q=2-4) and H2Oq+ (q=2-3) molecular ions produced from the collisions of CO and H2O with 10 keV electrons is studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometer and position sensitive detector with multi-hit ability, respectively. The kinetic energy release distributions for these channels are obtained. We found that a pure Coulomb explosion model is insufficient to explain the observed kinetic release distributions for the Coulomb explosion channels. A detail of this study is given in references [3, 4].

Singh, Raj; Bhatt, Pragya; Yadav, Namita; Shanker, R.

2014-04-01

102

CO2 laser ranging systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

Filippi, C. A.

1975-01-01

103

Augmented Reality 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to\\u000a easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities\\u000a provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides\\u000a a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively

Dieter Schmalstieg; Tobias Langlotz; Mark Billinghurst

2011-01-01

104

Autogen Version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 2.0 of the autogen software has been released. "Autogen" (automated sequence generation) signifies both a process and software used to implement the process of automated generation of sequences of commands in a standard format for uplink to spacecraft. Autogen requires fewer workers than are needed for older manual sequence-generation processes and reduces sequence-generation times from weeks to minutes.

Gladden, Roy

2007-01-01

105

Stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine in the energy range 20-3000 eV.  

PubMed

In this work, we present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for pyrimidine (C4H4N2) measured for the incident energy range 30-2000 eV. Theoretical total and elastic cross sections for electron scattering from pyrimidine were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Based on the mean energy loss observed in the experiment and the theoretical integral inelastic cross section, the stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine is calculated in the energy range 20-3000 eV. PMID:23415108

Colmenares, R; Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; García, G

2014-01-01

106

Spectral reflectance change and luminescence of selected salts during 2-10 KeV proton bombardment - Implications for Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation damage and luminescence caused by magnetospheric charged particles have been suggested by several investigators as mechanisms that are capable of explaining some of the peculiar spectral/albedo features of Io. In the present paper, this possibility is pursued by measuring the UV-visual spectral reflectance and luminescent efficiency of several proposed Io surface constituents during 2 to 10 keV proton irradiation at room and low temperatures. The luminescence efficiencies of pure samples, studied in the laboratory, suggest that charged-particle induced luminescence from Io's surface might be observable by spacecraft such as Voyager when viewing Io's dark side.

Nelson, R. M.; Nash, D. B.

1979-01-01

107

Spatially Explicit Regions Of Peak Velocity Are Highly Differentiated At Different Discharges Ranging from 0.2 to 20 Times Bankfull In A Dynamic Gravel/Cobble Bed River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have identified velocity and Shield stress reversals as key mechanisms that maintain riffle-pool morphology. However, those studies have 4 primary limitations: (1) generally small stream size, (2) narrow range of discharge rarely above bankfull, (3) few analyzed cross-sections, and (4) simple binary characterization of channel morphology as riffle or pool. The goal of this study was to develop and assess spatially explicit indicators of velocity reversal and relate them to landform attributes. The four test variables were (1) mean and maximum velocity with increasing discharge for diverse sub-width morphological units (MUs), (2) percent overlap of peak velocity areas (i.e. spatial persistence) between different discharges, (3) distribution of area of peak velocity among MUs with increasing discharge, and (4) percent of total areas of individual MUs that occurs within peak velocity regions with increasing discharge. The testbed for this study was the Lower Yuba River (LYR), a regulated gravel-cobble bed river with an active floodplain that provides anadromous salmonid habitat. Hydraulics were predicted with a validated 2D hydraulic model over 35 km at 1 m resolution for discharges ranging from 0.2-20 times bankfull. Fluvial landforms were classified into 8 reaches, 4 inundation zones, and 31 MUs. This study compared results for a wide meandering reach and a narrow valley-confined reach. At low discharge, high velocities in the wide alluvial reach occurred due to flow constriction imposed by in-channel bars, but with increasing discharge these regions of high velocity shifted to meander bends where vortex flow dominates. The narrower reach exhibited a similar spatial occurrence of the highest velocities at low discharge due to in-channel bars, but upon inundation of these features the valley walls and bedrock outcrops activated as hydraulic controls. In contrast to small streams, these controls activate at flows much greater than bankfull discharge, around ~2x Qb and ~7x Qb for the wide and narrow reaches, respectively. The activation discharges in both reaches produce mean velocity reversals among multiple MU pairs, but these discharges also mark convergence in maximum velocity that is sustained with increased discharge among the majority of the MUs. The discharges at which mean MU velocity reversals occur correspond to approximately 35% (wide reach) and 10% (narrow reach) overlaps in area of peak velocity as compared to the baseflow pattern; in other words, areas of peak velocity are highly differentiated. The two reaches experience mean MU velocity reversals at discharges that correspond well to the discharges at which both of the following occur: reversals in MU composition of the peak velocity areas, and reversals in the fraction of total reach areas of individual MUs that occurs within regions of peak velocity. These results suggest that spatial trends in peak velocities for large gravel-cobble bed rivers may be useful in predicting the occurrence of mean velocity reversals for fluvial landforms.

Strom, M.; Depsky, N. J.; Wyrick, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.

2012-12-01

108

A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2-4 keV  

SciTech Connect

A multilayer mirror with a novel layer structure to uniformly enhance the reflectivity in a few keV energy range at a fixed angle of incidence is invented and applied to a multilayer grating for use in a flat-field spectrograph attached to a conventional electron microscope. The diffraction efficiency of the fabricated multilayer grating having the new layer structure is evaluated at the angle of incidence of 88.65 deg. in the energy region of 2.1-4.0 keV. It is shown that the multilayer grating is effective to uniformly enhance the diffraction efficiency and able to be practically used in this energy region.

Imazono, T.; Koike, M.; Koeda, M.; Nagano, T.; Sasai, H.; Oue, Y.; Yonezawa, Z.; Kuramoto, S.; Terauchi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Handa, N.; Murano, T. [QuBS, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Device Dept., Shimadzu Corp., 1 Nishinokyo-Kuwabarcho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); EC Business Unit, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)

2012-05-17

109

Experimental and theoretical studies of the He(2+)-He system - Differential cross sections for direct, single-, and double-charge-transfer scattering at keV energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for direct scattering, single-charge transfer, and double-charge transfer in collisions of 1.5-, 2.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-keV (He-3)2+ with an He-4 target are reported. The measurements cover laboratory scattering angles below 1.5 deg with an angular resolution of about 0.03 deg. A quantum-mechanical molecular-state representation is employed in the calculations; in the case of single-charge transfer a two-state close-coupling calculation is carried out taking into account electron-translation effects. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental results for direct scattering and double-charge transfer. The present calculation identifies the origins of oscillatory structures observed in the differential cross sections.

Gao, R. S.; Dutta, C. M.; Lane, N. F.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Kimura, M.

1992-01-01

110

POP Peeper 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported by all Windows operating systems, POP Peeper 2.0 is a small utility that resides in your Windows task bar and informs users when they have new email from any of their POP3, MSN, Yahoo, or Hotmail accounts. Additionally, the POP Peeper supports HTML email. Finally, the utility allows users to be notified of new email from any of these accounts with a visual or audial reminder. The POP Peeper Web site also has a handy FAQ section that addresses problems or questions users might have.

2002-01-01

111

Perturbed angular correlation measurements on the 40.9 keV level of62Cu. A preliminary study of 2Zn-insulin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-differential PAC measurements have been made using62Zn, both in aqueous solution at pH ˜ 6.0 and also incorporated into crystalline 2Zn-insulin. Three Nal(Tl) detectors were used — a 2.54 cm thick scintillator detecting the ‘stop’ 41 keV gamma ray and two 5.0 cm thick scintillators at 90‡ and 135‡ detecting the ‘start’ 597 keV gamma rays. The need to separate the 597 keV line from the 511 keV background was found to require very careful setting-up conditions in the case of a fixed-detector spectrometer. The solution data produced a fast relaxation time of (75±25) ns, while the three 2Zn-insulin batches gave data which were analyzed using a static interaction with an assumed axial symmetry to give an electric quadrupole frequency of (77±8) MHz.

Smith, F. A.; Martin, P. W.; Shukri, A.

1985-12-01

112

Performance of a Supersonic Ramp-type Side Inlet with Ram-scoop Throat Bleed and Varying Fuselage Boundary-layer Removal : Mach Number Range 1.5 to 2.0 / Glenn A. Mitchell and Robert C. Campbell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Provided sufficient throat bleed was employed, maximum pressure recoveries of 0.87 to 0.88 at Mach number 2.0 were obtained for a fuselage-mounted 14 degrees ramp inlet regardless of the amount of fuselage boundary layer ingested. The addition of inlet side fairings yielded further increases in pressure recovery to 0.90 to 0.91, decreased critical drag coefficients, and increased critical mass-flow ratios. With throat bleed, peak pressure recoveries and calculated thrust-minus-drag values were comparable at two axial positions of the scoop and were highest with the greatest amount of fuselage boundary layer ingested.

Mitchell, Glenn A; Campbell, Robert C

1957-01-01

113

Teaching Web 2.0 technologies using Web 2.0 technologies  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research evaluated participant satisfaction with the content and format of the “Web 2.0 101: Introduction to Second Generation Web Tools” course and measured the impact of the course on participants' self-evaluated knowledge of Web 2.0 tools. Methods: The “Web 2.0 101” online course was based loosely on the Learning 2.0 model. Content was provided through a course blog and covered a wide range of Web 2.0 tools. All Medical Library Association members were invited to participate. Participants were asked to complete a post-course survey. Respondents who completed the entire course or who completed part of the course self-evaluated their knowledge of nine social software tools and concepts prior to and after the course using a Likert scale. Additional qualitative information about course strengths and weaknesses was also gathered. Results: Respondents' self-ratings showed a significant change in perceived knowledge for each tool, using a matched pair Wilcoxon signed rank analysis (P<0.0001 for each tool/concept). Overall satisfaction with the course appeared high. Hands-on exercises were the most frequently identified strength of the course; the length and time-consuming nature of the course were considered weaknesses by some. Conclusion: Learning 2.0-style courses, though demanding time and self-motivation from participants, can increase knowledge of Web 2.0 tools. PMID:19851488

Piorun, Mary; Prince, J. Dale

2009-01-01

114

The PLATO 2.0 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, including potentially habitable planets? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes (32 with 25 s readout cadence and 2 with 2.5 s candence) providing a wide field-of-view (2232 deg 2) and a large photometric magnitude range (4-16 mag). It focusses on bright (4-11 mag) stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for these bright stars to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2 %, 4-10 % and 10 % for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The planned baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50 % of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include terrestrial planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. The PLATO 2.0 catalogue allows us to e.g.: - complete our knowledge of planet diversity for low-mass objects, - correlate the planet mean density-orbital distance distribution with predictions from planet formation theories,- constrain the influence of planet migration and scattering on the architecture of multiple systems, and - specify how planet and system parameters change with host star characteristics, such as type, metallicity and age. The catalogue will allow us to study planets and planetary systems at different evolutionary phases. It will further provide a census for small, low-mass planets. This will serve to identify objects which retained their primordial hydrogen atmosphere and in general the typical characteristics of planets in such low-mass, low-density range. Planets detected by PLATO 2.0 will orbit bright stars and many of them will be targets for future atmosphere spectroscopy exploring their atmosphere. Furthermore, the mission has the potential to detect exomoons, planetary rings, binary and Trojan planets. The planetary science possible with PLATO 2.0 is complemented by its impact on stellar and galactic science via asteroseismology as well as light curves of all kinds of variable stars, together with observations of stellar clusters of different ages. This will allow us to improve stellar models and study stellar activity. A large number of well-known ages from red giant stars will probe the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Asteroseismic ages of bright stars for different phases of stellar evolution allow calibrating stellar age-rotation relationships. Together with the results of ESA's Gaia mission, the results of PLATO 2.0 will provide a huge legacy to planetary, stellar and galactic science.

Rauer, H.; Catala, C.; Aerts, C.; Appourchaux, T.; Benz, W.; Brandeker, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Deleuil, M.; Gizon, L.; Goupil, M.-J.; Güdel, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Mas-Hesse, M.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, ?.; Smith, A.; Suárez, J.-C.; Szabó, R.; Udry, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Alibert, Y.; Almenara, J.-M.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Ammer-von Eiff, M.; Asplund, M.; Antonello, E.; Barnes, S.; Baudin, F.; Belkacem, K.; Bergemann, M.; Bihain, G.; Birch, A. C.; Bonfils, X.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Borsa, F.; Brandão, I. M.; Brocato, E.; Brun, S.; Burleigh, M.; Burston, R.; Cabrera, J.; Cassisi, S.; Chaplin, W.; Charpinet, S.; Chiappini, C.; Church, R. P.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Cunha, M.; Damasso, M.; Davies, M. B.; Deeg, H. J.; Díaz, R. F.; Dreizler, S.; Dreyer, C.; Eggenberger, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Farmer, R.; Feltzing, S.; Oliveira Fialho, F. de; Figueira, P.; Forveille, T.; Fridlund, M.; García, R. A.; Giommi, P.; Giuffrida, G.; Godolt, M.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Granzer, T.; Grenfell, J. L.; Grotsch-Noels, A.; Günther, E.; Haswell, C. A.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hébrard, G.; Hekker, S.; Helled, R.; Heng, K.; Jenkins, J. M.; Johansen, A.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Kley, W.; Kolb, U.; Krivova, N.; Kupka, F.; Lammer, H.; Lanza, A. F.; Lebreton, Y.; Magrin, D.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Marrese, P. M.; Marques, J. P.; Martins, J.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Messina, S.; Miglio, A.; Montalban, J.; Montalto, M.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Moradi, H.; Moravveji, E.; Mordasini, C.; Morel, T.; Mortier, A.; Nascimbeni, V.; Nelson, R. P.; Nielsen, M. B.; Noack, L.; Norton, A. J.; Ofir, A.; Oshagh, M.; Ouazzani, R.-M.; Pápics, P.; Parro, V. C.; Petit, P.; Plez, B.; Poretti, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Raimondo, G.; Rainer, M.; Reese, D. R.; Redmer, R.; Reffert, S.; Rojas-Ayala, B.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Salmon, S.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Schou, J.; Schuh, S.; Schunker, H.; Silva-Valio, A.; Silvotti, R.; Skillen, I.; Snellen, I.; Sohl, F.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Stello, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Švanda, M.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Tkachenko, A.; Valencia, D.; Van Grootel, V.; Vauclair, S. D.; Ventura, P.; Wagner, F. W.; Walton, N. A.; Weingrill, J.; Werner, S. C.; Wheatley, P. J.; Zwintz, K.

2014-09-01

115

The low energy particle detector sled (~30 keV3.2 MeV) and its performance on the phobos mission to mars and its moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low energy particle detector system (SLED) is described which was designed to measure the flux densities of electrons and ions in the energy range from ~30 keV to a few MeV in (a) the varying solar aspect angles and temperatures pertaining during the Cruise Phase of the Phobos Mission and (b) in the low temperature environment (reaching -25° C)

S. McKenna-Lawlor; V. V. Afonin; K. I. Gringauz; E. Keppler; E. Kirsch; A. Richter; M. Witte; D. O'Sullivan; A. Thompson; A. J. Somogyi; L. Szabo; A. Varga

1990-01-01

116

Evaluation of powder/granular Gd2O2S:Pr scintillator screens in single photon counting mode under 140 keV excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative, low cost solution for the gamma detector in planar imaging. It is based on a powder scintillator, well established in X-ray imaging, and could be further exploited in simultaneous bimodal imaging systems. For this purpose, we have examined the performance of Gd2O2S:Pr powder scintillator, in the form of thick granular screens easily produced in the laboratory by commercially available Gd2O2S:Pr powder. The screen was coupled to a round position sensitive photomultiplier tube (R3292 PSPMT). The system's evaluation was performed in photon counting mode under 99mTc excitation. In all measurements, a general purpose hexagonal parallel collimator was used. Different samples of screens with coating thickness varying from 0.1 g/cm2 to 1.2 g/cm2 were tested. The 0.6 g/cm2 screen, corresponding to ~ 2 mm actual thickness, was found most efficient under 140 keV irradiation. The system`s performance with the proposed screen is reported with the modulation transfer function. Moreover sensitivity, spatial and energy resolution as well as the uniformity response using phantoms were measured. The performance of the proposed screen was compared with two CsI:Tl pixellated crystal arrays with 2 × 2 × 3 mm3 and 3 × 3 × 5 mm3pixel size. A spatial resolution, of 3 mm FWHM, for a 99mTc line source, was achieved at zero source to collimator distance. In addition, the Gd2O2S:Pr screen showed a slower degradation of the spatial resolution with increasing source to collimator distance e.g at 20 cm, the Gd2O2S:Pr screen showed aq spatial resolution of 8.4 mm while the spatial resolution of the pixellated crystals was 15 mm. Taking into account its easy production, its flexibility due to powder form, the very low cost and the good spatial resolution properties of the proposed alternative detector, powder scintillators could potentially be used for the construction of flexible detector geometries, such as ring type or gamma probes or as a low cost detector solution in educational photon counting imaging applications, complementary to standard X-ray imaging.

David, S.; Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.

2013-01-01

117

Beryllium and Graphite High-Accuracy Total Cross-Section Measurements in the Energy Range from 24 to 900 keV  

E-print Network

Beryllium and Graphite High-Accuracy Total Cross-Section Measurements in the Energy Range from 24 new measurements of the carbon and beryllium neutron total cross section in the energy range of 24. Measurements of three samples of different thicknesses of beryllium resulted in accurate total cross

Danon, Yaron

118

SMM observations of gamma-ray transients. 2: A search for gamma-ray lines between 400 and 600 keV from the Crab Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have search spectra obtained by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer during 1981-1988 for evidence of transient gamma-ray lines from the Crab Nebula which have been reported by previous experiments at energies 400-460 keV and 539 keV. We find no evidence for significant emission in any of these lines on time scales between aproximately 1 day and approximately 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the transient flux during 1 d intervals are approximately equal to 2.2 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for narrow lines at any energy, and approximately equal to 2.9 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for the 539 keV line if it is as broad as 42 keV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). We also searched our data during the approximately 5 hr period on 1981 June 6 during which Owens, Myers, & Thompson (1985) reported a strong line at 405 keV. We detected no line down to a 3 upper sigma limit of 3.3 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s in disagreement with the flux 7.2 +/- 2.1 x 10(exp -3) photos/sq cm/s measured by Owens et al.

Harris, Michael J.; Share, Gerald H.; Leising, Mark D.

1994-01-01

119

Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient mu\\/rho and the mass energy-absorption coefficient mu(en)\\/rho are presented for all of the elements Z=1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mu\\/rho values are taken from the

J. H. Hubbell; Stephen M Seltzer

1995-01-01

120

First observation of {alpha} decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level (E{sub exc}=137.2 keV) of {sup 186}Os  

SciTech Connect

The {alpha} decays of naturally occurring platinum isotopes, which are accompanied by the emission of {gamma} quanta, have been searched for deep underground (3600 m water equivalent) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). A sample of Pt with a mass of 42.5 g and a natural isotopic composition has been measured with a low background HP Ge detector (468 cm{sup 3}) during 1815 h. The {alpha} decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os (J{sup {pi}}=2{sup +}, E{sub exc}=137.2 keV) has been observed for the first time, with the half-life determined as T{sub 1/2}=2.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.4}(stat.){+-}0.6(syst.)x10{sup 14} yr. The T{sub 1/2} limits for the {alpha} decays of other Pt isotopes have been determined at the level of T{sub 1/2}{approx_equal}10{sup 16}-10{sup 20} yr. These limits have been set for the first time or they are better than those known from earlier experiments.

Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Cappella, F. [INFN, Sezione di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F. A.; Nagorny, S. S.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

2011-03-15

121

First observation of alpha decay of 190-Pt to the first excited level (E_{exc}=137.2 keV) of 186-Os  

E-print Network

The alpha decays of naturally occurring platinum isotopes, which are accompanied by the emission of gamma quanta, have been searched for deep underground (3600 m w.e.) in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). A sample of Pt with mass of 42.5 g and a natural isotopic composition has been measured with a low background HP Ge detector (468 cm^3) during 1815 h. The alpha decay of 190-Pt to the first excited level of 186-Os (J^\\pi = 2^+, E_{exc}=137.2 keV) has been observed for the first time, with the half-life determined as: T_{1/2} = 2.6_{-0.3}^{+0.4} (stat.) \\pm 0.6 (syst.) \\times 10^{14} yr. The T_{1/2} limits for the alpha decays of other Pt isotopes have been determined at level of T_{1/2} \\simeq 10^{16}-10^{20} yr. These limits have been set for the first time or they are better than those known from earlier experiments.

P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. Incicchitti; M. Laubenstein; S. S. Nagorny; S. Nisi; O. G. Polischuk; V. I. Tretyak

2011-02-13

122

Web 2.0 Applications in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2005, the term Web 2.0 has gradually become a hot topic on the Internet. Web 2.0 lets users create web contents as distinct from webmasters or web coders. Web 2.0 has come to our work, our life and even has become an indispensable part of our web-life. Its applications have already been widespread in many fields on the Internet. So far, China has about 137 million netizens [1], therefore its Web 2.0 market is so attractive that many sources of venture capital flow into the Chinese Web 2.0 market and there are also a lot of new Web 2.0 companies in China. However, the development of Web 2.0 in China is accompanied by some problems and obstacles. In this paper, we will mainly discuss Web 2.0 applications in China, with their current problems and future development trends.

Zhai, Dongsheng; Liu, Chen

123

Hard X-ray detector with an MCP image intensifier working in the 100 keV 1 MeV X-ray range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-gain X-ray image intensifier with high sensitivity in the 1 MeV X-ray range has been developed to improve radiographic detection. The most efficient relationship between dose sensitivity and spatial resolution was obtained by altering the gold photocathode and the MCP thickness. The X-ray emission is converted into electrons by the MCP's photocathode set, with a diameter of 60 mm,

J. Veaux; C. Cavailler; J. P. Gex; A. Hauducoeur; M. Hyvernage

1991-01-01

124

Industrial Ecology 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIndustrial ecology (IE) is an ambitious field of study where we seek to understand systems using a wide perspective ranging from the scale of molecules to that of the planet. Achieving such a holistic view is challenging and requires collecting, processing, curating, and sharing immense amounts of data and knowledge.We are not capable of fully achieving this due to the

Chris Davis; Igor Nikolic; Gerard P. J. Dijkema

2010-01-01

125

The PLATO 2.0 Mission  

E-print Network

PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into t...

Rauer, H; Aerts, C; Appourchaux, T; Benz, W; Brandeker, A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Deleuil, M; Gizon, L; Güdel, M; Janot-Pacheco, E; Mas-Hesse, M; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Pollacco, D; Santos, N C; Smith, A; -C., J; Suárez,; Szabó, R; Udry, S; Adibekyan, V; Alibert, Y; Almenara, J -M; Amaro-Seoane, P; Eiff, M Ammler-von; Antonello, E; Ball, W; Barnes, S; Baudin, F; Belkacem, K; Bergemann, M; Birch, A; Boisse, I; Bonomo, A S; Borsa, F; Brandão, I M; Brocato, E; Brun, S; Burleigh, M; Burston, R; Cabrera, J; Cassisi, S; Chaplin, W; Charpinet, S; Chiappini, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Cunha, M; Damasso, M; Davies, M B; Deeg, H J; Fialho, F de Oliveira; DÍaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dreyer, C; Eggenberger, P; Ehrenreich, D; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Farmer, R; Feltzing, S; Figueira, P; Forveille, T; Fridlund, M; García, R; Giuffrida, G; Godolt, M; da Silva, J Gomes; Goupil, M -J; Granzer, T; Grenfell, J L; Grotsch-Noels, A; Günther, E; Haswell, C A; Hatzes, A P; Hébrard, G; Hekker, S; Helled, R; Heng, K; Jenkins, J M; Khodachenko, M L; Kislyakova, K G; Kley, W; Kolb, U; Krivova, N; Kupka, F; Lammer, H; Lanza, A F; Lebreton, Y; Magrin, D; Marcos-Arenal, P; Marrese, P M; Marques, J P; Martins, J; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Messina, S; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Montalto, M; Monteiro, M J P F G; Moradi, H; Moravveji, E; Mordasini, C; Morel, T; Mortier, A; Nascimbeni, V; Nielsen, M B; Noack, L; Norton, A J; Ofir, A; Oshagh, M; Ouazzani, R -M; Pápics, P; Parro, V C; Petit, P; Plez, B; Poretti, E; Quirrenbach, A; Ragazzoni, R; Raimondo, G; Rainer, M; Reese, D R; Redmer, R; Reffert, S; Rojas-Ayala, B; Roxburgh, I W; Solanki, S K; Salmon, S; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Schou, J; Schuh, S; Schunker, H; Silva-Valio, A; Silvotti, R; Skillen, I; Snellen, I; Sohl, F; Sousa, A S; Sozzetti, A; Stello, D; Strassmeier, K G; Švanda, M; Szabó, G M; Tkachenko, A; Valencia, D; van Grootel, V; Vauclair, S D; Ventura, P; Wagner, F W; Walton, N A; Weingrill, J; Werner, S C; Wheatley, P J; Zwintz, K

2013-01-01

126

Energy loss, range, and bremsstrahlung yield for 10-keV to 100-MeV electrons in various elements and chemical compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the United States lacks a national climate policy, significant action has occurred at the local and regional levels. Some of the most aggressive climate change policies have occurred at the state and local levels and in interagency cooperation on specific management issues. While there is a long history of partnerships in dealing with a wide variety of policy issues, the uncertainty and the political debate surrounding climate change has generated new challenges to establishing effective policy networks. This paper investigates the formation of climate policy networks in the State of Nevada. It presents a methodology based on social network analysis for assessing the structure and function of local policy networks across a range of substantive climate impacted resources (water, landscape management, conservation, forestry and others). It draws from an emerging literature on federalism and climate policy, public sector innovation, and institutional analysis in socio-ecological systems. Comparisons across different policy issue networks in the state are used to highlight the influence of network structure, connectivity, bridging across vertical and horizontal organizational units, organizational diversity, and flows between organizational nodes.

Pages, Lucien; Bertel, Evelyne; Joffre, Henri; Sklavenitis, Laodamas

2012-12-01

127

Reference range of zinc in adult population (20-29 years) of Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the reference range of zinc in adult population (age range 20 to 29 years) of Lahore. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study which was carried out from Jan- August 2012 in Chemical Pathology Department of University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Serum zinc concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in randomly selected 450 healthy adults aged 20 to 29 years. After application of exclusion criteria reference values were determined in apparently healthy subjects according to guidelines of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. The data was entered & analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Serum Zn levels was expressed as Mean ± SD. Results: A total of 450 healthy subjects were included in this study. Out of these, 234 were females. Mean age was 25±0.13years. The mean concentration of zinc in serum of healthy individual was 24.02±7.03 µmol/L (range11.47-36.72). The mean±SD for males subjects were 22.33±6.42 µmol/L(range11.93-32.4). Similarly the mean±SD for females were 21.72±7.34 µmol/L (range9.94-36.87). Conclusion: This study presents reference range for serum zinc concentration in adult population of Lahore. The results showed that there is significant difference in serum level of zinc among different countries. This study will help us in establishing reference ranges of trace elements on larger population in future. PMID:24948976

Hussain, Warda; Mumtaz, Asim; Yasmeen, Farzana; Khan, Sana Qayyum; Butt, Toqeer

2014-01-01

128

20 4000 2 GPS SUTNet GPS  

E-print Network

200240 : 20 4000 2 GPS SUTNet GPS 33% : Performance Evaluation of Path Planning (SUTNet) by using the real-time GPS data from more than 4,000 taxis for 2 months. Then, we design a real 1 GPS [1] [2] 4000 GPS GPS 60120 2007 2 3 60 4000 GPS 20 SUTNet

129

Entrepreneurship education and Web 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The social nature of the Web 2.0 environment creates marketing opportunities via shared learning through online exchange of views. Web 2.0 creates opportunities and poses challenges for, amongst other things, the management of education and business reputation. This paper aims to look at Web 2.0 and explore the uses to which it might be put in furthering entrepreneurship

Brian Jones; Norma Iredale

2009-01-01

130

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1991 Homosexual Mounting in Free-Ranging Female  

E-print Network

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1991 Homosexual Mounting in Free-Ranging Female in the dominance hierarchy were significantly overrepresented. Although the ultimate function of homosexual female; mounting; homosexuality; dominance rank; reproductive states. 1Department of Zoology, University of Jodhpur

Lummaa, Virpi

131

DISFRAC Version 2.0 Users Guide  

SciTech Connect

DISFRAC is the implementation of a theoretical, multi-scale model for the prediction of fracture toughness in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) region of ferritic steels. Empirically-derived models of the DBTT region cannot legitimately be extrapolated beyond the range of existing fracture toughness data. DISFRAC requires only tensile properties and microstructural information as input, and thus allows for a wider range of application than empirical, toughness data dependent models. DISFRAC is also a framework for investigating the roles of various microstructural and macroscopic effects on fracture behavior, including carbide particle sizes, grain sizes, strain rates, and material condition. DISFRAC s novel approach is to assess the interaction effects of macroscopic conditions (geometry, loading conditions) with variable microstructural features on cleavage crack initiation and propagation. The model addresses all stages of the fracture process, from microcrack initiation within a carbide particle, to propagation of that crack through grains and across grain boundaries, finally to catastrophic failure of the material. The DISFRAC procedure repeatedly performs a deterministic analysis of microcrack initiation and propagation within a macroscopic crack plastic zone to calculate a critical fracture toughness value for each microstructural geometry set. The current version of DISFRAC, version 2.0, is a research code for developing and testing models related to cleavage fracture and transition toughness. The various models and computations have evolved significantly over the course of development and are expected to continue to evolve as testing and data collection continue. This document serves as a guide to the usage and theoretical foundations of DISFRAC v2.0. Feedback is welcomed and encouraged.

Cochran, Kristine B [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

2013-01-01

132

Version 2.0 JWST Primer  

E-print Network

Version 2.0 May 2009 JWST Primer Operated by the Association of Universities for Research 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, Maryland 21218 help@stsci.edu #12;JWST Primer 2 User Support: Stiavelli, M., et al. 2008, "JWST Primer", Version 2.0, (Baltimore: STScI) #12;JWST Primer 3 1

Sirianni, Marco

133

Stellar neutron capture on 180 Tam . I. Cross section measurement between 10 keV and 100 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross section of 180 Tam has been measured at energies between 10 keV and 100 keV in a time-of-flight experiment at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li ( p,n ) 7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and gold was used as a cross section standard. Though the world supply of enriched 180 Tam was available for this experiment, the sample consisted of only 150 mg Ta2 O5 with a 180 Tam content of only 5.5% . The difficult separation of the comparably few capture events in 180 Tam from the much larger background due to captures in 181 Ta could be achieved by means of the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector, taking advantage of its combination of high efficiency, good energy resolution, and high granularity. The cross section was determined with an overall uncertainty of better than 10% in the energy range from 30 keV to 100 keV and could be used for renormalizing statistical model calculations in the entire energy range of astrophysical interest, which had predicted about two times larger values. Based on these first experimental data, Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=8 keV and 100 keV .

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Arlandini, C.; Käppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Reifarth, R.; Krti?ka, M.; Be?vá?, F.

2004-05-01

134

The temperature effect on the glycine decomposition induced by 2 keV electron bombardment in space analog conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid that has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, such species is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. In aqueous solutions, this species appears mainly as zwitterionic glycine (+NH3CH2COO-) however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline forms. Here, we present an experimental study on the destruction of two zwitterionic glycine crystals ( ?- and ?-form) at two different temperatures (300 K and 14 K) by 2 keV electrons in an attempt to test the behavior and stability of this molecular species in different space environments. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at electron fluences. The experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions at the Molecular Physics Laboratory at the Open University at Milton Keynes, UK. The dissociation cross section of glycine is approximately 5 times higher for the 14 K samples when compared to the 300 K samples. In contrast, no significant differences emerged between the dissociation cross sections of ?- and ?-forms of glycine for fixed temperature experiments. We therefore conclude that the destruction cross section is more heavily dependent on temperature than the phase of the condensed glycine material. This may be associated with the opening of additional reaction routes in the frozen samples involving the trapped daughter species (e.g. CO2 and CO). The half-life of studied samples extrapolated to space conditions shows that glycine molecules on the surface of interstellar grains has less survivability and they are highly sensitive to ambient radiations, however, they can survive extended period of time in the solar system like environments. Survivability increases by a factor of 5 if the samples are at 300 K when compared to low temperature experiments at 14 K and is independent of the crystalline structure. In addition, this survival would increase if the molecular species were protected by several layers of other molecular species as trapped in comet mantles or embedded within regolith in asteroids/lunar surfaces. The understanding of the excitation and dissociation processes of organic compounds in space simulation is highly required to put constrains in the puzzle over the origin of life in the primitive Earth.

Pilling, Sergio; Nair, Binu G.; Escobar, Antonio; Fraser, Helen; Mason, Nigel

2014-03-01

135

MAGNETIC MOMENTS AND SHAPE COEXISTENCE NEAR THE N=38 SHELL GAP. MAGNETIC MOMENT OF THE 151 KEV, J =5\\/2- LEVEL IN 73SE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic moment of the 151 keV, J = 5\\/2- level i n N = 39 nucleus 73Se has been measured by time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique. Has been found a value of = - (0.472±0.094) N. The measured value shows that the 5\\/2 - level is not a member of the band based on 3\\/2- isomer. Our analysis indicate

D. PANTELICA; F. NEGOITA; N. SCINTEE

136

0% 10% 20% 30% Employment Agency (2)  

E-print Network

1% 3% 25% 8% 28% 15% 20% 0% 10% 20% 30% Other (1) Employment Agency (2) Internet Listing responses to this ques- tion from the 122 "Employed/Full- Time" Syracuse University Career Services Division+ Months After 1 2% Total 74 100% Position Obtained Through # % Employed/Full-Time * 122 76% Employed

Doyle, Robert

137

Young Adult Literature 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

Hamilton, Buffy

2009-01-01

138

Breathing Fire into Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's methods of social networking and the technologies that support them offer powerful examples of how educators can connect to the "real" world of client population. To fully engage with the Web 2.0 world, educators work to include aspects of Web 2.0 into their teaching through the use of wikis, forums, and blogs. Administrators are also…

Hardman, Justin; Carpenter, David

2007-01-01

139

Trust, Voice, and Library 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web 2.0 is a constant and growing theme in the library field. This article describes a social networking site based on a Web 2.0 infused course management system (CMS) developed by Clatsop Community College in Astoria, Oregon.

Watkins, Candice

2009-01-01

140

SPUTTERING AND MOLECULAR SYNTHESIS INDUCED BY 100 keV PROTONS IN CONDENSED CO{sub 2} AND RELEVANCE TO THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We present results on sputtering and radiation chemistry of CO{sub 2} films induced by 100 keV H{sup +} at 25 and 50 K. Using a quartz crystal microbalance, we measure a sputtering yield (SY) between {approx}10 and 20 CO{sub 2} equivalent per ion at 25 K. The yield at 50 K is similar to that at 25 K at low fluences, but increases to {approx}2400 by mid-10{sup 14} H{sup +} cm{sup -2} and declines at higher fluence. Irradiation to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} H{sup +} cm{sup -2} depletes {approx}85%-90% of the initial film mass at 50 K, compared to 3% at 25 K. In both cases, mass spectrometry shows that CO is the dominant constituent in the sputtered flux, followed by O{sub 2}, O, and CO{sub 2}. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitor the depletion of CO{sub 2} and the accumulation of CO and O{sub 2} and minor species as O{sub 3} and CO{sub 3}. We determine G(-CO{sub 2}) = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, the number of CO{sub 2} destroyed per 100 eV at 25 K. A significant fraction of the radiolyzed CO and O{sub 2} are retained in the film at 25 K; only those near the surface are removed during irradiation, contributing to a smaller SY. At 50 K, CO and O{sub 2} are unstable along the 'hot' ion track and are expelled possibly from the entire depth of the film. Our results, and the lack of detection of CO in the exospheres around Rhea and Dione, show that the CO{sub 2} does not originate from sputtering, since otherwise the exosphere would be dominated by CO, the main molecule in the sputtered flux. We suggest that the exospheric CO{sub 2} is thermally released from an endogenic source.

Raut, U.; Baragiola, R. A. [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Thornton Hall B103, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2013-07-20

141

Double ionization of helium in the 8--25keV x-ray energy range% (Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract W-31-109ENG38)  

Microsoft Academic Search

X rays in the keV energy regime interact only very weakly with helium atoms. Starting at about 6 keV x-ray energy, the absorption of x rays becomes less important in the ionization of helium than Compton scattering. Whereas for photoabsorption the high-energy asymptotic value for the fraction of helium double ionization is practically reached for keV x rays, the fraction

B. Krässig; R. W. Dunford; D. S. Gemmell; S. Hasegawa; E. P. Kanter; S. H. Southworth; L. Young; T. Weber; H. Schmidt-Böcking; W. Schmitt

1998-01-01

142

Spectral radiance in the s20-range and luminance of the clear and overcast night sky.  

PubMed

The spectral radiance of the night sky was investigated in the wavelength range from 0.40 microm to 0.80 microm.A series of measurements was taken in the Austrian Alps in 1968. Statistical reductions were made for the total data assembly as well as for data groups with different types of night sky cover, for moonless nights, and for nights with moon. The mean spectral radiance and the standard deviation in the above mentioned wavelength range are presented and discussed together with the distribution functions of the spectral radiance at 0.40 microm, 0.45 microm, 0.5577 (OI) microm, and 0.80 (OH) microm, of the photopic and scotopic luminances and of the S20 radiance. Finally the correlation coefficients regarding each pair of photopic, scotopic, and S20 responses were calculated together with the corresponding regression coefficients. The correlation coefficients are almost equal to unity. PMID:20125228

Höhn, D H; Büchtemann, W

1973-01-01

143

Muon underground coupling functions in the range 20-1000 hg  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling functions for underground cosmic ray muon component variations have been calculated, applying the CKP interaction model and allowing for the effect of muon energy loss fluctuations. For that purpose, the survival probabilities of muons have been calculated for standard rock for the range of depth 20-1000 hg and sea level energies 3.8-3000 GeV using a Monte Carlo method.

F. El Bedewi; A. Goned; S. Hindawi

1974-01-01

144

Cusp electron production in 75--300 keV He{sup +} + Ar collisions  

SciTech Connect

Cusp-electron production has been investigated in collisions of 75--300 keV He{sup +} with Ar. The relative contributions from electron capture to the continuum (ECC), transfer ionization (TI), and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) to the total cusp electron production were measured. Over the energy range investigated, ECC was found to decrease from about 86% to 80%, TI decreased from about 12% to 1%, and ELC increased from about 2% to 20%. The present results are consistent with earlier work for He{sup +} and O{sup q+} projectiles.

Plano, V.L. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US); Sarkadi, L.; Zavodszky, P.; Berenyi, D.; Palinkas, J.; Gulyas, L.; Takacs, E.; Toth, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (HU); Tanis, J.A. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (US)

1992-12-31

145

Definition of Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background During the last decade, the Internet has become increasingly popular and is now an important part of our daily life. When new “Web 2.0” technologies are used in health care, the terms “Health 2.0" or "Medicine 2.0” may be used. Objective The objective was to identify unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and recurrent topics within the definitions. Methods A systematic literature review of electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL) and gray literature on the Internet using the search engines Google, Bing, and Yahoo was performed to find unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We assessed all literature, extracted unique definitions, and selected recurrent topics by using the constant comparison method. Results We found a total of 1937 articles, 533 in scientific databases and 1404 in the gray literature. We selected 46 unique definitions for further analysis and identified 7 main topics. Conclusions Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 are still developing areas. Many articles concerning this subject were found, primarily on the Internet. However, there is still no general consensus regarding the definition of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We hope that this study will contribute to building the concept of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and facilitate discussion and further research. PMID:20542857

Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Schoonhoven, Lisette

2010-01-01

146

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08

147

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2010-02-03

148

LSST Science Book, Version 2.0  

E-print Network

A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9.6 deg^2, and will be devoted to a ten-year imaging survey over 20,000 deg^2 south of +15 deg. Each pointing will be imaged 2000 times with fifteen second exposures in six broad bands from 0.35 to 1.1 microns, to a total point-source depth of r~27.5. The LSST Science Book describes the basic parameters of the LSST hardware, software, and observing plans. The book discusses educational and outreach opportunities, then goes on to describe a broad range of science that LSST will revolutionize: mapping the inner and outer Solar System, stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the structure of the Milky Way disk and halo and other objects in the Local Volume, transient and variable object...

Allison, Julius; Andrew, John R; Angel, J Roger P; Armus, Lee; Arnett, David; Asztalos, S J; Axelrod, Tim S; Bailey, Stephen; Ballantyne, D R; Bankert, Justin R; Barkhouse, Wayne A; Barr, Jeffrey D; Barrientos, L Felipe; Barth, Aaron J; Bartlett, James G; Becker, Andrew C; Becla, Jacek; Beers, Timothy C; Bernstein, Joseph P; Biswas, Rahul; Blanton, Michael R; Bloom, Joshua S; Bochanski, John J; Boeshaar, Pat; Borne, Kirk D; Bradac, Marusa; Brandt, W N; Bridge, Carrie R; Brown, Michael E; Brunner, Robert J; Bullock, James S; Burgasser, Adam J; Burge, James H; Burke, David L; Cargile, Phillip A; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Chartas, George; Chesley, Steven R; Chu, You-Hua; Cinabro, David; Claire, Mark W; Claver, Charles F; Clowe, Douglas; Connolly, A J; Cook, Kem H; Cooke, Jeff; Cooray, Asantha; Covey, Kevin R; Culliton, Christopher S; de Jong, Roelof; de Vries, Willem H; Debattista, Victor P; Delgado, Francisco; Dell'Antonio, Ian P; Dhital, Saurav; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Dickinson, Mark; Dilday, Benjamin; Djorgovski, S G; Dobler, Gregory; Donalek, Ciro; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Durech, Josef; Eliasdottir, Ardis; Eracleous, Michael; Eyer, Laurent; Falco, Emilio E; Fan, Xiaohui; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Ferguson, Harry C; Fernandez, Yanga R; Fields, Brian D; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Figueroa, Eduardo E; Fox, Derek B; Francke, Harold; Frank, James S; Frieman, Josh; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Furqan, Muhammad; Galaz, Gaspar; Gal-Yam, A; Garnavich, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Geary, John; Gee, Perry; Gibson, Robert R; Gilmore, Kirk; Grace, Emily A; Green, Richard F; Gressler, William J; Grillmair, Carl J; Habib, Salman; Haggerty, J S; Hamuy, Mario; Harris, Alan W; Hawley, Suzanne L; Heavens, Alan F; Hebb, Leslie; Henry, Todd J; Hileman, Edward; Hilton, Eric J; Hoadley, Keri; Holberg, J B; Holman, Matt J; Howell, Steve B; Infante, Leopoldo; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jacoby, Suzanne H; Jain, Bhuvnesh; R,; Jedicke,; Jee, M James; Jernigan, J Garrett; Jha, Saurabh W; Johnston, Kathryn V; Jones, R Lynne; Juric, Mario; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Styliani,; Kafka,; Kahn, Steven M; Kaib, Nathan A; Kalirai, Jason; Kantor, Jeff; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Keeton, Charles R; Kessler, Richard; Knezevic, Zoran; Kowalski, Adam; Krabbendam, Victor L; Krughoff, K Simon; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Kuhlman, Stephen; Lacy, Mark; Lepine, Sebastien; Liang, Ming; Lien, Amy; Lira, Paulina; Long, Knox S; Lorenz, Suzanne; Lotz, Jennifer M; Lupton, R H; Lutz, Julie; Macri, Lucas M; Mahabal, Ashish A; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Marshall, Phil; May, Morgan; McGehee, Peregrine M; Meadows, Brian T; Meert, Alan; Milani, Andrea; Miller, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle; Mills, David; Minniti, Dante; Monet, David; Mukadam, Anjum S; Nakar, Ehud; Neill, Douglas R; Newman, Jeffrey A; Nikolaev, Sergei; Nordby, Martin; O'Connor, Paul; Oguri, Masamune; Oliver, John; Olivier, Scot S; Olsen, Julia K; Olsen, Knut; Olszewski, Edward W; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Padilla, Nelson D; Parker, Alex; Pepper, Joshua; Peterson, John R; Petry, Catherine; Pinto, Philip A; Pizagno, James L; Popescu, Bogdan; Prsa, Andrej; Radcka, Veljko; Raddick, M Jordan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Rau, Arne; Rho, Jeonghee; Rhoads, James E; Richards, Gordon T; Ridgway, Stephen T; Robertson, Brant E; Roskar, Rok; Saha, Abhijit; Sarajedini, Ata; Scannapieco, Evan; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Samuel; Schmidt, Sarah; Schneider, Donald P; Schumacher, German; Scranton, Ryan; Sebag, Jacques; Seppala, Lynn G; Shemmer, Ohad; Simon, Joshua D; Sivertz, M; Smith, Howard A; Smith, J Allyn; Smith, Nathan; Spitz, Anna H; Stanford, Adam; Stassun, Keivan G; Strader, Jay; Strauss, Michael A; Stubbs, Christopher W; Sweeney, Donald W; Szalay, Alex; Szkody, Paula; Takada, Masahiro; Thorman, Paul; Trilling, David E; Trimble, Virginia; Tyson, Anthony; Van Berg, Richard; Berk, Daniel Vanden; VanderPlas, Jake; Verde, Licia; Vrsnak, Bojan; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Yun; Warner, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H; West, Andrew A; Wiecha, Oliver; Williams, Benjamin F; Willman, Beth; Wittman, David; Wolff, Sidney C; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Wozniak, Przemek; Young, Patrick; Zentner, Andrew; Zhan, Hu

2009-01-01

149

30 CFR 20.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.2 Definitions. (a) Adequate. Appropriate and sufficient as determined by mutual agreement between...

2012-07-01

150

30 CFR 20.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.2 Definitions. (a) Adequate. Appropriate and sufficient as determined by mutual agreement between...

2010-07-01

151

30 CFR 20.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.2 Definitions. (a) Adequate. Appropriate and sufficient as determined by mutual agreement between...

2011-07-01

152

Anwendungssicherheit in Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ich möchte den Schwerpunkt meines Vortrags auf Anwendungssicherheit im Umfeld von Web 2.0 legen und vermitteln, was aus meiner Sicht die wesentlichen Probleme dabei sind und wie wir damit umgehen sollten.

Posegga, Joachim

153

Business 2.0 Web Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to one of its own brochures, "Business 2.0 is the essential tool for navigating today's relentlessly changing marketplace, particularly as it's driven by the Internet and other technologies." In both print and electronic versions, Business 2.0 does cover an incredible amount of ground, including day-to-day and month-to-month information and offering extensive subject lists of its material, broken down by general subjects -- from management and marketing to Enron and the Internet. Not only clearly in touch with today's business world, Business 2.0 promises to put its readers in touch with it through company links, as well as through straightforward contact lists. While Business 2.0 is open for anyone's consultation, registered readers are granted greater access privileges to archived and premium content.

2001-01-01

154

The XMM-Newton Slew Survey: a wide-angle survey in the 0.2 - 12 keV band  

E-print Network

The scientific data collected during slews of the XMM-Newton satellite are used to construct a slew survey catalogue. This comprises of the order of 4000 sources detected in the EPIC-pn 0.2-12 keV band with exposures of less than 15s and a sky coverage of about 6300 square degrees (source density ~0.65 per square degree). Below 2 keV the sensitivity limit is comparable to the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky Survey and the XMM-Newton slew survey offers long-term variablity studies. Above 2 keV the survey will be a factor of 10 more sensitive than all previous all-sky X-ray surveys. The slew survey is almost complementary to the serendipitous survey compiled from pointed XMM-Newton observations. It is aimed to release the first source catalogue by the end of 2005. Later slew observations and detections will continuously be added. This paper discusses the XMM-Newton slew survey also in a historical context.

M. J. Freyberg; B. Altieri; D. Bermejo; M. P. Esquej; V. Lazaro; A. M. Read; R. D. Saxton

2005-12-06

155

The PLATO 2.0 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLATO 2.0 is the next generation space-based survey for transiting extrasolar planets and is proposed to ESA as a candidate for the M3 slot within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Its main objectives are the detection of Earth Analogue systems around bright stars, and to reveal the interior structure of planets and their host stars. We will present here the expected scientific impact of the PLATO 2.0 mission.

Rauer, H.

2013-09-01

156

Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

2010-02-03

157

Finite-Hilbert-basis-set calculations for the angular distribution of ionized electrons produced in p+H impact at 20 keV  

E-print Network

, College Station, Texas 77843, USA (Received 17 November 2003; published 28 September 2004) We present a different method of extracting the angular distribution of ejected electrons in an ion-atom collision from a two-centered finite Hilbert basis... energy states; sometimes called pseudostates. The projection of VT leads to an effective finite range potential. Thus there are not an infinite number of Rydberg*Electronic address: reading@physics.tamu.edu PHYSICAL REVIEW A 70, 032718 (2004) 1050-2947/2004...

Reading, John F.; Fu, J.; Fitzpatrick, M. J.

2004-01-01

158

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

2011-06-08

159

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley] [EETD and UC Berkeley

2010-02-02

160

Quantifying sea surface temperature ranges of the Arabian Sea for the past 20 000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera tests is one of the widest used geochemical tools to reconstruct past changes of physical parameters of the upper ocean. It is common practice to analyze multiple individuals from a mono-specific population and assume that the outcome reflects a mean value of the environmental conditions during calcification of the analyzed individuals. Here we present the oxygen isotope composition of individual specimens of the surface dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides from sediment cores in the Western Arabian Sea off Somalia inferred as indicators of past seasonal ranges in temperature. Combining the ?18O measurements of individual specimens to obtain temperature ranges with Mg/Ca based mean calcification temperatures allows us to reconstruct temperature extrema. Our results indicate that over the past 20 kyrs the seasonal temperature range has fluctuated from its present value of 16 °C (14 to 30 °C), to 11 °C (15 to 26 °C) during the LGM. The range during the LGM suggests that the maximum temperature was lower, whilst minimum temperature remained approximately constant.

Ganssen, G.; Peeters, F.; Metcalfe, B.; Anand, P.; Jung, S.; Kroon, D.; Brummer, G.-J.

2010-12-01

161

Quantifying sea surface temperature ranges of the Arabian Sea for the past 20 000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera tests is one of the widest used geochemical tools to reconstruct past changes of physical parameters of the upper ocean. It is common practice to analyze multiple individuals from a mono-specific population and assume that the outcome reflects a mean value of the environmental conditions during calcification of the analyzed individuals. Here we present the oxygen isotope composition of individual specimens of the surface-dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides from sediment cores in the Western Arabian Sea off Somalia, inferred as indicators of past seasonal ranges in temperature. Combining the ?18O measurements of individual specimens to obtain temperature ranges with Mg/Ca based mean calcification temperatures allows us to reconstruct temperature extrema. Our results indicate that over the past 20 kyr the seasonal temperature range has fluctuated from its present value of 16 °C to mean values of 13 °C and 11 °C for the Holocene and LGM, respectively. The data for the LGM suggest that the maximum temperature was lower, whilst minimum temperature remained approximately constant. The rather minor variability in lowest summer temperatures during the LGM suggests roughly constant summer monsoon intensity, while upwelling-induced productivity was lowered.

Ganssen, G. M.; Peeters, F. J. C.; Metcalfe, B.; Anand, P.; Jung, S. J. A.; Kroon, D.; Brummer, G.-J. A.

2011-12-01

162

World Wide Web Astronomy 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet has changed astronomy. It's changed research, outreach and education and it's changed how people consume astronomy as enthusiasts. People have new ways to talk to each other and new ways to participate. Coined ``Web 2.0,'' technologies such as blogs, social networks, wikis, photo and video sharing sites, podcasts and micro-blogging have been adopted by the astronomy community and exciting things are happening as a result. The International Year of Astronomy's New Media Task Force has been working to harness the excitement of ``Web 2.0'' to make the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) highly visible on the Internet around the world.

Koppelman, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-11-01

163

Range I Range II Range III Range I Range II Range III (6 or more hrs) (3 to 5 hrs) (1 to 2 hrs) (6 or more hrs) (3 to 5 hrs) (1 to 2 hrs)  

E-print Network

-rated according to range calculations. 5. In order to generate the resources to improve the learning environment and fees are subject to change without notice any time prior to the first day of instruction. 2. All full in the summer. For less than full-time enrollment, the AFMFA will be based on enrolled credit hours pro

Illinois at Chicago, University of

164

Web 2.0 Toolbar: Providing Web 2.0 Services for Existence Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the term ldquoWeb 2.0rdquo appears, a new generation of Web is coming. There are many technical articles referring to how to design a Web 2.0 website. However, the traditional Web 1.0 websites are still multitudinous currently. The developers of the traditional Web 1.0 website may not have adequate techniques to reconstruct the websites into Web 2.0 timely. Rebuilding a

Ming-Chih Hsieh; Yung-Wei Kao; Shyan-Ming Yuan

2008-01-01

165

Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment for Japanese SELENE-2 landing mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development status of the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment proposed to Japanese SELENE-2 lunar landing mission. The Lunar Laser Ranging measures the distance between laser link stations on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon, by detecting the time of flight of photons of high-powered laser emitted from the ground station. Since the Earth-Moon distance contains information of lunar orbit, lunar solid tides, and lunar orientation and rotation, we can estimate the inner structure of the Moon through orientation, rotation and tide. Retroreflectors put by the Apollo and Luna missions in 1970's are arrays of many small Corner Cube Prisms (CCP). Because of the tilt of these arrays from the Earth direction due to the optical libration, the returned laser pulse is broaden, causing the main range error of more than 1.5 cm ([1]). Therefore retroreflectors with larger single aperture are necessary for more accurate ranging, and we propose a large single retroreflector of hollow-type with 15 cm aperture. Larger aperture up to 20 cm might be favorable if more mass is permitted for payloads. To cancel the velocity aberration, a large, single aperture retroreflector needs small amount of offset angle between the reflecting planes to spoil the return beam pattern. This angle offset, called Dihedral Angle Offset (DAO) must be optimized to be less than 1 second of arc with 0.1 seconds of arc accuracy to accumulate more photons [2, 3]. The realization of such small DAO is challenging with current technology, therefore the development of fabrication method is important. As for the mirror material, some ceramic products (ZPF: Zero-expansion Pore-free ceramics or SiC: silicon carbide) are under consideration in terms of weight, hardness and handling. The thermal quality of the material can be evaluated by both the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion. The method to fasten three planes each other with precise DAO must be developed.

Noda, H.; Kunimori, H.; Araki, H.; Fuse, T.; Hanada, H.; Katayama, M.; Otsubo, T.; Sasaki, S.; Tazawa, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Funazaki, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Murata, K.

2012-04-01

166

Social Participation in Health 2.0  

PubMed Central

Computer scientists are working with biomedical researchers, policy specialists, and medical practitioners to usher in a new era in healthcare. A recently convened panel of experts considered various research opportunities for technology-mediated social participation in Health 2.0. PMID:21379365

Hesse, Bradford W.; Hansen, Derek; Finholt, Thomas; Munson, Sean; Kellogg, Wendy; Thomas, John C.

2010-01-01

167

Physics 2.0 Dear Dean Pandaring,  

E-print Network

to increase enrolments, and may help to preserve the Department of Physics from any further cutbacks. IFUTURES Physics 2.0 Dear Dean Pandaring, As per our discussion last week, I agree that we need to undertake some measures to slow the decline of enrolments for the physics BA and BS. There is no escaping

Loss, Daniel

168

0% 10% 20% 30% Employment Agency (2)  

E-print Network

12% 3.5% 21% 22% 3.5% 17% 16% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% Other (7) Employment Agency (2) Internet Listing arts. SURVEY OF 2013 GRADUATES 79 Received 58 responses to this ques- tion from the 58 "Employed Obtained Through # % Employed/Full-Time * 58 52% Employed/Part-Time 15 13% Post Graduate Internship 7 6

Doyle, Robert

169

Social Science 2.0? Duncan Watts  

E-print Network

Social Science 2.0? Duncan Watts Yahoo! Research Abstract: Social science is often concerned-level resolution will have dramatic consequences for social science. #12; impossible, to perform just a decade ago: (1) using email exchange to track social networks evolving in time

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

170

COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software  

E-print Network

COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software for Microsoft® WindowsTM User's Guide Roderic D. M NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS SOFTWARE, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. AS A RESULT, THIS SOFTWARE IS SOLD "AS IS", AND YOU

Page, Roderic

171

Three Challenges of Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's no doubt that Web 2.0--the social and technological phenomenon that enables users to generate content, interact, and share information across borders--can be a force for good in the world of education. The author's enthusiasm for collaborative Web-based content is tempered, however, by concern about these three challenges: (1) Partners…

Reeves, Douglas B.

2009-01-01

172

CHAPTER 2.0 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONCEPTS  

E-print Network

approaches to wastewater disposal create places that are a joy to live, work, shop, and play in. Sustainable expenditures. If we want urban areas that can sustain high standards of living and low levels of energyCHAPTER 2.0 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONCEPTS for TRANSIT ORIENTED COMMUNITIES A Blueprint for Bellingham

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

173

Looking for Collection 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries are integrating Web 2.0 services into work practices, positioning themselves in online social environments, and deploying enhanced search and discovery tools. Collections conversely are not progressing to the same degree. Like many public services today, library budgets are stained. User-pay options are appearing in library systems, suggesting that one day answering a reference question with “You can buy it

James A. Buczynski

2008-01-01

174

Change Management Meets Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web 2.0 is the term used to describe a group of web-based creativity, information-sharing, and collaboration tools including wikis, blogs, social networks, and folksonomies. The common thread in all of these tools is twofold: They enable collaboration and information sharing, and their impact on higher education has been dramatic. A recent study…

Gale, Doug

2008-01-01

175

RADIO CONTROL CRICKET V2.0  

E-print Network

_OUT ADC0 (RSSI) RADIO CONTROL CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP CSAIL@MIT LEAD DESIGNER: NISSANKA B. PRIYANTHA 6310-0335-01 A MTS450CA CRICKET RS232 Crossbow Technology 41 Daggett Drive San Jose

176

ASM Semantics for C++ 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The Abstract State Machines (ASMs) theory has been appliedto formalize the semantics of the C# programming language in arigorous mathematical manner. We have extended the C# ASM model inorder to handle C# 2.0 specific features like generics, anonymous methodsand iterator blocks. We discovered that the existing operational model(the dynamic semantics) can be reused entirely. It is not altered after

Horatiu Jula

2005-01-01

177

Alignment of the 1[ital s]2[ital p] vacancy states of Ne doubly ionized by 700--2000-keV proton impact  

SciTech Connect

The angular distribution of [ital KL][sub 23-][ital LLL][sub 23] Auger electrons emitted from the decay of 1[ital s]2[ital p] vacancy states of Ne doubly ionized by 700--2000-keV protons has been measured. From the measured anisotropy of the Auger lines the alignment of the double-vacancy states has been deduced. Our data compared with different theories indicate that the shake-off plays an important role in the double-ionization process at these energies.

Takacs, E.; Ricz, S.; Vegh, J.; Kadar, I.; Palinkas, J.; Sulik, B.; Toth, L.; Berenyi, D. (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), POB 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)); Kabachnik, N.M. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation))

1994-08-01

178

Herwig++ 2.0 Release Note.  

E-print Network

agreement between Herwig++ and HERWIG for the distributions of particles from the soft underlying event with Herwig++ producing more particles from the perturbative scattering. 3 [GeV]ljet T p 40 60 80 100 ch ,T N 0 2 4 6 Hw++ No UA5 Hw6.5 No UA5 Hw++ UA5... ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 06 09 30 6v 1 2 9 Se p 20 06 Cavendish-HEP-06/18 CERN-PH-TH/2006-182 IFJPAN-IV-2006-6 IPPP/06/55 KA-TP-10-2006 September 2006 Herwig++ 2.0 Release Note S. Gieseke Institut fu¨r Theoretische Physik, Universita¨t Karlsruhe E...

Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, D; Hamilton, K; Ribon, Alberto; Richardson, P; Seymour, Michael H; Stephens, Phil; Webber, Bryan R

179

Social Media: What's the Point of 2.0?Point of 2.0?  

E-print Network

Social Media: What's the Point of 2.0?Point of 2.0? ORS Brown Bag Sessiong September 22, 2011 Krista Jensen Knowledge Mobilization Officer #12;Social Media Social Media is defined as "a group of InternetSocial Media is defined as a group of Internet based applications that build on the ideological

180

CDM 2.0 (CLIMATOLOGICAL DISPERSION MODEL - VERSION 2.0) USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CDM-2.0 (Climatological Dispersion Model - Version 2.0) determines longterm (seasonal or annual) quasi-stable pollutant concentrations in rural or urban settings using average emission rates from point and area sources and a joint frequency distribution of wind direction, wind sp...

181

50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 30.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range...program periods, except in the event of...

2010-10-01

182

50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 30.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range...program periods, except in the event of...

2013-10-01

183

50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 30.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range...program periods, except in the event of...

2011-10-01

184

50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 30.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range...program periods, except in the event of...

2012-10-01

185

Effect of 690-keV Xe ion irradiation on the microstructure of amorphous MoSi 2/SiC nanolayer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of 690-keV Xe ion irradiation at three different dosage levels, 1 × 10 15, 5 × 10 15 and 10 × 10 15 /cm 2, on the microstructure of amorphous-MoSi 2/amorphous-SiC nanolayer composites has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the depth of radiation damage in this multilayer material is ˜ 80 nm, which agrees qualitatively well with the calculated damage depth calculated by TRIM [1]. A diffraction ring corresponding to the (10 overlinel1) plane of C40 MoSi 2 was found in the electron diffraction pattern taken from the irradiated regions; the C40 phase is also found after thermal annealing of amorphous MoSi 2 at 500°C or above. In the damaged regions SiC layers were found to spheroidize while the nanocrystalline grains in the MoSi 2 layers appeared to coarsen with increasing dose.

Lu, Y.-C.; Kung, H.; Jervis, T. R.; Hirvonen, J.-P.; Rück, D.; Mitchell, T. E.; Nastasi, M.

186

Version 2.0 October 26, 1998  

E-print Network

to 1.0 mg ` range2 Kahn Moisture Meter. This device uses a cermet alumina sampling head. The basic operating principle is as follows: the cermet material, which is porous and hydrophylic, is used as the dielectric of a capacitor. As moisture from the gas is absorbed by the cermet, the highly polar water

Llope, William J.

187

Guaranteeing Correctness and Availability in P2P Range Indices  

E-print Network

scal- ability and fault-tolerance is to store such objects as (value,item) pairs in a P2P index, where been recent work on developing new P2P range indices, none of these indices guarantee correctness and availability of P2P range indices. We develop our techniques in the context of a general P2P indexing framework

188

Modeling of the bremsstrahlung radiation produced in pure-element targets by 10-40 keV electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new global relationship has been developed for predicting electron-excited bremsstrahlung intensities over a wide range of accelerating voltages 10--40 keV, atomic numbers 4--92, and x-ray energies 1.5--20 keV. The new relationship was determined empirically from the mathematical modeling of extensive data and is designed for calculating bremsstrahlung intensities in analytical procedures, such as those requiring peak-to-background measurements, where the

John A. Small; Stefan D. Leigh; Dale E. Newbury; Robert L. Myklebust

1987-01-01

189

Modeling of the bremsstrahlung radiation produced in pure-element targets by 10–40 keV electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new global relationship has been developed for predicting electron-excited bremsstrahlung intensities over a wide range of accelerating voltages 10–40 keV, atomic numbers 4–92, and x-ray energies 1.5–20 keV. The new relationship was determined empirically from the mathematical modeling of extensive data and is designed for calculating bremsstrahlung intensities in analytical procedures, such as those requiring peak-to-background measurements, where the

John A. Small; Stefan D. Leigh; Dale E. Newbury; Robert L. Myklebust

1987-01-01

190

Metrological characterization of optical confocal sensors measurements (20 and 350 travel ranges)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal sensors are usually used in dimensional metrology applications, like roughness, form, thickness and surface profile measurements. With the progress of technologies, metrological applications require measurements with nanometer-level of accuracy by using ultra-high precision machines, which should present a minimum and stable metrology loop. The loop is equipped with sensors with nanometer-level of resolution and linear residual. The study presented here, is mainly focused on the characterization of Confocal sensors in order to identify their performance practically. Such information is useful to establish a correction model in the digital signal processing (DSP) software. In this context, LNE developed an ultra-high-precision machine, dedicated to the roughness measurement with an uncertainty of a few nanometres (< 30 nm) by using a tactile sensor. In order to match this machine to Confocal sensors, an experiment has been recently developed to characterize the behaviour of two commercial Confocal sensors with the measuring range of 20 ?m and 350 ? m. The experiment permits the evaluation of the major error sources: axial and radial motion errors as-well-as the deviation/tilt of the sensors.

Nouira, H.; El-Hayek, N.; Yuan, X.; Anwer, N.; Salgado, J.

2014-03-01

191

Defect levels of proton-irradiated silicon with doses ranging from 1 × 10 12 cm ?2 to 1 × 10 13 cm ?2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schottky diodes of n-type silicon have been irradiated by 800 keV and 1 MeV protons at doses ranging from 1 × 1012 cm?2 to 1 × 1013 cm?2. Thermally Stimulated Capacitance (TSCAP), capacitance-voltage (C?V) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) have been applied for sample analysis. By TSCAP measurements a strong compensation effect has been observed for irradiation doses up

J. F. Barbot; E. Ntsoenzok; C. Blanchard; J. Vernois; D. B. Isabelle

1995-01-01

192

Herwig++ 2.0 beta release note.  

E-print Network

of the gauge bosons with respect to the FORTRAN HERWIG 6.5 without matrix element corrections. The pT distributions of Z and W bosons, at the Tevatron and LHC, are compared to HERWIG6.5 in Figs 1 and 2 respectively. 3 Other Changes • A number of changes... procedure has been significantly improved and now uses the GNU autotools. 1 Figure 1: The pT spectrum of ??/Z bosons produced at (a) the Tevatron and (b) the LHC using Herwig++2.0? compared with HERWIG6.5 with and without matrix element correction. In both...

Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, D; Ribon, Alberto; Richardson, P; Seymour, Michael H; Stephens, Phil; Webber, Bryan R

193

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0  

SciTech Connect

Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Bill Collins

2010-02-09

194

Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2011-06-03

195

Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2010-02-04

196

36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

2011-07-01

197

36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

2010-07-01

198

Observations of 10-eV to 25-keV electrons in steady diffuse aurora from Atmosphere Explorer C and D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron energy spectra from 10 eV to 25 keV have been obtained from steady diffuse auroral forms at altitudes above 150 km by the Atmosphere Explorer C and D spacecraft. Overlapping coverage of the energy range was provided by the photoelectron spectrometer experiment (10-500 eV) and the low-energy electron experiment (0.2-25 keV). The spectral shape between 10 and 20 eV is independent of altitude between 150 and 270 km, has variable energy dependence between about 20 and 150 eV, and above approximately 150 eV has energy dependence determined primarily by the details of the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the atmosphere. The observed results are in satisfactory agreement with two recently published model calculations.

Peterson, W. K.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Mcentire, R. W.; Bostrom, C. O.; Hoffman, R. A.; Janetzke, R. W.; Burch, J. L.

1977-01-01

199

[Gastroenterology 2.0: useful resources for the gastroenterologist available on the Web 2.0].  

PubMed

The term Web 2.0 refers to the use of Internet applications which enable the users to share, participate and collaborate together on information. The objective of this study is to check different applications that use Web 2.0, which could help the gastroenterologist in his daily practice. The applications that will be checked include: blogs, microblogging, RSS, podcasts, wikis and social networks. "Gastroenterology 2.0" represents the applications, services, and tools based on Web 2.0, which are of easy use and easily accessible - to consumers, patients, gastroenterologists and other health professionals, as well as researchers. Although several studies have shown the benefits these technologies have on the medical practice, it is necessary to conduct further studies to demonstrate the use of these applications on improving health. PMID:22086320

Curioso, Walter H; Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F

2011-01-01

200

UQTk version 2.0 user manual.  

SciTech Connect

The UQ Toolkit (UQTk) is a collection of libraries and tools for the quanti cation of uncer- tainty in numerical model predictions. Version 2.0 o ers intrusive and non-intrusive methods for propagating input uncertainties through computational models, tools for sensitivity anal- ysis, methods for sparse surrogate construction, and Bayesian inference tools for inferring parameters from experimental data. This manual discusses the download and installation process for UQTk, provides pointers to the UQ methods used in the toolkit, and describes some of the examples provided with the toolkit.

Debusschere, Bert J.; Sargsyan, Khachik; Safta, Cosmin

2013-10-01

201

W3C: XHTML 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web developers will be especially interested in this sneak peek at the next incarnation of the Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML). This is the seventh working draft of the XHTML 2.0 specification produced by the World Wide Web Consortium, an organization that creates standards that maintain interoperability. As can be seen from the list of issues, many unresolved points remain in the specification. However, the progress that has already been made is well documented and shows how the language is evolving.

2005-01-01

202

Warum Web 2.0? Oder: Was vom Web 2.0 wirklich bleiben wird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die Entwicklungsgeschichte und den Facettenreichtum eines Begriffes, der gleichsam für technologische Innovation, soziale Modernisierung und eine schlaue Marketingstrategie steht. Es zeigt sich, dass die Verortung des Phänomens Web 2.0, gerade aufgrund der Polemik und Polarisierung, die der Begriff hervorgerufen hat, schwieriger ist, als man vermuten mag. Doch eines ist gewiss: Seit das Web 2.0 in unser Bewusstsein gelangt ist, ist das Internet wieder in".

Bettel, Sonja

203

Experimental Research on 0.5 - 10 keV High-Energy Process Resulting from H2 and D2 Ions Flux Interaction with Cathode Solid in Electric Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray emission ranging 0.5 - 10.0 keV with the dose power rate up to 0.01 J\\/s emanating from the cathode solid in the high-current Glow Discharge has been registered in earlier experiments. The X-rays were recorded during the Glow Discharge operation and after the Glow Discharge current switch off. Presumably the observed X-ray emission proceeds as a result of relaxation

A. B. Karabut

204

Bringing Web 2.0 to bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

Enabling deft data integration from numerous, voluminous and heterogeneous data sources is a major bioinformatic challenge. Several approaches have been proposed to address this challenge, including data warehousing and federated databasing. Yet despite the rise of these approaches, integration of data from multiple sources remains problematic and toilsome. These two approaches follow a user-to-computer communication model for data exchange, and do not facilitate a broader concept of data sharing or collaboration among users. In this report, we discuss the potential of Web 2.0 technologies to transcend this model and enhance bioinformatics research. We propose a Web 2.0-based Scientific Social Community (SSC) model for the implementation of these technologies. By establishing a social, collective and collaborative platform for data creation, sharing and integration, we promote a web services-based pipeline featuring web services for computer-to-computer data exchange as users add value. This pipeline aims to simplify data integration and creation, to realize automatic analysis, and to facilitate reuse and sharing of data. SSC can foster collaboration and harness collective intelligence to create and discover new knowledge. In addition to its research potential, we also describe its potential role as an e-learning platform in education. We discuss lessons from information technology, predict the next generation of Web (Web 3.0), and describe its potential impact on the future of bioinformatics studies. PMID:18842678

Zhang, Zhang; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

2009-01-01

205

Evaluation of geothermal potential of Range Bravo 20, Naval Air Station, Fallon. Final report May-Aug 79  

SciTech Connect

Gravity, aeromagnetics, and temperature studies were made and it was concluded that deep drilling would be necessary to produce fluids of a temperature suitable for space heating. Therefore, additional studies of Range Bravo 20 should place emphasis on the west and southwest portions of the base. Incomplete studies indicate anomalous content of mercury in soils of the southwest portion of the range.

Whelan, J.A.

1980-04-01

206

Accurate Measurements of Permittivity and Dielectric Loss Tangent of Low Loss Dielectrics at Frequency Range 100 MHz - 20 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the state-of-the-art of measurements frequency range for low loss low permittivity materials at frequency range from 100 MHz to 20 GHz and includes new developments in the reentrant cavity technique. In particular it is shown that geometric factor values for reentrant cavity with sample under test basically depends on the resonant frequency of the cavity containing the

Bradley Givot; Jerzy Krupka; Kevin Lees; Robert Clarke; Graham Hill

2006-01-01

207

Operation Manual for the TA Instruments DSC Q-100 and Q-20: Temperature Range: -90C 400C  

E-print Network

Operation Manual for the TA Instruments DSC Q-100 and Q-20: Temperature Range: -90°C ­ 400°C Sample and the temperature range that is used are dependent upon the limits of the DSC (-90°C ­ 400°C) and the sample

Alpay, S. Pamir

208

Discussing the physical meaning of the absorption feature at 2.1 keV in 4U 1538-52  

E-print Network

High resolution X-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the nature of the matter surrounding the neutron star in X-ray binaries and its interaction between the stellar wind and the compact object. In particular, absorption features in their spectra could reveal the presence of atmospheres of the neutron star or their magnetic field strength. Here we present an investigation of the absorption feature at 2.1 keV in the X-ray spectrum of the high mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-52 based on our previous analysis of the XMM-Newton data. We study various possible origins and discuss the different physical scenarios in order to explain this feature. A likely interpretation is that the feature is associated with atomic transitions in an O/Ne neutron star atmosphere or of hydrogen and helium like Fe or Si ions formed in the stellar wind of the donor.

Rodes-Roca, J J; Mart\\'\\inez-Núñez, S; Giménez-Garc\\'\\ia, A; Bernabéu, G

2014-01-01

209

The repetitive flaking of inconel 625 by 100 keV helium ion bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive flaking of Inconel 625 occurs with ion bombardment doses of than 10 18 100 keV helium ions cm -2, with up to 39 exfoliations being observed after bombardment with 3 × 10 19 ions cm -2. The thickness of the flakes, measured by scanning electron microscopy, is some 30% greater than when measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of 1.8 MeV helium ions. These RBS measurements compare well with the thickness of the remaining layers in the resultant craters and to the most probable range of the 100 keV helium. The area of the flakes is dictated by the grain boundaries, and when one flake is ejected, the adjacent grains are prevented from doing so since there now exists an escape route for the injected helium. A strong dose rate dependence is observed; decreasing the beam current from 640 ?A cm -2 to 64 ?A cm -2 results in a factor 20 fewer flakes being exfoliated (for the same total dose of 3 × 10 19 ions cm -2). Successive flakes decrease in area, suggesting that eventually a cratered, but stable, surface will result with the only erosion being by the much less effective mechanism of sputtering.

Whitton, J. L.; Chen, Hao Ming; Littmark, U.; Emmoth, B.

1981-05-01

210

A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Collins, Bill

2010-02-01

211

A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2010-02-01

212

Movable Type Version 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Movable Type has recently released version 2.0 (an upgrade from 1.4). Movable Type is a Web-based personal publishing system designed to ease the maintenance of regularly updated news or journal sites. Most importantly, this product runs on your own Web server, allowing complete control over your sites. Some of its many features include allowing the importation of entries and comments from other content management systems (Blogger, GreyMatter, NewsPro); enabling one-click publishing to multiple destinations and formats; permitting visitors to post comments on entries and engage in conversations with its built-in comment system; allowing selective exclusion of commenting on certain posts; and much more. This product is free for personal or non-profit use; however, there is a fee for commercial or for-profit sites.

2001-01-01

213

GoBox 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application, produced by GoBox Software, allows users to access numerous search engines, find home and business phone numbers, and get stock quotes quickly. Essentially, the application is a small box that resides on the computer screen from which users can type in their search terms, along with selecting which particular search engine they would like to use. Additionally, GoBox checks to make sure users are online and allows for fully customizable searches. Perhaps the best thing about GoBox is the fact that it takes up a relatively small amount of screen space. GoBox 2.0 is fully compatible with the Windows 98, Me, NT, 2000, and XP operating systems.

214

The 20 element HgI2 energy dispersive x ray array detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent progress in the development of HgI2 energy dispersive x-ray detector arrays and associated miniaturized processing electronics for synchrotron radiation research applications. The experimental results with a 20 element array detector were obtained under realistic synchrotron beam conditions at SSRL. An energy resolution of 250 eV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV (Mn-K(sub a)) was achieved. Energy resolution and throughput measurements versus input count rate and energy of incoming radiation have been measured. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra were taken from diluted samples simulating proteins with nickel.

Iwanczyk, J. A.; Dorri, N.; Wang, M.; Szczebiot, R. W.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K. O.; Patt, B. E.

1991-11-01

215

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast: Web 2.0 Spawns Office 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee. In this podcast, Mike and Gordon discuss how the growing services offered via webware are eliminating the need for locally-installed software, ushering in the era of Office 2.0 with Web 2.0. The running time for the show is 33:08. This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael; Snyder, Gordon F.

2008-02-07

216

Effect of 690 keV Xe ion irradiation on the microstructure of amorphous MoSi{sub 2}/SiC nanolayer composites  

SciTech Connect

The effect of 690 keV Xe ion irradiation at three different dosage levels, 1, 5 and 10{times}10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}, on the microstructure of amorphous-MoSi{sub 2}/amorphous-SiC nanolayer composites has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the depth of radiation damage in this multilayer material is {approximately}80 nm, which agrees qualitatively well with the calculated damage depth calculated by TRIM. A diffraction ring corresponding to the (10{bar 1}1) plane of C40 MoSi{sub 2} was found in the electron diffraction pattern taken from the irradiated regions; the C40 phase is also found after thermal annealing of amorphous MoSi{sub 2} at 500{degrees}C or above. In the damaged regions SiC layers were found to spherodize while the nanocrystalline grains in the MoSi{sub 2} layers appeared to coarsen with increasing dose.

Lu, Y.C.; Kung, H.; Jervis, T.R.; Mitchell, T.E.; Nastasi, M. [and others

1996-10-01

217

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales  

E-print Network

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (�g m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

218

Measurement of the x-ray mass energy-absorption coefficient of air using 3 keV to 10 keV synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

For the first time absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficients of air in the energy range 3 keV to 10 keV have been measured with relative standard uncertainties less than 1%, significantly smaller than those of up to 5% assumed hitherto for calculated data. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation was used to measure both the total radiant energy by means of silicon photodiodes calibrated against a cryogenic radiometer and the fraction of radiant energy that is deposited in dry air by means of a free air ionization chamber. The measured ionization charge was converted into energy absorbed in air by calculated effective W values of photons as a function of their energy based on new measurements of the W values in dry air for electron kinetic energies between 1 keV and 7 keV, also presented in this work. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and found to agree within 0.7% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell at energies above 4 keV but were found to differ by values up to 2.1% at 10 keV from more recent calculations of Seltzer. PMID:17019029

Büermann, L; Grosswendt, B; Kramer, H-M; Selbach, H-J; Gerlach, M; Hoffmann, M; Krumrey, M

2006-10-21

219

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

220

Icosahedral short-range order in amorphous Cu80Si20 by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study  

SciTech Connect

Short-range order in liquid and amorphous structures of Cu80Si20 is studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We performed the simulations at 1140 and 300 K respectively to investigate the local structure change from liquid to amorphous. The result of structure factor in comparison with experimental data indicates that our simulation of amorphous Cu80Si20 is reliable. By using the bond-angle distribution function, Honeycutt–Andersen index, Voronoi tessellation method, and the atomistic cluster alignment method, the icosahedral short-range order in the system is revealed. Strong Cu–Si interaction was also observed.

Wu, S.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Shy-Guey; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Ding, Z.J.; Chen, L.Y.

2012-04-26

221

ViennaRNA Package 2.0  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary structure forms an important intermediate level of description of nucleic acids that encapsulates the dominating part of the folding energy, is often well conserved in evolution, and is routinely used as a basis to explain experimental findings. Based on carefully measured thermodynamic parameters, exact dynamic programming algorithms can be used to compute ground states, base pairing probabilities, as well as thermodynamic properties. Results The ViennaRNA Package has been a widely used compilation of RNA secondary structure related computer programs for nearly two decades. Major changes in the structure of the standard energy model, the Turner 2004 parameters, the pervasive use of multi-core CPUs, and an increasing number of algorithmic variants prompted a major technical overhaul of both the underlying RNAlib and the interactive user programs. New features include an expanded repertoire of tools to assess RNA-RNA interactions and restricted ensembles of structures, additional output information such as centroid structures and maximum expected accuracy structures derived from base pairing probabilities, or z-scores for locally stable secondary structures, and support for input in fasta format. Updates were implemented without compromising the computational efficiency of the core algorithms and ensuring compatibility with earlier versions. Conclusions The ViennaRNA Package 2.0, supporting concurrent computations via OpenMP, can be downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/RNA. PMID:22115189

2011-01-01

222

20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine the amount of your income-related monthly adjustment...the modified adjusted gross income ranges for individuals with...status of single, head of household, qualifying widow(er...the year we use to make our income-related monthly...

2010-04-01

223

Finite Range Effects in (alpha, 2alpha) Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Finite range calculations for the (alpha, 2alpha) reactions are performed for the first time to remove huge inconsistencies obtained earlier in conventional zero range analyses. Vagaries of the energy dependent experimental observations up to 200 MeV are understood using the well-established nuclear radii and distorting optical potentials. The results are found to be sensitive to the short distance behavior of the alpha-alpha interaction, indicating the utility of the knockout reactions as a probe of the knockout vertex at short distances. Our approach paves the way to include finite range effects in atomic and molecular physics as also in neutron multiplication calculations.

Jain, Arun K.; Joshi, Bhushan N. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

2009-09-25

224

Measurement of LAGEOS-2 rotation by satellite laser ranging observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented single shot precision of the new-born Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO), that can reach a scattering down to a few millimeters on LA-GEOS orbit, discloses new chances in studying the high frequency dynamics. In this work we present the very first LAGEOS-2 observations in terms of range residuals and discuss the cause of the high frequencies noticed since

G. Bianco; M. Chersich; R. Devoti; V. Luceri; M. Selden

2001-01-01

225

Variable Gap Undulator for 1.5-48 Kev Free Electron Laser at Linac Coherent Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We study the feasibility of generating femtosecond duration Free-Electron Laser with a variable photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron bunch with the same characteristics of the LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) bunch, and a planar undulator with additional focusing. We assume that the electron bunch energy can be changed, and the undulator has a variable gap, allowing a variable undulator parameter. It is assumed to be operated in an ultra-low charge and ultra-short pulse regime. We study the feasibility of a tunable, short pulse, X-ray FEL with photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron beam like the one in the LCLS and a 2:5 cm period, variable gap, planar undulator. The beam energy changes from 4.6 to 13.8 GeV, the electorn charge is kept at 10 pC, and the undulator parameter varies from 1 to 3. The undulator length needed to saturate the 48 keV FEL is about 55 m, with a peak power around 5 GW. At longer wavelength the saturation length is as short as 15 m, and the peak power around 20 GW. The results from the analytical models and the GENESIS simulations show that the system is feasible. The large wavelength range, full tunability and short, few femtosecond pulses, together with the large peak power, would provide a powerful research tool.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA; Wu, J.; /SLAC; ,

2011-08-17

226

r-Java 2.0: the nuclear physics  

E-print Network

[Aims:] We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations as well as a suite of other analysis tools. [Methods:] Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of; simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission as well as the study of individual nucleosynthesis processes. [Results:] In this paper we discuss enhancements made to this version of r-Java, paramount of which is the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated into r-Java 2.0 which includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced and spontaneous fission) as well as computation of the mass fragmentation is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studied. The role of coulomb interactions in NSE abundances is shown to be significant, supporting previous findings. A comparative analysis was undertaken during the development of r-Java 2.0 whereby we reproduced the results found in literature from three other r-process codes. This code is capable of simulating the physical environment of; the high-entropy wind around a proto-neutron star, the ejecta from a neutron star merger or the relativistic ejecta from a quark nova. As well the users of r-Java 2.0 are given the freedom to define a custom environment. This software provides an even platform for comparison of different proposed r-process sites and is available for download from the website of the Quark-Nova Project: http://quarknova.ucalgary.ca/

M. Kostka; N. Koning; Z. Shand; R. Ouyed; P. Jaikumar

2014-02-16

227

The r-Java 2.0 code: nuclear physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations, along with a suite of other analysis tools. Methods: Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission and studying individual nucleosynthesis processes. Results: In this paper we discuss enhancements to this version of r-Java, especially the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated in r-Java 2.0 that includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced, and spontaneous fission), along with computation of the mass fragmentation, is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studied. The role of Coulomb interactions in NSE abundances is shown to be significant, supporting previous findings. A comparative analysis was undertaken during the development of r-Java 2.0 whereby we reproduced the results found in the literature from three other r-process codes. This code is capable of simulating the physical environment of the high-entropy wind around a proto-neutron star, the ejecta from a neutron star merger, or the relativistic ejecta from a quark nova. Likewise the users of r-Java 2.0 are given the freedom to define a custom environment. This software provides a platform for comparing proposed r-process sites.

Kostka, M.; Koning, N.; Shand, Z.; Ouyed, R.; Jaikumar, P.

2014-08-01

228

Primary cosmic ray spectra in the range 20-60 GeV/n  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy spectra for primary cosmic rays C-Fe above 20 GeV/n were measured on a balloon flight from Greenville S.C. in June 1982 with a hybrid electronic counter-emulsion chamber experiment. Fluxes above the atmosphere appear in general agreement with previously published values. The heavy events included in this data will be used along with the JACEE passive chamber data to provide a heavy composition direct measurement from 10 to the 12th power to approximately 10 to the 15th power eV total energy.

Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fuki, M.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.

1985-08-01

229

The Warburg effect version 2.0  

PubMed Central

When fighting cancer, knowledge on metabolism has always been important. Today, it matters more than ever. The restricted cataloging of cancer genomes is quite unlikely to achieve the task of curing cancer, unless it is integrated into metabolic networks that respond to and influence the constantly evolving cancer stem cell (CSC) cellular states. Once the genomic era of carcinogenesis had pushed the 1920s Otto Warburg’s metabolic cancer hypothesis into obscurity for decades, the most recent studies begin to support a new developing paradigm, in which the molecular logic behind the conversion of non-CSCs into CSCs can be better understood in terms of the “metabolic facilitators” and “metabolic impediments” that operate as proximate openings and roadblocks, respectively, for the transcriptional events and signal transduction programs that ultimately orchestrate the intrinsic and/or microenvironmental paths to CSC cellular states. Here we propose that a profound understanding of how human carcinomas install a proper “Warburg effect version 2.0” allowing them to “run” the CSCs’ “software” programs should guide a new era of metabolo-genomic-personalized cancer medicine. By viewing metabolic reprogramming of CSCs as an essential characteristic that allows dynamic, multidimensional and evolving cancer populations to compete successfully for their expansion on the organism, we now argue that CSCs bioenergetics might be another cancer hallmark. A definitive understanding of metabolic reprogramming in CSCs may complement or to some extent replace, the 30-y-old paradigm of targeting oncogenes to treat human carcinomas, because it can be possible to metabolically create non-permissive or “hostile” metabotypes to prevent the occurrence of CSC cellular states with tumor- and metastasis-initiating capacity. PMID:23549172

Menendez, Javier A.; Joven, Jorge; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Alarcón, Tomás; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

2013-01-01

230

A system for differential neutron scattering experiments in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV  

E-print Network

A system for differential neutron scattering experiments in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV F 2010 Accepted 15 April 2010 Available online 27 May 2010 Keywords: Scattering Neutron Benchmark dependent scattered neutron distributions. Scattering measurements were performed on carbon and molybdenum

Danon, Yaron

231

A new grating X-ray spectrometer for 2-4 keV enabling a separate observation of In-L? and Sn-L? emissions of indium tin oxide.  

PubMed

A new multilayer-coated varied line-spaced grating, JS4000, was fabricated and tested for extending the upper limit of a grating X-ray spectrometer for electron microscopy. This grating was designed for 2-3.8 keV at a grazing incidence angle of 1.35°. It was revealed that this new multilayer structure enables us to take soft-X-ray emission spectra continuously from 1.5 to 4.3 keV at the same optical setting. The full-width at half maximum of Te-L(?1,2) (3.8 keV) emission peak was 27 eV. This spectrometer was applied to indium tin oxide particles and clearly resolved Sn-L(?) (3444 eV) and In-L(?1) (3487 eV) peaks, which could not be resolved by a widely used energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. PMID:23307948

Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Handa, Nobuo; Murano, Takanori; Koike, Masato; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Imazono, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Koeda, Masaru; Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi

2013-06-01

232

Materials for magnetic refrigeration between 2 and 20 K  

SciTech Connect

As part of a research and development program on magnetic refrigeration, paramagnetic materials suitable for magnetic refrigeration in the 2 to 20 K range have been studied for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The best materials with known properties, as derived from a literature survey, are plotted. For one of those materials, gadolinium gallium garnet, the results are presented of field-dependent heat capacity measurements. Preparation and fabrication of gadolinium compounds are discussed briefly as well as the scope of further work for selecting and studying working materials for magnetic refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.; Steyert, W.A.

1981-05-01

233

Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Advisor Model (SAM) provides a consistent framework for analyzing and comparing power system costs and performance across the range of solar technologies and markets, from photovoltaic systems for residential and commercial markets to concentrating solar power and large photovoltaic systems for utility markets. This manual describes Version 2.0 of the software, which can model photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies for electric applications for several markets. The current version of the Solar Advisor Model does not model solar heating and lighting technologies.

Gilman, P.; Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Janzou, S.; Cameron, C.

2008-08-01

234

Short-range correlations in carbon-12, oxygen-16, and neon-20: Intrinsic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) method has been applied to nuclei whose intrinsic structure is nonspherical. Reaction matrix elements were calculated as functions of starting energy for the Hamada-Johnston interaction using the Pauli operator appropriate to O-16 and a shifted oscillator spectrum for virtual excited states. Binding energies, single particle energies, radii, and shape deformations of the intrinsic state, in ordinary as well as renormalized BHF, are discussed and compared with previous HF studies and with experiment when possible. Results are presented for C-12, 0-16 and Ne-20. It is found that the binding energies and radii are too small, but that separation energies are well reproduced when the renormalized theory is used.

Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.; Becker, R. L.; Patterson, M. R.

1972-01-01

235

Discovery of Water Maser Emission in Five AGN and a Possible Correlation Between Water Maser and Nuclear 2-10 keV Luminosities  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of water maser emission in five active galactic nuclei (AGN) with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The positions of the newly discovered masers, measured with the VLA, are consistent with the optical positions of the host nuclei to within 1 sigma (0.3 arcsec radio and 1.3 arcsec optical) and most likely mark the locations of the embedded central engines. The spectra of three sources, 2MASX J08362280+3327383, NGC 6264, and UGC 09618 NED02, display the characteristic spectral signature of emission from an edge-on accretion disk with maximum orbital velocity of ~700, ~800, and ~1300 km s^-1, respectively. We also present a GBT spectrum of a previously known source MRK 0034 and interpret the narrow Doppler components reported here as indirect evidence that the emission originates in an edge-on accretion disk with orbital velocity of ~500 km s^-1. We obtained a detection rate of 12 percent (5 out of 41) among Seyfert 2 and LINER systems with 10000 km s^-1 water masers with available hard X-ray data, we report a possible relationship between unabsorbed X-ray luminosity (2-10 keV) and total isotropic water maser luminosity, L_{2-10} proportional to L_{H2O}^{0.5+-0.1}, consistent with the model proposed by Neufeld and Maloney in which X-ray irradiation and heating of molecular accretion disk gas by the central engine excites the maser emission.

Paul T. Kondratko; Lincoln J. Greenhill; James M. Moran

2006-10-03

236

Discussing the physical meaning of the absorption feature at 2.1 keV in 4U 1538-52  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution X-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the nature of the matter surrounding the neutron star in X-ray binaries and its interaction between the stellar wind and the compact object. In particular, absorption features in their spectra could reveal the presence of atmospheres of the neutron star or their magnetic field strength. Here we present an investigation of the absorption feature at 2.1 keV in the X-ray spectrum of the high mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-52 based on our previous analysis of the XMM-Newton data. We study various possible origins and discuss the different physical scenarios in order to explain this feature. A likely interpretation is that the feature is associated with atomic transitions in an O/Ne neutron star atmosphere or of hydrogen and helium like Fe or Si ions formed in the stellar wind of the donor. Data from XMM-Newton.

Rodes-Roca, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Martínez-Nuñez, S.; Giménez-García, A.; Bernabéu, G.

2014-10-01

237

High Photon Energy K-shell X-ray Sources on the 20-MA Z Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Z-pinches have always been efficient sources of many tens of kilojoules of x- rays from 1 to 3-keV photon energies. The advent of the 20-MA Z accelerator at SNL has enabled the scaling of Z-pinch plasma radiation sources to the 5 to 7- keV photon energy range with outputs exceeding 100 kJ of x-rays, which opens up opportunities for both radition-material and atomic physics studies. On the Z generator, the implosion of 2 mg/cm masses of titanium to velocities between 70 and 90 cm/?s have produced 2 mm diameter plasmas with electron temperatures of 3.0 keV. By varying the initial wire array diameter and wire number, the x- ray emissions were maximzed with 150 kJ being radiated from the K-shell (4.8 keV) out of a total x-ray yield of 1.2 MJ. The measured outputs and plasma parameters agree well with one- and two-dimensional radiation- magnetohydrodynamic calculations of these implosions. By using higher velocity implosions, we have also produced up to 65 kJ of 6.7 keV x-rays from stainless steel wire arrays and have formed plasmas with temperatures of 3.7 keV at densities greater than 0.01 g/cc. In this paper, we will present the experimental results along with spectroscopic data and calculations.

Deeney, Christopher

1998-11-01

238

QuakeSim 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

2012-01-01

239

SolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0SolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0SolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0 Skill Level  

E-print Network

, and simple, the SolarSpeeder is an easy project that uses the sun to power the fastest electronic solar car. Solaroller racing has two solar-powered cars race side-by-side down a one meter (3.3 foot) track. EarlySolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0SolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0SolarSpeeder Solaroller 2.0 Ltd

Lozano-Nieto, Albert

240

Dynamic properties of Indiana, Fort Knox and Utah test range limestones and Danby Marble over the stress range 1 to 20 GPa  

SciTech Connect

The responses of the following carbonate materials to shock loading and release have been measured: Indiana limestone (18% porosity; saturated and dry), Jeffersonville/Louisville Limestones (Fort Knox limestone) (variable dolomitization, low porosity), Danby Marble (essentially pure calcite; low porosity), and a limestone from the Utah Test and Training Range (low porosity, with 22% silica). Various experimental configurations were used, some optimized to yield detailed waveform information, others to yield a clean combination of Hugoniot states and release paths. All made use of velocity interferometry as a primary diagnostic. The stress range of 0 - 20 GPa was probed (in most cases, emphasizing the stress range 0 -10 GPa). The primary physical processes observed in this stress regime were material strength, porosity, and polymorphic phase transitions between the CaCO{sub 3} phases I, II, III and VI. Hydration was also a significant reaction under certain conditions. The Indiana Limestone studies in particular represent a significant addition to the low-pressure database for porous limestone. Temperature dependence and the effect of freezing were assessed for the Fort Knox limestone. Experimental parameters and detailed results are provided for the 42 impact tests in this series.

Furnish, M.D.

1994-12-01

241

18 CFR 20.2 - Regulation of issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulation of issuance of securities. 20.2 Section 20.2 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES BY LICENSEES AND COMPANIES...

2013-04-01

242

18 CFR 20.2 - Regulation of issuance of securities.  

...false Regulation of issuance of securities. 20.2 Section 20.2 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES BY LICENSEES AND COMPANIES...

2014-04-01

243

18 CFR 20.2 - Regulation of issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Regulation of issuance of securities. 20.2 Section 20.2 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES BY LICENSEES AND COMPANIES...

2010-04-01

244

18 CFR 20.2 - Regulation of issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Regulation of issuance of securities. 20.2 Section 20.2 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES BY LICENSEES AND COMPANIES...

2011-04-01

245

18 CFR 20.2 - Regulation of issuance of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Regulation of issuance of securities. 20.2 Section 20.2 Conservation...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES BY LICENSEES AND COMPANIES...

2012-04-01

246

r-Java 2.0: the nuclear physics  

E-print Network

[Aims:] We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations as well as a suite of other analysis tools. [Methods:] Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of; simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission as well as the study of individual nucleosynthesis processes. [Results:] In this paper we discuss enhancements made to this version of r-Java, paramount of which is the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated into r-Java 2.0 which includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced and spontaneous fission) as well as computation of the mass fragmentation is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studi...

Kostka, M; Shand, Z; Ouyed, R; Jaikumar, P

2014-01-01

247

Reaction mechanisms in the system {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho: Measurement and analysis of forward recoil range distributions  

SciTech Connect

Keeping in view the study of complete and incomplete fusion of heavy ions with a target, the forward recoil range distributions of several evaporation residues produced at 164 MeV {sup 20}Ne-ion beam energy have been measured for the system {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho. The recoil catcher activation technique followed by off-line gamma spectroscopy has been employed. Measured forward recoil range distributions of these evaporation residues show evidence of several incomplete fusion channels in addition to complete fusion. The entire and partial linear momentum transfers inferred from these recoil range distributions were used to identify the evaporation residues formed by complete and incomplete fusion mechanisms. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving the breakup of {sup 20}Ne into {sup 4}He+{sup 16}O and/or {sup 8}Be+{sup 12}C followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus {sup 165}Ho. Complete and incomplete fusion reaction channels have been identified in the production of various evaporation residues and an attempt has been made to separate out relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion components from the analysis of the measured recoil range distribution data. The total contribution of complete and incomplete fusion channels has also been estimated.

Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2009-05-15

248

Web 2.0 and Geospatial Convergence  

E-print Network

, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change. The Norwegian Nobel Committee THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE FOR 2007 © 2005 Autodesk 4 Sustainable Infrastructure • LEED ? Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design... Building structure & interior design Mechanical, electrical, & plumbing detail GIS street and parcel information Underground utility data Realistic visualization © 2005 Autodesk 20 Challenge: Aging Workforce in Utilities and Telcos © 2005 Autodesk 21...

Zeiss, Geoff

2007-11-14

249

The Anima Animation System, Version 2.0  

E-print Network

The Anima Animation System, Version 2.0 Danielle Sauer, Jared Gabruch, Cara Gibbs, Howard Hamilton Department of Computer Science University of Regina Regina, Saskatchewan, CANADA S4S 0A2 ISSN 0828-3494 ISBN ...............................................................................................................20 1 #12;The Anima Animation System, Version 2.0 Danielle Sauer, Jared Gabruch, Cara Gibbs, Howard

Hamilton, Howard J.

250

5/3/13 2:21 PMNew Director Promises to Cultivate Rose Art Museum's Growth | Brandeis Magazine Page 1 of 2file:///Users/Rose-Student/Desktop/New%20Director%20Promises%20to...20Art%20Museum's%20Growth%20%7C%20Brandeis%20Magazine.webarchive  

E-print Network

5/3/13 2:21 PMNew Director Promises to Cultivate Rose Art Museum's Growth | Brandeis Magazine Page%20%7C%20Brandeis%20Magazine.webarchive New Director Promises to Cultivate Rose Art Museum's Growth into the museum socially and #12;5/3/13 2:21 PMNew Director Promises to Cultivate Rose Art Museum's Growth

Snider, Barry B.

251

RHESSI Observations of the Solar Flare Iron-line Feature at 6.7 keV  

E-print Network

Analysis of RHESSI 3--10 keV spectra for 27 solar flares is reported. This energy range includes thermal free--free and free--bound continuum and two line features, at 6.7keV and 8keV, principally due to highly ionized iron (Fe). We used the continuum and the flux in the so-called Fe-line feature at 6.7keV to derive the electron temperature T_e, the emission measure, and the Fe-line equivalent width as functions of time in each flare. The Fe/H abundance ratio in each flare is derived from the Fe-line equivalent width as a function of T_e. To minimize instrumental problems with high count rates and effects associated with multi-temperature and nonthermal spectral components, spectra are presented mostly during the flare decay phase, when the emission measure and temperature were smoothly varying. We found flare Fe/H abundance ratios that are consistent with the coronal abundance of Fe (i.e. 4 times the photospheric abundance) to within 20% for at least 17 of the 27 flares; for 7 flares, the Fe/H abundance ratio is possibly higher by up to a factor of 2. We find evidence that the Fe XXV ion fractions are less than the theoretically predicted values by up to 60% at T_e=25 MK appear to be displaced from the most recent theoretical values by between 1 and 3 MK.

K. J. H. Phillips; C. Chifor; B. R. Dennis

2006-07-13

252

Cross sections for the production of excited He{sup +} ({ital np}){sup 2}{ital P}{sup {ital o}} states by 50{endash}150-keV proton impact on helium  

SciTech Connect

Cross sections have been measured for the production of He{sup +} ({ital np}){sup 2}{ital P}{sup {ital o}} states, {ital n}=2,3,4, by proton impact on helium over a projectile velocity range of 1.42{endash}2.45 a.u. (50 {le}{ital E}{le}150 keV). Cross sections were determined by measuring the extreme ultraviolet photons emitted from excited He{sup +} ions. The data indicate a lower energy than expected for the maximum cross section. A comparison of the present results in terms of projectile energy dependance with the cross sections for excitation to He (1{ital snp}){sup 1}{ital P}{sup {ital o}}, ionization, and total electron capture suggests the primary mechanism for the production of excited He{sup +} at low energies is transfer excitation, with ionization excitation being the dominant mechanism at higher energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Stolte, W.C.; Bruch, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States)

1996-09-01

253

A density functional study of silicon fullerene endohedral X@Si20F20 and exohedral X-Si20F20 (X=O2-, S2-, Se2-) complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the structure and electronic properties of three stable endohedral X@Si20F20 and exohedral X-Si20F20 (X=O2-, S2-, Se2-) complexes. The study revealed that the endohedral complexes with S2- and Se2- result as energy minimum structures, with the guest anion located in the cage center. In the case of endohedral O2--complexes, the pattern is quite different whereas the O2- complexes dramatically deviated from the architecture of S2- and Se2-, by having O2- located toward one of silicon atoms in the cage. With respect to the exohedral form, the energy minimized structure is obtained by positioning the anion between two silicon atoms and forming two Si-X bonds. For both cases, the strength of the interactions is calculated to increase accordingly to the pattern: Se2-@Si20F20 (Se2--Si20F20)2-@Si20F20 (S2--Si20F20)2-@Si20F20 (O2--Si20F20). Additionally, the calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of the exohedral complexes show lower values than endohedral forms, indicating higher chemical reactivity. This study reports relevant details for the synthesis and structuring of silica based endohedral complexes and serves for the further developments of silica-based particles for energy and microengineering purposes.

Behzadi, Hadi; Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Manzetti, Sergio; Roonasi, Payman

2014-02-01

254

20 CFR 320.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 320.2 Section 320.2...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT INITIAL DETERMINATIONS...SUCH DETERMINATIONS § 320.2 Definitions. As used in this part—...

2010-04-01

255

20 CFR 722.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 722.2 Section 722.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION...PNEUMOCONIOSIS AND LISTING OF APPROVED STATE LAWS § 722.2 Definitions. (a) The definitions and...

2010-04-01

256

20 CFR 902.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definitions. 902.2 Section 902.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES RULES REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 902.2 Definitions. (a) Records of the Joint Board....

2010-04-01

257

20 CFR 900.2 - Establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Establishment. 900.2 Section 900.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.2 Establishment. The Joint Board has been established by the Secretary...

2010-04-01

258

Differential scattering cross sections for collisions of 0.5-, 1.5-, and 5.0-keV helium atoms with He, H2, N2, and O2. [for atmospheric processes modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the first results of an experimental program established to provide cross section data for use in modeling various atmospheric processes. Absolute cross sections, differential in the scattering angle, have been measured for collisions of 0.5-, 1.5-, and 5.0-keV helium atoms with He, H2, N2, and O2 at laboratory scattering angles between 0.1 deg and 5 deg. The results are the sums of cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of helium atoms; charged collision products are not detected. Integration of the differential cross section data yields integral cross sections consistent with measurements by other workers. The apparatus employs a position-sensitive detector for both primary and scattered particles and uses a short target cell with a large exit aperture to ensure a simple and well-defined apparatus geometry.

Newman, J. H.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Chen, Y. S.

1985-01-01

259

Total Electron Stopping Powers and CSDA-Ranges from 20 eV to 10 MeV Electron Energies for Components of DNA and RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An appropriate formula for the total stopping power of electrons of initial kinetic energy from 20 eV to 10 MeV in some biological materials is presented. The continuous slowing down approximation-range (CSDA-range) from the total stopping power is also made. The collisional stopping power formula is evaluated using Generalized Oscillator Strength (GOS) model and exchange correction on the inelastic differential cross section (IDCS) given by [M. Inokuti, Rev. Mod. Phys. 43 (1971) 297-347] and the radiative stopping power formula is calculated from the bremsstrahlung differential cross section (DCS) given by [H.W. Koch, J.W. Motz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 31 (4) (1959) 920-955]. Calculation of the total stopping powers (SPs) and CSDA-range for biological compounds: C5H5N5 (adenine), C5H5N5O (guanine), C4H5N3O (cytosine), C5H6N2O2 (thymine), C4H4N2O2 (uracil), C4H8O (tetrahydrofuran), C4H8O2 (3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran), C5H10O2 ([alpha]-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), C19H26N8O13P2 (thymineadenineDNA) have been introduced for incident electrons in the 20 eV-10 MeV energy range. The calculated results have been compared with experimental data, PENELOPE program results and other theoretical results. The calculated results of total stopping power and CSDA-ranges for electrons in energy range from 20 eV to 10 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 8% with available data.

Akar, A.; Gümüs, H.; Okumusoglu, N. T.

260

20 CFR 302.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definitions. 302.2 Section...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED...EMPLOYEE § 302.2 Definitions. Base year. ...With respect to unemployment benefits, the...

2010-04-01

261

20 CFR 363.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 363.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES GARNISHMENT OF REMUNERATION OF BOARD PERSONNEL § 363.2 Definitions. (a) Child support means periodic...

2010-04-01

262

20 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 350.2 Section 350.2 Employees...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT, THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT, AND UNDER ANY OTHER ACT ADMINISTERED BY THE BOARD § 350.2 Definitions. (a) Child support...

2010-04-01

263

ESTAR, PSTAR, ASTAR: A PC package for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions, version 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PC package is documented for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions in matter for energies from 1 keV up to 10 GeV. Stopping powers and ranges for electrons can be calculated for any element, compound or mixture. Stopping powers and ranges of protons and helium ions can be calculated for 74 materials (26 elements

M. J. Berger

1993-01-01

264

Science Operations Plan Version 2.0  

E-print Network

.1 Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5 #12;List of Figures 1.1 Telemetry processing flow diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2 Telemetry rates available during early operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Christian, Eric

265

Efficient focusing of 8 keV X-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling  

PubMed Central

Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) recently showed significant improvement by focusing soft X-rays down to ?10?nm. In contrast to soft X-rays, generally a very high aspect ratio FZP is needed for efficient focusing of hard X-rays. Therefore, FZPs had limited success in the hard X-ray range owing to difficulties of manufacturing high-aspect-ratio zone plates using conventional techniques. Here, employing a method of fabrication based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling, FZPs with very high aspect ratios were prepared. Such multilayer FZPs with outermost zone widths of 10 and 35?nm and aspect ratios of up to 243 were tested for their focusing properties at 8?keV and shown to focus hard X-rays efficiently. This success was enabled by the outstanding layer quality thanks to ALD. Via the use of FIB for slicing the multilayer structures, desired aspect ratios could be obtained by precisely controlling the thickness. Experimental diffraction efficiencies of multilayer FZPs fabricated via this combination reached up to 15.58% at 8?keV. In addition, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy experiments at 1.5?keV were carried out using one of the multilayer FZPs and resolved a 60?nm feature size. Finally, the prospective of different material combinations with various outermost zone widths at 8 and 17?keV is discussed in the light of the coupled wave theory and the thin-grating approximation. Al2O3/Ir is outlined as a promising future material candidate for extremely high resolution with a theoretical efficiency of more than 20% for as small an outermost zone width as 10?nm at 17?keV. PMID:23592622

Mayer, Marcel; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Grevent, Corinne; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Weigand, Markus; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Schutz, Gisela

2013-01-01

266

20 CFR 361.2 - Scope.  

...ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.2 Scope...5 U.S.C. 5514 apply in recovering certain debts by administrative offset, except where...

2014-04-01

267

20 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 435.2 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under...negotiated indirect cost rate. Working capital advance means a procedure in...

2010-04-01

268

20 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 435.2 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under...negotiated indirect cost rate. Working capital advance means a procedure in...

2012-04-01

269

20 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.  

...Section 435.2 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under...negotiated indirect cost rate. Working capital advance means a procedure in...

2014-04-01

270

20 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 435.2 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under...negotiated indirect cost rate. Working capital advance means a procedure in...

2011-04-01

271

20 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 435.2 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under...negotiated indirect cost rate. Working capital advance means a procedure in...

2013-04-01

272

Cross section measurements of the 10B(p ,?)11C reaction between 2.0 and 6.0 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total cross section of the 10B(p,?)11C reaction has been measured for bombarding proton energies between 2.0 and 6.0 MeV in 500 keV steps for the first time. This reaction is important for potential next-generation boron fueled nuclear reactors. The total cross section was measured by activating a 10B target with protons and, after stopping the beam, detecting the 511 keV ? rays emitted from the ?+ decay of 11C, using two LaBr3:Ce detectors. In addition to the total cross sections, astrophysical S factors were also calculated at each energy.

Kafkarkou, A.; Ahmed, M. W.; Kendellen, D. P.; Mazumdar, I.; Mueller, J. M.; Myers, L. S.; Sikora, M. H.; Weller, H. R.; Zimmerman, W. R.

2014-01-01

273

Effects of the compounds 2-methoxynaphthoquinone, 2-propoxynaphthoquinone, and 2-isopropoxynaphthoquinone on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.  

PubMed

The effects of the natural compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, isolated from the leaves of Impatiens glandulifera and the synthetic compounds 2-propoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-isopropoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E-20-M) activity were examined in three insect species. Homogenates of wandering stage third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, or abdomens from adult female Aedes aegypti, or fat body or midgut from fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta were incubated with radiolabelled ecdysone and increasing concentrations (from 1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-3) M) of the three compounds. All three compounds were found to inhibit in a dose-dependent fashion the E-20-M activity in the three insect species. The concentration of these compounds required to elicit a 50% inhibition of this steroid hydroxylase activity in the three insect species examined ranged from approximately 3 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-4) M. PMID:17694563

Mitchell, Martin J; Brescia, Aaron I; Smith, Stan L; Morgan, E David

2007-09-01

274

The INTEGRAL View Of The 511 keV Annihilation Line In Our Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well know from theory and laboratory practice that an electron-positron pair can annihilate into a couple of 511 keV (the electron rest mass) gamma ray photons. The first detection of 511 keV photons from the Galactic center region dates back to early seventies. Soon after, a continuum gamma ray emission due to 3 gamma ortho-positronium decay was also measured. A 511 keV line in the Galactic gamma ray emission gives a unique proof that a large number of positrons are injected in the astrophysical environments, but nowadays we still do not know where these particles are generated. Positrons can be generated by a number of processes, in particular beta+ decays of unstable isotopes produced by stars and supernovae and energetic outflows from compact objects, but the few claimed detections of a 511 keV line from compact galactic sources are quite controversial. This fact could be explained by propagation of positrons in the intergalactic medium before they annihilate away from the birth place. The measure made with the spectrometer SPI aboard INTernational Gamma RAy Laboratory (INTEGRAL), launched on October 17 2002, confirms that about 10E43 positrons per second annihilate in the bulge of our Galaxy. Moreover, there is some evidence of an asymmetry of the 511 keV emission along the Galactic longitude, possibly correlated with the spacial distribution of the hard X (E > 20 keV) Low Mass X-ray Binaries detected by the imager IBIS aboard INTEGRAL. With IBIS, using about 5 years of observations, we find no evidence of 511 keV point sources. With an exposure of 10 Ms, in the center of the Galaxy we estimate a 1.6 x 10E-04 ph/cm2/s flux 2 sigma upper limit; a similar limit is given in a wide area in the Galactic center region with similar exposures.

De Cesare, G.

2011-09-01

275

NASA Taxonomy 2.0 Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the project to develop a Taxonomy for NASA. The benefits of this project are: Make it easy for various audiences to find relevant information from NASA programs quickly, specifically (1) Provide easy access for NASA Web resources (2) Information integration for unified queries and management reporting ve search results targeted to user interests the ability to move content through the enterprise to where it is needed most (3) Facilitate Records Management and Retention Requirements. In addition the project will assist NASA in complying with E-Government Act of 2002 and prepare NASA to participate in federal projects.

Dutra, Jayne; Busch, Joseph

2004-01-01

276

Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the technological and commercial foundations of the new category of online applications commonly described as Web 2.0 or Social Media. It examines the relevance of Web 2.0 for Marketing Strategy and for Direct Marketing in particular. The issue is not a clear-cut one: while several observers saw in Web 2.0 a new stage in the evolution of

Efthymios Constantinides; Stefan J. Fountain

2008-01-01

277

Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (v 2.0)  

E-print Network

Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (v 2.0) January 7, 2010 #12;Environmental Public.......................................................................................................................................................3 Essential Environmental Public Health Services Environmental Public Health Problems

278

Patent Fair Use2.0 Katherine J. Strandburg*  

E-print Network

265 Patent Fair Use2.0 Katherine J. Strandburg* I. Introduction .................................................................................................................266 A. The Noncontextual Focus of Patent Doctrine........................................266 II. Why Patent Fair Use Now

Loudon, Catherine

279

Health 2.0 and implications for nursing education.  

PubMed

Over the last 20 years the evolution of web browsers providing easy access to the Internet has initiated a revolution in access to healthcare related information for both healthcare providers and patients. This access has changed both the process used to deliver education and the content of the nursing education curriculum worldwide. Our amazing ability to access information around the world is referred as to Web 1.0. Web 2.0 moves beyond access to a world where users are interactively creating information. With the advent of Health 2.0 we are confronting a second revolution that is challenging all aspects of healthcare including all aspects of nursing. This paper explores the concept of Health 2.0, discusses a conceptual framework approach for integrating Health 2.0 content into the nursing curriculum, outlines examples of key concepts required in today's nursing curriculum and identifies selected issues arising from the impact of Health 2.0. PMID:24199108

Nelson, Ramona

2012-01-01

280

Cross section for induced L X-ray emission by protons of energy <400 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In performing ion beam analysis, cross section for induced L X-ray emission plays a crucial role. There are different approaches by which these can be found experimentally or can be calculated theoretically based on various models. L X-ray production cross sections for Bi with protons in the energy range 260-400 keV at the interval of 20 keV are measured. These are compared with calculations obtained on the basis of current prevailing theories ECPSSR and ECPSSR-UA. Their importance in understanding this phenomenon and existing arguments in this regard will be highlighted.

Mohan, Harsh; Jain, Arvind Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Parjit S.; Sharma, Sunita

2014-08-01

281

BioCat 2.0  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Biosurveillance Integration Center (NBIC) was established in 2008 with a primary mission to “(1) enhance the capability of the Federal Government to (A) rapidly identify, characterize, localize, and track a biological event of national concern by integrating and analyzing data relating to human health, animal, plant, food, and environmental monitoring systems (both national and international); and (B) disseminate alerts and other information to Member Agencies and, in coordination with (and where possible through) Member Agencies, to agencies of State, local, and tribal governments, as appropriate, to enhance the ability of such agencies to respond to a biological event of national concern; and (2) oversee development and operation of the National Biosurveillance Integration System (NBIS).” Inherent in its mission then and the broader NBIS, NBIC is concerned with the identification, understanding, and use of a variety of biosurveillance models and systems. The goal of this project is to characterize, evaluate, classify, and catalog existing disease forecast and prediction models that could provide operational decision support for recognizing a biological event having a potentially significant impact. Additionally, gaps should be identified and recommendations made on using disease models in an operational environment to support real-time decision making.

Corley, Courtney D.; Noonan, Christine F.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Franklin, Trisha L.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Madison, Michael C.; Piatt, Andrew W.

2013-09-16

282

The 2-79 keV X-Ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: A Fully Compton-thick Active Galactic Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index ? = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N H = (6-10) × 1024 cm-2, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 1042 erg s-1. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus ? and LX versus L IR phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.; Walton, D. J.; Koss, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fuerst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Madejski, G.; Madsen, K. K.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Stuhlinger, M.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-08-01

283

Research 2.0: A Framework for Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Web 2.0 Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the potential of the Web 2.0 environment for conducting both qualitative and quantitative research. The paper analyzes the emerging Research 2.0 domain using the theoretical framework of Web 2.0 core principles (e.g., web as a platform, harnessing collective intelligence, etc.). These principles, first proposed by Tim O'Reilly, provide a useful lens through which researchers can examine the

Dinesh Rathi; Lisa M. Given

2010-01-01

284

Elevation-Dependent Temperature Trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: Changes over a 56- and 20-Year Record  

PubMed Central

Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953–2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989–2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution against an over-reliance on interpolation methods for documenting local patterns of climatic change. PMID:22970205

McGuire, Chris R.; Nufio, Cesar R.; Bowers, M. Deane; Guralnick, Robert P.

2012-01-01

285

2001 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML 2.0 Redux for HPECUML 2.0 Redux for HPEC  

E-print Network

© 2001 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML 2.0 Redux for HPECUML 2.0 Redux for HPEC Dr. Jeffrey E. Smith Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Manfred Koethe 88solutions Corp. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Conference September 25, 2003 #12;2© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML Overview

Kepner, Jeremy

286

Heliospheric Neutral Atom Spectra Between 0.01 and 6 keV fom IBEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2008 December, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been making detailed observations of neutrals from the boundaries of the heliosphere using two neutral atom cameras with overlapping energy ranges. The unexpected, yet defining feature discovered by IBEX is a Ribbon that extends over the energy range from about 0.2 to 6 keV. This Ribbon is superposed on a more uniform, globally distributed heliospheric neutral population. With some important exceptions, the focus of early IBEX studies has been on neutral atoms with energies greater than approx. 0.5 keV. With nearly three years of science observations, enough low-energy neutral atom measurements have been accumulated to extend IBEX observations to energies less than approx. 0.5 keV. Using the energy overlap of the sensors to identify and remove backgrounds, energy spectra over the entire IBEX energy range are produced. However, contributions by interstellar neutrals to the energy spectrum below 0.2 keV may not be completely removed. Compared with spectra at higher energies, neutral atom spectra at lower energies do not vary much from location to location in the sky, including in the direction of the IBEX Ribbon. Neutral fluxes are used to show that low energy ions contribute approximately the same thermal pressure as higher energy ions in the heliosheath. However, contributions to the dynamic pressure are very high unless there is, for example, turbulence in the heliosheath with fluctuations of the order of 50-100 km/s.

Fuselier, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Gloeckler, G.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Moore, T. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Saul, L. A.; Scheer, J. A.; Schwardron, N.; Trattner, K. J.; Vanderspek, R.; Wurz, P.

2012-01-01

287

Leadership 2.0: Social Media in Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is always changing, always improving, and always pushing the envelope for how one works in education. In this increasingly connected age, people have seen rapid growth in social network tools such as Twitter and Facebook. These sites are representative of Web 2.0 resources where users contribute content. Other examples of Web 2.0 sites…

Gonzales, Lisa; Vodicka, Devin; White, John

2011-01-01

288

Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide, Version 2.0  

E-print Network

The Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide editorial team is pleased to announce the release of Version 2.0. Version 2.0 supersedes Version 1.0, which was released in July 2007 and was the result of a project initiated ...

Lean Advancement Initiative

2010-06-29

289

Students as Digital Citizens on Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet tools associated with Web 2.0 such as wikis, blogs, and video podcasts are increasingly available in elementary classrooms. ("Web 2.0" is a vaguely defined, folk-tech term that means, roughly, the Internet and all software and devices, constantly improving, that strive to exploit it in creative and useful ways.) Today, elementary students…

Nebel, Michelle; Jamison, Barbara; Bennett, Linda

2009-01-01

290

Ubiquitous Complete in a Web 2.0 World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the third wave of computing, people will interact with multiple computers in multiple ways in every setting. The value of ubiquitous computing is enhanced and reinforced by another trend: the transition to a Web 2.0 world. In a Web 2.0 world, applications and data reside on the Web itself. Schools are not yet approaching a ratio of one…

Bull, Glen; Ferster, Bill

2006-01-01

291

Scenarios and Strategies for Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this article is to bring together ideas from the authors' review of the Web 2.0 literature, the data and their insights from this and other technology-related projects to produce a framework for strategies on Web 2.0 focusing on the implications for human resource professionals. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss…

Martin, Graeme; Reddington, Martin; Kneafsey, Mary Beth; Sloman, Martyn

2009-01-01

292

The use of Web 2.0 technologies.  

PubMed

Although many publications laud the potential benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in nursing education, little has been published on the extent of their use. This descriptive study examined the personal and academic use of Web 2.0 technologies among nursing students enrolled in 3 different baccalaureate programs. PMID:22688876

Kohtz, Cindy; Gowda, Connie; Stockert, Patricia; White, Jane; Kennel, Lynn

2012-01-01

293

Changing Paradigms Managed Learning Environments and Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how emerging technologies and Web 2.0 services are transforming the structure of the web and their potential impact on managed learning environments (MLS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). Design/methodology/approach: Innovative Web 2.0 applications are reviewed in the paper to…

Craig, Emory M.

2007-01-01

294

Information Literacy Instruction in the Web 2.0 Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how library educators can implement Web 2.0 tools in their Information Literacy programs to better prepare students for the rigors of academic research. Additionally, this paper looks at transliteracy and constructivism as the most useful teaching methods in a Web 2.0 classroom and attempts to pinpoint specific educational…

Humrickhouse, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

295

Web 2.0: Creating a Classroom without Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is about my year-long journey implementing Web 2.0 tools into my teaching practice. The goal throughout my journey has always been to increase my students' intrinsic motivation to learn about science. The Web 2.0 tools I used along my journey were weblogs (blogs) and podcasts. (Contains 1 figure.)

Barlow, Tim

2008-01-01

296

Constraints on 3.55 keV line emission from stacked observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent works have reported the detection of an unidentified x-ray line at 3.55 keV, which could possibly be attributed to the decay of dark matter (DM) particles in the halos of galaxy clusters and in the M31 galaxy. We analyze all publicly available XMM-Newton satellite data of dwarf spheroidal galaxies to test the possible DM origin of the line. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have high mass-to-light ratios, and their interstellar medium is not a source of diffuse x-ray emission; thus, they are expected to provide the cleanest DM decay line signal. Our analysis shows no evidence for the presence of the line in the stacked spectra of the dwarf galaxies. It excludes the sterile neutrino DM decay origin of the 3.5 keV line reported by Bulbul et al. (2014) at the level of 4.1 ? under standard assumptions about the Galactic DM column density in the direction of selected dwarf galaxies and at the level of 3.2 ? assuming minimal Galactic DM column density. Our analysis is still consistent with the estimate of sterile neutrino DM parameters by Boyarsky et al. (2014) because of its larger uncertainty. However, the central value of their estimate of the mixing angle is inconsistent with our dwarf spheroidals data at the 3.4 ? (2.5 ? ) level assuming the mean (minimal) Galactic DM column density. As a byproduct of our analysis, we provide updated upper limits to the mixing angle of sterile neutrino DM in the mass range between 2 and 20 keV.

Malyshev, D.; Neronov, A.; Eckert, D.

2014-11-01

297

Measurements of complex permittivity of microwave substrates in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge of the dielectric properties of microwave substrates at low temperatures is useful in the design of superconducting microwave circuits. Results are reported for a study of the complex permittivity of sapphire (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon oxide (SiO2), lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in the 20 to 300 Kelvin temperature range, at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity were obtained from the scattering parameters, which were measured using a HP-8510 automatic network analyzer. For these measurements, the samples were mounted on the cold head of a helium gas closed cycle refrigerator, in a specially designed vacuum chamber. An arrangement of wave guides, with mica windows, was used to connect the cooling system to the network analyzer. A decrease in the value of the real part of the complex permittivity of these substrates, with decreasing temperature, was observed. For MgO and Al2O3, the decrease from room temperature to 20 K was of 7 and 15 percent, respectively. For LaAlO3, it decreased by 14 percent, for ZrO2 by 15 percent, and for SiO2 by 2 percent, in the above mentioned temperature range.

Miranda, Felix A.; Gordon, William L.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Bhasin, Kul B.

1989-01-01

298

Measurements of complex permittivity of microwave substrates in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge of the dielectric properties of microwve substrates at low temperatures is useful in the design of superconducting microwave circuits. Results are reported for a study of the complex permittivity of sapphire (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon oxide (SiO2), lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in the 20 to 300 Kelvin temperature range, at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity were obtained from the scattering parameters, which were measured using an HP-8510 automatic network analyzer. For these measurements, the samples were mounted on the cold head of a helium gas closed cycle refrigerator, in a specially designated vacuum chamber. An arrangement of wave guides, with mica windows, was used to connect the cooling system to the network analyzer. A decrease in the value of the real part of the complex permittivity of these substrates, with decreasing temperature, was observed. For MgO and Al2O3, the decrease from room temperature to 20 K was of 7 and 15 percent, respectively. For LaAlO3, it decreased by 14 percent, for ZrO2 by 15 percent, and for SiO2 by 2 percent, in the above mentioned temperature range.

Miranda, Felix A.; Gordon, William L.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Bhasin, Kul B.

1990-01-01

299

Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Price, Lynn

2011-06-08

300

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact  

SciTech Connect

Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ashok Gadgi

2010-02-09

301

Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Keasling, Jay D

2010-02-04

302

Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Price, Lynn

2010-02-02

303

Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Keasling, Jay D

2011-06-03

304

CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP  

E-print Network

5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 D D C C B B A A CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP CSAIL@MIT LEAD CRICKET RS232 Crossbow Technology 41 Daggett Drive San Jose, CA. 95134 B 1 6Wednesday, October 20, 2004 X A A PCLK PDATA PALE RADIO DATA SPI_SCK SPI_MOSI SPI_MISO CHP_OUT ADC0 (RSSI) RADIO CONTROL CRICKET V2

305

Forbush decreases and solar events seen in the 10 - 20GeV energy range by the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope  

E-print Network

Since 1993, a muon telescope located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Muon Telescope) has been recording the flux of single muons mostly originating from primary cosmic-ray protons with dominant energies in the 10 - 20 GeV range. The data are used to investigate the influence of solar effects on the flux of cosmic-rays measured at Earth. Non-periodic events like Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements are detected in the registered muon flux. A selection of recent events will be presented and compared to data from the Jungfraujoch neutron monitor. The data of the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope help to extend the knowledge about Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements to energies beyond the neutron monitor regime.

I. Braun; J. Engler; J. R. Hörandel; J. Milke

2008-10-27

306

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1–IL-20R2 and IL-22R1–IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135?Å, and diffracted X-­rays to 3?Å resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-­20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%. PMID:22232181

Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

2012-01-01

307

41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.  

... 2014-07-01 false Recruitment and advertisement. 60-20...GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a...employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide occupation...occupational qualification for the job. The placement of an...

2014-07-01

308

41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recruitment and advertisement. 60-20...GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a...employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide occupation...occupational qualification for the job. The placement of an...

2011-07-01

309

41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment and advertisement. 60-20...GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a...employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide occupation...occupational qualification for the job. The placement of an...

2010-07-01

310

41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Recruitment and advertisement. 60-20...GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a...employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide occupation...occupational qualification for the job. The placement of an...

2013-07-01

311

41 CFR 60-20.2 - Recruitment and advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recruitment and advertisement. 60-20...GUIDELINES § 60-20.2 Recruitment and advertisement. (a...employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide occupation...occupational qualification for the job. The placement of an...

2012-07-01

312

Online Reputation Systems in Web 2.0 Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web 2.0 has transformed how reputation systems are designed and used by the Web. Based on a thorough review of the existing online reputation systems and their challenges in use, this paper studied a case of Amazon’s reputation system for the impacts of Web 2.0. Through our case study, several distinguished features of new generation reputation systems are noted including multimedia feedbacks, reviewer centered, folksonomy, community contribution, comprehensive reputation, dynamic and interactive system etc. These new developments move towards a relatively trustworthy and reliable online reputation system in the Web 2.0 era.

Zheng, Weijun; Jin, Leigh

313

From Web 2.0 to Classroom 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Web 2.0 has changed the way people communicate and learn. It has entered into the millennial classroom. This article discusses\\u000a the Web 2.0 phenomenon and how it evolves the traditional classroom into Classroom 3.0 incorporating mobile technology with\\u000a Web 2.0 technology. The impact on the implementation of Classroom 3.0 is also discussed and how it may affect the teaching\\u000a and

Wilfred W. Fong

314

36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest...control where the land is available for grazing. Associated private and other public...affected permittees, landowners, and grazing advisory boards involved, as well...

2014-07-01

315

Coexistence of long-range and short-range magnetic ordering in the frustrated antiferromagnet Ca3Co2O6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a detailed neutron powder diffraction study of a geometrically frustrated spin-chain compound Ca3Co2O6 at 20 K (below Néel temperature). Our analysis shows a coexistence of the magnetic long-range (LRO) and the short-range orderings (SRO). The ratio of relative contributions of the LRO and SRO to the magnetic Bragg peaks is 7/3. The magnetic correlation length along the c- axis for SRO is 71(4) Å.

Jain, Anil; Yusuf, S. M.

2012-06-01

316

26 CFR 20.2014-2 - “First limitation”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2014-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount...for Federal estate tax purposes is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit...death tax). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals—...

2011-04-01

317

26 CFR 20.2014-2 - “First limitation”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2014-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount...for Federal estate tax purposes is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit...death tax). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals—...

2010-04-01

318

20. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 2 AND 1, AND BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 2 AND 1, AND BUILDING K, VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

319

30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp prevent ignition of...

2013-07-01

320

30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp prevent ignition of...

2011-07-01

321

30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp prevent ignition of...

2012-07-01

322

30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp prevent ignition of...

2010-07-01

323

Anwendungen und Technologien des Web 2.0: Ein Überblick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Das World Wide Web (im Folgenden kurz als Web bezeichnet) verwandelt sich seit einigen Jahren von einem Medium der passiven Konsumenten von Inhalten hin zu einem Netz für aktive User, die Weblogs schreiben, in Foren diskutieren oder Podcasts veröffentlichen. Diese User der zweiten Generation gebrauchen das Web zum Gedankenaustausch und knüpfen als Knoten in virtuellen sozialen Netzwerken Beziehungen zu Gleichgesinnten, mit denen sie sich zu virtuellen Communities formieren. Folglich definiert sich die soziale Komponente des Web 2.0 über ein verändertes Verhalten seiner User. Web-2.0-Plattformen sind jedoch vielmehr sozio-technische Artefakte und basieren auf speziellen Anwendungen und Technologien. Erst die technologische Komponente des Web 2.0 ermöglicht, dass die sozialen Prozesse der User unterstützt werden. Der folgende Grundlagenbeitrag stellt wesentliche Anwendungen und Technologien des Web 2.0 vor.

Stocker, Alexander; Tochtermann, Klaus

324

2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 DEGREES NORTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

325

Information management using Web 2.0 technology  

E-print Network

Web 2.0, the ultimate platform for tacit based knowledge work has finally arrived. User driven, collaborative platform based tools including wikis, web mash-ups, discussion boards, linkage based search engines, and tagging ...

Duffy, Juliet (Juliet Maria)

2009-01-01

326

50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

2012-10-01

327

50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

2013-10-01

328

50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

2010-10-01

329

50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

2011-10-01

330

42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing...

2011-10-01

331

42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing...

2010-10-01

332

26 CFR 20.2014-2 - “First limitation”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2014-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount...for Federal estate tax purposes is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit...death tax). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals—...

2012-04-01

333

26 CFR 20.2014-2 - “First limitation”.  

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2014-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount...for Federal estate tax purposes is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit...death tax). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals—...

2014-04-01

334

26 CFR 20.2014-2 - “First limitation”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2014-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount...for Federal estate tax purposes is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit...death tax). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals—...

2013-04-01

335

26 CFR 20.2013-2 - “First limitation”.  

...Credits Against Tax § 20.2013-2 “First limitation”. (a) The amount of...property in the transferor's estate is the “first limitation.” Thus, the credit is...section). Stated algebraically, the “first limitation” (A) equals: Value of...

2014-04-01

336

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 REAR ELEVATION (SOUTH), WEST SIDE - Weston (House & Schoolhouse), U.S. Route 11 & County Road 19 vicinity, Boligee, Greene County, AL

337

The NOAO NVO Portal and the Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web developers are building Internet applications that are as rich as desktop applications. These new applications often use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (Ajax), integrate external services, have lightweight development models, quick turn-around periods, and are based on a unique source of data. The NOAO NVO Portal is just one example of an application falling under the Web 2.0 pattern in astronomy. We discuss the concept of the Web 2.0 with respect to its planning, development, and deployment.

Miller, C. J.; Fuentes, E.; Gasson, D.

2008-08-01

338

Web 2.0: blind to an accessible new world  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, websites have evolved from static pages to dynamic, interactive Web-based applications with the ability to replicate common desktop functionality. However, for blind and visually impaired individuals who rely upon screen readers, Web 2.0 applications force them to adapt to an inaccessible use model. Many technologies, including WAI- ARIA, AJAX, and improved screen reader

Joshua M. Hailpern; Loretta Guarino Reid; Richard Boardman; Srinivas Annam

2009-01-01

339

RadCat 2.0 User Guide.  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O'Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

2005-01-01

340

Web 2.0 and beyond: implications for electronic commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent major shift has broadly impacted the evolution of electronic commerce: Web 2.0. This paradigm shift represents the change of the Internet from a market for goods and services to a socially centered and user-driven marketplace. The authors argue that by applying the fundamental principles of basic psychological need theory, we can better understand how the Web 2.0 technologies

Rolf T. Wigand; Robert I. Benjamin; Johanna L. H. Birkland

2008-01-01

341

Entrepreneurial marketing and the Web 2.0 interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyse the relationship between marketing and entrepreneurship. It looks at the way in which Web 2.0 technologies are changing the marketing and entrepreneurial landscapes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper explores the impact of Web 2.0 social media for entrepreneurial marketing. It looks at social media as a marketing tool and considers the positive and negative

Brian Jones

2010-01-01

342

Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

343

Below 2.0mum CMOS imager technology shrinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick calculation and accurate estimation algorithm with systematic analysis of optical view is crucial in developing sub 2.0mum imager since as the pixel size scales down below 2.0mum, saturation and sensitivity are reduced more than those expected by nominal scaling factor of CMOS process. In this paper, an unconventional treatment by diffraction focal shift theory is proposed for explaining

H. W. Lee; C. H. Wu

2008-01-01

344

On-line range prediction system, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-line range prediction system is designed for providing a prediction of the target range in the case of a laser data dropout. It consists of real time implementation of a Kalman filter on an IBM PC/AT equipped with necessary hardware. The system was set up and tested at Crows Landing in the Fall of 1987. The improvements made on the on-line range prediction system during 1988 are examined. Solutions are proposed and discussed to the several problems encountered during system tests. Then, the improvements made on the filter software are explained, namely, accounting for the time lag and providing data continously. Finally, the ideas are mentioned that can be considered in the future.

Levan, Nhan

1988-01-01

345

CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP  

E-print Network

5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 D D C C B B A A CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP CSAIL@MIT LEAD DESIGNER: NISSANKA B. PRIYANTHA 6310-0335-01 A MTS450CA CRICKET RS232 Crossbow Technology 41 Daggett Drive

346

Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

2010-02-04

347

Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers containing low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13) be considered for air-kerma calibrations for reference dosimetry in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams.

Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-04-15

348

Disappearance and reappearance of particles of energies 50 keV as seen by P78-2 (SCATHA) near geosynchronous orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nightside particle environment as observed by the AFGL Rapid Scan Particle Detector on SCATHA showing large, sudden simultaneous changes in the fluxes of electrons and protons with energies above 50 keV (dropouts) is considered. An interesting feature of SCATHA dropouts is the quasiperiodic behavior of the particle flux amplitudes which often vary with a period of the order of 15 minutes both during the dropout and after the return. A flux return during eclipse caused a major spacecraft charging event of several kilovolts. The SCATHA observations are compared with those reported for other geosynchronous satellites. In agreement with ATS-5, a marked dependence in the frequency of occurrence due to an effect of the orbit is found. ATS-5 experienced few dropouts during quiet geomagnetic conditions. However, for an L shell greater than seven, SCATHA particle dropouts occur routinely during quiet conditions. Thus, for SCATHA's orbit, both the orbital position and geomagnetic conditions must be taken into account in evaluating the potential hazard of flux returns.

Feynman, J.; Saflekos, N. A.; Garrett, H. G.; Hardy, D. A.; Mullen, E. G.

1980-01-01

349

Low energy electrons (less than 200 keV) in the inner Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The version of IMPTAM (Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport ans Acceleration Model) which simulates the transport and acceleration of the electrons from the plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere regions is presented. The low energy electron fluxes (< 200 keV) constitute the seed population for the high energy MeV particles in the radiation belts and they are responsible for hazardous phenomena such as surface charging. We show the results of modeling of 5 storm events during the year of 2013. The model output is compared with measurements made at geostationary orbit (1) at the AMC 12 geostationary spacecraft by the CEASE II ESA instrument (ten energy ranges from 5 to 50 keV), and (2) at the GOES 13 data (three energy channels, 30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV). We introduced the substorm-associated electromagnetic fields by launching several electromagnetic pulses at the substorm onsets during the modeled periods. At the same time, we present the nowcast model of IMPTAM for low energy (< 200 keV) electrons in the inner magnetosphere, operating online under the SPACECAST project (http://fp7-spacecast.eu). The presented model provides the low energy electron flux at all L-shells and at all satellite orbits, when necessary. The model is driven by the real time solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) parameters with 1 hour time shift for propagation to the Earth's magnetopause, and by the real time Dst index. Real time geostationary GOES 13 or GOES 15 (whenever which available) data on electron fluxes are used for comparison and validation of IMPTAM running online. The output of this model can serve as an input of electron seed population for the higher-energy radiation belt modeling.

Ganushkina, Natalia

350

[Surgeon 2.0: the challenge is on the Web].  

PubMed

Numerous articles and opinions have been published in the last few years on how the Internet is changing clinical practice. In this article we focus on describing 2 aspects that we believe are fundamental in the web 2.0 and Medicine-Surgery inter-relationship: a) web 2.0 conceptualisation and its differences with other pre-existing tools, and b) a description of some of the tools that from a medical-surgical view could be of major interest to the professionals, the patients, and interaction between both. The time has arrived to board train 2.0, where the channels of communication between the professionals, and between them and the patients, are improving disease situations daily, to improve learning through contact with other physicians and surgeons, at the same time providing an excellent resource for maintaining health and to know the disease and its treatment. PMID:22658791

Belda Lozano, Ricardo; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; García Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Alvarez García, Antonio; Reina Duarte, Angel

2013-01-01

351

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Paul Alivisatos

2010-02-09

352

Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

2011-06-08

353

Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division] [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

2010-02-03

354

SECURING WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS THROUGH REPLICATED EXECUTION  

E-print Network

Client-side computation Server-side computation Client-side rendering Static HTML Web 1.0 Web 2.0 3 for performance #12;Motivation Security vs. Performance 9 responsiveness security Web 1.0: · ASP.NET · PHP Web 2

Livshits, Ben

355

Weight Matrices for Sequence Similarity Version 2.0  

E-print Network

Weight Matrices for Sequence Similarity Scoring Version 2.0 May 1996 David Wheeler, Ph of Contents 1. Weight matrices for sequence similarity scoring 2. Importance of scoring matrices 3. Examples PAM matrix 11. Other specialized scoring matrices Weight Matrices for Sequence Similarity Scoring

Morante, Silvia

356

GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0  

E-print Network

WORKING DRAFT GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0 And HALTON REGION SUB-MODEL Documentation & Users' Guide Prepared by Peter Dalton July 2001 #12;GTA P.M. Model Page 2 30/05/2002 Contents 1.0 P.M. Peak Period Model for the GTA

Toronto, University of

357

CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP  

E-print Network

5 4 3 2 1 D D C C B B A A CRICKET V2.0 NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS GROUP CSAIL@MIT LEAD DESIGNER: NISSANKA B. PRIYANTHA CROSSPOINT SWITCH MICACONN_TXD0 MICACONN_RXD0 6310-0335-01 A MTS450CA CRICKET RS232

358

The Total Picture of TSUBAME 2.0  

E-print Network

with the hyper-threading technology, achieving up to 76 gigaflops (GFLOPS). The GPU sports NVIDIA's new processor.2 on the new system. Also Tesla M2050 GPUs have advantage both in performance and programmability; the adoption PCI-Express 2.0 x16 technology with bandwidth of 8GB/s. As the interconnect that combines more than 1

Furui, Sadaoki

359

AKARI IRC 2.5-5 um Spectroscopy of Infrared Galaxies over a Wide Luminosity Range  

E-print Network

We present the result of a systematic infrared 2.5-5 um spectroscopic study of 22 nearby infrared galaxies over a wide infrared luminosity range (10 heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Applying our AGN diagnostics to the AKARI spectra, we discover 14 buried AGNs. The large fraction of buried AGNs suggests that AGN activity behind the dust is almost ubiquitous in ultra-/luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). We also find that both the fraction and energy contribution of buried AGNs increase with infrared luminosity from 10 energy contribution from AGNs in the total infrared luminosity is only ~7% in LIRGs and ~20% in ULIRGs, sug...

Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki

2014-01-01

360

Incorporating Web 2.0 Technologies from an Organizational Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) provides support for the organization, facilitation, and dissemination of online educational and scientific materials and information to a wide range of stakeholders. ARCUS is currently weaving the fabric of Web 2.0 technologies—web development featuring interactive information sharing and user-centered design—into its structure, both as a tool for information management and for educational outreach. The importance of planning, developing, and maintaining a cohesive online platform in order to integrate data storage and dissemination will be discussed in this presentation, as well as some specific open source technologies and tools currently available, including: ? Content Management: Any system set up to manage the content of web sites and services. Drupal is a content management system, built in a modular fashion allowing for a powerful set of features including, but not limited to weblogs, forums, event calendars, polling, and more. ? Faceted Search: Combined with full text indexing, faceted searching allows site visitors to locate information quickly and then provides a set of 'filters' with which to narrow the search results. Apache Solr is a search server with a web-services like API (Application programming interface) that has built in support for faceted searching. ? Semantic Web: The semantic web refers to the ongoing evolution of the World Wide Web as it begins to incorporate semantic components, which aid in processing requests. OpenCalais is a web service that uses natural language processing, along with other methods, in order to extract meaningful 'tags' from your content. This metadata can then be used to connect people, places, and things throughout your website, enriching the surfing experience for the end user. ? Web Widgets: A web widget is a portable 'piece of code' that can be embedded easily into web pages by an end user. Timeline is a widget developed as part of the SIMILE project at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) for displaying time-based events in a clean, horizontal timeline display. Numerous standards, applications, and 3rd party integration services are also available for use in today's Web 2.0 environment. In addition to a cohesive online platform, the following tools can improve networking, information sharing, and increased scientific and educational collaboration: ? Facebook (Fan pages, social networking, etc) ? Twitter/Twitterfeed (Automatic updates in 3 steps) ? Mobify.me (Mobile web) ? Wimba, Adobe Connect, etc (real time conferencing) Increasingly, the scientific community is being asked to share data and information within and outside disciplines, with K-12 students, and with members of the public and policy-makers. Web 2.0 technologies can easily be set up and utilized to share data and other information to specific audiences in real time, and their simplicity ensures their increasing use by the science community in years to come.

Owens, R.

2009-12-01

361

Special State Standard of absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation with maximum photon energy from 3 to 9 fJ (20–60 keV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special State standard reproduces the absorbed dose unit of x-ray radiation in an absorber within the range from 1 to 5 J\\/kg. The unit is reproduced by calorimetric techniques which is the only method of direct and absolute measurement of absorbed radiation energy. In compliance with the ICRU recommendations, the absorber material is graphite. The block diagram of the

R. F. Kononova; A. P. Sebekin; V. I. Fominykh; M. F. Yudin

1976-01-01

362

UCbase 2.0: ultraconserved sequences database (2014 update)  

PubMed Central

UCbase 2.0 (http://ucbase.unimore.it) is an update, extension and evolution of UCbase, a Web tool dedicated to the analysis of ultraconserved sequences (UCRs). UCRs are 481 sequences >200 bases sharing 100% identity among human, mouse and rat genomes. They are frequently located in genomic regions known to be involved in cancer or differentially expressed in human leukemias and carcinomas. UCbase 2.0 is a platform-independent Web resource that includes the updated version of the human genome annotation (hg19), information linking disorders to chromosomal coordinates based on the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine classification, a query tool to search for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and a new text box to directly interrogate the database using a MySQL interface. To facilitate the interactive visual interpretation of UCR chromosomal positioning, UCbase 2.0 now includes a graph visualization interface directly linked to UCSC genome browser. Database URL: http://ucbase.unimore.it PMID:24951797

Lomonaco, Vincenzo; Martoglia, Riccardo; Mandreoli, Federica; Anderlucci, Laura; Emmett, Warren; Bicciato, Silvio; Taccioli, Cristian

2014-01-01

363

Exploring technology impacts of Healthcare 2.0 initiatives.  

PubMed

As Internet access proliferates and technology becomes more accessible, the number of people online has been increasing. Web 2.0 and the social computing phenomena (such as Facebook, Friendster, Flickr, YouTube, Blogger, and MySpace) are creating a new reality on the Web: Users are changing from consumers of Web-available information and resources to generators of information and content. Moving beyond telehealth and Web sites, the push toward Personal Health Records has emerged as a new option for patients to take control of their medical data and to become active participants in the push toward widespread digitized healthcare. There is minimal research on the impact of Web 2.0 in healthcare. This paper reviews the changing patient-physician relationship in the Healthcare 2.0 environment, explores the technological challenges, and highlights areas for research. PMID:19382863

Randeree, Ebrahim

2009-04-01

364

mHealth 2.0: Experiences, Possibilities, and Perspectives.  

PubMed

With more than 1 billion users having access to mobile broadband Internet and a rapidly growing mobile app market, all stakeholders involved have high hopes that this technology may improve health care. Expectations range from overcoming structural barriers to access in low-income countries to more effective, interactive treatment of chronic conditions. Before medical health practice supported by mobile devices ("mHealth") can scale up, a number of challenges need to be adequately addressed. From a psychological perspective, high attrition rates, digital divide of society, and intellectual capabilities of the users are key issues when implementing such technologies. Furthermore, apps addressing behavior change often lack a comprehensive concept, which is essential for an ongoing impact. From a clinical point of view, there is insufficient evidence to allow scaling up of mHealth interventions. In addition, new concepts are required to assess the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Regarding technology interoperability, open standards and low-energy wireless protocols appear to be vital for successful implementation. There is an ongoing discussion in how far health care-related apps require a conformity assessment and how to best communicate quality standards to consumers. "Apps Peer-Review" and standard reporting via an "App synopsis" appear to be promising approaches to increase transparency for end users. With respect to development, more emphasis must be placed on context analysis to identify what generic functions of mobile information technology best meet the needs of stakeholders involved. Hence, interdisciplinary alliances and collaborative strategies are vital to achieve sustainable growth for "mHealth 2.0," the next generation mobile technology to support patient care. PMID:25099752

Becker, Stefan; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schumacher, Nikolaus; Krocza, Johann; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

2014-01-01

365

mHealth 2.0: Experiences, Possibilities, and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

With more than 1 billion users having access to mobile broadband Internet and a rapidly growing mobile app market, all stakeholders involved have high hopes that this technology may improve health care. Expectations range from overcoming structural barriers to access in low-income countries to more effective, interactive treatment of chronic conditions. Before medical health practice supported by mobile devices ("mHealth") can scale up, a number of challenges need to be adequately addressed. From a psychological perspective, high attrition rates, digital divide of society, and intellectual capabilities of the users are key issues when implementing such technologies. Furthermore, apps addressing behavior change often lack a comprehensive concept, which is essential for an ongoing impact. From a clinical point of view, there is insufficient evidence to allow scaling up of mHealth interventions. In addition, new concepts are required to assess the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Regarding technology interoperability, open standards and low-energy wireless protocols appear to be vital for successful implementation. There is an ongoing discussion in how far health care-related apps require a conformity assessment and how to best communicate quality standards to consumers. "Apps Peer-Review" and standard reporting via an "App synopsis" appear to be promising approaches to increase transparency for end users. With respect to development, more emphasis must be placed on context analysis to identify what generic functions of mobile information technology best meet the needs of stakeholders involved. Hence, interdisciplinary alliances and collaborative strategies are vital to achieve sustainable growth for "mHealth 2.0," the next generation mobile technology to support patient care. PMID:25099752

Diamantidis, Clarissa

2014-01-01

366

Open Problems in Web 2.0 User Content Sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Users need useful mechanisms for sharing their Web 2.0 content with each other in a controlled manner across boundaries of content-hosting and service providers (CSPs). In this paper, we discuss open problems and research opportunities in the domain of Web 2.0 content sharing among users. We explore issues in the categories of user needs, current sharing solutions provided by CSPs, and distributed access-control related technologies. For each open problem, we discuss existing and potential solutions, and point out areas for future work.

Sun, San-Tsai; Beznosov, Konstantin

367

[Adolescents in Web 2.0: risks and chances ].  

PubMed

That almost all adolescents possess an individual access to the internet and that they use it every day, lays the foundation for the improved means of self presentation and participation that are known by the notion of Web 2.0. Social networks and other interactive internet formats give rise to new risks like cyber mobbing which is the topic of three contributions. At the same time, Web 2.0 offers chances in the form of online counseling and online therapy that cater to the preferences of media-friendly target group of adolescents. PMID:24877775

Salisch, Maria von

2014-01-01

368

Short-Range Magnetic Correlations and Parimagnetism in RCo2  

SciTech Connect

X-ray circular magnetic dichroism, polarized neutron diffraction, ac susceptibility, and Seebeck effect have been measured for several members of the RCo2 series (R=Ho, Tm, Er) as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The experimental results show robust parimagnetism (a general behaviour along the RCo2 series with R being a heavy rare earth ion) and two reversal temperatures in some systems, which is an unexpected result. Polarised neutron diffraction show differences between results obtained on single crystals or polycrystalline ingots. We propose an interpretation of parimagnetic RCo2 as a Griffiths phase of the high temperature, magnetically ordered, amorphous RCo2 phase. Copyright EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Bartolome, F. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza; Bonilla, C. M. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza; Herrero-Albillos, J. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza; Calvo-Almazan, I. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza; Castan, C. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza; Weschke, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH; Schmitz, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH; Paudyal, Durga [Ames Laboratory; Mudryk, Yaroslav [Ames Laboratory; Pecharsky, Vitalij [Ames Laboratory; Gschneidner Jr., Karl A. [Ames Laboratory; Stunault, A. [Institut Laue-Langevin; Garcia, L. M. [CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza

2013-12-02

369

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex  

SciTech Connect

Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

2012-02-08

370

Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Section of ²³²Th in the Energy Range from 0.06 to 2 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron capture cross section of ²³²Th has been measured relative to Ï(n, γ) for ¹⁹⁷Au and Ï(n,f) for ²³⁵U in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. Neutrons were produced by the ⁷Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reactions at the 4-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan. The activation technique was used, and the cross section was measured

D. Karamanis; M. Petit; S. Andriamonje; G. Barreau; M. Bercion; A. Billebaud; B. Blank; S. Czajkowski; R. del Moral; J. Giovinazzo; V. Lacoste; C. Marchand; L. Perrot; M. Pravikoff; J. C. Thomas

2001-01-01

371

MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

2010-11-04

372

From Zero to Web 2.0: Part 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer semester, the Vise Library at Cumberland University (CU) began working on its "digital makeover." It has six goals: (1) Create a more user-friendly and dynamic website; (2) Activate and maintain accounts on social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; (3) Produce a library blog that allows students, staff, and…

Woodard, Amber

2009-01-01

373

Assessment of Degree2 Zonal Gravitational Changes from GRACE, Earth Rotation, Climate Models, and Satellite Laser Ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Four independent time series of degree-2 zonal gravitational variations ?C20 are compared for the period April 2002 to February 2008. We examine estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment\\u000a (GRACE), Earth rotation variations, climate models (AOW), and satellite laser ranging (SLR). At the annual period, all ?C20 estimates agree remarkably well, and good correlation is found among these time

J. L. Chen; C. R. Wilson

374

Collaborative Writing with Web 2.0 Technologies: Education Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web 2.0 technologies are becoming popular in teaching and learning environments. Among them several online collaborative writing tools, like wikis and blogs, have been integrated into educational settings. Research has been carried out on a wide range of subjects related to wikis, while other, comparable tools like Google Docs and EtherPad remain…

Brodahl, Cornelia; Hadjerrouit, Said; Hansen, Nils Kristian

2011-01-01

375

The (3He,tf) as a surrogate reaction to determine (n,f) cross sections in the 10 to 20 MeV energy range  

SciTech Connect

The surrogate reaction 238U(3He,tf) is used to determine the 237Np(n,f) cross section indirectly over an equivalent neutron energy range from 10 to 20 MeV. A self-supporting ~;;761 mu g/cm2 metallic 238U foil was bombarded with a 42 MeV 3He2+ beam from the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Outgoing charged particles and fission fragments were identified using the Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies (STARS), consists of two 140 mu m and one 1000 mu m Micron S2 type silicon detectors. The 237Np(n,f) cross sections, determined indirectly, were compared with the 237Np(n,f) cross section data from direct measurements, the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VII.0), and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL 3.3) and found to closely follow those datasets. Use of the (3He,tf) reaction as a surrogate to extract (n,f) cross section in the 10 to 20 MeV equivalent neutron energy is found to be suitable.

Basunia, M. S.; Clark, R. M.; Goldblum, B. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Phair, L.; Burke, J. T.; Beausang, C. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Darakchieva, B.; Dietrich, F. S.; Evtimova, M.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Hatarik, R.; Jewett, C. C.; Lesher, S. R.; McMahan, M. A.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Wiedeking, M.

2009-02-25

376

Journalism Students, Web 2.0 and the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find out if students were utilizing Web 2.0 applications. Since the applications in question are often employed by the media industry, the study aspired to find out if students majoring in mass communication and journalism utilized the applications more often than other students. The "digital divide" is a term used…

Green, Mary Elizabeth

2009-01-01

377

Teaching Talented Writers with Web 2.0 Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of 12 online writing resources and contains suggestions about how such resources might be used in a differentiated classroom with talented writers. Youth with writing talent are defined by distinguishing characteristics and the authors discuss how those characteristics can be supported and enhanced using Web 2.0 tools.…

Olthouse, Jill M.; Miller, Myriah Tasker

2012-01-01

378

AHA! Version 2.0, More adaptation flexibility for authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

AHA! is a simple Web-based adaptive hypermedia system. Because of this simplicity it has been studied and experimented with in several research groups, see e.g. (Cini & Valdeni de Lima, 2002), (Calvi & Cristea, 2002), (Romero et al., 2002). This paper identifies shortcomings in AHA! and presents AHA! version 2.0 which tries to overcome the known problems with AHA! while

Paul De Bra; ATM Aerts; David Smits; Natalia Stash

2002-01-01

379

Web 2.0 for urban designers & planners  

E-print Network

The author contends that a class of new and emerging participatory Web-based tools, referred to at present as "Web 2.0," can and should be used by urban designers and planners to achieve better results in public participation ...

Wilson, Jase (Jase C.)

2008-01-01

380

Pedagogical Lessons from Students' Participation in Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses of Vietnamese undergraduate students majoring in English to the integration of a Moodle site during an upper intermediate macro-skill course highlight differences in learner autonomy and expectations. Students' general attitudes towards and participation in this online Web 2.0 environment provide the basis for the research reported in…

Dang, Tan Tin; Robertson, Margaret

2010-01-01

381

RASCAL2.0A. Radiological Dose Assessment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

RASCAL2.0A (Radiologic Assessment System for Consequence Analysis) has been developed for use during response to radiological emergencies. The model is designed to provide a rough comparison to EPA Protective Action Guidance and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL will be used by the NRC personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of

A. L. Sjoreen; G. F. Athey; J. V. Ramsdell; T. J. McKeena

1993-01-01

382

Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda

2014-01-01

383

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage  

ScienceCinema

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Nitash Balsara

2010-09-01

384

AHA! Version 2.0: More Adaptation Flexibility for Authors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AHA! is a simple Web-based adaptive hypermedia system. Because of this simplicity it has been studied and experimented with in several research groups. This paper identifies shortcomings in AHA! and presents AHA! version 2.0 which tries to overcome the known problems with AHA! while maintaining its biggest asset: simplicity. The paper illustrates…

De Bra, Paul; Aerts, Ad; Smits, David; Stash, Natalia

385

What Web 2.0 Means for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "Web 2.0"--a buzzword for a technological evolution that's been taking place online for some time--has many different definitions. In general, it refers to Web sites that go beyond simply presenting words and images, often allowing users to share information and collaborate in new ways. Content on the Web used to be largely static. One…

Criswell, Chad

2008-01-01

386

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza  

SciTech Connect

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

2010-02-16

387

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Nitash Balsara

2010-02-16

388

Photography Education in a Web 2.0 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a novice teacher, the author was confident in his ability to teach digital photography but didn't initially realize the extent to which blogs, wikis, and social networks could reshape and enhance how students learn, and how, by incorporating these tools into his curriculum, he would ultimately find ways to use Web 2.0 tools to truly engage and…

Myers, Erik

2009-01-01

389

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels  

ScienceCinema

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Jay Keasling

2010-09-01

390

Web 2.0 for R&R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are colleges and universities doing enough to take advantage of Web 2.0 and social networking tools in their recruitment and retention efforts? "Not even close," says Sam Richard, a 23-year-old junior in the College of Public Programs at Arizona State University in Phoenix. Richard is one of six students in ASU's Student Ambassadors for…

Raths, David

2009-01-01

391

Social Dimension of Web 2.0 in Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary engineers need to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of the market for engineering and technology services. Social dimension of Web 2.0 which penetrates our society more thoroughly with the availability of broadband services has the potential to contribute decisively to the sustainable development of…

Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

392

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast: Enterprise 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee. In this podcast, Mike and Gordon discuss the use of Web 2.0 technologies in industry, including blogging and social networking services. The running time for the show is 22:30.

Qaissaunee, Michael; Snyder, Gordon F.

2013-08-05

393

Web 2.0 in teaching-learning multiculturalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of technology becomes widespread, more and more advancements are being created to enable people to participate interactively in many global societies. Web 2.0 is a new technology that has tremendous possibilities for social collaboration. Multicultural education has huge potential to help in the fight against racism, and to enable people to become active members of a democratic

M. M. Hossain; H. Aydin

2010-01-01

394

Codegenerierung für Assoziationen in MOF 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Spezifikation von MOF 2.0 enth ¨ alt neue Konstrukte zum Ausdr¨ ucken von Beziehungen zwischen Assoziationen. Damit diese Konstrukte in modellgetriebenen Entwicklungsprozessen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden k ¨ onnen, werden Abbildungen auf objektorientierte Programmiersprachen ben ¨ otigt. Im Rahmen dieses Papiers stellen wir M¨ oglichkeiten vor, die neuen Konstrukte auf Java-Code abzubilden. Unsere Vor- schl¨ age basieren auf dem Java

Carsten Amelunxen; Andy Schürr; Lutz Bichler

2004-01-01

395

Emerging informal learning 2.0 practices: a preliminary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a specific technology-enhanced learning scenario where formal and informal practices intertwine and contribute to the improvement of individual learning. In particular, we have explored how the students attending a distance learning higher education course (Cognitive Psychology, Uninettuno) have spontaneously started to adopt a set of Web 2.0 resources, commonly used for entertainment and socialization, to organize their

Alessandro Pollini; Leonardo Giusti; Linda Napoletano

2011-01-01

396

A Web 2.0 Synchronous Learning Environment Using AJAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous learning is becoming more and more important in distance learning environment. This paper describes a synchronous learning environment which provides course agent, clear user interface, and interaction mechanism for teachers and learners through AJAX technology. The key features of Web 2.0 are dynamic interaction, knowledge sharing, and collaboration. In order to achieve these features in the proposed synchronous learning

Yen-Ting Lin; Yi-Chiun Chi; Lien-Chien Chang; Shu-Chen Cheng; Yueh-Min Huang

2007-01-01

397

Updated 2/20/14 Minor in Education  

E-print Network

Updated 2/20/14 Minor in Education University of Massachusetts Amherst The Minor in Education is a way for students interested in education to explore various theoretical aspects of education in the area of education and be well-prepared to enter a licensure program, graduate program, or career

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

398

Web 2.0 and Emerging Technologies in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As online learning continues to grow, so do the free or nearly free Web 2.0 and emerging online learning technologies available to faculty and students. This chapter explores the implementation process and corresponding considerations of adapting such tools for teaching and learning. Issues addressed include copyright, intellectual property,…

Diaz, Veronica

2010-01-01

399

Learner Digital Stories in a Web 2.0 Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a 4-week class project in which students created Web 2.0 digital stories and shared and discussed them with their peers using VoiceThread, a digital media online tool. Participants were English language learners in an academic writing class at a major research university in the United States. Digital stories provided an…

Alameen, Ghinwa,

2011-01-01

400

Data-Based Decision Making 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phrase "data-based decision making" has been used so often in discussions about school improvement efforts that it has become almost a mantra. However, it's "how" data is used that really provides the critical link between practice and school improvement. "Data-Based Decision Making 2.0" is designed to help principals take on the role of…

Protheroe, Nancy

2011-01-01

401

Emergent Learning and Learning Ecologies in Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be…

Williams, Roy; Karousou, Regina; Mackness, Jenny

2011-01-01

402

Privacy2.0: Towards Collaborative Data-Privacy Protection  

E-print Network

scenarios. From a technical perspective, all current privacy-related ap- proaches are technologyPrivacy2.0: Towards Collaborative Data-Privacy Protection Erik Buchmann, Klemens Böhm, Oliver Raabe the individual to keep track of his personal data and require a thorough understanding of technology. Regulatory

Buchmann, Erik

403

Conceptualising Teachers' Professional Learning with Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to identify and develop an exploratory framework for conceptualising how teachers might use the affordances of Web 2.0 technologies to support their own professional learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on a large corpus of literature and recent research evidence to identify the principal elements and…

Burden, Kevin John

2010-01-01

404

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

405

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 2.0  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. he model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and...

406

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

407

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL - VERSION 2.0  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. he model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and...

408

Student Engagement and Web 2.0: What's the Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, rising tuition costs and concerns about student success and retention rates have led to an increased focus on levels of student engagement in higher education. The current interest in student engagement may be helping to revive the traditional view of education as a community of learners. The growing use of Web 2.0…

Vaughan, Norman

2010-01-01

409

Special Issue Synthetic Cell Biology Cell Biology 2.0  

E-print Network

Special Issue ­ Synthetic Cell Biology Cell Biology 2.0 Wendell A. Lim1 , Rebecca Alvania3 Vico Synthetic Cell Biology sounds intriguing, but the name begs the question ­ why should we try in harnessing and unleashing the power of cells for new and future applications, synthetic biology also has

Lim, Wendell

410

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza  

ScienceCinema

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

2010-09-01

411

Assessing E-Learning 2.0 System Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional e-learning systems support "one-way" communication. Teachers provide knowledge for learners, but they are unable to use a student's learning experiences to benefit the class as a whole. To address these problems, this study explores e-learning success factors via the design and evaluation of an e-learning 2.0 system. This study…

Wang, Hei Chia; Chiu, Yi Fang

2011-01-01

412

European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances 2.0 (EUSES 2.0); background report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the second version of the PC-program 'European\\u000aUnion System for the Evaluation of Substances', EUSES 2.0. It completely\\u000areplaces the EUSES 1.0 program and documentation. EUSES 2.0 is\\u000adesigned to be a decision-support system for the evaluation of the risks\\u000aof substances to man and the environment. The system is fully based on\\u000athe EU Technical Guidance

Lijzen JPA; Rikken MGJ

2007-01-01

413

Blistering of GaAs by low keV H, D, and He ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermally activated blistering of the GaAs (100) surface after 5- and 10keV H, D, and He ion implantations was investigated. A large isotope effect is observed as the critical blistering fluences are two to three times higher for D than for H ions. Blistering and exfoliation are also obtained for very low He ion fluence, contrary to Si which is impervious to He blistering in the same conditions. The exfoliated crater depth depends strongly on the He fluence, varying, at 10keV, from 75±10nm (for 1.6×1016He/cm2), consistent with the ion projected range determined by computation, to a saturation value of 155±10nm for doses >4×1016He/cm2. Our results suggest that the fracture leading to cleavage is triggered at a local He concentration of about 2at.%, where dislocations and nanocavities are created.

Giguère, Alexandre; Desrosiers, Nicholas; Terreault, Bernard

2005-11-01

414

Active Transport Can Greatly Enhance Cdc20:Mad2 Formation  

PubMed Central

To guarantee genomic integrity and viability, the cell must ensure proper distribution of the replicated chromosomes among the two daughter cells in mitosis. The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a central regulatory mechanism to achieve this goal. A dysfunction of this checkpoint may lead to aneuploidy and likely contributes to the development of cancer. Kinetochores of unattached or misaligned chromosomes are thought to generate a diffusible “wait-anaphase” signal, which is the basis for downstream events to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The rate of Cdc20:C-Mad2 complex formation at the kinetochore is a key regulatory factor in the context of APC/C inhibition. Computer simulations of a quantitative SAC model show that the formation of Cdc20:C-Mad2 is too slow for checkpoint maintenance when cytosolic O-Mad2 has to encounter kinetochores by diffusion alone. Here, we show that an active transport of O-Mad2 towards the spindle mid-zone increases the efficiency of Mad2-activation. Our in-silico data indicate that this mechanism can greatly enhance the formation of Cdc20:Mad2 and furthermore gives an explanation on how the “wait-anaphase” signal can dissolve abruptly within a short time. Our results help to understand parts of the SAC mechanism that remain unclear. PMID:25338047

Ibrahim, Bashar; Henze, Richard

2014-01-01

415

Has Web 2.0 Revitalized Informal Learning? The Relationship between Web 2.0 and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning is becoming increasingly self-directed and often occurs away from schools and other formal educational settings. The development of a myriad of new technologies for learning has enabled people to learn anywhere and anytime. Web 2.0 technology allows researchers to shed a new light on the importance and prevalence of informal learning.…

Song, D.; Lee, J.

2014-01-01

416

Web 2.0 in the Classroom? Dilemmas and Opportunities Inherent in Adolescent Web 2.0 Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the implications of the current phenomenon of adolescent engagement in digital spaces. Young people are increasingly active Web 2.0 users, and their interactions through these technologies are altering their social identities, styles of learning, and exchanges with others around the world. The paper argues for more research to…

Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Kearney, Matthew

2010-01-01

417

Quasi-monoenergetic 200 keV photon field using a radioactive source with backscatter layout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quasi-monoenergetic photon field with energy of ?200 keV was obtained using a radioactive source with a backscatter layout. The backscatter layout allows the calibration of a dosimeter for two different energies with a single radioactive source. The setup was optimized through calculations and experiments to minimize the low energy component and to obtain field uniformity. The optimal backscatter layout was found to comprise a 1 × 1 m2 steel floor, a radioactive source placed 20 cm above the floor, and a 10-cm cubic lead block placed directly above the source. Under the proposed layout and using a 208-MBq Cs-137 source, a monoenergetic photon field with 190 ± 9.6 keV (FWHM) and a dose rate of 3.18 ± 0.18 µSv/h was obtained within a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 area, at a distance of 15 to 25 cm above the lead block.

Tajudin, Suffian M.; Namito, Yoshihito; Sanami, Toshiya; Hirayama, Hideo

2014-11-01

418

A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a high-brightness compact 9 keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on a liquid-gallium-jet anode. A ~30 W, 50 kV electron gun is focused onto the ~20 m\\/s, 30 mum diameter liquid-gallium-jet anode to produce an ~10 mum full width at half maximum x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is >2×1010 photons\\/(s mm2 mrad2×0.1% BW). Calculation and experiments show

M. Otendal; T. Tuohimaa; U. Vogt; H. M. Hertz

2008-01-01

419

Tool interoperability in SSE OI 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a review of the concept and implementation of tool interoperability in the Space Station Software Support Environment (SSE) OI 2.0. By first providing a description of SSE, the paper describes the problem at hand, that is; the nature of the SSE that gives rise to the requirement for interoperability--between SSE workstations and hence, between the tools which reside on the workstations. Specifically, word processor and graphic tool interoperability are discussed. The concept for interoperability that is implemented in OI 2.0 is described, as is an overview of the implementation strategy. Some of the significant challenges that the development team had to overcome to bring about interoperability are described, perhaps as a checklist, or warning, to others who would bring about tool interoperability. Lastly, plans to extend tool interoperability to a third class of tools in OI 3.0 are described.

Carmody, C. L.; Shotton, C. T.

1988-01-01

420

Knowledge Management System Based on Web 2.0 Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the research work on knowledge management systems has been addressed to knowledge representation, storage, and retrieval. However, user interaction has suffered from the same limitations faced by most current Web-based systems. Web 2.0 technologies bring completely new elements that make possible designing user interfaces similar to those that could be built in windowing environments of current desktop platforms. These technologies open new possibilities to enhance user experience when working with Web-based applications. This chapter shows how Web 2.0 technologies could be used to design user interaction in a knowledge management system. Details presented could be useful to improve online interaction with Web-based support systems (WSS) in other application domains.

Jimenez, Guillermo; Barradas, Carlos

421

AFCI-2.0 Library of Neutron Cross Section Covariances  

SciTech Connect

Neutron cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. The covariances refer to central values given in the 2006 release of the U.S. neutron evaluated library ENDF/B-VII. The preliminary version (AFCI-2.0beta) has been completed in October 2010 and made available to the users for comments. In the final 2.0 release, covariances for a few materials were updated, in particular new LANL evaluations for {sup 238,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were adopted. BNL was responsible for covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work, while LANL was in charge of covariances for light nuclei and for actinides.

Herman, M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.; Hoblit,S.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sonzogni,A.; Talou,P.; Chadwick,M.B.; Hale.G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G.

2011-06-26

422

HEP Outreach, Inreach, and Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I report on current usage of multimedia and social networking "Web 2.0" tools for Education and Outreach in high-energy physics, and discuss their potential for internal communication within large worldwide collaborations, such as those of the LHC. Following a brief description of the history of Web 2.0 development, I present a survey of the most popular sites and describe their usage in HEP to disseminate information to students and the general public. I then discuss the potential of certain specific tools, such as document and multimedia sharing sites, for boosting the speed and effectiveness of information exchange within the collaborations. I conclude with a brief discussion of the successes and failures of these tools, and make suggestions for improved usage in the future.

Goldfarb, Steven

2011-12-01

423

Ground Support for the Space-Based Range Flight Demonstration 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

Burkes, Darryl A.

2007-01-01

424

Design of Transient Recorder Based on USB 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper developed an transient recorder based on USB2.0 interface. It makes full use of the high-speed transfer capability of USB chips and FPGA technology to achieve high-speed acquisition for transient signal in the offline state, and uses FLASH memory to store the large-capacity data. At the same time, the instrument uses the power supply circuit of sensor to supply

Li Ying-lian; Hu Bing

2010-01-01

425

PEG/Ion -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.2 M Sodium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350  

E-print Network

PEG/Ion - Scoring Sheet 1. 0.2 M Sodium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350 2. 0.2 M Potassium Fluoride, 20% PEG Magnesium Acetate, 20% PEG 3350 26. 0.2 M Zinc Acetate, 20% PEG 3350 27. 0.2 M Sodium Acetate, 20% PEG 3350 Crystals (3D Growth 0.2mm) Sample: Sample Buffer: Reservior Volume

Hill, Chris

426

Neutron scattering and scaling behavior in URu2Zn20 and YbFe2Zn20 C. H. Wang1,2  

E-print Network

Neutron scattering and scaling behavior in URu2Zn20 and YbFe2Zn20 C. H. Wang1,2 , A. D susceptibility (E), measured by inelastic neutron scattering measurements, shows a broad peak centered at Emax of the neutron scattering spectra (E) of polycrystalline samples[5]. The theoretical calculations[1­4] show

Lawrence, Jon

427

Research, collaboration, and open science using web 2.0.  

PubMed

There is little doubt that the Internet has transformed the world in which we live. Information that was once archived in bricks and mortar libraries is now only a click away, and people across the globe have become connected in a manner inconceivable only 20 years ago. Although many scientists and educators have embraced the Internet as an invaluable tool for research, education and data sharing, some have been somewhat slower to take full advantage of emerging Web 2.0 technologies. Here we discuss the benefits and challenges of integrating Web 2.0 applications into undergraduate research and education programs, based on our experience utilizing these technologies in a summer undergraduate research program in synthetic biology at Harvard University. We discuss the use of applications including wiki-based documentation, digital brainstorming, and open data sharing via the Web, to facilitate the educational aspects and collaborative progress of undergraduate research projects. We hope to inspire others to integrate these technologies into their own coursework or research projects. PMID:23653712

Shee, Kevin; Strong, Michael; Guido, Nicholas J; Lue, Robert A; Church, George M; Viel, Alain

2010-01-01

428

Research, Collaboration, and Open Science Using Web 2.0  

PubMed Central

There is little doubt that the Internet has transformed the world in which we live. Information that was once archived in bricks and mortar libraries is now only a click away, and people across the globe have become connected in a manner inconceivable only 20 years ago. Although many scientists and educators have embraced the Internet as an invaluable tool for research, education and data sharing, some have been somewhat slower to take full advantage of emerging Web 2.0 technologies. Here we discuss the benefits and challenges of integrating Web 2.0 applications into undergraduate research and education programs, based on our experience utilizing these technologies in a summer undergraduate research program in synthetic biology at Harvard University. We discuss the use of applications including wiki-based documentation, digital brainstorming, and open data sharing via the Web, to facilitate the educational aspects and collaborative progress of undergraduate research projects. We hope to inspire others to integrate these technologies into their own coursework or research projects. PMID:23653712

Shee, Kevin; Strong, Michael; Guido, Nicholas J.; Lue, Robert A.; Church, George M.; Viel, Alain

2010-01-01

429

Scintillation properties of Yb3+-doped YAlO3 in the temperature range from 4.2 to 175 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the temperature dependence of the emission wavelength spectrum of YAP:Yb by irradiating with ?-rays from a 90Sr/90Y source in the temperature range from 4.2 to 175 K. The light yield of YAP:Yb was characterized using an avalanche photodiode in the detection of 662-keV ?-rays from a 137Cs source in the temperature range from 50 to 175 K. The light yield was found to increase with decreasing temperature and reached 3840 photons/MeV at a temperature of 50 K. By extrapolating the temperature dependence of the light yield using that of the integrated emission spectra, the experimental light yield was evaluated to be 4300 photons/MeV at a temperature of 4.2 K.

Yasumune, T.; Kurihara, M.; Maehata, K.; Ishibashi, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

2013-10-01

430

Diffusion of iron and cobalt in ?-(Fe 0.80Cr 20) 2O 3 and (Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 3O 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficients of iron and cobalt in the sintered samples of ?-(Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 2O 3 and (Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 3O 4 were measured in air at temperatures in the range 1498 to 1673 K and under controlled oxygen partial pressures at 1573 K, respectively. It was found that the diffusion coefficient of cobalt in ?-(Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 2O 3 was about one order of magnitude larger than that of iron, but the diffusion coefficients of iron and cobalt in (Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 2O 3 were the same within the experimental error. The diffusion coefficients of iron and cobalt in ?-(Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 2O 3 were expressed by the following equations: D Fe = 1.5 × 10 5exp (-610/RT) and D Co = 9.8 × 10 5exp (-572/RT) , where the units of D and activation energy are m 2 · s -1 and kJ.mol -1, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of iron in ?-(Fe 0.80Cr 0.20) 2O 3 was compared with those of cations in other oxides with corundom structure such as ?-Al 2O 3, ?-Fe 2O 3 and ?-Cr 2O 3.

Tsuji, Toshihide; Tsumura, Koichi; Naito, Keiji

1986-04-01

431

The ^14N(p,?_o)^15O Reaction below 140 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture reaction ^14N(p,?)^15O is the limiting reaction in the CNO cycle. Very little data exists at beam energies below the Ep = 278 keV resonance for this reaction(U. Schroder et al., Nucl. Phys. A467) 240 (1987).^,(W. Lamb and R. Hester, Phys. Rev. 108) 1304 (1957).. Using a 140 keV polarized proton beam and a thick frozen trideuterio ammonia (ND_3) target, we have measured the astrophysical S-factor for the reaction relative to the S-factor for the D(p,?)^3He reaction in this energy region. The outgoing gamma rays were detected in a 140% HPGe detector. The D(p,?)^3He reaction also provided a convenient reference for the energy calibration of this detector. Preliminary analysis suggests that the S-factor for the ^14N(p,?_o)^15O reaction in this energy range is significantly larger than previously assumed^2.

Nelson, S. O.; Kelley, J. H.; Canon, R. S.; Schreiber, E. C.; Saburov, K.; Wulf, E. A.; Weller, H. R.; Prior, R. M.; Spraker, M.; Tilley, D. R.

1999-10-01

432

Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! - Risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig  

PubMed Central

Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine. PMID:23467440

Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

433

Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! -- risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig.  

PubMed

Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine. PMID:23467440

Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

434

Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA 2.0) System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system is a low-power assembly capable of simultaneously removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. Two solid amine sorbent beds are alternated between an uptake mode and a regeneration mode. During the uptake mode, the sorbent is exposed to an air steam (ventilation loop) to adsorb CO2 and water (H2O) vapor, whereas during the regeneration mode, the sorbent rejects the adsorbed CO2 and H2O vapor to a vacuum source. The two beds operate such that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. A novel valve assembly provides a simple means of diverting the process air flow through the uptake bed while simultaneously directing the vacuum source to the regeneration bed. Additionally, the valve assembly is designed to allow for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The process can be controlled by a compact, low-power controller design with several modes of operation available to the user. Together with NASA Johnson Space Center, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. has been developing RCA 2.0 based on performance and design feedback on several sorbent bed test articles and valve design concepts. A final design of RCA 2.0 was selected in November 2011 and fabricated and assembled between March and August 2012, with delivery to NASA Johnson Space Center in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the RCA system design and results of pre-delivery testing.

Papale, William; O'Coin, James; Wichowski, Robert; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

2013-01-01

435

SCOR: Structural classification of RNA, Version 2.0  

SciTech Connect

SCOR (http://scor.lbl.gov), the Structural Classification of RNA, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions, and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a wholly new classification system. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence, and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5,880 secondary structural elements are classified; 2,104 hairpin loops and 3,776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as ''Kinkturn'' and ''GNRA loops,'' are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.

Tamura, Makio; Hendrix, Donna K.; Klosterman, Peter

2003-10-03

436

A Summary of Validation Results for LEWICE 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project is underway at NASA Lewis to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different point spacing, and time step criteria across general computing platforms. It also differs in the extensive amount of effort undertaken to compare the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Lewis Icing, Research Tunnel (IRT), The complete set of data used for this comparison is available in a recent contractor report . The result of this comparison shows that the difference between the predicted ice shape from LEWICE 2.0 and the average of the experimental data is 7.2% while the variability of the experimental data is 2.5%.

Wright, William B.

1998-01-01

437

Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

Burris, John

2011-01-01

438

Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be >~20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (<~0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels. An assessment of the technique, discussions of measurement precision and error sources as well as preliminary data will be presented.

Burris, J.; Sun, X.

2011-12-01

439

Efficient first-overtone CO laser frequency tuned within the spectral range of 2.5-4.2 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Output characteristics of a pulsed e-beam controlled discharge laser operating at the first-overtone (FO) transitions ((Delta) V equals 2) of CO molecule have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Various sets of dielectric mirrors with high reflectivity in the range of the overtone spectrum have been used for the laser resonator. Multiwavelength lasing has been obtained in the wide spectral range of 2.5 - 4.1 micrometers on vibrational transitions from 6 yields 4 up to 37 yields 35. Maximum output efficiency 11%, the highest of eve laser, has been experimentally obtained for the broad band multiline FO CO laser. Maximum specific output energy (SOE) is 50 J/I Amagat. FO CO lasing was observed within an initial gas temperature interval of 100 - 220 K. Spectral characteristics of the overtone laser operating on a selected set of vibrational bands have been analyzed theoretically. Theoretical calculations based on the experimental data predict that multiline FO CO laser efficiency can be increased up to 20%. The experiments with pulsed FO CO laser using diffraction grating as a frequency selective element demonstrated a feasibility of a development of frequency tunable single line pulsed FO CO laser. Tunable FO CO lasing on wavelengths from 2.7 up to 4.2 micrometers corresponding to vibrational transitions from 13 yields 11 up to 38 yields 36 was obtained. The maximum SOE came up to 2.8 J/I Amagat, single line output efficiency being up to 0.6%.

Basov, Nikolai G.; Hager, Gordon D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Kotkov, Andrei A.; Kurnosov, Alexander K.; McCord, John E.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Turkin, Nikolay G.

2000-04-01

440

Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition for Waves. 16-10 Interference of Waves. 16-11 Phasors. 16-12 Standing Waves. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 17 Waves--II. How can an emperor penguin .nd its mate among thousands of huddled penguins? 17-1 What Is Physics? 17-2 Sound Waves. 17-3 The Speed of Sound. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves. 17-5 Interference. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound. 17-8 Beats. 17-9 The Doppler Effect. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. How can a dead rattlesnake detect and strike a reaching hand? 18-1 What Is Physics?. 18-2 Temperature. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. 18-4 Measuring Temperature. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales. 18-6 Thermal Expansion. 18-7 Temperature and Heat. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases. How can cooling steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review &#

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

2003-12-01

441

Structural option design in JZ20-2 offshore project  

SciTech Connect

In the JZ20-2 Project, ice and earthquakes are the main loads which determine the member sizes of offshore structures. UQ and W platforms are located at same field. The vertical loads of an UQ platform are about two times as much as a W platform, but structural steel weight used by two platforms is about the same. This paper describes the results to be acquired and how to determine reasonably the standard of ice load and the resistance to earthquakes with less stiffness and large mass. This paper presents some useful principles and enlightenment for offshore engineering.

Wang Lianqi [COODEC, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

442

ADIFOR 2.0 user`s guide (Revision B)  

SciTech Connect

Automatic differentiation is a technique for computing the derivatives of functions described by computer programs. ADIFOR implements automatic differentiation by transforming a collection of FORTRAN 77 subroutines that compute a function {line_integral} into new FORTRAN 77 suborutines that compute the derivaties of the outputs of {line_integral} with respect to a specified set of inputs of {line_integral}. This guide describes step by step how to use version 2.0 of ADIFOR to generate derivative code. Familiarity with UNIX and FORTRAN 77 is assumed.

Bischof, C.; Khademi, P.; Mauer, A.; Hovland, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Center for Research on Parallel Computation

1995-04-01

443

Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) version 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COMET is pleased to announce the release of a significant update to the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) to better suit our international users' needs. Aside from amassing hundreds of reliable, searchable, user-submitted resources over the last year and a half, we have developed a multi-lingual interface. Having a fully-functional Spanish interface, searching in multiple languages at once, and sorting by language of resources are just a few of the additions users can now take advantage of when using version 2.0 of the ESRC. Try the newest incarnation of the ESRC now.

Comet

2008-09-19

444

AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library  

SciTech Connect

The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

2011-03-01

445

All Solid State Laser System, Continuously Tunable Over 0.2-10 Micron Spectral Range  

E-print Network

All Solid State Laser System, Continuously Tunable Over 0.2-10 Micron Spectral Range S.B. Mirov, A continuously tunable in the 0.2-10 .tm spectral range has been developed. It is based on the alexandrite laser range. The main drawbacks and disadvantages of existing solid state lasers include: (1) a limited tuning

Mirov, Sergey B.

446

A review of controlled-source electromagnetic science applications and opportunities for imaging in the depth range 20 m to 1 km (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many exciting geoscience opportunities available to those who can provide three—dimensional subsurface characterization within the 20 m—1.0 km depth range. Applications include gas hydrates and permafrost; climate change proxy signatures in the stratigraphic record; shoreline shaping processes; glacier and ice—sheet mass transport; watershed—scale and coastal hydrology including seawater intrusion; fault—zone characterization; Earth’s tectonic, volcanic, and extraterrestrial impact history; landslide hazard assessment; carbon sequestration; characterization of geothermal systems. Many of the aforementioned science applications can and have been addressed using various geophysical techniques. The shallower depth range is very suitable to multi—electrode resistivity imaging, which has seen a tremendous resurgence of late thanks to newly developed instrumentation. Ground—penetrating radar signals provide high—resolution subsurface images but they attenuate rapidly with depth and hence, except in special cases, do not probe beneath 20 m. Seismic reflection and refraction studies, using artificial sources, earthquakes and ambient noise, supplemented with newer surface wave and interferometric methods, are the traditional workhorse for the 20 m - 1.0 km depth range. Gravity and magnetic techniques continue to see great improvements and have long provided valuable subsurface information, when either used alone or in conjunction with another method. Other geophysical techniques such as spontaneous potential, induced polarization, and electroseismic are also gaining in importance. Controlled—source electromagnetics occupies an important niche for 20 m -1.0 km depth investigations as a complement to seismic and as an active technique that permits both parametric (variable frequency, or time—domain equivalent) and geometric (variable source—receiver separations) soundings. Low—frequency (sub—kHz) electromagnetic induction signals generated by an appropriate source easily penetrate to 1 km. This contribution reviews some of the recent scientific accomplishments in CSEM imaging of the 20 m to 1 km depth range and demonstrates its applicability across a wide range of scientific disciplines.

Everett, M. E.

2009-12-01

447

Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education: an online survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the current familiarity and use of Web 2.0 technologies by medical students and qualified medical practitioners, and to identify the barriers to its use for medical education. Methods A semi?structured online questionnaire survey of 3000 medical students and 3000 qualified medical practitioners (consultants, general practitioners and doctors in training) on the British Medical Association's membership database. Results All groups had high familiarity, but low use, of podcasts. Ownership of digital media players was higher among medical students. There was high familiarity, but low use, of other Web 2.0 technologies except for high use of instant messaging and social networking by medical students. All groups stated that they were interested in using Web 2.0 technologies for education but there was lack of knowledge and skills in how to use these new technologies. Conclusions There is an overall high awareness of a range of new Web 2.0 technologies by both medical students and qualified medical practitioners and high interest in its use for medical education. However, the potential of Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education will only be achieved if there is increased training in how to use this new approach. PMID:18057175

Sandars, J; Schroter, S

2007-01-01

448

Virtual Sensors in a Web 2.0 Digital Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of rainfall data in many watersheds is one of the major barriers for modeling and studying many environmental and hydrological processes and supporting decision making. There are just not enough rain gages on the ground. To overcome this data scarcity issue, a Web 2.0 digital watershed is developed at NCSA(National Center for Supercomputing Applications), where users can point-and-click on a web-based google map interface and create new precipitation virtual sensors at any location within the same coverage region as a NEXRAD station. A set of scientific workflows are implemented to perform spatial, temporal and thematic transformations to the near-real-time NEXRAD Level II data. Such workflows can be triggered by the users' actions and generate either rainfall rate or rainfall accumulation streaming data at a user-specified time interval. We will discuss some underlying components of this digital watershed, which consists of a semantic content management middleware, a semantically enhanced streaming data toolkit, virtual sensor management functionality, and RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web service that can trigger the workflow execution. Such loosely coupled architecture presents a generic framework for constructing a Web 2.0 style digital watershed. An implementation of this architecture at the Upper Illinois Rive Basin will be presented. We will also discuss the implications of the virtual sensor concept for the broad environmental observatory community and how such concept will help us move towards a participatory digital watershed.

Liu, Y.; Hill, D. J.; Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Myers, J. D.

2008-12-01

449

Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module  

DOEpatents

A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

450

CBP TOOLBOX VERSION 2.0: CODE INTEGRATION ENHANCEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes enhancements made to code integration aspects of the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox as a result of development work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in collaboration with Vanderbilt University (VU) in the first half of fiscal year 2013. Code integration refers to the interfacing to standalone CBP partner codes, used to analyze the performance of cementitious materials, with the CBP Software Toolbox. The most significant enhancements are: 1) Improved graphical display of model results. 2) Improved error analysis and reporting. 3) Increase in the default maximum model mesh size from 301 to 501 nodes. 4) The ability to set the LeachXS/Orchestra simulation times through the GoldSim interface. These code interface enhancements have been included in a new release (Version 2.0) of the CBP Toolbox.

Smith, F.; Flach, G.; BROWN, K.

2013-06-01

451

Effect of the electropositive elements A = Sc, La, and Ce on the microscopic dynamics of AV2Al20.  

PubMed

We report on the inelastic response of AV2Al20 (with A = Sc, La and Ce) probed by high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Intense signals associated with the dynamics of Sc, La and Ce are identified in the low-energy range at 6-14 meV in ScV2Al20 and at 8-16 meV in LaV2Al20 and CeV2Al20. Their response to temperature changes between 2 and 300 K reveals a very weak softening of the modes upon heating in LaV2Al20 and CeV2Al20 and a distinguished blue shift by about 2 meV in ScV2Al20. By means of density functional theory (DFT) and lattice dynamics calculations (LDC) we show that the unusual anharmonicity of the Sc-dominated modes is due to the local potential of Sc featured by a strong quartic term. The vibrational dynamics of ScV2Al20 as well as of LaV2Al20 and CeV2Al20 is reproduced by a set of eigenmodes. To screen the validity of the DFT and LDC results they are confronted with data from X-ray diffraction measurements. The effect of the strong phonon renormalization in ScV2Al20 on thermodynamic observables is computed on grounds of the LDC derived inelastic response. To set the data in a general context of AV2Al20 compounds and their physical properties we report in addition computer and experimental results of the binary V2Al20 compound. PMID:25388502

Koza, Michael Marek; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Sischka, Erik; Schnelle, Walter; Borrmann, Horst; Mutka, Hannu; Grin, Yuri

2014-11-19

452

A search for water masers associated with class II methanol masers - I. Longitude range 6 to 20 degrees  

E-print Network

The Australia Telescope Compact Array has been used to search for 22-GHz water masers towards the 119 6.7-GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multi-Beam survey between Galactic longitudes 6 and 20 degrees; we find water masers associated with 55 (~46 per cent). Methanol masers with associated water masers have a higher mean integrated luminosity than those without and there is a general trend for sources with more luminous 6.7-GHz methanol masers to be associated with more luminous water maser emission. We have inspected the GLIMPSE three colour images of the regions surrounding the masers and cross-matched the maser positions with existing catalogues of Extended Green Objects and Infrared Dark Clouds. We find more Extended Green Objects at sites where both methanol and water masers are present than at sites with only methanol masers, but no significant difference in the fraction embedded within Infrared Dark Clouds. Analysis of the 1.1-mm dust emission shows dust clumps associated with masers that h...

Titmarsh, A M; Breen, S L; Caswell, J L; Voronkov, M A

2014-01-01

453

Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 ?m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

2012-12-01

454

46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication...UW-2(a)). (a) Pressure vessels containing hazardous...Commandant. (b) Class III pressure vessels must not be used for...

2010-10-01

455

A search for water masers associated with class II methanol masers - I. Longitude range 6°-20°  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australia Telescope Compact Array has been used to search for 22-GHz water masers towards the 119 6.7-GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol MultiBeam survey between Galactic longitudes 6° and 20°; we find water masers associated with 55 (˜46 per cent). Methanol masers with associated water masers have a higher mean integrated luminosity than those without and there is a general trend for sources with more luminous 6.7-GHz methanol masers to be associated with more luminous water maser emission. We have inspected the GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-plane Survey Extraordinaire) three colour images of the regions surrounding the masers and cross-matched the maser positions with existing catalogues of Extended Green Objects and infrared dark clouds. We find more Extended Green Objects at sites where both methanol and water masers are present than at sites with only methanol masers, but no significant difference in the fraction embedded within infrared dark clouds. Analysis of the 1.1-mm dust emission shows dust clumps associated with masers that have greater flux densities and higher column densities than those without. Dust clumps associated with both water and 6.7-GHz methanol masers are generally the most compact clumps followed by those associated with only methanol then the clumps without associated maser emission. We conclude that protostars with both methanol and water masers are often older than those with only methanol; however, we suggest that the evolutionary phase traced by water masers is not as well defined as for 6.7-GHz methanol masers.

Titmarsh, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Voronkov, M. A.

2014-10-01

456

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30  

E-print Network

. The majority of the calls are fin whales, but blue whales were ob- served on at least 9 days (red). In addition 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Hour of Day Figure 4. (left) Example of a blue whale vocalization,s Range, km Figure 5. (above) Examples of ray paths between a whale and a seafloor seismometer at 20 km

Wilcock, William

457

Workshop report from Web2SE: first workshop on web 2.0 for software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, blogs, tags and feeds have been adopted and adapted by software engineers. With Web2SE, we provide a venue for pertinent work by highlighting current state-of-the-art research, by identifying research areas, and by discussing implications of Web 2.0 on software engineering. This paper reports on the paper presentations and the discussions among participants at Web2SE

Christoph Treude; Margaret-Anne D. Storey; Kate Ehrlich; Arie van Deursen

2010-01-01

458

Complex permittivity of lanthanum aluminate in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dielectric constants of microwave substrates are required in the design of superconducting microwave circuits at various temperatures. In this paper, the results are reported of a study of the complex permittivity of the newly developed lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrate, in the 20 to 300 K temperature range at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The value of the complex permittivity was obtained by measuring the sample scattering parameters using a microwave waveguide technique. It is observed that, while the dielectric constant did not change appreciably with frequency, its value decreased by approximately 14 percent from room temperature to 20 K.

Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Bhasin, K. B.; Ebihara, B. T.; Heinen, V. O.; Chorey, C. M.

1990-01-01

459

Electrochemistry of LiMnO 2 over an extended potential range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of potential versus composition was conducted on orthorhombic LiMnO2 over the voltage range of 1.0 to 4.6 V with a variety of electrolyte formulations. The broad potential range enabled studying the electrochemical behaviour of the material over compositions from LiMnO2 to Li0.1MnO2. Substantial differences in the kinetics of the electrochemical processes associated with certain potential ranges were

Z. X. Shu; I. J. Davidson; R. S. McMillan; J. J. Murray

1997-01-01

460

Investigation of magnetic order in SmTr2Zn20 (Tr=Fe ,Co,Ru) and SmTr2Cd20 (Tr=Ni ,Pd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of the "cage compounds" SmTr2Zn20 (Tr=Fe, Co, Ru) and SmTr2Cd20 (Tr=Ni, Pd) have been investigated by means of electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements. The compounds SmFe2Zn20,SmRu2Zn20, and SmNi2Cd20 exhibit ferromagnetic order with Curie temperatures of TC=47.4, 7.6, and 7.5 K, respectively, whereas SmPd2Cd20 is an antiferromagnet with a Néel temperature of TN=3.4 K. No evidence for magnetic order is observed in SmCo2Zn20 down to 110 mK. The Sommerfeld coefficients ? are found to be 57 mJ /molK2 for SmFe2Zn20,79.5 mJ /molK2 for SmCo2Zn20,258 mJ /molK2 for SmRu2Zn20,165 mJ /molK2 for SmNi2Cd20, and 208 mJ /molK2 for SmPd2Cd20. Enhanced values of ? and a quadratic temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity at low temperature for SmRu2Zn20 and SmPd2Cd20 suggest an enhancement of the quasiparticle masses due to hybridization between localized 4f and conduction electron states.

Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Ho, P.-C.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Huang, K.; Friedman, A. J.; Wong, A. S.; Burnett, V. W.; Dilley, N. R.; Maple, M. B.

2014-10-01

461

GBM detection of XTE J1752-223 to above 100 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new transient black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 (ATel. #2258; see also ATels. #2259, #2261, #2263, #2268, #2269, #2278), is also detected using the Earth occultation technique with the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi. We detect the source to above 100 keV, with a mean 100-300 keV flux for 2009 Oct 30 - November 2 of 740+/-120 mCrab. The transient rose from undetectable on 2009 October 24 to 560+/-55 mCrab (12-25 keV), 510+/-80 mCrab (25-50 keV), 970+/-120 mCrab (50-100 keV), and 770+/-230 mCrab (100-300 keV) on 2009 November 2.

Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.

2009-11-01

462

Beta-decay of 20Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-decay of 20Mg was investigated. A secondary beam of 20Mg ions, produced in reactions between a 95 A·MeV 24Mg-beam and a natNi-target, was isotopically separated by means of the LISE3 spectrometer at GANIL. This secondary beam was implanted into a silicon detector array surrounded by germanium ?-detectors. The ?-delayed proton and ?-ray data, measured for this short-lived nucleus ( T {1}/{2} = 95 ± 3 ms), were incorporated into an improved 20Mg? 20Na decay scheme. The 2645 keV level in 20Na is of importance for the breakout from the astrophysical hot CNO-cycle and the onset of the rapid proton capture process via the reaction 19Ne(p,?) 20Na. An upper limit of 0.1% for the ?-decay feeding of the 2645 keV level and a lower limit for the corresponding log ft value of 6.24 were determined. The implications of this result for the spin and parity assignment of the 2645 keV state are discussed. By comparing the 20Mg ?-decay into the proton-unbound 3001 keV state in 20Na and the isospin-mirrored decay into the particle-bound 3488 keV level in 20F, an asymmetry {ft +}/{ft -} - 1 = 1.69 -0.65+0.86 was observed. The comparison of the experimentally determined B(GT) values for the Gamow-Teller ?-decay of 20Mg with a calculation performed in a full sd-shell model space yields an overall quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength of 0.84, corresponding to an observed fraction of 71% of the calculated strength. The measured Gamow-Teller strength above excitation energies of 3 MeV is more fragmented than predicted by the shell-model calculation.

Piechaczek, A.; Mohar, M. F.; Anne, R.; Borrel, V.; Brown, B. A.; Corre, J. M.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hue, R.; Keller, H.; Kubono, S.; Kunze, V.; Lewitowicz, M.; Magnus, P.; Mueller, A. C.; Nakamura, T.; Pfützner, M.; Roeckl, E.; Rykaczewski, K.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Schmidt-Ott, W.-D.; Sorlin, O.

1995-02-01

463

Security Requirements for Social Networks in Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A social network is a structure of individuals or organizations, which are connected by one or more types of interdependency, such as friendship, affinity, common interests or knowledge. Social networks use now web 2.0 technology and the users may need to follow a series of restrictions or conditions to join or add contents. We look here at their context and threats, in order to ascertain their needs for security. We propose the use of patterns to specify these requirements in a precise way and we present two specific patterns. A pattern is an encapsulated solution to a software problem in a given context. We present here the Participation-Collaboration Pattern, which describes the functionality of the collaboration between users in applications and the Collaborative Tagging Pattern, which is useful to share content using keywords to tag bookmarks, photographs and other contents. We also discuss possible improvements to the current situation.

Fernandez, Eduardo B.; Marin, Carolina; Petrie, Maria M. Larrondo

464

[« Biology/medicine 2.0 »: an overview].  

PubMed

In the last decade, the applications known as "web 2.0" (Facebook, Youtube, Twitter…) have changed our daily life and gradually influence the field of research. This article aims at proposing a critical overview of these new services, and emphasizes the changes induced for researchers (practice of scientific publication, sharing and mutualization of research data and discussion between researchers…) especially in the field of biology/medicine. A focus is done on the limitations that prevent most of scientists from using these services in their common practice (lack of knowledge about these tools, time-consuming, fear of sharing data and ideas). Despite these restrictions, some mutations affecting researcher's information uses are unavoidable, and these new tools may rapidly contribute to scientific advances. PMID:22805143

Boudry, Christophe

2012-01-01

465

Ecology 2.0: Coexistence and Domination of Interacting Networks  

E-print Network

The overwhelming success of the web 2.0, with online social networks as key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of these services for the first time has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at a system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of numerous digital services naturally raises the question under which conditions these services can coexist. In analogy to population dynamics, the digital world is forming a complex ecosystem of interacting networks whose fitnesses depend on their ability to attract and maintain users' attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits a stable coexistence of several networks as well as the domination of a single one, in contrast to the principle of competitive exclusion. Interestingly, our model also predic...

Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja

2014-01-01

466

WebEQ 2.0 at the Geometry Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WebEQ 2.0 is a package of Java applets that allow the user to easily incorporate complex mathematical notation into HTML documents. The package supports the WebTeX mark-up language which is similar to LaTeX, but based on MathML, the proposed HTML mathematical mark-up standard. The language is easy-to-learn, especially for those who have had LaTeX experience. The WebEQ engine will be able to process MathML so that documents written using WebEQ should be compatible with this coming standard. There are versions for Unix, Windows 95/NT, and Macintosh, however no special software (beyond a Java capable browser) is necessary to view the math notation. The software is free to students, faculty, and staff of educational institutions for educational uses. It is available for a fee to others.

1997-01-01

467

Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

2007-07-01

468

A Dose-Ranging Study of Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b and Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa-2b (PEG-Intron) plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 72 patients (35 men\\/37 women, age range 20-68 years) with clinically compensated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) were enrolled into this open-label, randomized, active controlled study. Patients received either PEG-Intron 0.35,

Paul Glue; Regine Rouzier-Panis; Claude Raffanel; Ron Sabo; Samir K. Gupta; Margaret Salfi; Shiela Jacobs; Robert P. Clement

2000-01-01

469

Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at

Thomas W. Zagwodzki; Jan F. McGarry; John J. Degnan; Thomas K. Varghese

1993-01-01

470

First limits on the 3-200 keV X-ray spectrum of the quiet Sun using RHESSI  

E-print Network

We present the first results using the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, RHESSI, to observe solar X-ray emission not associated with active regions, sunspots or flares (the quiet Sun). Using a newly developed chopping technique (fan-beam modulati