Science.gov

Sample records for 2 20 kev range

  1. A study of 2-20 KeV X-rays from the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two rocket-borne proportional counters, each with 650 sq c, met area and 1.8 x 7.1 deg FWHM rectangular mechanical collimation, surveyed the Cygnus region in the 2 to 20 keV energy range on two occasions. X-ray spectral data gathered on 21 September 1970 from discrete sources in Cygnus are presented. The data from Cyg X-1, Cyg X-2, and Cyg X-3 have sufficient statistical significance to indicate mutually exclusive spectral forms for the three. Upper limits are presented for X-ray intensities above 2 keV for Cyg X-4 and Cyg X-5 (Cygnus loop). A search was made on 9 August 1971 for a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 degrees. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

  2. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  3. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  4. Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    2000-05-01

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  5. First INTEGRAL Observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 Outburst: Spectral Behavior in the 20–650 keV Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ?200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT0 ? 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400–600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10?4 ph cm?2 s?1 (2?) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic, and Poland with the participation of Russia and USA.

  6. Observation of lithium pick-up ions in the 5- to 20-keV energy range following the AMPTE solar wind releases

    SciTech Connect

    Moebius, E.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F.M.; Luehr, H.

    1986-02-01

    Newly created 5- to 20-keV lithium ions were observed for limited time periods following the first Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) lithium release in the solar wind on September 11, 1984. The detection of these so-called ''pick-up'' ions by the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA (suprathermal energy ionic charge analyzer) on the AMPTE/IRM satellite depends critically on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field with respect to the directions of the solar wind and the spin axis of the IRM spacecraft, which was favorable only during the short time when these ions were seen. Our observations are compatible with a shell-like expansion of the Li cloud with velocities of about 2.5 km/s. The signatures by which the artificial pick-up ions are identified can also be used to detect and investigate natural pick-up ions.

  7. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H

    2005-12-05

    The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

  8. First INTEGRAL observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst : spectral behavior in the 20 - 650 keV energy range

    E-print Network

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission, and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability, and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low energy component (up to ~ 200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons ($kT_0$ ~ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400-600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law co...

  9. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-15

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s{sup 2}-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing 'two-frame' imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s{sup 2}-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns gate time) digital x-ray camera is being developed [G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)] to extend the system to 'four-frame' and markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. [At present, time-integrating Fuji BAS-TR2025 image plate (scanned with a Fuji BAS-5000 device) forms the time-integrated image-plane detector.].

  10. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time) digital x-ray camera is being developed [G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)] to extend the system to "four-frame" and markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. [At present, time-integrating Fuji BAS-TR2025 image plate (scanned with a Fuji BAS-5000 device) forms the time-integrated image-plane detector.

  11. The emission of Cygnus X-1: observations with INTEGRAL SPI from 20 keV to 2 MeV

    E-print Network

    Jourdain, Elisabeth; Malzac, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We report on Cyg X-1 observations performed by the SPI telescope onboard the INTEGRAL mission and distributed over more than 6 years. We investigate the variability of the intensity and spectral shape of this peculiar source in the hard X-rays domain, and more particularly up to the MeV region. We first study the total averaged spectrum which presents the best signal to noise ratio (4 Ms of data). Then, we refine our results by building mean spectra by periods and gathering those of similar hardness. Several spectral shapes are observed with important changes in the curvature between 20 and 200 keV, even at the same luminosity level. In all cases, the emission decreases sharply above 700 keV, with flux values above 1 MeV (or upper limits) well below the recently reported polarised flux (Laurent et al. 2011), while compatible with the MeV emission detected some years ago by CGRO/COMPTEL (McConnell et al., 2002). Finally, we take advantage of the spectroscopic capability of the instrument to seek for spectral f...

  12. Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoeva, I. K.

    2013-04-15

    The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

  13. Excimer Emission using 20keV Electron Beam Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, J.; Ulrich, A.; Murnick, D. E.

    1996-10-01

    A small, continuously emitting rare gas excimer light source has been developed. The gas is excited by a 20keV dc-electron beam. A 300nm thick, 1×1mm^2 SiNx foil sustaining a pressure difference up to 2bar, separates the target volume from the high vacuum part of the electron gun. Spectra of the rare gases Ar, Kr, and Xe have been studied. The monochromator detector system was intensity calibrated in the wavelength range from 115nm to 320nm. Electron beam currents of typically 1?A were used for excitation. When used as a VUV lamp on the second excimer continua, energy conversion efficiencies of 30% were obtained. Emissions originating from the so called left turning points have been clearly observed at 155, 173, and 222nm in Ar_2^*, Kr_2^*, and Xe_2^*, respectively. The so called third continua between 185nm and 240nm (Ar), 220nm and 250nm (Kr), and at 270nm (Xe) have been studied. A new continuum in Xe at 280nm was found. (Funded by the A.v.Humboldt Foundation and NSF (CTS 94-19440). The authors acknowledge support by H. Huggins, A. Liddle and W.L. Brown (Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies))

  14. FISM 2.0: Improved Spectral Range, Resolution, and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was first released in 2005 to provide accurate estimates of the solar VUV (0.1-190 nm) irradiance to the Space Weather community. This model was based on TIMED SEE as well as UARS and SORCE SOLSTICE measurements, and was the first model to include a 60 second temporal variation to estimate the variations due to solar flares. Along with flares, FISM also estimates the tradition solar cycle and solar rotational variations over months and decades back to 1947. This model has been highly successful in providing driving inputs to study the affect of solar irradiance variations on the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere, lunar dust charging, as well as the Martian ionosphere. The second version of FISM, FISM2, is currently being updated to be based on the more accurate SDO/EVE data, which will provide much more accurate estimations in the 0.1-105 nm range, as well as extending the 'daily' model variation up to 300 nm based on the SOLSTICE measurements. with the spectral resolution of SDO/EVE along with SOLSTICE and the TIMED and SORCE XPS 'model' products, the entire range from 0.1-300 nm will also be available at 0.1 nm, allowing FISM2 to be improved a similar 0.1nm spectral bins. FISM also will have a TSI component that will estimate the total radiated energy during flares based on the few TSI flares observed to date. Presented here will be initial results of the FISM2 modeling efforts, as well as some challenges that will need to be overcome in order for FISM2 to accurately model the solar variations on time scales of seconds to decades.

  15. Mutagenic effect of a keV range N + beam on mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huiyun; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Lixiang; Han, Wei; Liu, Xuelan; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-07-01

    The radiobiological effects of a keV (5-20 keV) range nitrogen ion (N +) beam on mammalian cells were studied, particularly with regard to the induction of mutation in the cell genome. The experiment demonstrated that the 20 keV N + beam, which resulted in cell death to a certain extent, induced a 2-3 fold increase in the mutation rates at the CD59 gene locus of the mammalian A L cells as compared to the control. Within certain fluence ranges (0-6 × 10 14 N +/cm 2), the cell survival displayed a down-up-down pattern which is similar to the phenomenon known as 'hyper-radiosensitivity' manifested under low-dose irradiation; the CD59 mutation rate firstly showed a gradual rise up to a 3-fold increment above the background level as the ion fluence went up to 4 × 10 14 N +/cm 2, after this peak point however, a downtrend appeared though the ion fluence increased further. It was also observed that the fraction of CD59 mutation bears no proportional relation to ion energy in further experiments of mutation induction by N + beams with the incident energies of 5, 10, 15 and 20 keV at the same fluence of 3 × 10 14 N +/cm 2. Analyses of the deletion patterns of chromosome 11 in CD59- mutants induced by 5-20 keV N + beams showed that these ions did not result in large-size chromosome deletions in this mammalian cell system. A preliminary discussion, suggesting that the mutagenic effect of such low-energy ion influx on mammalian cells could result from multiple processes involving direct collision of particles with cellular DNA, and cascade atomic and molecular reactions due to plentiful primary and secondary particles, was also presented. The study provided the first glimpse into the roles low-energy ions may play in inducing mutagenesis in mammalian cells, and results will be of much value in helping people to understand the contribution of low-energy ions to radiological effects of various ionising radiations.

  16. The pulse profile of the Crab pulsar in the energy range 45 keV-1.2 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Fishman, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Crab Nebula pulsar (PSR 0531+21) is the best studied and most intense of the nontransient X-ray pulsars. However, since its spectrum drops rapidly with energy, a well-resolved pulse profile has not previously been obtained above 200 keV. In the hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-ray region, an accurate pulse profile can be obtained with a balloon-borne detector of sufficient area during a single transit of the source. A new measurement of the pulse profile of PSR 0531+21 in the energy range above 45 keV obtained with a large-area scintillation detector array is reported. The detector array was flown on a balloon launched from Palestine, Texas on 1980 October 6, reaching a float altitude 4.5 g/sq cm at 0230 UTC October 7. The primary objective of the experiment was to detect and study weak gamma-ray bursts.

  17. The Hard X-ray 20-40 keV AGN Luminosity Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Shrader, C. R.; Gehrels, N.; Produit, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have compiled a complete, significance limited extragalactic sample based on approximately 25,000 deg(sup 2) to a limiting flux of 3 x 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second. (approximately 7,000 deg(sup 2)) to a flux limit of 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second)) in the 20 - 40 keV band with INTEGRAL. We have constructed a detailed exposure map to compensate for effects of non-uniform exposure. The flux-number relation is best described by a power-law with a slope of alpha = 1.66 plus or minus 0.11. The integration of the cumulative flux per unit area leads to f(sub 20-40 keV) = 2.6 x 10(exp -10) ergs per square centimeter per second per sr(sup -1) which is about 1% of the known 20-40 keV X-ray background. We present the first luminosity function of AGN in the 20-40 keV energy range, based on 68 extragalactic objects detected by the imager IBIS/ISGRI on-board INTEGRAL. The luminosity function shows a smoothly connected two power-law form, with an index of gamma (sub 1) = 0.9 below, and gamma (sub 2) = 2.2 above the turn-over luminosity of L(sub *), = 4.6 x 10(sup 43) ergs per second. The emissivity of all INTEGRAL AGNs per unit volume is W(sub 20-40keV)(greater than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) = 2.8 x 10(sup 38) ergs per second h(sup 3)(sub 70) Mpc(sup -3). These results are consistent with those derived in the 2-20keV energy band and do not show a significant contribution by Compton-thick objects. Because the sample used in this study is truly local (z(raised bar) = 0.022)), only limited conclusions can be drawn for the evolution of AGNs in this energy band. But the objects explaining the peak in the cosmic X-ray background are likely to be either low luminosity AGN (L(sub x) less than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) or of other type, such as intermediate mass black holes, clusters, and star forming regions.

  18. High angular resolution cosmic X-ray astronomy observations in the energy range 0.15-2 keV and XUV observations of nearby stars from an attitude controlled rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The construction of a two dimensional focusing Wolter Type I mirror system for X-ray and XUV astronomical observations from an Astrobee F sounding rocket is described. The mirror design goal will have a one degree field, a 20-arc seconds resolution, an effective area of about 50 sq cm at 1 keV and 10 sq cm at 0.25 keV on axis. A star camera provides aspect data to about 15-arc seconds. Two detectors are placed at the focus with an interchange mechanism to allow a detector change during flight. The following specific developments are reported: (1) position sensitive proportional counter development; (2) channel plate multiplier development; (3) telescope mirror development and payload structure; (4) Australian rocket flight results; (5) Comet Kohoutek He I observation; and (6) Vela, Puppis A, and Gem-Mon bright patch observations.

  19. R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

  20. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8?keV).

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000?eV up to 8?keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8?keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1?keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible. PMID:26698063

  1. Study of NGC2070 at 3-8 Kev and 8-20 Kev using RXTE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the variation of relative flux density along the primary and secondary maxima in NGC2070 using 3-8 Kev and 8-20 Kev RXTE Survey. These two X-ray pass-bands are responsible for free-free transition and inner transition of electron because of strong radiation field of NGC2070. A similar knoty structure is found in both 3-8 Kev and 8-20 Kev passbands. However, the maxima is found to be located in the different knots. A similar nature of flux density variation is observed in both passbands, suggesting a strong association between the substructures. We conclude that the nebula NGC2070 exhibit X-ray dominated region which generally reduces the initial mass function of the interstellar cloud. A further study is needed in order to know the shaping mechanism of the structure.

  2. New applications and analysis of avalanche photodiodes as detectors for electrons ranging from 10 keV to 300 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, T.; Osakabe, N.; Endo, J.; Tonomura, A.; Urakami, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.

    1998-12-31

    New applications of avalanche photodiodes as fast timing detectors for electrons ranging from 10 keV to 300 keV together with an analysis of the response of silicon avalanche photodiodes to the electrons are reported.

  3. Solar Wind ?20–200 keV Superhalo Electrons at Quiet Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghua; Yang, Liu; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Pei, Zhongtian; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Bale, Stuart D.

    2015-04-01

    High-energy superhalo electrons are present in the interplanetary medium (IPM) even in the absence of any significant solar activity, carrying important information on electron acceleration in the solar wind. We present a statistical survey of ?20–200 keV superhalo electrons measured at 1 AU by the WIND 3D Plasma & Energetic Particle instrument during quiet-time periods from 1995 January through 2013 December. The selected 242 quiet-time samples mostly occur during the rising, maximum and decay phases of solar cycles. The observed omnidirectional differential flux of these quiet-time superhalo electrons generally fits to a power-law spectrum J=A× {{(\\frac{E}{{{m}e}{{c}2}})}-? }, with ? ranging from ?1.6 to ?3.7 and the integrated density nsup ranging from 10?8 to 10?5 cm?3. In solar cycle 23 (24), the distribution of ? has a broad maximum between 2.4 and 2.8 (2.0 and 2.4). Both ? and the logarithm of nsup show no obvious correlation with sunspot number, solar flares, solar wind core population, etc. These superhalo electrons may form a quiet-time energetic electron background/reservoir in the IPM. We propose that they may originate from nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or could be formed in the IPM due to further acceleration and/or long-distance propagation effects.

  4. Thermal conductivity of highly porous Si in the temperature range 4.2 to 20 K

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental results of the thermal conductivity k of highly porous Si in the temperature range 4.2 to 20 K, obtained using the direct current (dc) method combined with thermal finite element simulations. The reported results are the first in the literature for this temperature range. It was found that porous Si thermal conductivity at these temperatures shows a plateau-like temperature dependence similar to that obtained in glasses, with a constant k value as low as 0.04 W/m.K. This behavior is attributed to the presence of a majority of non-propagating vibrational modes, resulting from the nanoscale fractal structure of the material. By examining the fractal geometry of porous Si and its fractal dimensionality, which was smaller than two for the specific porous Si material used, we propose that a band of fractons (the localized vibrational excitations of a fractal lattice) is responsible for the observed plateau. The above results complement previous results by the authors in the temperature range 20 to 350 K. In this temperature range, a monotonic increase of k with temperature is observed, fitted with simplified classical models. The extremely low thermal conductivity of porous Si, especially at cryogenic temperatures, makes this material an excellent substrate for Si-integrated microcooling devices (micro-coldplate). PACS 61.43.-j; 63.22.-m; 65.8.-g PMID:25114631

  5. Charge-coupled-device response to electron beam energies of less than 1 keV up to 20 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher; Janesick, James R.; Evans, Kenneth; Elliott, Tom

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments of backside treatment for the backside-illuminated scientifc CCD imagers have shown near-theoretical efficiency even at the short wavelength region of the spectrum. By using SEM performance comparisons of backside-treated and untreated CCDs to an electron flux varying from 1 to 100 pA and beam energy ranging from less than 1 keV up to 20 keV are obtained. The theoretical analysis, the SEM testing procedure, and the quantum efficiency measurement results are presented. It is shown, for example, that the average quantum efficiency increases from less than 1 percent for an untreated CCD to nearly 40 percent for a backside-treated CCD at a beam energy of 1 kev.

  6. Complex Refractive Index of Ammonium Nitrate in the 2-20 micron Spectral Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Norman, Mark L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Cutten, Dean R.

    2002-01-01

    Using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorbance/transmittance spectral data for ammonium sulfate (AMS), calcium carbonate (CAC) and ammonium nitrate (AMN), comparisons were made with previously published complex refractive indices data for AMS and CAC to infer experimental parameters to determine the imaginary refractive index for AMN in the infrared wavelength range from 2 to 20 microns. Kramers-Kronig mathematical relations were applied to calculate the real refractive index for the three compositions. Excellent agreement for AMS and CAC with the published values was found, validating the complex refractive indices obtained for AMN. Backscatter calculations using a lognormal size distribution for AMS, AMN, and CAC aerosols were performed to show differences in their backscattered spectra.

  7. Calibration of SIOM-5FW film in the range of 0.1-4 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenais-Popovics, C.; Reverdin, C.; Ioannou, I.

    2006-06-01

    The SIOM-5FW film produced for the sub-keV x-ray detection range was calibrated here in a wide energy range (0.1-4keV). A single set of parameters valid in the whole measured energy range was determined for the calibration of the Shangai 5F (SIOM-5FW) film from a parametric fit of the data. The sensitivity of the SIOM-5FW film was measured to be four times lower than that of the Kodak DEF film at 2.5keV photon energy. Modeling of the DEF and SIOM-5FW films provides a good comparison of their sensitivity in the 0.1-10keV range.

  8. Measurement of the {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}) cross section from 20 meV to 500 keV with a high efficiency, highly segmented 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} detector

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, E.-I.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Glover, S. E.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Mertz, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Greife, U.; Hatarik, A. M.; Hatarik, R.

    2008-03-15

    The {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}){sup 238}Np cross section has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 500 keV using the DANCE array at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new facility allows experiments with submilligram samples and is therefore well suited to investigate isotopes with half-lives as low as a few hundred days. In this benchmark measurement, only 0.42 mg of {sup 237}Np was sufficient to determine differential cross sections relative to the well-known resonance at 0.5 eV. The thermal cross section was measured to {sigma}{sub 2200m/s}=177{+-}5 barn, {sigma}{sub kT=25.3meV}=167{+-}4 barn and the resonance integral to RI=693{+-}6 barn.

  9. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  10. Differential cross sections for ??? p overline-p in the CM energy range from 2.0 to 3.1 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althoff, M.; Braunschweig, W.; Gather, K.; Kirschfink, F. J.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Martyn, H.-U.; Peise, G.; Rimkus, J.; Rosskamp, P.; Sander, H. G.; Schmitz, D.; Siebke, H.; Wallraff, W.; Fischer, H. M.; Hartmann, H.; Hillen, W.; Jocksch, A.; Knop, G.; Köpke, L.; Kolanoski, H.; Kück, H.; Wedemeyer, R.; Wermes, N.; Wollstadt, M.; Cooper, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hultschig, H.; Joos, P.; Koch, W.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Lüke, D.; Mättig, P.; Mess, K. H.; Notz, D.; Pyrlik, J.; Quarrie, D. R.; Rushton, M.; Schütte, W.; Trines, D.; Wolf, G.; Xiao, Ch.; Fohrmann, R.; Hilger, E.; Kracht, T.; Krasemann, H. L.; Leu, P.; Lohrmann, E.; Pandoulas, D.; Poelz, G.; Wiik, B. H.; Al-Agil, I.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Campbell, A. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Foster, B.; Garbutt, D. A.; Jones, T. D.; Jones, W. G.; McCardle, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Bell, K. W.; Bowler, M. G.; Brock, I. C.; Cashmore, R. J.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Devenish, R.; Grossmann, P.; Lloyd, S. L.; Salmon, G. L.; Thomas, J.; Wyatt, T. R.; Youngman, C.; Hart, J. C.; Harvey, J.; Proudfoot, J.; Saxon, D. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Barreiro, F.; Dittmar, M.; Heyland, D.; Holder, M.; Neumann, B.; Duchovni, E.; Karshon, U.; Mikenberg, G.; Mir, R.; Revel, D.; Ronat, E.; Shapira, A.; Yekutieli, G.; Barklow, T.; Caldwell, A.; Cherney, M.; Izen, J. M.; Mermikides, M.; Rudolph, G.; Strom, D.; Venkataramania, H.; Wicklund, E.; Wu, Sau Lan; Zobernig, G.; Tasso Collaboration

    1983-11-01

    Exclusive production of proton-antiproton pairs by two photon scattering at CM energies between 2.0 GeV and 3.1 GeV has been measured with the TASSO detector at the e +e - storage ring PETRA. The angular distribution is flat within the accepted CM angular range | cos ? ?|?0.7 . The integrated cross section (| cos ? ?|?0.6) drops from about 4 nb at 2 GeV to less than 0.5 nb above 3 GeV. For the two-photon production of the ?c(2984) and its subsequent decay into proton-antiproton the upper limit ?(? c???)· B(? c? p overlinep)<0.32 keV (95% CL) is found.

  11. Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.

  12. Maskless implants of 20 keV Ga{sup +} in thin crystalline silicon on insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Mio, A. M.; D'Arrigo, G.; Rimini, E.; Spinella, C.; Milazzo, R. G.; Peto, L.; Nadzeyka, A.; Bauerdick, S.

    2013-01-28

    A nano-sized ion beam apparatus has been used as maskless lithography to implant 20 keV Ga{sup +} ions into a 26 nm thick silicon crystalline film on insulator. The ion beam, with about 5 nm standard deviation, delivered few hundred ions during a single shot. Circular areas with nominal diameter of 20 or 50 nm were irradiated to a fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the damaged regions are characterized by an irregular contour with many disordered filaments. Damage extends across the layer thickness and fast Fourier transform analysis indicates that implantation causes the amorphization of a region which extends beyond the nominal diameter. In situ annealing experiments demonstrated that the disordered filamentary regions disappear in the 250-450 Degree-Sign C temperature range and the interfaces with the surrounding crystalline regions sharpen. A temperature as high as 600 Degree-Sign C is required to fully re-crystallize the amorphous core of the implanted dots. Reordering occurs by multi-orientation lateral solid-phase epitaxial growth and the breaking of (111) and (101) interfaces, due to the formation of twins, triggers a fast crystallization kinetics. Rapid thermal annealing (890 Degree-Sign C-10 s) completely crystallizes the amorphous regions, twins are absent and small cluster of defects remains instead. Preliminary scanning capacitance measurements indicate that the implanted atoms, after crystallization, are electrically active. The implant method is then a viable processing step for the doping of non-bulk fully depleted ultra-thin-body MOSFET.

  13. Observations of solar flare photon energy spectra from 20 keV to 7 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshimori, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nitta, N.

    1985-01-01

    Solar flare photon energy spectra in the 20 keV to 7 MeV range are derived from the Apr. 1, Apr. 4, apr. 27 and May 13, 1981 flares. The flares were observed with a hard X-ray and a gamma-ray spectrometers on board the Hinotori satellite. The results show that the spectral shape varies from flare to flare and the spectra harden in energies above about 400 keV. Effects of nuclear line emission on the continuum and of higher energy electron bremsstrahlung are considered to explain the spectral hardening.

  14. Prediction of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise in the range 2-20 Hz - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Pope, D. Stuart

    1989-01-01

    An engineering estimate of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise radiation in the range 2-20 Hz is developed. This prediction is obtained via a marriage of standard aeroacoustic theory with a numerical computation of the relevant fluid dynamics. The 'computational aeroacoustics' technique applied here to the interpretation of atmospheric noise measurements is illustrative of a methodology that can now be employed in a wide class of problems.

  15. Preparation for B4C/Mo2C multilayer deposition of alternate multilayer gratings with high efficiency in the 0.5-2.5 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Delmotte, Franck; Bridou, Françoise; Lagarde, Bruno; Mercere, Pascal; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Polack, François

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a study of B4C/Mo2C multilayers mirrors with the aim of using it in the achievement of Alternate MultiLayer (AML) grating. Such component allows a high efficiency in the 500-2500 eV energy range for the DEIMOS beamline. Multilayers were deposited on silicon substrate. They are characterized by reflectometry under grazing incidence. Numerical adjustments were performed with a model of two layers in the period without any interfacial. A prototype of AML grating was fabricated and characterized. The efficiency of the first order of diffraction was worth 15% at 1700 eV.

  16. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues. PMID:24144616

  17. AXAF Synchrotron Witness Mirror Calibrations, 2-12 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, J. J.; Burek, A. J.; Clark, A. M.; Graessle, D. E.; Harris, B.; Schwartz, D. A.; Blake, R. L.

    1997-05-01

    We have completed another full year of reflectance calibrations of AXAF witness mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. At the NSLS, we have used Beamlines X8C (5-12 keV) and X8A (2-6.2 keV). These beamlines are sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. All of the scheduled flats have been calibrated in the 5-12 keV range, and approximately one-fourth of those scheduled have been calibrated in the 2-6.2 keV range. The repeatability in the coating processes reported last year (SPIE, Denver, July 1996) has persisted with the measurement of additional mirrors. Optical constants from reflectances have been derived for six of the eight AXAF mirror elements, and a degree of spatial uniformity information exists for three of these six. The addition of a semitransparent monitor has markedly increased efficiency of measurements in the 5-12 keV range, and efforts are being made to provide such a monitor detector for the lower energy ranges. We report progress in reflectance data acquisition and optical constants derivations, and discuss implications of the results for the AXAF program. This research is supported by the US D.O.E., and by NASA under contract NAS8-40224.

  18. AXAF synchrotron witness mirror calibrations 2 to 12 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, Jonathan J.; Blake, Richard L.; Burek, A. J.; Clark, Anna M.; Graessle, Dale E.; Harris, Bernard; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Sweeney, J.

    1997-07-01

    We have completed another full year of reflectance calibrations of AXAF witness mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. At the NSLS, we have used beamlines X8C (5 - 12 keV) and X8A (2 - 6 keV), sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. All of the flats have been calibrated in the 5 - 12 keV range, and approximately 1/4 of all our flats have been calibrated in the 2 - 6.2 keV range. The repeatability in the coating processes reported in Denver has continued with the measurement of additional mirrors. Optical constants from reflectances have been derived for six of the eight AXAF mirror elements, and a degree of spatial uniformity information exists for three of these six. The addition of a semitransparent monitor has markedly increased efficiency of measurements in the 5 - 12 keV range, and efforts are being made to provide such a monitor detector for the lower energy ranges. We report the progress in reflectance data acquisition and optical constant derivations, and discuss implications of the results for the AXAF program.

  19. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-11-25

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -2/ counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive /sup 12/C, /sup 23/Na, /sup 39/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 85/Rb, /sup 87/Rb, and /sup 133/Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative /sup 12/C and /sup 13/CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10/sup -7/ Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode.

  20. Low-background-rate detector for ions in the 5- to 50-keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. Small, inexpensive cyclotrons serving this purpose would make the technique accessible to more researchers and inexpensive enough to compare many small samples. To this end, VC Berkeley is developing a 20-cm-diameter, 30- to 40-keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30- to 40-keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -1/ counts/sec in the high-background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. To meet this challenge, an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector was developed that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion, the detector's grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background.

  1. Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Wu, M.; Rochau, G. A.

    2013-06-13

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

  2. Enhanced nonlinear coupling in the keV x-ray range: Xe(L) hollow atom excitation with Xe(M) radiation at ?? ? 1 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2015-08-01

    Anomalously enhanced nonlinear electromagnetic coupling can arise from ordered driven collective motions in many electron systems. The augmented strength of the interaction can be expressed as an effective increase in the fine structure constant ? in which ? ? Z2?, where Z specifies the number of electrons involved in the ordered response to the external field. The present work illustrates this phenomenon in the x-ray range with the observation of the 5-photon nonlinear excitation of Xe(L)* hollow atom states that are generated by intense (˜7 × 1015 W cm-2) Xe(M) radiation {? }{{M}} at ˜1 keV. The nonlinear cross section experimentally determined for the 5{? }{{M}} + Xe ? [Xeq+(L)]* + qe- amplitude is {? }5 ˜ 2 × 10-21 cm2. The matching theoretical cross section corresponds to Z = 18, an outcome indicating the participation of the full Xe(4d105s25p6) supershell, a dynamic feature of Xe that also plays a significant role in the linear photoionization of neutral Xe atoms in the kilovolt region. For the high-intensity 5? nonlinear coupling, the outcome for the Xe(L)* hollow atom excitation is an enhancement of the strength of the interaction by a factor of ˜1012 and, with Z2? > 1, a fundamentally new region of strong coupling is entered. The experimental value of {? }5 is likewise shown to be in very good accord with an earlier analysis that estimated the upper bound of cross sections for high-order multi-photon cross sections in the combined high-Z and high-intensity limit. These results forecast the general presence of comparably enhanced coupling strengths in the interaction of sufficiently intense (I ? 7 × 1015 W cm-2) x-rays with high-Z atoms and molecules.

  3. PET surface modification by 0.2 keV and 2.5 keV argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormunda, Martin; Pavlik, Jaroslav

    2010-06-01

    PET foils have a high potential as a material for biomedical and electrical industries. PET foils were irradiated by ions for variable irradiation time. The effects of low (2.5, 0.2 keV) energy argon ion flux irradiation on the surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate thin foils (PET) were studied. The source of ions was an ECR Ion Gun with settable acceleration voltages. The modified foils were investigated by in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The significant changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer were quantitatively studied by XPS. The scission of the chains in the surface layer of PET foil was induced by ion flux interaction with PET surface. The strong selective sputtering of oxygen atoms in PET film was observed. The atomic ratio O/C was decreased by 0.2keV and 2.5keV argon ion flux from 0.40 to 0.25 and 0.04 respectively. The oxygen atoms in ester bonds are detached first. This phenomenon is responsible for the creation of carbon-rich surface layer. The FTIR analyses identified changes in chemical composition but with no obvious correlation to surface changes. PET volume changes in the spectra were probably results of photons from the ion source influence on PET foils.

  4. Microchannel plate pinhole camera for 20 to 100 keV x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.L.; Leipelt, G.R.; Nilson, D.G.

    1984-10-03

    We present the design and construction of a sensitive pinhole camera for imaging suprathermal x-rays. Our device is a pinhole camera consisting of four filtered pinholes and microchannel plate electron multiplier for x-ray detection and signal amplification. We report successful imaging of 20, 45, 70, and 100 keV x-ray emissions from the fusion targets at our Novette laser facility. Such imaging reveals features of the transport of hot electrons and provides views deep inside the target.

  5. Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6-25 keV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Moy, Ken; Kruschwitz, Craig; Rochau, Greg

    2014-11-01

    MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ˜10 ?m in diameter pores, ˜12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

  6. Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6–25 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ming Rochau, Greg; Moy, Ken; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-11-15

    MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ?10 ?m in diameter pores, ?12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

  7. Contrasting physics in wire array z pinch sources of 1-20 keV emission on the Z facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampleford, D. J.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Laspe, A. R.; Flanagan, T. M.; Moore, N. W.; Sinars, D. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Harding, E. C.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chong, Y.-K.; Apruzese, J. P.; Velikovich, A. L.; Dasgupta, A.; Ouart, N.; Sygar, W. A.; Savage, M. E.; Moore, J. K.; Focia, R.; Wagoner, T. C.; Killebrew, K. L.; Edens, A. D.; Dunham, G. S.; Jones, M. C.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen, D. S.; Wu, M.; Carlson, A. L.; Kernahan, M. D.; Ball, C. R.; Scharberg, R. D.; Mulville, T. D.; Breden, E. W.; Speas, C. S.; Olivas, G.; Sullivan, M. A.; York, A. J.; Justus, D. W.; Cisneros, J. C.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Cleveland, M.; Vigil, M. P.; Robertson, G.; Sandoval, D.; Cox, C.; Maurer, A. J.; Graham, D. A.; Huynh, N. B.; Toledo, S.; Molina, L. P.; Lopez, M. R.; Long, F. W.; McKee, G. R.; Porter, J. L.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Imploding wire arrays on the 20 MA Z generator have recently provided some of the most powerful and energetic laboratory sources of multi-keV photons, including ˜375 kJ of Al K-shell emission (h? ˜ 1-2 keV), ˜80 kJ of stainless steel K-shell emission (h? ˜ 5-9 keV) and a kJ-level of Mo K-shell emission (h? ˜ 17 keV). While the global implosion dynamics of these different wire arrays are very similar, the physical process that dominates the emission from these x-ray sources fall into three broad categories. Al wire arrays produce a column of plasma with densities up to ˜3 × 1021 ions/cm3, where opacity inhibits the escape of K-shell photons. Significant structure from instabilities can reduce the density and increase the surface area, therefore increase the K-shell emission. In contrast, stainless steel wire arrays operate in a regime where achieving a high pinch temperature (achieved by thermalizing a high implosion kinetic energy) is critical and, while opacity is present, it has less impact on the pinch emissivity. At higher photon energies, line emission associated with inner shell ionization due to energetic electrons becomes important.

  8. Contrasting physics in wire array z pinch sources of 1-20?keV emission on the Z facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, D. J. Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Laspe, A. R.; Flanagan, T. M.; Moore, N. W.; Sinars, D. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Harding, E. C.; Sygar, W. A.; Savage, M. E.; Moore, J. K.; Focia, R.; Wagoner, T. C.; Killebrew, K. L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Imploding wire arrays on the 20 MA Z generator have recently provided some of the most powerful and energetic laboratory sources of multi-keV photons, including ?375?kJ of Al K-shell emission (h????1–2?keV), ?80?kJ of stainless steel K-shell emission (h????5–9?keV) and a kJ-level of Mo K-shell emission (h????17?keV). While the global implosion dynamics of these different wire arrays are very similar, the physical process that dominates the emission from these x-ray sources fall into three broad categories. Al wire arrays produce a column of plasma with densities up to ?3?×?10{sup 21} ions/cm{sup 3}, where opacity inhibits the escape of K-shell photons. Significant structure from instabilities can reduce the density and increase the surface area, therefore increase the K-shell emission. In contrast, stainless steel wire arrays operate in a regime where achieving a high pinch temperature (achieved by thermalizing a high implosion kinetic energy) is critical and, while opacity is present, it has less impact on the pinch emissivity. At higher photon energies, line emission associated with inner shell ionization due to energetic electrons becomes important.

  9. Stability of Extraterrestrial Glycine under Energetic Particle Radiation Estimated from 2 keV Electron Bombardment Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maté, B.; Tanarro, I.; Escribano, R.; Moreno, M. A.; Herrero, V. J.

    2015-06-01

    The destruction of solid glycine under irradiation with 2 keV electrons has been investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. Destruction cross sections, radiolysis yields, and half-life doses were determined for samples at 20, 40, 90, and 300 K. The thickness of the irradiated samples was kept below the estimated penetration depth of the electrons. No significant differences were obtained in the experiments below 90 K, but the destruction cross section at 300 K was larger by a factor of 2. The radiolysis yields and half-life doses are in good accordance with recent MeV proton experiments, which confirms that electrons in the keV range can be used to simulate the effects of cosmic rays if the whole sample is effectively irradiated. In the low temperature experiments, electron irradiation leads to the formation of residues. IR absorptions of these residues are assigned to the presence CO2, CO, OCN-, and CN- and possibly to amide bands I to III. The protection of glycine by water ice is also studied. A water ice film of ˜150 nm is found to provide efficient shielding against the bombardment of 2 keV electrons. The results of this study show also that current Monte Carlo predictions provide a good global description of electron penetration depths. The lifetimes estimated in this work for various environments ranging from the diffuse interstellar medium to the inner solar system, show that the survival of hypothetical primeval glycine from the solar nebula in present solar system bodies is not very likely.

  10. Decline of the 2-10 keV Emission from Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; Owocki, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using processed data from the X-ray Telescope on Swift reveals a peak flux on July 16, 2014 of 0.046 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (3.37+/-0.15×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). This flux is similar to the previous maximum flux seen by the XRT, 3.53+/-0.13×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (0.049 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2), ATEL #6298). Since this peak on July 16, the most recent Swift XRT quicklook data show a drop in flux. On July 20, 2014 the XRT flux as seen in the quicklook data was 0.011 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (8.3+/-0.5×10(exp -11) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2)). This most likely indicates that the 2-10 keV flux is in its declining phase as Eta Car approaches its deep X-ray minimum stage (Hamaguchi et al., 2014, ApJ, 784, 125) associated with periastron passage of the 2024-day binary orbit. The column density derived from analysis of the July 20 XRT quicklook data is 7.2×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2). This is consistent with the column density seen near the same orbital phase in 2003 (7.7×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2), Hamaguchi et al., 2007, ApJ, 663, 522). Eta Car's deep X-ray minimum phase is expected to begin on July 30, 2014. Weekly Swift/XRT observations of Eta Car in the 2-10 keV band are planned throughout the X-ray minimum.

  11. Reflectance calibrations of AXAF witness mirrors using synchrotron radiation: 2 to 12 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graessle, Dale E.; Clark, Anna M.; Fitch, J. J.; Harris, Bernard; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Blake, Richard L.

    1996-07-01

    For the past six years, a high-accuracy reflectance calibration system has been under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system utilizes Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beamlines X8A and X8C. Its purpose is to calibrate the reflection efficiencies of witness coupons associated with the coating of the eight mirror elements composing the High Resolution Mirror Assembly for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). During the past year, measurements of reflectances of numerous iridium- coated witness flat mirrors have been obtained to a relative statistical precision of 0.4 percent, and an overall repeatability within 0.8 percent in the overlapping energy regions. The coating processes are strikingly repeatable, with reflectances in the 5-10 keV range for off-end witness flats nearly always being within 1 percent of one another, excluding interference fringes. The comparison reflectances between flats obtained from qualification coating runs and production runs of the Wolter Type I mirror elements are in turn nearly equal, indicating that the qualification run witness flats provide a good representation of the flight optics. Results will produce a calibration of AXAF with extremely good energy detail over the 2-12 keV range, which includes details of the M-absorption edge region for Ir. Development of the program to cover 0.05-2 keV continues.

  12. Low Frequency QPOs from the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550564 in the 2120 keV Range

    E-print Network

    Kalemci, Emrah

    and the fundamental QPO and a harmonic. (see Fig. 3). We obtained upper limits for the rms amplitude of the fundamental QPO in 60­120 keV band for observations without a clear detection of the QPO. We have used values transform of the time series (see Fig. 2). The dead­time depends on the energy loss in the scintillation

  13. E0 = 20 keV EDS records the entire spectrum. It is very appealing to directly and

    E-print Network

    / (dE/ds) dE E0 Ec = fluorescence yield NA = Avogadro's number = density Ci = mass concentration of i Entry Angle: 90.00 Beam keV: 20.00 Number of elements: 4 Elem & Line k-Value Conc. Z A F SiKA1 0.0040 0.00 Beam Entry Angle: 90.00 Beam keV: 20.00 Number of elements: 4 Elem & Line k-Value Conc. Z A F SiKA1 0

  14. Spontaneous Raman scattering of Lu2Si2O7 single crystals at temperatures in the range from 20 to 2173 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voron'ko, Yu. K.; Sobol', A. A.; Shukshin, V. E.; Gerasimov, Ya. V.

    2015-07-01

    Detailed studies of the polarized Raman spectra of lutetium pyrosilicate single crystals have been performed in a wide temperature range from 20 to 1500 K. This has made it possible for the first time to identify the entire set and symmetry of the internal vibrations of the [Si2O7]6- anion and the lattice vibrations of this compound. The Raman spectra of the lutetium pyrosilicate have been investigated in the temperature ranges preceding the melting, the molten state, and the overheated melt of the compound up to 2173 K. The Raman spectra of lutetium pyrosilicate single-crystal microregions have been studied in order to elucidate the nature of defect inclusions in their bulk.

  15. Search for Anomalous Scattering of keV Neutrons from H2O-D2O Mixtures R. Moreh,1,2,* R. C. Block,2

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Search for Anomalous Scattering of keV Neutrons from H2O-D2O Mixtures R. Moreh,1,2,* R. C. Block,2 liquid H2O relative to that of pure D2O and also relative to H2O-D2O mixtures, at room temperature-containing compounds and polymers [2­5]. It was found that, at epithermal energies in the 10­ 200 eV range, the neutron

  16. INTEGRAL observations of the cosmic X-ray background in the 5-100 keV range via occultation by the Earth

    E-print Network

    E. Churazov; R. Sunyaev; M. Revnivtsev; S. Sazonov; S. Molkov; S. Grebenev; C. Winkler; A. Parmar; A. Bazzano; M. Falanga; A. Gros; F. Lebrun; L. Natalucci; P. Ubertini; J. -P. Roques; L. Bouchet; E. Jourdain; J. Knoedlseder; R. Diehl; C. Budtz-Jorgensen; S. Brandt; N. Lund; N. J. Westergaard; A. Neronov; M. Turler; M. Chernyakova; R. Walter; N. Produit; N. Mowlavi; J. M. Mas-Hesse; A. Domingo; N. Gehrels; E. Kuulkers; P. Kretschmar; M. Schmidt

    2007-02-12

    We study the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in energy range $\\sim$5-100 keV. Early in 2006 the INTEGRAL observatory performed a series of four 30ksec observations with the Earth disk crossing the field of view of the instruments. The modulation of the aperture flux due to occultation of extragalactic objects by the Earth disk was used to obtain the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray Background(CXB). Various sources of contamination were evaluated, including compact sources, Galactic Ridge emission, CXB reflection by the Earth atmosphere, cosmic ray induced emission by the Earth atmosphere and the Earth auroral emission. The spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in the energy band 5-100 keV is obtained. The shape of the spectrum is consistent with that obtained previously by the HEAO-1 observatory, while the normalization is $\\sim$10% higher. This difference in normalization can (at least partly) be traced to the different assumptions on the absolute flux from the Crab Nebulae. The increase relative to the earlier adopted value of the absolute flux of the CXB near the energy of maximum luminosity (20-50 keV) has direct implications for the energy release of supermassive black holes in the Universe and their growth at the epoch of the CXB origin.

  17. Linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}-doped ZnSe crystals at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20–220 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ichev, N N; Pashinin, P P; Gulyamova, E S; Bufetova, G A; Shapkin, P V; Nasibov, A S

    2014-03-28

    The linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals is measured at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20 – 220 °C. It is found that, with increasing temperature from 20 °C to 150 – 220 °C, the transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals decreases in the case of incident radiation with an intensity of ?5.5 MW cm{sup -2} and increases in the case of radiation with an intensity of 28 kW cm{sup -2}. At a temperature of 220 °C, the linear transmission almost coincides with the nonlinear transmission. The transmission spectra of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals at temperatures of 22 and 220 °C in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm are presented. (active media)

  18. EMISSION LINES BETWEEN 1 AND 2 keV IN COMETARY X-RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Ian; Christian, Damian J.; Bodewits, Dennis; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J. E-mail: daman.christian@csun.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present the detection of new cometary X-ray emission lines in the 1.0-2.0 keV range using a sample of comets observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and ACIS spectrometer. We have selected five comets from the Chandra sample with good signal-to-noise spectra. The surveyed comets are C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), 153P/2002 (Ikeya-Zhang), 2P/2003 (Encke), and C/2008 8P (Tuttle). We modeled the spectra with an extended version of our solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission model. Above 1 keV, we find Ikeya-Zhang to have strong emission lines at 1340 and 1850 eV which we identify as being created by SWCX lines of Mg XI and Si XIII, respectively, and weaker emission lines at 1470, 1600, and 1950 eV formed by SWCX of Mg XII, Mg XI, and Si XIV, respectively. The Mg XI and XII and Si XIII and XIV lines are detected at a significant level for the other comets in our sample (LS4, MH, Encke, 8P), and these lines promise additional diagnostics to be included in SWCX models. The silicon lines in the 1700-2000 eV range are detected for all comets, but with the rising background and decreasing cometary emission, we caution that these detections need further confirmation with higher resolution instruments.

  19. Energy and angular distributions of electrons from ion impact on atomic and molecular hydrogen. II. 20--114-keV H[sup +]+H

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, G.W. III; Gealy, M.W.; Hsu, Y.; Rudd, M.E. ); Schultz, D.R.; Reinhold, C.O. )

    1995-03-01

    Results of crossed-beam measurements of cross sections differential in ejected electron energy and angle for ionization of atomic hydrogen by 20--114-keV protons are reported. Secondary electrons were measured over an energy range of 1.5--300 eV and an angular range of 15[degree]--165[degree]. Atomic-hydrogen targets were produced in a radio-frequency discharge source with a dissociation fraction of about 74%. Ratios of cross sections for H targets to those for H[sub 2] targets were obtained from measurements on the mixed target. From these ratios, the measured dissociation fractions, and the absolute cross sections measured for H[sub 2] targets, the cross sections for H targets were determined. These measurements are compared with the results of the first-order Born approximation, the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state approximation, and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods. Good overall agreement is found with the CTMC results, except for slow, backward electron emission. The addition of the classically suppressed dipole transitions from the Born approximation to the CTMC results yields a good estimate of the ejected electron spectrum.

  20. Centaurus A /NGC 5128/ at 2 keV-2.3 MeV - HEAO 1 observations and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baity, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Stein, W. A.; Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The active-nucleus galaxy Centaurus A has been studied at 2 keV-2.3 MeV using data from the UCSD/MIT hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-ray instrument and the GSFC/CIT cosmic X-ray experiment on HEAO-1. It is found that an E exp -1.60 + or - 0.03 power law spectrum breaking to E exp -2.0 + or - 0.2 at 140 keV best describes the January and July 1978 data. The average intensity was 50% higher during the January observations. Upper limits to unresolved lines at 511 keV and 1.6 MeV were found to be 6.5 x 10 to the -4th photons/sq cm-s and 2.2 x 10 to the -4th photons/sq cm-s, respectively, at the 90% confidence level. The present data are consistent with the detailed calculations of the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism; they may also agree, marginally, with the predictions of emission from spherical accretion onto black holes.

  1. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of tin over the energy range of 29 keV-60 keV.

    SciTech Connect

    de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

  2. Production and Performance of the InFOCmicronS 20-40 keV Graded Multilayer Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendse, F.; Owens, S. M.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Tueller, J.; Chan, K.-W.; Soong, Y.; Krimm, H.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Tamura, K.; Okajima, T.; Tawara, Y.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The International Focusing Optics Collaboration for micron Crab Sensitivity (InFOC micronS) balloon-borne hard x-ray incorporates graded multilayer technology to obtain significant effective area at energies previously inaccessible to x-ray optics. The telescope mirror consists of 2040 segmented thin aluminum foils coated with replicated Pt/C multilayers. A sample of these foils was scanned using a pencil-beam reflectometer to determine, multilayer quality. The results of the reflectometer measurements demonstrate our capability to produce large quantity of foils while maintaining high-quality multilayers with a mean Nevot-Croce interface roughness of 0.5nm. We characterize the performance of the complete InFOC micronS telescope with a pencil beam raster scan to determine the effective area and encircled energy function of the telescope. The effective area of the complete telescope is 78, 42 and 22 square centimeters at 20 30 and 40 keV. respectively. The measured encircled energy fraction of the mirror has a half-power diameter of 2.0 plus or minus 0.5 arcmin (90% confidence). The mirror successfully obtained an image of the accreting black hole Cygnus X-1 during a balloon flight in July, 2001. The successful completion and flight test of this telescope demonstrates that graded-multilayer telescopes can be manufactured with high reliability for future x-ray telescope missions such as Constellation-X.

  3. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L.

    2006-10-01

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si (Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3keV (˜50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  4. Mass attenuation coefficient of the Earth, Moon and Mars samples over 1keV-100GeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Camargo Moreira, Anderson; Roberto Appoloni, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    This work presents the calculation of the mass attenuation coefficient (micro) of lunar, Martian and terrestrial samples in function of the energy. WinXCOM software was employed to determine the micro values for the samples in the range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The obtained values were practically the same for energies larger than 100 keV, but marked differences among the samples were observed for energies below 25 keV, which is the energy range of interest for the XRF system used in space probes. PMID:16725330

  5. Measurement of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air for x-rays in the range from 3 to 60 keV.

    PubMed

    Buhr, H; Büermann, L; Gerlach, M; Krumrey, M; Rabus, H

    2012-12-21

    For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given. PMID:23192280

  6. SURVIVAL DEPTH OF ORGANICS IN ICES UNDER LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON RADIATION ({<=}2 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Irene Li; Lignell, Antti; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2012-03-01

    Icy surfaces in our solar system are continually modified and sputtered with electrons, ions, and photons from solar wind, cosmic rays, and local magnetospheres in the cases of Jovian and Saturnian satellites. In addition to their prevalence, electrons specifically are expected to be a principal radiolytic agent on these satellites. Among energetic particles (electrons and ions), electrons penetrate by far the deepest into the ice and could cause damage to organic material of possible prebiotic and even biological importance. To determine if organic matter could survive and be detected through remote sensing or in situ explorations on these surfaces, such as water ice-rich Europa, it is important to obtain accurate data quantifying electron-induced chemistry and damage depths of organics at varying incident electron energies. Experiments reported here address the quantification issue at lower electron energies (100 eV-2 keV) through rigorous laboratory data analysis obtained using a novel methodology. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule, pyrene, embedded in amorphous water ice films of controlled thicknesses served as an organic probe. UV-VIS spectroscopic measurements enabled quantitative assessment of organic matter survival depths in water ice. Eight ices of various thicknesses were studied to determine damage depths more accurately. The electron damage depths were found to be linear, approximately 110 nm keV{sup -1}, in the tested range which is noticeably higher than predictions by Monte Carlo simulations by up to 100%. We conclude that computational simulations underestimate electron damage depths in the energy region {<=}2 keV. If this trend holds at higher electron energies as well, present models utilizing radiation-induced organic chemistry in icy solar system bodies need to be revisited. For interstellar ices of a few micron thicknesses, we conclude that low-energy electrons generated through photoionization processes in the interstellar medium could penetrate through ice grains significantly and trigger organic reactions several hundred nanometers deep-bulk chemistry thus competing with surface chemistry of astrophysical ice grains.

  7. Stopping powers for 20-140 keV H + and He + on Ni, Ag and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Poehlman, W. F. S.; Presunka, P.; Davies, J. A.

    The stopping powers for 20-140 keV H + and He + ions in Ni, Ag and Au have been measured using the backscattering technique. Targets were thin layers (10-20 nm) of the metal of interest deposited on Si substrates. In some cases the metal layer was overlaid with a thin Au layer (10-20 nm). These two layer samples were used to establish the accuracy with which stopping power measurement could be made in the underlying material with the aim that this technique could later be used to make measurements in reactive (i.e. easily oxidized) metals. The layer thicknesses were determined using Rutherford backscattering with 1 MeV He + ions and a well calibrated detector geometry. Suitable corrections were applied for electronic screening. The energy loss of the keV ions was determined using an electrostatic analyser after correcting for the energy dependent neutral particle component in the backscattered beam. This correction factor was determined in situ in the scattering chamber and on the targets as used in the stopping power measurements; i.e. with the same surface condition. The stopping powers obtained are compared to other published data.

  8. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  9. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

  10. The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

  11. Ionization of water by (20-150)-keV protons: Separation of direct-ionization and electron-capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gobet, F.; Eden, S.; Coupier, B.; Tabet, J.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Carre, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2004-12-01

    Mass analyzed product ions have been detected in coincidence with the projectile following the ionization of water by proton impact. Measurement of the projectile charge state postcollision enables the different ionization processes to be identified: direct ionization, single electron capture, and double electron capture. A complete set of partial and total absolute cross sections is reported for the direct ionization and electron capture processes initiated by proton collisions at 20-150 keV. The cross sections for the direct ionization of H{sub 2}O by proton impact are compared with previous electron impact results [Straub et al., J. Chem. Phys. 108, 109 (1998)].

  12. Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    E-print Network

    S. Antier; O. Limousin; P. Ferrando

    2015-05-05

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the principles and the results obtained for this kind of measurements: on one hand, we describe the simulation tool we have developed to predict the polarization performances in the 50-300 keV energy range. On the other hand, we compare simulation results with experimental data taken at ESRF ID15A (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) using a mono-energetic polarized beam tuned between 35 and 300 keV. We show that it is possible with this detector to determine with high precision the polarization parameters (direction and fraction) for different irradiation conditions. Applying a judicious energy selection to our data set, we reach a remarkable sensitivity level characterized by an optimum Quality Factor of 0.78 in the 200-300 keV range. We also evaluate the sensitivity of our device at 70 keV, where hard X-ray mirrors are already available; the measured Q factor is 0.64 at 70 keV.

  13. The average 0.5-200 keV spectrum of local active galactic nuclei and a new determination of the 2-10 keV luminosity function at z ? 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contains information about the nuclear environment from Schwarzschild radii scales (where the primary power law is generated in a corona) to distances of ˜1 pc (where the distant reflector may be located). In addition, the average shape of the X-ray spectrum is an important input into X-ray background synthesis models. Here, local (z ? 0) AGN luminosity functions (LFs) in five energy bands are used as a low-resolution, luminosity-dependent X-ray spectrometer in order to constrain the average AGN X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 200 keV. The 15-55 keV LF measured by Swift-BAT is assumed to be the best determination of the local LF, and then a spectral model is varied to determine the best fit to the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, 3-20 keV and 14-195 keV LFs. The spectral model consists of a Gaussian distribution of power laws with a mean photon-index and cutoff energy Ecut, as well as contributions from distant and disc reflection. The reflection strength is parametrized by varying the Fe abundance relative to solar, AFe, and requiring a specific Fe K? equivalent width (EW). In this way, the presence of the X-ray Baldwin effect can be tested. The spectral model that best fits the four LFs has = 1.85 ± 0.15, E_{cut}=270^{+170}_{-80} keV, A_{Fe}=0.3^{+0.3}_{-0.15}. The sub-solar AFe is unlikely to be a true measure of the gas-phase metallicity, but indicates the presence of strong reflection given the assumed Fe K? EW. Indeed, parametrizing the reflection strength with the R parameter gives R=1.7^{+1.7}_{-0.85}. There is moderate evidence for no X-ray Baldwin effect. Accretion disc reflection is included in the best-fitting model, but it is relatively weak (broad iron K? EW < 100 eV) and does not significantly affect any of the conclusions. A critical result of our procedure is that the shape of the local 2-10 keV LF measured by HEAO-1 and MAXI is incompatible with the LFs measured in the hard X-rays by Swift-BAT and RXTE. We therefore present a new determination of the local 2-10 keV LF that is consistent with all other energy bands, as well as the de-evolved 2-10 keV LF estimated from the XMM-Newton Hard Bright Survey. This new LF should be used to revise current measurements of the evolving AGN LF in the 2-10 keV band. Finally, the suggested absence of the X-ray Baldwin effect points to a possible origin for the distant reflector in dusty gas not associated with the AGN obscuring medium. This may be the same material that produces the compact 12 ?m source in local AGNs.

  14. Fine pitch CdTe-based hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antier, S.; Limousin, O.; Ferrando, P.

    2015-07-01

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters such as polarization are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in gamma-ray sources are still unclear. We have developed a CdTe based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste to study polarization. With a 58-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90° after Compton diffusion within the crystal. In this paper, we present the principles and the results obtained for this kind of measurements: on one hand, we compare simulations results with experimental data taken at ESRF ID15A (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) using a 35-300 keV mono-energetic polarized beam. Applying a judicious energy selection to our data set, we reach a remarkable sensitivity level characterized by a measured Quality factor of 0.78±0.02 in the 200-300 keV range; and a measured Q factor of 0.64±0.0 at 70 keV where hard X-rays mirrors are already available.

  15. 3 keV to 2 MeV observations of four gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Shulman, S.; Fritz, G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous X and gamma ray spectra were obtained for four gamma ray burst events using satellite instrumentation. The P78-1 satellite proportional counters recorded X-ray data in the 3-10 keV range, while Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ISEE 3 sensors had a 3 keV lower limit for events. The positively correlated data covered the events GB 790307, 790325, 790504, and 790731. The time histories of the X and gamma ray energies did not correlate well. The post-gamma ray phase of GB 790307 displayed features of simple cooling, and in conjunction with soft X-ray data suggested an origin in an optically thin fireball. However, the data were equally well-fitted by a model of an emitting hot spot on a neutron star. The data negated any concept that gamma ray bursts evolve similarly to classical X-ray bursts.

  16. The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keY from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

  17. Studying the D( p, ?)3He reaction in zirconium deuteride within the proton energy range of 9-35 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Dudkin, G. N.; Krylov, A. R.; Lysakov, A. S.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Filipowicz, M.; Philippov, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    This work is dedicated to measuring the dependences of the effective cross section and the astrophysical S factor for the pd reaction that proceeds in zirconium deuteride upon the proton-deuteron collision energy within a range of 6.0-23.3 keV. The experiment was performed using the heavy-current plasma Hall accelerator at the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. The gamma quanta produced in the pd reaction with the energy of 5.5 MeV was recorded using eight scintillation spectrometers based on NaI(Tl) crystals (400 × 100 × 100 mm), which were located around the target. The result of this work coincides with the result of our previous work obtained within a range of proton-deuteron collision energies of 7.3-12.7 keV and agrees well with the result obtained by the LUNA collaboration with the use of the gaseous deuterium target.

  18. K shell and L subshell photoeffect cross-sections of some elements in the atomic range 50?Z?65 at 59.5 keV.

    PubMed

    Aylikci, V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, K and L shell photoeffect cross-sections were measured for the elements in the range of 50?Z?65 at 59. 5 keV. These photoeffect cross-sections were measured by using the experimental ?K?, production cross-section values measured in this paper and two different K shell fluorescence yield values in the literature. The results were compared with the calculated theoretical values. The values were plotted versus atomic number. PMID:25993814

  19. Experimental binding energies for the metal complexes [Mg(CH3OH)n](2+), [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+), and [Sr(CH3OH)n](2+) for n in the range 4-20.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, E; Stace, A J

    2014-10-01

    A supersonic source of clusters has been used to prepare neutral complexes of methanol in association with an alkaline earth metal atom. From these complexes the following metal-containing dications have been generated through electron ionization: [Mg(CH3OH)n](2+), [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+), and [Sr(CH3OH)n](2+), and for n in the range 4-20, kinetic energy release measurements following the evaporation of a single molecule have been undertaken using a high resolution mass spectrometer. Using finite heat bath theory, these data have been transformed into binding energies for individual methanol molecules attached to each of the three cluster systems. In the larger complexes (n > 6) the results exhibit a consistent trend, whereby the experimental binding energy data for all three metal ions are similar, suggesting that the magnitude of the charge rather than charge density influences the strength of the interaction. From a comparison with data recorded previously for (CH3OH)nH(+) it is found that the 2+ charge on a metal ion has an effect on the binding energy of molecules in complexes containing up to 20 solvent molecules. The results recorded for [Ca(CH3OH)n](2+) show evidence of a very marked transition between n = 6 and 7, which is thought to coincide with the completion of a primary solvation shell and the onset of molecules starting to occupy a second and most probably a third shell. PMID:25231925

  20. On the vectorial photoelectric effect at 2.69 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, P. S.; Hanany, S.; Liu, Y.; Church, E. D.; Fleischman, J.; Kaaret, P.; Novick, R.; Santangelo, A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments conducted to study the vectorial photoelectric effect with CsI, Al2O3 and Si photocathodes at 2.69 keV indicate null results. Detailed analysis shows that previously measured modulation can be well explained by geometrical misalignment and a combination of the asymmetric shape of the incident X-ray beam and a small detection area of the photoelectron detector. After the elimination of the sources of spurious modulation, we observed a modulation factor of less than 3 percent for a grazing incidence angle as small as 5 deg. There is no observable difference in the pulse height distribution between s and p states.

  1. The colouration of CaF2 crystals by keV and GeV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, A. T.; Kozakiewicz, A. G.; Comins, J. D.; Derry, T. E.; Schwartz, K.; Trautmann, C.

    CaF2 crystals have been implanted with a variety of ions of widely different energies and mass. Effects have been monitored using optical absorption in the range 120-750 nm. This includes the vacuum UV region. For 100 keV ions (Al, Mg, Kr) we observe extrinsic colloid bands in the case of implanted metal ions at high fluences (10(17) ions cm(2) ) but no colour centres (F, F-2 etc). For GeV ions (U, Ni) we observe prominent absorption bands in the visible region at fluences of 10(12) ions cm(-2) attributed to extrinsic calcium colloids. New optical features are discussed including an absorption band near 185 nm in the VUV and bands at 604 nm and 672 nm in the visible region.

  2. Finite-Hilbert-basis-set calculations for the angular distribution of ionized electrons produced in p+H impact at 20 keV 

    E-print Network

    Reading, John F.; Fu, J.; Fitzpatrick, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a different method of extracting the angular distribution of ejected electrons in an ion-atom collision from a two-centered finite Hilbert basis-set calculation. We obtain good agreement with experiment for a p+H collision at 20 keV if we...

  3. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Optical Excitation Function of H(1s-2p) Produced by electron Impact from Threshold to 1.8 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Slevin, J. A.; Shemansky, D. E.; McConkey, J. W.; Bray, I.; Dziczek, D.; Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The optical excitation function of prompt Lyman-Alpha radiation, produced by electron impact on atomic hydrogen, has been measured over the extended energy range from threshold to 1.8 keV. Measurements were obtained in a crossed-beams experiment using both magnetically confined and electrostatically focused electrons in collision with atomic hydrogen produced by an intense discharge source. A vacuum-ultraviolet mono- chromator system was used to measure the emitted Lyman-Alpha radiation. The absolute H(1s-2p) electron impact excitation cross section was obtained from the experimental optical excitation function by normalizing to the accepted optical oscillator strength, with corrections for polarization and cascade. Statistical and known systematic uncertainties in our data range from +/- 4% near threshold to +/- 2% at 1.8 keV. Multistate coupling affecting the shape of the excitation function up to 1 keV impact energy is apparent in both the present experimental data and present theoretical results obtained with convergent close- coupling (CCC) theory. This shape function effect leads to an uncertainty in absolute cross sections at the 10% level in the analysis of the experimental data. The derived optimized absolute cross sections are within 7% of the CCC calculations over the 14 eV-1.8 keV range. The present CCC calculations converge on the Bethe- Fano profile for H(1s-2p) excitation at high energy. For this reason agreement with the CCC values to within 3% is achieved in a nonoptimal normalization of the experimental data to the Bethe-Fano profile. The fundamental H(1s-2p) electron impact cross section is thereby determined to an unprecedented accuracy over the 14 eV - 1.8 keV energy range.

  4. Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Becky

    The Web is growing and changing from a paradigm of static publishing to one of participation and interaction. This change has implications for people with disabilities who rely on access to the Web for employment, information, entertainment, and increased independence. The interactive and collaborative nature of Web 2.0 can present access problems for some users. There are some best practices which can be put in place today to improve access. New specifications such as Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) and IAccessible2 are opening the doors to increasing the accessibility of Web 2.0 and beyond.

  5. FHBS calculation of ionized electron angular and energy distribution following the p+H collision at 20 keV 

    E-print Network

    Fu, Jun

    2004-11-15

    once given W, as Q2z = W4h s : (2.19) The value of Qz given by Eq. (2.19) is also the minimum value of Q. The dQ=Q3 integration could be translated into a dQb integration. To do this, we differentiate Eq. (2.18) and obtain QdQ = QbdQb: (2....20) In the above we used the fact that Qz is a xed value. Thus the integration over dQ=Q3 can be replaced as dQ=Q3 = QbdQb=Q4: (2.21) The nal version of the modi ed integration scheme is stotal = 8pa 20 hs Z sinqkdqk Z Wmax Wmin dW Z ? 0 QbdQb Q4 Z j < c( )k (r...

  6. The production and sputtering of S2 by keV ion bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boring, J. W.; Chrisey, D. B.; Oshaughnessy, D. J.; Phipps, J. A.; Zhao, N.

    1986-01-01

    The ion bombardment of S-containing molecules in comets is simulated experimentally. Mass-analyzed 30-keV beams of Ar(+) and He(+) are directed at solid S, H2S, and CS2 targets at temperatures 15 K, and the neutral molecular species produced are ionized and analyzed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The dominant species detected are S1 and S2 for the S target, H2S and S2 for the H2S target, and S, CS, S2, and CS2 for the CS2 target. In the latter case, it is found that after about 10 to the 14th He(+) ions/sq cm have struck the target, further sputtering is prevented by formation of a dark brown deposit which is stable at room temperature; the residue forms more slowly when Ar(+) ions are used. These results, indicating relatively efficient S2 production by ion bombardment, are applied to theoretical models of S2 production and/or ejection by solar-wind, solar-flare, or cosmic-ray ions striking comets. It is found that direct solar-wind production of S2 by sputtering is unlikely at realistic bombardment rates, but that H2S-S2 conversion by energetic ions could be significant, with less stringent ice-temperature and irradiation-flux constraints than in the case of S2 production by photons.

  7. Investigating oxygen flooding at oblique 2 and 1 keV oxygen sputtering for microelectronics support applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnel, F.; von Criegern, R.

    2003-01-01

    Low energy (2.1 and 1 keV) oxygen bombardment at oblique incidence in combination with oxygen flooding was applied to two kinds of epitaxially grown, boron-doped samples. The angles of incidence ranged between 54° and 44°, realized in a Cameca 6f. At surface saturation conditions, no indication of ripples formation was found up to at least 700 nm depth. In comparison to measurements at perpendicular oxygen beam incidence (no flooding), the boron decay lengths were about equal, whereas the apparent profile shift was clearly lower (roughly half) in the flooding case. Thus, no disadvantage is found for these oxygen flooding conditions as compared to perpendicular oxygen bombardment conditions.

  8. TSUBAME 2.0 1TSUBAME 2.0

    E-print Network

    ) *6 TSUBAME2.0 TSUBAME 1.2TSUBAME 2.0 (Thin) 10TSUBAME 2.0 #12;TSUBAME2.0 · ­ NFS, CIFS, i TSUBAME 1.1 100TFlops/1.6PB 2008 TSUBAME 1.2 160TFlops/1.6PB 2010/11/01 TSUBAME 2.0 2.4PFlops/7.1PB/Maple 4TSUBAME 2.0 #12;5TSUBAME 2.0 #12; 6TSUBAME 2.0 #12;HDD Total 7.13PB(Lustre+ home

  9. A novel flat-response x-ray detector in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhichao; Guo Liang; Jiang Xiaohua; Liu Shenye; Huang Tianxuan; Yang Jiamin; Li Sanwei; Zhao Xuefeng; Du Huabin; Song Tianming; Yi Rongqing; Liu Yonggang; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zheng Jian

    2010-07-15

    A novel flat-response x-ray detector has been developed for the measurement of radiation flux from a hohlraum. In order to obtain a flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, it is found that both the cathode and the filter of the detector can be made of gold. A further improvement on the compound filter can then largely relax the requirement of the calibration x-ray beam. The calibration of the detector, which is carried out on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Institute of High Energy Physics, shows that the detector has a desired flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, with a response flatness smaller than 13%. The detector has been successfully applied in the hohlraum experiment on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The radiation temperatures inferred from the detector agree well with those from the diagnostic instrument Dante installed at the same azimuth angle from the hohlraum axis, demonstrating the feasibility of the detector.

  10. Albany 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-10-29

    New to version 2.0 of Albany is the development of equations sets for specific application areas. These are independent research and development efforts that have chosen to use Albany as their software deployment vehicle. Because of synergies between the projects, they remain in the same code repository and are all releasing together as the Albany software.

  11. Marketing 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that today's student is much more savvy with using computers than the students of years gone by. This tech generation eagerly embraces the Internet, online searching, and the newer Web 2.0 technologies. This latter platform provides users with the ability to interact in a large virtual world, share/take (upload/download)…

  12. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T.

    2010-11-12

    We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

  13. Ion yields and erosion rates for Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}(0<=x<=1) ultralow energy O{sub 2}{sup +} secondary ion mass spectrometry in the energy range of 0.25-1 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R. J. H.; Dowsett, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    We report the SIMS parameters required for the quantitative analysis of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} across the range of 0<=x<=1 when using low energy O{sub 2}{sup +} primary ions at normal incidence. These include the silicon and germanium secondary ion yield [i.e., the measured ion signal (ions/s)] and erosion rate [i.e., the speed at which the material sputters (nm/min)] as a function of x. We show that the ratio R{sub x} of erosion rates, Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}/Si, at a given x is almost independent of beam energy, implying that the properties of the altered layer are dominated by the interaction of oxygen with silicon. R{sub x} shows an exponential dependence on x. Unsurprisingly, the silicon and germanium secondary ion yields are found to depart somewhat from proportionality to (1-x) and x, respectively, although an approximate linear relationship could be used for quantification across around 30% of the range of x (i.e., a reference material containing Ge fraction x would give reasonably accurate quantification across the range of +-0.15x). Direct comparison of the useful (ion) yields [i.e., the ratio of ion yield to the total number of atoms sputtered for a particular species (ions/atom)] and the sputter yields [i.e., the total number of atoms sputtered per incident primary ion (atoms/ions)] reveals a moderate matrix effect where the former decrease monotonically with increasing x except at the lowest beam energy investigated (250 eV). Here, the useful yield of Ge is found to be invariant with x. At 250 eV, the germanium ion and sputter yields are proportional to x for all x.

  14. Web 2.0, Meet Literacy 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Literacy 2.0 is defined in terms of Web 2.0 influences. Literacy 2.0 encompasses several major characteristics that distinguish it from traditional literacy practices (Literacy 1.0). For educational technology professionals, Literacy 2.0 skills become a critical means for developing lifelong learning.

  15. Calibration of X-ray detectors in the 8 to 115 keV energy range and their application to diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lee, M. J. Haugh, G. LaCaille, and P. Torres

    2012-10-01

    The calibration of X-ray diagnostics is of paramount importance to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) fills this need by providing a wide variety of calibration and diagnostic development services in support of the ongoing research efforts at NIF. The X-ray source in the High Energy X-ray lab utilizes induced fluorescence in a variety of metal foils to produce a beam of characteristic X rays ranging from 8 to 111 keV. Presented are the methods used for calibrating a High Purity Germanium detector, which has been absolutely calibrated using radioactive check sources, compared against a silicon photodiode calibrated at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Also included is a limited presentation of results from the recent calibration of the upgraded Filter Fluorescer X ray Spectrometer.

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MEASURE THE CROSS SECTION OF THE {sup 18}O(p, alpha){sup 15}N RESONANT REACTION IN THE 0-200 keV ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Coc, A.; Kiss, G. G.; Mrazek, J.

    2010-01-01

    The {sup 18}O(p, alpha){sup 15}N reaction is of primary importance to pin down the uncertainties, due to nuclear physics input, affecting present-day models of asymptotic giant branch stars. Its reaction rate can modify both fluorine nucleosynthesis inside such stars and oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios, which allow one to constrain the proposed astrophysical scenarios. Thus, an indirect measurement of the low-energy region of the {sup 18}O(p, alpha){sup 15}N reaction has been performed to access, for the first time, the range of relevance for astrophysical application. In particular, a full, high-accuracy spectroscopic study of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been performed and the strengths deduced to evaluate the reaction rate and the consequences for astrophysics.

  17. ART: Surveying the Local Universe at 2-11 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Adams, M. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Bubarev, M. V.; Hassinger, G.; Pravlinski, M.; Predehl, P.; Romaine, S. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Urry, C. M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Astronomical Rontgen Telescope (ART) is a medium-energy x-ray telescope system proposed for the Russian-led mission Spectrum Rontgen-Gamma (SRG). Optimized for performance over the 2-11-keV band, ART complements the softer response of the SRG prime instrument-the German eROSITA x-ray telescope system. The anticipated number of ART detections is 50,000-with 1,000 heavily-obscured (N(sub H)> 3x10(exp 23)/sq cm) AGN-in the SRG 4-year all-sky survey, plus a comparable number in deeper wide-field (500 deg(sup 2) total) surveys. ART's surveys will provide a minimally-biased, nearly-complete census of the local Universe in the medium-energy x-ray band (including Fe-K lines), at CCD spectral resolution. During long (approx.100-ks) pointed observations, ART can obtain statistically significant spectral data up to about 15 keY for bright sources and medium-energy x-ray continuum and Fe-K-line spectra of AGN detected with the contemporaneous NuSTAR hard-x-ray mission.

  18. ECO2N V2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-01

    ECO2N V2.0 is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.1) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers and enhanced geothermal reservoirs. ECO2N V2.0 is an enhanced version of the previous ECO2N V1.0 module (Pruess, 2005). It expands the temperature range up to about 300oC whereas V1.0 can only be used for temperatures below about 110oC. V2.0 includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of H2O - NaCl - CO2 mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for the temperature, pressure and salinity conditions 10 °C < T < 300 °C, P < 600 bar, and salinity up to halite saturation. This includes density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition, as well as partitioning of mass components H2O, NaCl and CO2 among the different phases. In particular, V2.0 accounts for the effects of water on the thermophysical properties of the CO2-rich phase, which was ignored in V1.0, using a model consistent with the solubility models developed by Spycher and Pruess (2005, 2010). In terms of solubility models, V2.0 uses the same model for partitioning of mass components among the different phases (Spycher and Pruess, 2005) as V1.0 for the low temperature range (<99oC) but uses a new model (Spycher and Pruess, 2010) for the high temperature range (>109oC). In the transition range (99-109oC), a smooth interpolation is applied to estimate the partitioning as a function of the temperature. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO2-rich) phase, as well as two-phase (brine-CO2) mixtures. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. Note that the model cannot be applied to subcritical conditions that involves both liquid and gaseous CO2 unless thermol process is ignored (i.e.,isothermal run). For those cases, a user may use the fluid property module ECO2M (Pruess, 2011) instead

  19. Comparison of simulated and measured spectra from an X-ray tube for the energies between 20 and 35 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, M.; Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Ozben, C. S.; Yücel, E. Barlas

    2015-11-01

    Design and production of a simple and low cost X-ray imaging system that can be used for light industrial applications was targeted in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In this study, production, transmission and detection of X-rays were simulated for the proposed imaging device. OX/70-P dental tube was used and X-ray spectra simulated by Geant4 were validated by comparison with X-ray spectra measured between 20 and 35 keV. Relative detection efficiency of the detector was also determined to confirm the physics processes used in the simulations. Various time optimization tools were performed to reduce the simulation time.

  20. Measurement of the 20 and 90 keV Resonances in the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N Reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Irgaziev, B.; Coc, A.

    2008-10-10

    The {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of primary importance in several astrophysical scenarios, including fluorine nucleosynthesis inside asymptotic giant branch stars as well as oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. Thus the indirect measurement of the low energy region of the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction has been performed to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions. In particular the strength of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been deduced and the change in the reaction rate evaluated.

  1. Measurement of the 20 and 90 keV resonances in the 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction via the Trojan horse method.

    PubMed

    La Cognata, M; Spitaleri, C; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Irgaziev, B; Tribble, R E; Banu, A; Cherubini, S; Coc, A; Crucillà, V; Goldberg, V Z; Gulino, M; Kiss, G G; Lamia, L; Mrazek, J; Pizzone, R G; Puglia, S M R; Rapisarda, G G; Romano, S; Sergi, M L; Tabacaru, G; Trache, L; Trzaska, W; Tumino, A

    2008-10-10

    The 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction is of primary importance in several astrophysical scenarios, including fluorine nucleosynthesis inside asymptotic giant branch stars as well as oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. Thus the indirect measurement of the low energy region of the 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction has been performed to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions. In particular the strength of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been deduced and the change in the reaction rate evaluated. PMID:18999593

  2. PARTNERWORKSV2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-04-12

    PartnerWorks Ver. 2.0 uses MAPI and OLE to tightly integrate the information system into the user's desktop. The applications are mail and fax enabled, and data can be linked or exported to and from all popular desktop applications at the push of a button. PartnerWorks converts financial data from Project Year to Fiscal Year. PartnerWorks also makes use of off-the-shelf software (Microsoft NT) encryption. PartnerWorks Ver, 2.0 automates the management of laboratory agreements with industry.more »PartnerWorks is a three-tier client server system. It uses MS SQL server (480 tables) as the central data repository for agreement information and document objects. The front-end applications consist of various MS Access applications. Data in remote systems is queried live or imported on a fixed schedule depending on the data type and volatility. All data is accessed via ODBC. This multi-front end application, multi-back end data source provides the end user with the illusion that all data exists in his or her custom application. PartnerWorks manages: Managing laboratory-partner agreement life cycle including contract and funding details (16 agreement-specific modules); Pending laboratory partnership agreements; Partner details for existing and potential partners; Potential agreement sources and partnership opportunities; Automating and warehousing the agreement documentation (document warehousing module); Automating standardized email communication for agreements; Enforcing business rules and work flow (action tracking module); Automated reporting including demand print, and schedule delivery (reporting module); Marketing intellectual property and past successes (Web module).« less

  3. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ? 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with ?2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  4. ECO2N V2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-02-01

    ECO2N V2.0 is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.1) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers and enhanced geothermal reservoirs. ECO2N V2.0 is an enhanced version of the previous ECO2N V1.0 module (Pruess, 2005). It expands the temperature range up to about 300oC whereas V1.0 can only be used for temperatures below about 110oC. V2.0 includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamic and thermophysical propertiesmore »of H2O - NaCl - CO2 mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for the temperature, pressure and salinity conditions 10 °C 109oC). In the transition range (99-109oC), a smooth interpolation is applied to estimate the partitioning as a function of the temperature. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO2-rich) phase, as well as two-phase (brine-CO2) mixtures. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. Note that the model cannot be applied to subcritical conditions that involves both liquid and gaseous CO2 unless thermol process is ignored (i.e.,isothermal run). For those cases, a user may use the fluid property module ECO2M (Pruess, 2011) instead« less

  5. Xenopatients 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Javier A; Alarcón, Tomás; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin, Ángel G; Vellon, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In the science-fiction thriller film Minority Report, a specialized police department called “PreCrime” apprehends criminals identified in advance based on foreknowledge provided by 3 genetically altered humans called “PreCogs”. We propose that Yamanaka stem cell technology can be similarly used to (epi)genetically reprogram tumor cells obtained directly from cancer patients and create self-evolving personalized translational platforms to foresee the evolutionary trajectory of individual tumors. This strategy yields a large stem cell population and captures the cancer genome of an affected individual, i.e., the PreCog-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cancer cells, which are immediately available for experimental manipulation, including pharmacological screening for personalized “stemotoxic” cancer drugs. The PreCog-iPS cancer cells will re-differentiate upon orthotopic injection into the corresponding target tissues of immunodeficient mice (i.e., the PreCrime-iPS mouse avatars), and this in vivo model will run through specific cancer stages to directly explore their biological properties for drug screening, diagnosis, and personalized treatment in individual patients. The PreCog/PreCrime-iPS approach can perform sets of comparisons to directly observe changes in the cancer-iPS cell line vs. a normal iPS cell line derived from the same human genetic background. Genome editing of PreCog-iPS cells could create translational platforms to directly investigate the link between genomic expression changes and cellular malignization that is largely free from genetic and epigenetic noise and provide proof-of-principle evidence for cutting-edge “chromosome therapies” aimed against cancer aneuploidy. We might infer the epigenetic marks that correct the tumorigenic nature of the reprogrammed cancer cell population and normalize the malignant phenotype in vivo. Genetically engineered models of conditionally reprogrammable mice to transiently express the Yamanaka stemness factors following the activation of phenotypic copies of specific cancer diseases might crucially evaluate a “reprogramming cure” for cancer. A new era of xenopatients 2.0 generated via nuclear reprogramming of the epigenetic landscapes of patient-derived cancer genomes might revolutionize the current personalized translational platforms in cancer research. PMID:24406535

  6. Ionic fragmentation of CO and H2O under impact of 10 keV electrons: kinetic energy release distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raj; Bhatt, Pragya; Yadav, Namita; Shanker, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dissociative ionization of COq+ (q=2-4) and H2Oq+ (q=2-3) molecular ions produced from the collisions of CO and H2O with 10 keV electrons is studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometer and position sensitive detector with multi-hit ability, respectively. The kinetic energy release distributions for these channels are obtained. We found that a pure Coulomb explosion model is insufficient to explain the observed kinetic release distributions for the Coulomb explosion channels. A detail of this study is given in references [3, 4].

  7. 20 Servlets 20.2 Java Server Pages 20-4(371) 20.2 Java Server Pages

    E-print Network

    Arndt, Holger

    20 Servlets 20.2 Java Server Pages 20-4(371) 20.2 Java Server Pages Ein erstes Beispiel für eine Servlets 20.2 Java Server Pages 20-5(372) ist es hilfreich, in /etc/tomcat/web.xml das Auflisten von Verzeichnisinhalten zu erlauben: servlet

  8. Web 2.0, Library 2.0, and Librarian 2.0:Preparing for the 2.0 World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, S.

    2007-10-01

    There is a global conversation going on right now about the next generation of the web. It's happening under the name of Web 2.0. It's the McLuhanesque hot web where true human interaction takes precedence over merely `cool' information delivery and e-mail. It's about putting information into the real context of our users' lives, research, work and play. Concurrently, a group of information professionals are having a conversation about the vision for what Library 2.0 will look like in this Web 2.0 ecosystem. Some are even going so far as to talk about Web 3.0! Web 2.0 is coming fast and it's BIG! What are the skills and competencies that Librarian 2.0 will need? Come and hear an overview of Web 2.0 and a draft vision for Library 2.0 and an opinion about what adaptations we'll need to make to thrive in this future scenario. Let's talk about the Librarian 2.0 in our users' future!

  9. Library Instruction 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgewater, Rachel; Deitering, Anne-Marie; Munro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 ALA Annual Conference, a wonderful Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) preconference was presented entitled "Library Instruction 2.0: Building Your Online Instruction Toolkit". The presentation was enlightening and provided numerous and valuable recommendations for Web 2.0 sites that can facilitate and enliven library…

  10. Mid-crust fluid and water-rock interaction kinetic experiments and their geophysical significance: 2. syenite-water interaction in the temperature range from 20 to 435°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, R.; Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The kinetics Experiments on syenite-water interactions were carried out in a horizontally-mounted packed bed reactor in the temperature range from 20 to 435°C and at pressures of 23-36 MPa. The net dissolution rates (mol/minute/m2 or mol/s/m2) normalized to their specific surface area (A) are calculated using the following expression: -r = (Ci - C0) / [t (A/V) ?i] where Ci is the output concentration of species i, C0 is the initial concentration of species i, A is the total reactive surface area of the mineral (m2), t is the average fluid residence time, and V is the volume of the pressure vessel (mL), i.e., liquid volume. ?i is the stoichiometric coefficient of the ith element in the mineral formula (Zhang R.H. et al., 2000). Thus, the dissolution rates of syenite in water and the electric conductance can be measured simultaneously at temperature from 20 to 435°C and at pressure from 23-36MPa. The results indicated that the release rates of Si, Al, K and Na of the syenite increase with increasing temperature, and reached maximum values at 400°C. The release rates of Ca, Mg reached maximum values at 200°C. The release rates of Fe reached maximum values at 374°C. Another important impact factor of the reaction between syenite and water is pressure. The release rates of Si did not vary with pressure, as pressure was changed from 23 to 36 MPa. The release rates of K and Al in syenite increase with increasing pressure. The maximum release rates (rM) of Ni and Cu are reached at 300°C, 23 MPa, and the rM (Zn) is at 374°C, 23MPa. But the rM (Mn) is reached at low temperature (25°C) and 31MPa. The rM (Sr) and rM (Ba) are present at low temperature (20-200°C) and 23 MPa, The rM (Mo) is at 350°C and 23 MPa. The rM of Pb is present at 400°C, 23 MPa. The most metals (Si, Ca and ore-forming elements) easily release into aqueous solutions at 23 MPa. If increasing pressure from 23 to 36 MPa, most molar concentration ratio of metal Mi vs Si, Mi/MSi in the effluent solutions decreases with pressure. The in situ measurements of electric conductances of the water-rock interaction system at temperature range from 20-435°C, 23-36MPa were performed using the flow system. The in situ measurements of electric conductances combined the kinetic experiments found that the maximum electric conductances are present at 374-390°C, 23-36MPa, and simultaneously the maximum release rates of Si, Al, K are reached at the same temperature range. These results provide useful information for estimating the behavior of crustal fluids and the geophysical nature of the mid-crust. Note: These studies reported here have been supported by the Ministry of Land and Resources and the Ministry of Science and Technology: k[2013]01-062-014, SinoProbe-07-02-03, SinoProbe-03-01-2A, 20010302 and project of Anhui Province (2010G28). Key words: chemical kinetics, critical state, syenite-water interaction, electric conductance, high conductivity zone, high temperature experiment.

  11. Spectral reflectance change and luminescence of selected salts during 2-10 KeV proton bombardment - Implications for Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Nash, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation damage and luminescence caused by magnetospheric charged particles have been suggested by several investigators as mechanisms that are capable of explaining some of the peculiar spectral/albedo features of Io. In the present paper, this possibility is pursued by measuring the UV-visual spectral reflectance and luminescent efficiency of several proposed Io surface constituents during 2 to 10 keV proton irradiation at room and low temperatures. The luminescence efficiencies of pure samples, studied in the laboratory, suggest that charged-particle induced luminescence from Io's surface might be observable by spacecraft such as Voyager when viewing Io's dark side.

  12. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  13. Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF 2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amolo, G. O.; Comins, J. D.; Davidson, A. T.; Kozakiewicz, A. G.; Derry, T. E.; McLachlan, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    100 keV Mg ions have been implanted into MgF 2 crystals with a fluence of 10 17 ions/cm 2 at liquid nitrogen temperature. After warming to room temperature optical absorption measurements over the range 2.0-11.5 eV revealed F-type centres in the visible spectral region and bands at 7.8 eV and near 6.5 eV in the vacuum ultraviolet region. Analysis of defect annealing at elevated temperatures showed a mutual decay of the latter bands with the F-type centres and thereby their association with complementary fluorine interstitial defects. The growth and decay of a Mg colloid band near 4.43 eV was studied. At the highest annealing temperatures an XPS analysis shows that oxygen diffuses into the crystal forming MgO near the implanted surface, thus substantially modifying the optical absorption spectrum.

  14. Augmented Reality 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalstieg, Dieter; Langlotz, Tobias; Billinghurst, Mark

    Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively producing and distributing geo-referenced AR content. This combination of widely used mobile hardware and Web 2.0 software allows the development of a new type of AR platform that can be used on a global scale. In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality 2.0 concept and present existing work on mobile AR and web technologies that could be used to create AR 2.0 applications.

  15. The structure and dynamics of the radiation belts from 10 keV to 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Larsen, Brian A.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Spence, Harlan E.; Turner, Drew L.

    2015-04-01

    The Van Allen Probes mission measures the Earth’s radiation belts with very high spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Recent analysis has taken advantage of the capability of the ECT/MagEIS instrument’s ability to directly measure penetrating background radiation contributions to the electron count rates - and subtract it - providing spectral measurements that are essentially free of background contamination [Claudepierre et al., 2014]. The “background-subtracted” measurements show a surprising lack of MeV electrons in inner zone of the radiation belt [Fennell et al., 2014]. However at energies below ~1 MeV electrons can be injected through the slot region into the inner belt.Our analysis of these deep particle injections shows (1) there is great variability in the location of the inner edge of the outer zone - both from one event to another and from one energy to another, (2) lower energy electrons (e.g. <300 keV) are injected into the inner zone (e.g. L<2) more often than higher energy electrons (3) electrons with energies as low as 50 keV are frequently injected into the inner zone. We discuss the implications of these new observations for our understanding of radiation belt acceleration and transport.

  16. Shifting of the electron-capture-to-the-continuum peak in proton-helium collisions at 10 and 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, S.; Deb, N.C.; Roy, K.; Sahoo, S.; Crothers, D.S.F.

    2005-01-01

    A refined theoretical approach has been developed to study the double-differential cross sections (DDCS's) in proton-helium collisions as a function of the ratio of ionized electron velocity to the incident proton velocity. The refinement is done in the present coupled-channel calculation by introducing a continuum distorted wave in the final state coupled with discrete states including direct as well as charge transfer channels. It is confirmed that the electron-capture-to-the-continuum (ECC) peak is slightly shifted to a lower electron velocity than the equivelocity position. Comparing measurements and classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations at 10 and 20 keV proton energies, excellent agreement of the ECC peak heights is achieved at both energies. However, a minor disagreement in the peak positions between the present calculation and the CTMC results is noted. A smooth behavior of the DDCS is found in the present calculation on both sides of the peak whereas the CTMC results show some oscillatory behavior particularly to the left of the peak, associated with the statistical nature of CTMC calculations.

  17. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  18. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30 1333 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Shivalinge; Krishnaveni, S.; Gowda, Ramakrishna

    2005-10-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  19. Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    E-print Network

    Antier, S; Ferrando, P

    2015-01-01

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the ...

  20. Channel electron multiplier efficiency for protons of 0.2-10 keV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, G. E.; Mcgarity, J. O.

    1971-01-01

    The initial results of absolute proton efficiency measurements made in an auroral particle study by sounding rockets are given. The measurements were made at several counting rates from 1000 to 40,000 counts/sec on rocket-borne equipment. The results agree with those of Egidi et al. (1969) in the high energy range and show a disagreement at low energies.

  1. Differential cross sections for single ionization of H{sub 2} by 75-keV proton impact

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, U.; Schulz, M.; Madison, D. H.

    2011-03-15

    We have calculated triply differential cross sections (TDCS) and doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of H{sub 2} by 75-keV proton impact using the molecular three-body distorted-wave-eikonal initial-state (M3DW-EIS) approach. Previously published measured DDCS (differential in the projectile scattering angle and integrated over the ejected electron angles) found pronounced structures at relatively large angles that were interpreted as an interference resulting from the two-centered potential of the molecule. Theory treating H{sub 2} as atomic H multiplied by a molecular interference factor only predicts the observed structure when assumptions are made about the molecular orientation. Here we apply the M3DW-EIS method, which does not rely on such an ad hoc approach, but rather treats the interference from first principles.

  2. Medical librarian 2.0.

    PubMed

    Connor, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Web 2.0 refers to an emerging social environment that uses various tools to create, aggregate, and share dynamic content in ways that are more creative and interactive than transactions previously conducted on the Internet. The extension of this social environment to libraries, sometimes called Library 2.0, has profound implications for how librarians will work, collaborate, and deliver content. Medical librarians can connect with present and future generations of users by learning more about the social dynamics of Web 2.0's vast ecosystem, and incorporating some of its interactive tools and technologies (tagging, peer production, and syndication) into routine library practice. doi: 10.1300/J115v26n01_01. PMID:17210545

  3. Evaluation of powder/granular Gd2O2S:Pr scintillator screens in single photon counting mode under 140 keV excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.; Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative, low cost solution for the gamma detector in planar imaging. It is based on a powder scintillator, well established in X-ray imaging, and could be further exploited in simultaneous bimodal imaging systems. For this purpose, we have examined the performance of Gd2O2S:Pr powder scintillator, in the form of thick granular screens easily produced in the laboratory by commercially available Gd2O2S:Pr powder. The screen was coupled to a round position sensitive photomultiplier tube (R3292 PSPMT). The system's evaluation was performed in photon counting mode under 99mTc excitation. In all measurements, a general purpose hexagonal parallel collimator was used. Different samples of screens with coating thickness varying from 0.1 g/cm2 to 1.2 g/cm2 were tested. The 0.6 g/cm2 screen, corresponding to ~ 2 mm actual thickness, was found most efficient under 140 keV irradiation. The system`s performance with the proposed screen is reported with the modulation transfer function. Moreover sensitivity, spatial and energy resolution as well as the uniformity response using phantoms were measured. The performance of the proposed screen was compared with two CsI:Tl pixellated crystal arrays with 2 × 2 × 3 mm3 and 3 × 3 × 5 mm3pixel size. A spatial resolution, of 3 mm FWHM, for a 99mTc line source, was achieved at zero source to collimator distance. In addition, the Gd2O2S:Pr screen showed a slower degradation of the spatial resolution with increasing source to collimator distance e.g at 20 cm, the Gd2O2S:Pr screen showed aq spatial resolution of 8.4 mm while the spatial resolution of the pixellated crystals was 15 mm. Taking into account its easy production, its flexibility due to powder form, the very low cost and the good spatial resolution properties of the proposed alternative detector, powder scintillators could potentially be used for the construction of flexible detector geometries, such as ring type or gamma probes or as a low cost detector solution in educational photon counting imaging applications, complementary to standard X-ray imaging.

  4. Academic Leadership 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Academic Leadership 2.0 means making an administrative partnership with the faculty the cornerstone of an institution's culture. Administrators have to stop thinking of themselves as operating on a different level from the faculty. The fear many administrators have is that if they demonstrate their willingness to advocate for the faculty, the…

  5. eLearning 2.0 . , . ,,"8, ,, "

    E-print Network

    Borissova, Daniela

    ­ eLearning 2.0 . . , -, . , -, . , . - ,, ", . , . ,,"8, ,, " aivanova Education.au Seminars #12; eLearning 2.0, Stephen Downes, , WEB 2.0. eLearning 2.0 , , . eLearning 2.0 , ­ , - , . Stephen Downes [4

  6. First observation of {alpha} decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level (E{sub exc}=137.2 keV) of {sup 186}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Danevich, F. A.; Nagorny, S. S.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Incicchitti, A.

    2011-03-15

    The {alpha} decays of naturally occurring platinum isotopes, which are accompanied by the emission of {gamma} quanta, have been searched for deep underground (3600 m water equivalent) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). A sample of Pt with a mass of 42.5 g and a natural isotopic composition has been measured with a low background HP Ge detector (468 cm{sup 3}) during 1815 h. The {alpha} decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os (J{sup {pi}}=2{sup +}, E{sub exc}=137.2 keV) has been observed for the first time, with the half-life determined as T{sub 1/2}=2.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.4}(stat.){+-}0.6(syst.)x10{sup 14} yr. The T{sub 1/2} limits for the {alpha} decays of other Pt isotopes have been determined at the level of T{sub 1/2}{approx_equal}10{sup 16}-10{sup 20} yr. These limits have been set for the first time or they are better than those known from earlier experiments.

  7. Improving the energy response of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} dosimetry films at low energies (?100 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bekerat, H. Devic, S.; DeBlois, F.; Singh, K.; Sarfehnia, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Shih, Shelley; Yu, Xiang; Lewis, D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of varying the active layer composition of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} films on the energy dependence of the film, as well as try to develop a new prototype with more uniform energy response at low photon energies (?100?keV). Methods: First, the overall energy response (S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q)) of different commercial EBT type film models that represent the three different generations produced to date, i.e., EBT, EBT2, and EBT3, was investigated. Pieces of each film model were irradiated to a fixed dose of 2 Gy to water for a wide range of beam qualities and the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) was measured using a flatbed document scanner. Furthermore, the DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code was used to determine the absorbed dose to water energy dependence of the film, f(Q). Moreover, the intrinsic energy dependence, k{sub bq}(Q), for each film model was evaluated using the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) and f(Q). In the second part of this study, the authors investigated the effects of changing the chemical composition of the active layer on S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Finally, based on these results, the film manufacturer fabricated several film prototypes and the authors evaluated their S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Results: The commercial EBT film model shows an under response at all energies below 100 keV reaching 39% ± 4% at about 20 keV. The commercial EBT2 and EBT3 film models show an under response of about 27% ± 4% at 20 keV and an over response of about 16% ± 4% at 40?keV.S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) of the three commercial film models at low energies show strong correlation with the corresponding f{sup ?1}(Q) curves. The commercial EBT3 model with 4% Cl in the active layer shows under response of 22% ± 4% at 20 keV and 6% ± 4% at about 40?keV. However, increasing the mass percent of chlorine makes the film more hygroscopic which may affect the stability of the film's readout. The EBT3 film prototype with 7.5% Si shows a significant improvement in the energy response at very low energies compared to the commercial EBT3 films with 4% Cl. It shows under response of 15% ± 5% at about 20 keV to 2% ± 5% at about 40?keV. However, according to the manufacturer, the addition of 7.5% Si as SiO{sub 2} adversely affected the viscosity of the active fluid and therefore affected the potential use in commercial machine coating. The latest commercial EBT3 film model with 7% Al as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows an overall improvement in S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) compared to previous commercial EBT3 films. It shows under response at all energies <100 keV, varying from 20% ± 4% at 20 keV to 6% ± 4% at 40?keV. Conclusions: The energy response of films in the energy range <100 keV can be improved by adjusting the active layer chemical composition. Removing bromine eliminated the over response at about 40?keV. The under response at energies ?30 keV is improved by adding 7% Al to the active layer in the latest commercial EBT3 film models.

  8. Cross calibration of AGFA-D7 x-ray film against direct exposure film from 2 to 8.5 keV using laser generated x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrala, George A.

    2006-05-01

    Direct exposure film (DEF) is being discontinued. DEF film has been the workhorse in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and is used to record x-ray images and spectra. A previous search for a replacement [K. M. Chandler et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113111 (2005)] did not consider AGFA film. We present comparisons using the results of measurements using AGFA-D7 film, XAR, TMG, and Biomax-MS films in the same spectrometer recording a gold spectrum in the 2-4keV range and the iron spectrum in the 5-8.5keV range. AGFA film was found to have some unique properties useful in x-ray spectroscopy and imaging, especially when signal strength is not a concern.

  9. 28 CFR 20.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 20.2 Section 20.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS General Provisions § 20.2 Authority. These regulations are issued...

  10. Beryllium and Graphite High-Accuracy Total Cross-Section Measurements in the Energy Range from 24 to 900 keV

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Beryllium and Graphite High-Accuracy Total Cross-Section Measurements in the Energy Range from 24 new measurements of the carbon and beryllium neutron total cross section in the energy range of 24. Measurements of three samples of different thicknesses of beryllium resulted in accurate total cross

  11. The structural behavior of SrTiO3 under 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Liu, C. G.; Yang, D. Y.; Wen, J.; Fu, E. G.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L. J.; Xu, D. P.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. H.

    2015-11-01

    The structural behavior of polycrystalline perovskite SrTiO3 under 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation at both liquid nitrogen (LN2) and room temperature (RT) has been investigated. The grazing incident X-ray diffraction technique was applied to examine the radiation-induced structural evolution. The radiation behavior of SrTiO3 depends strongly on the irradiation temperature. At LN2 temperature, the samples exhibit significant lattice swelling and amorphization, whereas at RT, the lattice swelling is much less conspicuous and no amorphization is detected even at the highest irradiation dose of 5.0 dpa. Nevertheless, Ne2+ irradiation induces peak splitting in XRD patterns at both temperatures. Furthermore, first-principle calculations have been performed with VASP, involving possible defect types, to identify which defect is responsible for the radiation effect of SrTiO3. The results reveal that the oxygen vacancy defect is the most likely to contribute to the radiation behavior of SrTiO3.

  12. Autogen Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Version 2.0 of the autogen software has been released. "Autogen" (automated sequence generation) signifies both a process and software used to implement the process of automated generation of sequences of commands in a standard format for uplink to spacecraft. Autogen requires fewer workers than are needed for older manual sequence-generation processes and reduces sequence-generation times from weeks to minutes.

  13. Cross-field diffusion of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Costa Jr, Edio da; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Alves, Maria Virgínia; Echer, Ezequiel; Lakhina, Gurbax S. E-mail: costajr.e@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field magnitude decreases (MDs) are observed in several regions of the interplanetary medium. In this paper, we characterize MDs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft instrumentation over the solar south pole by using magnetic field data to obtain the empirical size, magnetic field MD, and frequency of occurrence distribution functions. The interaction of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons with these MDs is investigated. Charged particle and MD interactions can be described by a geometrical model allowing the calculation of the guiding center shift after each interaction. Using the distribution functions for the MD characteristics, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the cross-field diffusion coefficients as a function of particle kinetic energy. It is found that the protons under consideration cross-field diffuse at a rate of up to ?11% of the Bohm rate. The same method used in this paper can be applied to other space regions where MDs are observed, once their local features are well known.

  14. A new international geostationary electron model: IGE-2006, from 1 keV to 5.2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Boscher, D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Thomsen, M.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2008-07-01

    Département Environnement Spatial, Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) has been developing a model for the geostationary electron environment since 2003. Until now, this model was called Particle ONERA-LANL Environment (POLE), and it is valid from 30 keV up to 5.2 MeV. POLE is based on the full complement of Los Alamos National Laboratory geostationary satellites, covers the period 1976-2005, and takes into account the solar cycle variation. Over the period 1976 to present, four different detectors were flown: charged particle analyzer (CPA), synchronous orbit particle analyzer (SOPA), energetic spectra for particles (ESP), and magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA). Only the first three were used to develop the POLE model. Here we extend the energy coverage of the model to low energies using MPA measurements. We further include the data from the Japanese geostationary spacecraft, Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS). These data are now combined into an extended geostationary electron model which we call IGE-2006.

  15. THE ORIGIN OF THE 6.4 keV LINE EMISSION AND H{sub 2} IONIZATION IN THE DIFFUSE MOLECULAR GAS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Dogiel, V. A.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Tatischeff, V.; Terrier, R.

    2013-07-10

    We investigate the origin of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission recently detected by Suzaku and the source of H{sub 2} ionization in the diffuse molecular gas of the Galactic center (GC) region. We show that Fe atoms and H{sub 2} molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium of the GC are not ionized by the same particles. The Fe atoms are most likely ionized by X-ray photons emitted by Sgr A* during a previous period of flaring activity of the supermassive black hole. The measured longitudinal intensity distribution of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is best explained if the past activity of Sgr A* lasted at least several hundred years and released a mean 2-100 keV luminosity {approx}> 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. The H{sub 2} molecules of the diffuse gas cannot be ionized by photons from Sgr A*, because soft photons are strongly absorbed in the interstellar gas around the central black hole. The molecular hydrogen in the GC region is most likely ionized by low-energy cosmic rays, probably protons rather than electrons, whose contribution into the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is negligible.

  16. New acceptor-bridge-donor strategy for enhancing NLO response with long-range excess electron transfer from the NH2...M/M3O donor (M = Li, Na, K) to inside the electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the unusual ? chain bridge (CH2)4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-04-01

    Using the strong electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor, the NH2...M/M3O (M = Li, Na, and K) complicated donors with excess electron, and the unusual ? chain (CH2)4 bridge, we construct a new kind of electride molecular salt e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...M(+)/M3O(+) (M = Li, Na, and K) with excess electron anion inside the hole cage (to be encapsulated excess electron-hole pair) serving as a new A-B-D strategy for enhancing nonlinear optical (NLO) response. An interesting push-pull mechanism of excess electron generation and its long-range transfer is exhibited. The excess electron is pushed out from the (super)alkali atom M/M3O by the lone pair of NH2 in the donor and further pulled inside the hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the efficient long ? chain (CH2)4 bridge. Owing to the long-range electron transfer, the new designed electride molecular salts with the excess electron-hole pair exhibit large NLO response. For the e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...Na(+), its large first hyperpolarizability (?0) reaches up to 9.5 × 10(6) au, which is about 2.4 × 10(4) times the 400 au for the relative e(-)@C20F20...Na(+) without the extended chain (CH2)4-NH2. It is shown that the new strategy is considerably efficient in enhancing the NLO response for the salts. In addition, the effects of different bridges and alkali atomic number on ?0 are also exhibited. Further, three modulating factors are found for enhancing NLO response. They are the ? chain bridge, bridge-end group with lone pair, and (super)alkali atom. The new knowledge may be significant for designing new NLO materials and electronic devices with electrons inside the cages. They may also be the basis of establishing potential organic chemistry with electron-hole pair. PMID:23488897

  17. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, H.; Catala, C.; Aerts, C.; Appourchaux, T.; Benz, W.; Brandeker, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Deleuil, M.; Gizon, L.; Goupil, M.-J.; Güdel, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Mas-Hesse, M.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, ?.; Smith, A.; Suárez, J.-C.; Szabó, R.; Udry, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Alibert, Y.; Almenara, J.-M.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Eiff, M. Ammler-von; Asplund, M.; Antonello, E.; Barnes, S.; Baudin, F.; Belkacem, K.; Bergemann, M.; Bihain, G.; Birch, A. C.; Bonfils, X.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Borsa, F.; Brandão, I. M.; Brocato, E.; Brun, S.; Burleigh, M.; Burston, R.; Cabrera, J.; Cassisi, S.; Chaplin, W.; Charpinet, S.; Chiappini, C.; Church, R. P.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Cunha, M.; Damasso, M.; Davies, M. B.; Deeg, H. J.; Díaz, R. F.; Dreizler, S.; Dreyer, C.; Eggenberger, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Farmer, R.; Feltzing, S.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Figueira, P.; Forveille, T.; Fridlund, M.; García, R. A.; Giommi, P.; Giuffrida, G.; Godolt, M.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Granzer, T.; Grenfell, J. L.; Grotsch-Noels, A.; Günther, E.; Haswell, C. A.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hébrard, G.; Hekker, S.; Helled, R.; Heng, K.; Jenkins, J. M.; Johansen, A.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Kley, W.; Kolb, U.; Krivova, N.; Kupka, F.; Lammer, H.; Lanza, A. F.; Lebreton, Y.; Magrin, D.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Marrese, P. M.; Marques, J. P.; Martins, J.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Messina, S.; Miglio, A.; Montalban, J.; Montalto, M.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Moradi, H.; Moravveji, E.; Mordasini, C.; Morel, T.; Mortier, A.; Nascimbeni, V.; Nelson, R. P.; Nielsen, M. B.; Noack, L.; Norton, A. J.; Ofir, A.; Oshagh, M.; Ouazzani, R.-M.; Pápics, P.; Parro, V. C.; Petit, P.; Plez, B.; Poretti, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Raimondo, G.; Rainer, M.; Reese, D. R.; Redmer, R.; Reffert, S.; Rojas-Ayala, B.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Salmon, S.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Schou, J.; Schuh, S.; Schunker, H.; Silva-Valio, A.; Silvotti, R.; Skillen, I.; Snellen, I.; Sohl, F.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Stello, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Švanda, M.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Tkachenko, A.; Valencia, D.; Van Grootel, V.; Vauclair, S. D.; Ventura, P.; Wagner, F. W.; Walton, N. A.; Weingrill, J.; Werner, S. C.; Wheatley, P. J.; Zwintz, K.

    2014-11-01

    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, including potentially habitable planets? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes (32 with 25 s readout cadence and 2 with 2.5 s candence) providing a wide field-of-view (2232 deg 2) and a large photometric magnitude range (4-16 mag). It focusses on bright (4-11 mag) stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for these bright stars to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2 %, 4-10 % and 10 % for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The planned baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50 % of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include terrestrial planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. The PLATO 2.0 catalogue allows us to e.g.: - complete our knowledge of planet diversity for low-mass objects, - correlate the planet mean density-orbital distance distribution with predictions from planet formation theories,- constrain the influence of planet migration and scattering on the architecture of multiple systems, and - specify how planet and system parameters change with host star characteristics, such as type, metallicity and age. The catalogue will allow us to study planets and planetary systems at different evolutionary phases. It will further provide a census for small, low-mass planets. This will serve to identify objects which retained their primordial hydrogen atmosphere and in general the typical characteristics of planets in such low-mass, low-density range. Planets detected by PLATO 2.0 will orbit bright stars and many of them will be targets for future atmosphere spectroscopy exploring their atmosphere. Furthermore, the mission has the potential to detect exomoons, planetary rings, binary and Trojan planets. The planetary science possible with PLATO 2.0 is complemented by its impact on stellar and galactic science via asteroseismology as well as light curves of all kinds of variable stars, together with observations of stellar clusters of different ages. This will allow us to improve stellar models and study stellar activity. A large number of well-known ages from red giant stars will probe the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Asteroseismic ages of bright stars for different phases of stellar evolution allow calibrating stellar age-rotation relationships. Together with the results of ESA's Gaia mission, the results of PLATO 2.0 will provide a huge legacy to planetary, stellar and galactic science.

  18. The determination of interplanetary magnetic field polarities around sector boundaries using E greater than 2 keV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S.; Lin, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields (whether the field direction is outward from or inward toward the sun) has been based on a comparison of observed field directions with the nominal Parker spiral angle. These polarities can be mapped back to the solar source field polarities. This technique fails when field directions deviate substantially from the Parker angle or when fields are substantially kinked. We introduce a simple new technique to determine the polarities of interplanetary fields using E greater than 2 keV interplanetary electrons which stream along field lines away from the sun. Those electrons usually show distinct unidirectional pitch-angle anisotropies either parallel or anti-parallel to the field. Since the electron flow direction is known to be outward from the sun, the anisotropies parallel to the field indicate outward-pointing, positive-polarity fields, and those anti-parallel indicate inward-pointing, negative-polarity fields. We use data from the UC Berkeley electron experiment on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft to compare the field polarities deduced from the electron data, Pe (outward or inward), with the polarities inferred from field directions, Pd, around two sector boundaries in 1979. We show examples of large (greater than 100 deg) changes in azimuthal field direction Phi over short (less than 1 hr) time scales, some with and some without reversals in Pe. The latter cases indicate that such large directional changes can occur in unipolar structures. On the other hand, we found an example of a change in Pe during which the rotation in Phi was less than 30 deg, indicating polarity changes in nearly unidirectional structures. The field directions are poor guides to the polarities in these cases.

  19. Validation Results for LEWICE 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Rutkowski, Adam

    1999-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Lewis to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different spacing and time step criteria across computing platform. It also differs in the extensive amount of effort undertaken to compare the results in a quantified manner against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The results of the shape comparisons are analyzed to determine the range of meteorological conditions under which LEWICE 2.0 is within the experimental repeatability. This comparison shows that the average variation of LEWICE 2.0 from the experimental data is 7.2% while the overall variability of the experimental data is 2.5%.

  20. Fragmentation of doubly charged HDO, H2O, and D2O molecules induced by proton and monocharged fluorine beam impact at 3 keV.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Chen, L; Brédy, R; Bernard, J; Cassimi, A

    2015-03-01

    Doubly charged ions HDO(2+), H2O(2+), and D2O(2+) were prepared selectively to triplet or singlet excited states in collisions with F(+) or H(+) projectiles at 3 keV. Excitation energies of dications following two-body or three-body dissociation channels were measured and compared with recent calculations using ab initio multi-reference configuration interaction method [Gervais et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 024302 (2009)]. For HDO(2+), preferential cleavage of O-H rather than O-D bond has been observed and the ratio between the populations of the fragmentation channels OD(+)_H(+) and OH(+)_D(+) were measured. The kinetic energy release has been measured and compared with previous experiments. PMID:25747080

  1. High-power 1 kHz laser-plasma x-ray source for ultrafast x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy in the keV range

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchies, F.; Harmand, M.; Descamps, D.; Fourment, C.; Hulin, S.; Petit, S.; Peyrusse, O.; Santos, J. J.

    2008-09-22

    A high average power broadband x-ray source is developed in the multi-keV range, based on the thermal emission of plasmas produced with a 1 kHz fs laser focused on high Z element target. This compact ultrafast x-ray source is used to measure the x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of aluminum K-edge (1.559 keV) with noise lower than 1% of the absorption edge when accumulating laser shots over a few tens of seconds. That demonstrates its suitability to study atomic and electronic structures of matter during ultrafast phase transitions among solid, liquid, or higher energy density states.

  2. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  3. WMS Server 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Wood, James F.

    2012-01-01

    This software is a simple, yet flexible server of raster map products, compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) 1.1.1 protocol. The server is a full implementation of the OGC WMS 1.1.1 as a fastCGI client and using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) for data access. The server can operate in a proxy mode, where all or part of the WMS requests are done on a back server. The server has explicit support for a colocated tiled WMS, including rapid response of black (no-data) requests. It generates JPEG and PNG images, including 16-bit PNG. The GDAL back-end support allows great flexibility on the data access. The server is a port to a Linux/GDAL platform from the original IRIX/IL platform. It is simpler to configure and use, and depending on the storage format used, it has better performance than other available implementations. The WMS server 2.0 is a high-performance WMS implementation due to the fastCGI architecture. The use of GDAL data back end allows for great flexibility. The configuration is relatively simple, based on a single XML file. It provides scaling and cropping, as well as blending of multiple layers based on layer transparency.

  4. Using Web 2.0 to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechler, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 is not only for kids anymore, businesses are using it, too. Businesses are adopting Web 2.0 technology for a variety of purposes. In this article, the author discusses how he incorporates Web 2.0 into his business communications course. He describes a project that has both individual and collaborative elements and requires extensive…

  5. Technical Note: Influence of the phantom material on the absorbed-dose energy dependence of the EBT3 radiochromic film for photons in the energy range 3 keV–18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hermida-López, M.; Lüdemann, L.; Flühs, A.; Brualla, L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Water is the reference medium for radiation therapy dosimetry, but for film dosimetry it is more practical to use a solid phantom. As the composition of solid phantoms differs from that of water, the energy dependence of film exposed within solid phantoms may also differ. The energy dependence of a radiochromic film for a given beam quality Q (energy for monoenergetic beams) has two components: the intrinsic energy dependence and the absorbed-dose energy dependence f(Q), the latter of which can be calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the phantom material on the f(Q) of the EBT3 radiochromic film (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Wayne, NJ) for photon beams with energies between 3 keV and 18 MeV. Methods: All simulations were carried out with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE 2011. The geometrical model consisted of a cylindrical phantom, with the film positioned at different depths depending on the initial photon energy. The authors simulated monoenergetic parallel photon beams and x-ray beams from a superficial therapy system. To validate their choice of simulation parameters, they also calculated f(Q) for older film models, EBT and EBT2, comparing with published results. In addition to water, they calculated f(Q) of the EBT3 film for solid phantom materials commonly used for film dosimetry: RW1 and RW3 (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany), Solid Water (Gammex-RMI, Madison, WI), and PMMA. Finally, they combined their calculated f(Q) with published overall energy response data to obtain the intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film in water. Results: The calculated f(Q) for EBT and EBT2 films was statistically compatible with previously published data. Between 10 keV and 18 MeV, the variation found in f(Q) of the EBT3 film for water was within 2.3%, with a standard statistical uncertainty less than 1%. If the quantity dose-to-water in the phantom is considered, which is the common practice in radiation dosimetry, the maximum difference of energy dependence for the solid phantoms with respect to water is about 6%, at an energy of 50 keV. Conclusions: The EBT3 film shows a reasonably constant absorbed-dose energy dependence when irradiated in water. If the dose-to-water in the phantom is considered, the maximum difference of EBT3 film energy dependence with the solid phantoms studied with respect to water is about 6% (at an energy of 50 keV). The reported overall energy dependence of the EBT3 film in water at energies below 100 keV is mainly due to the intrinsic energy dependence.

  6. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sabir; Ahmad, Tauseeef; Kumar, Kamal; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Chaubey, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ? 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs) populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  7. Scaling functions of two-neutron separation energies of $^{20}C$ with finite range potentials

    E-print Network

    M. A. Shalchi; M. R. Hadizadeh; M. T. Yamashita; Lauro Tomio; T. Frederico

    2015-08-25

    The behaviour of an Efimov excited state is studied within a three-body Faddeev formalism for a general neutron-neutron-core system, where neutron-core is bound and neutron-neutron is unbound, by considering zero-ranged as well as finite-ranged two-body interactions. For the finite-ranged interactions we have considered a one-term separable Yamaguchi potential. The main objective is to study range corrections in a scaling approach, with focus in the exotic carbon halo nucleus $^{20}C$.

  8. The PLATO 2.0 Mission

    E-print Network

    Rauer, H; Aerts, C; Appourchaux, T; Benz, W; Brandeker, A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Deleuil, M; Gizon, L; Güdel, M; Janot-Pacheco, E; Mas-Hesse, M; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Pollacco, D; Santos, N C; Smith, A; -C., J; Suárez,; Szabó, R; Udry, S; Adibekyan, V; Alibert, Y; Almenara, J -M; Amaro-Seoane, P; Eiff, M Ammler-von; Antonello, E; Ball, W; Barnes, S; Baudin, F; Belkacem, K; Bergemann, M; Birch, A; Boisse, I; Bonomo, A S; Borsa, F; Brandão, I M; Brocato, E; Brun, S; Burleigh, M; Burston, R; Cabrera, J; Cassisi, S; Chaplin, W; Charpinet, S; Chiappini, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Cunha, M; Damasso, M; Davies, M B; Deeg, H J; Fialho, F de Oliveira; DÍaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dreyer, C; Eggenberger, P; Ehrenreich, D; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Farmer, R; Feltzing, S; Figueira, P; Forveille, T; Fridlund, M; García, R; Giuffrida, G; Godolt, M; da Silva, J Gomes; Goupil, M -J; Granzer, T; Grenfell, J L; Grotsch-Noels, A; Günther, E; Haswell, C A; Hatzes, A P; Hébrard, G; Hekker, S; Helled, R; Heng, K; Jenkins, J M; Khodachenko, M L; Kislyakova, K G; Kley, W; Kolb, U; Krivova, N; Kupka, F; Lammer, H; Lanza, A F; Lebreton, Y; Magrin, D; Marcos-Arenal, P; Marrese, P M; Marques, J P; Martins, J; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Messina, S; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Montalto, M; Monteiro, M J P F G; Moradi, H; Moravveji, E; Mordasini, C; Morel, T; Mortier, A; Nascimbeni, V; Nielsen, M B; Noack, L; Norton, A J; Ofir, A; Oshagh, M; Ouazzani, R -M; Pápics, P; Parro, V C; Petit, P; Plez, B; Poretti, E; Quirrenbach, A; Ragazzoni, R; Raimondo, G; Rainer, M; Reese, D R; Redmer, R; Reffert, S; Rojas-Ayala, B; Roxburgh, I W; Solanki, S K; Salmon, S; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Schou, J; Schuh, S; Schunker, H; Silva-Valio, A; Silvotti, R; Skillen, I; Snellen, I; Sohl, F; Sousa, A S; Sozzetti, A; Stello, D; Strassmeier, K G; Švanda, M; Szabó, G M; Tkachenko, A; Valencia, D; van Grootel, V; Vauclair, S D; Ventura, P; Wagner, F W; Walton, N A; Weingrill, J; Werner, S C; Wheatley, P J; Zwintz, K

    2013-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into t...

  9. Investigating the unknown nuclear reaction in a low-energy (E < 330 keV) p + Ti{sup 2}H{sub x} experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Jin, G.; Piao, Y.

    2000-03-01

    Charged-particle products with {approximately}3.9-MeV energy were observed in a low-energy experiment (E{sub p}{le} 330 keV) with a proton bombarding a Ti{sup 2}H{sub x} target. The features of the charged-particle products were the same as those of an alpha particle. The threshold of the reaction was {approximately}150 keV. The maximum reaction rate reached more than 10{sup 5} r/s, while the proton energy and current were 324 keV and 1.2 mA, respectively. The excitation curve of this unknown reaction increased exponentially with the growth of proton energy. There is no known nuclear reaction induced by a proton that can be applied to interpret this experimental phenomenon. Some interpretations, e.g., an indirect secondary reaction and a multibody reaction model, are discussed, but the origin of this unknown nuclear reaction is still a mystery and under study.

  10. Investigating the Unknown Nuclear Reaction in a Low-Energy (E < 330 keV) p + Ti{sup 2}H{sub x} Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tieshan; Wang Zhiguo; Chen Jingen; Jin Genming; Piao Yubo

    2000-03-15

    Charged-particle products with {approx}3.9-MeV energy were observed in a low-energy experiment (E{sub p} {<=} 330 keV) with a proton bombarding a Ti{sup 2}H{sub x} target. The features of the charged-particle products were the same as those of an alpha particle. The threshold of the reaction was {approx}150 keV. The maximum reaction rate reached more than 10{sup 5} r/s, while the proton energy and current were 324 keV and 1.2 mA, respectively. The excitation curve of this unknown reaction increased exponentially with the growth of proton energy. There is no known nuclear reaction induced by a proton that can be applied to interpret this experimental phenomenon. Some interpretations, e.g., an indirect secondary reaction and a multibody reaction model, are discussed, but the origin of this unknown nuclear reaction is still a mystery and under study.

  11. High spectral resolution Al2O3/B4C, SiC/Si, SiC/B4C, and SiC/C multilayer structures for the photon energies of 6 keV to 19 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, Yuriy Y.; Martynov, Vladimir V.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Lai, Barry

    2004-11-01

    A double multilayer monochromator with each multilayer composed of four stripes with different d-spacing providing spectral resolution of 0.3% to 0.8% in the energy range of 6keV to 19keV has been developed. Test multilayer structures with d-spacing from 2.3nm to 10.6nm have been deposited by magnetron sputtering. X-ray characterization has been performed at OSMIC by using a recently upgraded diffractometer setup and Cu-K? radiation and at the APS. The following material combinations were studied before the final choice of materials for the high energy resolution monochromator has been made: Al2O3/B4C, SiC/Si, SiC/B4C and SiC/C. To minimize the effect of internal stress built in multilayer structure on X-ray characteristics flat and thick 1" diameter silicon substrates supplied by Wave Precision Inc. were used for all calibration coatings. Final coatings were deposited on two 145mm long, 60mm wide and 30mm thick silicon substrates. Resolution of SiC/Si structures with d1=2.3nm, N1=1000 and d2=3nm, N2=700 was measured at Cu-K? with X-ray beam divergence of 14 arcsec to be 0.216% and 0.34% respectively. For plane waves the resolution is expected to be 0.13% and 0.19%, respectively.

  12. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Internet (2)

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    2% 4% 17% 11% 2.0% 8.0% 35% 2% 19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Other (1) Internet (2) Applied Directly & Assurance Technician Syracuse NY Eurotire, USA Market Research Analyst New York NY Eurotire, USA Research Raleigh-Durham NC Inficon, Inc. Marketing Manager Syracuse NY JBS Management Lifeguard Boston MA JPMorgan

  13. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  14. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.20 Referral....

  15. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.20 Referral. An agency official should inform the...

  16. DISFRAC Version 2.0 Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Kristine B; Erickson, Marjorie A; Williams, Paul T; Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2013-01-01

    DISFRAC is the implementation of a theoretical, multi-scale model for the prediction of fracture toughness in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) region of ferritic steels. Empirically-derived models of the DBTT region cannot legitimately be extrapolated beyond the range of existing fracture toughness data. DISFRAC requires only tensile properties and microstructural information as input, and thus allows for a wider range of application than empirical, toughness data dependent models. DISFRAC is also a framework for investigating the roles of various microstructural and macroscopic effects on fracture behavior, including carbide particle sizes, grain sizes, strain rates, and material condition. DISFRAC s novel approach is to assess the interaction effects of macroscopic conditions (geometry, loading conditions) with variable microstructural features on cleavage crack initiation and propagation. The model addresses all stages of the fracture process, from microcrack initiation within a carbide particle, to propagation of that crack through grains and across grain boundaries, finally to catastrophic failure of the material. The DISFRAC procedure repeatedly performs a deterministic analysis of microcrack initiation and propagation within a macroscopic crack plastic zone to calculate a critical fracture toughness value for each microstructural geometry set. The current version of DISFRAC, version 2.0, is a research code for developing and testing models related to cleavage fracture and transition toughness. The various models and computations have evolved significantly over the course of development and are expected to continue to evolve as testing and data collection continue. This document serves as a guide to the usage and theoretical foundations of DISFRAC v2.0. Feedback is welcomed and encouraged.

  17. Energy dependence of photon-induced K? and K? x-ray production cross-sections for some elements with 42?Z?68 in the energy range 38-80 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seven, Sabriye; Erdo?an, Hasan

    2015-12-01

    The energy dependence of photon-induced K? and K? x-ray production cross-sections for Mo, Ru, Pd, In, Sb, Cs, La, Pr, Sm, Tb and Er elements has been studied in the energy range of 38-80 keV with secondary excitation method. K x-ray intensities were measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The measurements have been made by observing the x-ray emissions, with the help of HPGe detector coupled with a multichannel analyzer. The areas of the K? and K? spectral peaks, as well as the net peak areas, have been determined by a fitting process. The measured K? and K? x-ray production cross-sections have been compared with calculated theoretical values in this energy regime. The results have been plotted versus excitation energy. The present experimental K? and K? x-ray production cross-section values for all the elements were in general agreement with the theoretical values calculated using photoionization cross-sections, fluorescence yields and fractional rates based on Hartree-Slater potentials.

  18. The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: the high energy x-ray source and some applications.

    PubMed

    Hubert, S; Dubois, J L; Gontier, D; Lidove, G; Reverdin, C; Soullié, G; Stemmler, P; Villette, B

    2010-05-01

    The laser integration line (LIL) located at CEA-CESTA is equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors, and cameras. The CEA-DAM of Arpajon is currently developing x-ray calibration methods and carrying out absolute calibration of LIL x-ray photodetectors. To guarantee LIL measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras must be regularly calibrated close to the facility. A new x-ray facility is currently available to perform these absolute x-ray calibrations. This paper presents the x-ray tube based high energy x-ray source delivering x-ray energies ranging from 0.9 to 10 keV by means of an anode barrel. The purpose of this source is mainly to calibrate LIL x-ray cameras but it can also be used to measure x-ray filter transmission of plasma diagnostics. Different x-ray absolute calibrations such as x-ray streak and framing camera yields, x-ray charge-coupled device quantum efficiencies, and x-ray filter transmissions are presented in this paper. A x-ray flat photocathode detector sensitivity calibration recently performed for a CEA Z-pinch facility is also presented. PMID:20515133

  19. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards in the 16.59-25.26 keV photon energy range and their density profile using x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Marashdeh, M W; Bauk, S; Tajuddin, A A; Hashim, R

    2012-04-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K(?1) X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. PMID:22304963

  20. The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, S.; Dubois, J. L.; Gontier, D.; Lidove, G.; Reverdin, C.; Soullie, G.; Stemmler, P.; Villette, B.

    2010-05-15

    The laser integration line (LIL) located at CEA-CESTA is equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors, and cameras. The CEA-DAM of Arpajon is currently developing x-ray calibration methods and carrying out absolute calibration of LIL x-ray photodetectors. To guarantee LIL measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras must be regularly calibrated close to the facility. A new x-ray facility is currently available to perform these absolute x-ray calibrations. This paper presents the x-ray tube based high energy x-ray source delivering x-ray energies ranging from 0.9 to 10 keV by means of an anode barrel. The purpose of this source is mainly to calibrate LIL x-ray cameras but it can also be used to measure x-ray filter transmission of plasma diagnostics. Different x-ray absolute calibrations such as x-ray streak and framing camera yields, x-ray charge-coupled device quantum efficiencies, and x-ray filter transmissions are presented in this paper. A x-ray flat photocathode detector sensitivity calibration recently performed for a CEA Z-pinch facility is also presented.

  1. Range profiles of Hg+, Hg2+, and Hg3+ in polymer polyvinylalcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Shi, Bo-Rong; Liu, Ji-Tian; Liu, Xiang-Dong; Yao, Ke-Jun

    1989-11-01

    Depth profiles of Hg+, Hg2+, and Hg3+ implanted in polymer polyvinylalcohol at energies from 50 to 600 keV are measured by 2.1-MeV 4He2+ Rutherford backscattering. Based on Biersack's angular diffusion model, a computer program is written for comparison with the experimental values. The result shows that the measured projected range is in good agreement with the calculated value for first-order treatment. The experimentally determined range straggling is still higher than the calculated value after considering the second-order energy loss. The Monte Carlo simulation shows that the Hg profile is not described by an ionization or nuclear damage profile, but rather is described by a classical predicted implantation profile.

  2. Trust, Voice, and Library 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Candice

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 is a constant and growing theme in the library field. This article describes a social networking site based on a Web 2.0 infused course management system (CMS) developed by Clatsop Community College in Astoria, Oregon.

  3. Student Inquiry and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications are changing how educators interact both with each other and with their students. Educators can use these new Web tools daily to create, share, socialize, and collaborate with students, colleagues, and newly developed network contacts. School librarians are finding that Web 2.0 tools are bringing them more ways to embrace and…

  4. Breathing Fire into Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Justin; Carpenter, David

    2007-01-01

    Today's methods of social networking and the technologies that support them offer powerful examples of how educators can connect to the "real" world of client population. To fully engage with the Web 2.0 world, educators work to include aspects of Web 2.0 into their teaching through the use of wikis, forums, and blogs. Administrators are also…

  5. Young Adult Literature 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

  6. DCC Briefing Paper: Web 2.0 

    E-print Network

    Abbott, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    The term 'Web 2.0' refers to a way of thinking about networked communications; a collaborative and social way of working underpinned by the key concept of the Web (rather than the desktop) as a platform. Web 2.0 is characterised by data sharing...

  7. Spectral radiance in the s20-range and luminance of the clear and overcast night sky.

    PubMed

    Höhn, D H; Büchtemann, W

    1973-01-01

    The spectral radiance of the night sky was investigated in the wavelength range from 0.40 microm to 0.80 microm.A series of measurements was taken in the Austrian Alps in 1968. Statistical reductions were made for the total data assembly as well as for data groups with different types of night sky cover, for moonless nights, and for nights with moon. The mean spectral radiance and the standard deviation in the above mentioned wavelength range are presented and discussed together with the distribution functions of the spectral radiance at 0.40 microm, 0.45 microm, 0.5577 (OI) microm, and 0.80 (OH) microm, of the photopic and scotopic luminances and of the S20 radiance. Finally the correlation coefficients regarding each pair of photopic, scotopic, and S20 responses were calculated together with the corresponding regression coefficients. The correlation coefficients are almost equal to unity. PMID:20125228

  8. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  9. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  10. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  11. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  12. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  13. 20 CFR 222.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...2 Section 222.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS...connection by blood, marriage, or adoption between the employee and another...

  14. 20 CFR 222.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...2 Section 222.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS...connection by blood, marriage, or adoption between the employee and another...

  15. 20 CFR 222.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01...2 Section 222.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS...connection by blood, marriage, or adoption between the employee and another...

  16. Definition of Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2010-01-01

    Background During the last decade, the Internet has become increasingly popular and is now an important part of our daily life. When new “Web 2.0” technologies are used in health care, the terms “Health 2.0" or "Medicine 2.0” may be used. Objective The objective was to identify unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and recurrent topics within the definitions. Methods A systematic literature review of electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL) and gray literature on the Internet using the search engines Google, Bing, and Yahoo was performed to find unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We assessed all literature, extracted unique definitions, and selected recurrent topics by using the constant comparison method. Results We found a total of 1937 articles, 533 in scientific databases and 1404 in the gray literature. We selected 46 unique definitions for further analysis and identified 7 main topics. Conclusions Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 are still developing areas. Many articles concerning this subject were found, primarily on the Internet. However, there is still no general consensus regarding the definition of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We hope that this study will contribute to building the concept of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and facilitate discussion and further research. PMID:20542857

  17. Transmission images and evaluation of tomographic imaging based scattered radiation from biological materials using 10, 15, 20 and 25 keV synchrotron X-rays: An analysis in terms of optimum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Akatsuka, Takao; Tromba, Giuliana

    2004-05-12

    Transmission images and tomographic imaging based scattered radiation is evaluated from biological materials, for example, Polyethylene, Poly carbonate, Plexiglas and Nylon using 10, 15, 20 and 25 keV synchrotron X-rays. The SYRMEP facility at Elettra,Trieste, Italy and the associated detection system has been used for the image acquisition. The scattered radiation is detected for each sample at three energies at an angle of 90 deg. using Si-Pin detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer. The contribution of transmitted, Compton and fluorescence photons are assessed for a test phantom of small dimensions. The optimum analysis is performed with the use of the dimensions of the sample and detected radiation at various energies.

  18. Tables of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients 1 keV to 20 meV for elements z = 1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.H.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient mu/rho and the mass energy-absorption coefficient mu(en)/rho are presented for all of the elements Z=1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mu/rho values are taken from the current photon interaction database at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the mu(en)/rho values are based on the new calculations by Seltzer described in Radiation Research. These tables of mu/rho and mu(en)/rho replace and extend the tables given by Hubbell in the International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

  19. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Berend

    2010-02-03

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment for Japanese SELENE-2 landing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Kunimori, H.; Araki, H.; Fuse, T.; Hanada, H.; Katayama, M.; Otsubo, T.; Sasaki, S.; Tazawa, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Funazaki, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Murata, K.

    2012-04-01

    We present the development status of the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment proposed to Japanese SELENE-2 lunar landing mission. The Lunar Laser Ranging measures the distance between laser link stations on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon, by detecting the time of flight of photons of high-powered laser emitted from the ground station. Since the Earth-Moon distance contains information of lunar orbit, lunar solid tides, and lunar orientation and rotation, we can estimate the inner structure of the Moon through orientation, rotation and tide. Retroreflectors put by the Apollo and Luna missions in 1970's are arrays of many small Corner Cube Prisms (CCP). Because of the tilt of these arrays from the Earth direction due to the optical libration, the returned laser pulse is broaden, causing the main range error of more than 1.5 cm ([1]). Therefore retroreflectors with larger single aperture are necessary for more accurate ranging, and we propose a large single retroreflector of hollow-type with 15 cm aperture. Larger aperture up to 20 cm might be favorable if more mass is permitted for payloads. To cancel the velocity aberration, a large, single aperture retroreflector needs small amount of offset angle between the reflecting planes to spoil the return beam pattern. This angle offset, called Dihedral Angle Offset (DAO) must be optimized to be less than 1 second of arc with 0.1 seconds of arc accuracy to accumulate more photons [2, 3]. The realization of such small DAO is challenging with current technology, therefore the development of fabrication method is important. As for the mirror material, some ceramic products (ZPF: Zero-expansion Pore-free ceramics or SiC: silicon carbide) are under consideration in terms of weight, hardness and handling. The thermal quality of the material can be evaluated by both the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion. The method to fasten three planes each other with precise DAO must be developed.

  2. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS §...

  3. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING...

  4. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING...

  5. On amplitude beam splitting of tender X-rays (2-8?keV photon energy) using conical diffraction from reflection gratings with laminar profile.

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner; Eichert, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Conical diffraction is obtained when a radiation beam impinges onto a periodically ruled surface structure parallel or almost parallel to the ruling. In this condition the incident intensity is diffracted through an arc, away from the plane of incidence. The diffracted intensity thus lies on a cone, which leads to the name `conical diffraction'. In this configuration almost no part of the ruled structure will produce any shadowing effect for the incident or the diffracted beam. Then, compared with a grating in the classical orientation, relatively higher diffraction efficiencies will be observed for fewer diffraction orders. When the incident beam is perfectly parallel to the grooves of a rectangular grating profile, the symmetry of the setup causes diffraction of the intensity symmetrically around the plane of incidence. This situation was previously tested experimentally in the VUV spectral range for the amplitude beam splitting of a radiation beam with a photon energy of 25?eV. In this case the ideally expected beam splitting efficiency of about 80% for the diffraction into the two first orders was confirmed for the optimum combination of groove depth and angle of grazing incidence. The feasibility of the amplitude beam splitting for hard X-rays with 12?keV photon energy by use of the same concept was theoretically confirmed. However, no related experimental data are presented yet, not even for lower energy soft X-rays. The present study reports the first experimental data for the conical diffraction from a rectangular grating profile in the tender X-ray range for photon energies of 4?keV and 6?keV. The expected symmetries are observed. The maximum absolute efficiency for beam splitting was measured to be only about 30%. As the reflectivity of the grating coating at the corresponding angle of grazing incidence was found to be only of the order of 50%, the relative beam splitting efficiency was thus 60%. This is to be compared also here with an ideally expected relative efficiency of 80%. It is predicted that a beam splitting efficiency exceeding 50% should be possible by use of more appropriate materials. PMID:26698049

  6. LSST Science Book, Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    Allison, Julius; Andrew, John R; Angel, J Roger P; Armus, Lee; Arnett, David; Asztalos, S J; Axelrod, Tim S; Bailey, Stephen; Ballantyne, D R; Bankert, Justin R; Barkhouse, Wayne A; Barr, Jeffrey D; Barrientos, L Felipe; Barth, Aaron J; Bartlett, James G; Becker, Andrew C; Becla, Jacek; Beers, Timothy C; Bernstein, Joseph P; Biswas, Rahul; Blanton, Michael R; Bloom, Joshua S; Bochanski, John J; Boeshaar, Pat; Borne, Kirk D; Bradac, Marusa; Brandt, W N; Bridge, Carrie R; Brown, Michael E; Brunner, Robert J; Bullock, James S; Burgasser, Adam J; Burge, James H; Burke, David L; Cargile, Phillip A; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Chartas, George; Chesley, Steven R; Chu, You-Hua; Cinabro, David; Claire, Mark W; Claver, Charles F; Clowe, Douglas; Connolly, A J; Cook, Kem H; Cooke, Jeff; Cooray, Asantha; Covey, Kevin R; Culliton, Christopher S; de Jong, Roelof; de Vries, Willem H; Debattista, Victor P; Delgado, Francisco; Dell'Antonio, Ian P; Dhital, Saurav; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Dickinson, Mark; Dilday, Benjamin; Djorgovski, S G; Dobler, Gregory; Donalek, Ciro; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Durech, Josef; Eliasdottir, Ardis; Eracleous, Michael; Eyer, Laurent; Falco, Emilio E; Fan, Xiaohui; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Ferguson, Harry C; Fernandez, Yanga R; Fields, Brian D; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Figueroa, Eduardo E; Fox, Derek B; Francke, Harold; Frank, James S; Frieman, Josh; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Furqan, Muhammad; Galaz, Gaspar; Gal-Yam, A; Garnavich, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Geary, John; Gee, Perry; Gibson, Robert R; Gilmore, Kirk; Grace, Emily A; Green, Richard F; Gressler, William J; Grillmair, Carl J; Habib, Salman; Haggerty, J S; Hamuy, Mario; Harris, Alan W; Hawley, Suzanne L; Heavens, Alan F; Hebb, Leslie; Henry, Todd J; Hileman, Edward; Hilton, Eric J; Hoadley, Keri; Holberg, J B; Holman, Matt J; Howell, Steve B; Infante, Leopoldo; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jacoby, Suzanne H; Jain, Bhuvnesh; R,; Jedicke,; Jee, M James; Jernigan, J Garrett; Jha, Saurabh W; Johnston, Kathryn V; Jones, R Lynne; Juric, Mario; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Styliani,; Kafka,; Kahn, Steven M; Kaib, Nathan A; Kalirai, Jason; Kantor, Jeff; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Keeton, Charles R; Kessler, Richard; Knezevic, Zoran; Kowalski, Adam; Krabbendam, Victor L; Krughoff, K Simon; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Kuhlman, Stephen; Lacy, Mark; Lepine, Sebastien; Liang, Ming; Lien, Amy; Lira, Paulina; Long, Knox S; Lorenz, Suzanne; Lotz, Jennifer M; Lupton, R H; Lutz, Julie; Macri, Lucas M; Mahabal, Ashish A; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Marshall, Phil; May, Morgan; McGehee, Peregrine M; Meadows, Brian T; Meert, Alan; Milani, Andrea; Miller, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle; Mills, David; Minniti, Dante; Monet, David; Mukadam, Anjum S; Nakar, Ehud; Neill, Douglas R; Newman, Jeffrey A; Nikolaev, Sergei; Nordby, Martin; O'Connor, Paul; Oguri, Masamune; Oliver, John; Olivier, Scot S; Olsen, Julia K; Olsen, Knut; Olszewski, Edward W; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Padilla, Nelson D; Parker, Alex; Pepper, Joshua; Peterson, John R; Petry, Catherine; Pinto, Philip A; Pizagno, James L; Popescu, Bogdan; Prsa, Andrej; Radcka, Veljko; Raddick, M Jordan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Rau, Arne; Rho, Jeonghee; Rhoads, James E; Richards, Gordon T; Ridgway, Stephen T; Robertson, Brant E; Roskar, Rok; Saha, Abhijit; Sarajedini, Ata; Scannapieco, Evan; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Samuel; Schmidt, Sarah; Schneider, Donald P; Schumacher, German; Scranton, Ryan; Sebag, Jacques; Seppala, Lynn G; Shemmer, Ohad; Simon, Joshua D; Sivertz, M; Smith, Howard A; Smith, J Allyn; Smith, Nathan; Spitz, Anna H; Stanford, Adam; Stassun, Keivan G; Strader, Jay; Strauss, Michael A; Stubbs, Christopher W; Sweeney, Donald W; Szalay, Alex; Szkody, Paula; Takada, Masahiro; Thorman, Paul; Trilling, David E; Trimble, Virginia; Tyson, Anthony; Van Berg, Richard; Berk, Daniel Vanden; VanderPlas, Jake; Verde, Licia; Vrsnak, Bojan; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Yun; Warner, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H; West, Andrew A; Wiecha, Oliver; Williams, Benjamin F; Willman, Beth; Wittman, David; Wolff, Sidney C; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Wozniak, Przemek; Young, Patrick; Zentner, Andrew; Zhan, Hu

    2009-01-01

    A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9.6 deg^2, and will be devoted to a ten-year imaging survey over 20,000 deg^2 south of +15 deg. Each pointing will be imaged 2000 times with fifteen second exposures in six broad bands from 0.35 to 1.1 microns, to a total point-source depth of r~27.5. The LSST Science Book describes the basic parameters of the LSST hardware, software, and observing plans. The book discusses educational and outreach opportunities, then goes on to describe a broad range of science that LSST will revolutionize: mapping the inner and outer Solar System, stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the structure of the Milky Way disk and halo and other objects in the Local Volume, transient and variable object...

  7. SFA 2.0- Metabolic Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Jill; Beller, Harry

    2015-02-17

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientists Jill Banfield and Harry Beller explain the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project's research on metabolic potential—or how metabolic lifestyles of microbial communities modulate in response to as well as influence environmental change.

  8. The PLATO 2.0 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, I.; Rauer, H.; Aerts, C.; Appourchaux, T.; Benz, W.; Brandeker, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Deleuil, M.; Gizon, L.; Goupil, M.-J.; Guedel, M.; Heras, A.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Mas-Hesse, M.; Piotto, G.; Pollaco, D.; Ragazzoni, R.; Santos, N. C.; Smith, A.; Suarez, J. C.; Szabo, R.; Udry, S.

    2014-04-01

    PLATO 2.0 is the M class mission selected by ESA for its M3 launch slot in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main goals of PLATO 2.0 are the detection of terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of solar-type stars and the characterization of their bulk properties needed to determine their habitability. Moreover, PLATO 2.0 will be key in understanding the formation, architecture, and evolution of planetary systems thanks to a thorough inventory of the physical properties of thousands of rocky, icy, and gaseous giant planets. We will illustrate the PLATO 2.0 science goals, how the instrument is conceived to fulfil the science requirements, and how the project is organized to implement the instrument, plan the observations, and exploit the resulting data.

  9. Visual Sample Plan Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    PNNL-14002 Visual Sample Plan Version 2.0 User's Guide N. L. Hassig R. F. O'Brien J. E. Wilson B. A;PNNL-14002 Visual Sample Plan Version 2.0 User's Guide N. L. Hassig J. E. Wilson R. O. Gilbert D. K. Carlson R. F. O'Brien B. A. Pulsipher C. A. McKinstry D. J. Bates September 2002 Prepared for the U

  10. Lost in Web 2.0 Cyberspace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Web 1.0 never left. It's just a term that refers to cyberspace before 2002. People mark the shift from Web 1.0 to 2.0 with the dramatic collapse of Web-based companies whose phenomenal growth was based on the profit potential of a new customer: the Internet user. Generally, Web 1.0 sites have a commercial focus. On the other hand, Web 2.0 reverses…

  11. 23 11 21 TSUBAME2.0

    E-print Network

    23 11 21 NEC TSUBAME2.0 The Graph 500 TSUBAME2.0 The Graph 500 2011 11 3 The Top 500-mail office@gsic.titech.ac.jp http://www.gsic.titech.ac.jp NEC TEL03-3798-6511 E-mails-toda@cj.jp.nec-mail knakamura@nvidia.com TEL 03-5734-297129752976 FAX 03-5734-3661 E-mail kouhou@jim.titech.ac.jp NEC TEL

  12. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

    2011-06-08

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

    2010-02-03

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. 20 CFR 206.2 - Computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation. 206.2 Section 206.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ACCOUNT BENEFITS RATIO § 206.2 Computation. (a) On or before November 1, 2003, the Railroad Retirement Board shall: (1)...

  15. 20 CFR 206.2 - Computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation. 206.2 Section 206.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ACCOUNT BENEFITS RATIO § 206.2 Computation. (a) On or before November 1, 2003, the Railroad Retirement Board shall: (1)...

  16. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount recoverable. 340.2 Section 340.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.2 Amount recoverable. For purposes of this part, an “amount recoverable” is an amount of unemployment, sickness,...

  17. CHAPTER 2.0 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONCEPTS

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    of a series of WWU class investigations in partnership with the City of Bellingham, Sustainable ConnectionsCHAPTER 2.0 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONCEPTS for TRANSIT ORIENTED COMMUNITIES A Blueprint for Bellingham, WA. 2011 Urban Transitions Studio (UTS) June 2, 2011 Chapter 2. Sustainable Design. 1 #12

  18. Using Web 2.0 for Learning in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robin; Rennie, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a range of Web 2.0 technologies to support the development of community for a newly formed Land Trust on the Isle of Lewis, in NW Scotland. The application of social networking tools in text, audio and video has several purposes: informal learning about the area to increase tourism, community interaction,…

  19. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

    2011-06-08

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-02-02

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

  2. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

  3. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

  4. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

  5. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public...National Forest System § 222.2 Management of the range environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the...

  6. 20 CFR 362.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 362.2 Section 362.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL... means an article which was purchased or which the employee values at a monetary amount which is...

  7. Web 2.0 and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.

    2009-01-01

    New types of social Internet applications (often referred to as Web 2.0) are becoming increasingly popular within higher education environments. Although developed primarily for entertainment and social communication within the general population, applications such as blogs, social video sites, and virtual worlds are being adopted by higher education institutions. These newer applications differ from standard Web sites in that they involve the users in creating and distributing information, hence effectively changing how the Web is used for knowledge generation and dispersion. Although Web 2.0 applications offer exciting new ways to teach, they should not be the core of instructional planning, but rather selected only after learning objectives and instructional strategies have been identified. This paper provides an overview of prominent Web 2.0 applications, explains how they are being used within education environments, and elaborates on some of the potential opportunities and challenges that these applications present. PMID:19960079

  8. Variable Gap Undulator for 1.5-48 Kev Free Electron Laser at Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; Wu, J.; ,

    2011-08-17

    We study the feasibility of generating femtosecond duration Free-Electron Laser with a variable photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron bunch with the same characteristics of the LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) bunch, and a planar undulator with additional focusing. We assume that the electron bunch energy can be changed, and the undulator has a variable gap, allowing a variable undulator parameter. It is assumed to be operated in an ultra-low charge and ultra-short pulse regime. We study the feasibility of a tunable, short pulse, X-ray FEL with photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron beam like the one in the LCLS and a 2:5 cm period, variable gap, planar undulator. The beam energy changes from 4.6 to 13.8 GeV, the electorn charge is kept at 10 pC, and the undulator parameter varies from 1 to 3. The undulator length needed to saturate the 48 keV FEL is about 55 m, with a peak power around 5 GW. At longer wavelength the saturation length is as short as 15 m, and the peak power around 20 GW. The results from the analytical models and the GENESIS simulations show that the system is feasible. The large wavelength range, full tunability and short, few femtosecond pulses, together with the large peak power, would provide a powerful research tool.

  9. Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Observations between 3.6 and 2.0 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, H.; Stenberg Wieser, G.; Behar, E.; Wedlund, C. Simon; Kallio, E.; Gunell, H.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Yamauchi, M.; Koenders, C.; Wieser, M.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Mandt, K.; Burch, J. L.; Goldstein, R.; Mokashi, P.; Carr, C.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P. T.; Szego, K.; Nemeth, Z.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Koskinen, H.; Richter, I.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Henri, P.; Volwerk, M.; Vallat, C.; Geiger, B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta spacecraft is escorting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a heliocentric distance of >3.6 AU, where the comet activity was low, until perihelion at 1.24 AU. Initially, the solar wind permeates the thin comet atmosphere formed from sublimation. Aims: Using the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer (RPC-ICA), we study the gradual evolution of the comet ion environment, from the first detectable traces of water ions to the stage where cometary water ions accelerated to about 1 keV energy are abundant. We compare ion fluxes of solar wind and cometary origin. Methods: RPC-ICA is an ion mass spectrometer measuring ions of solar wind and cometary origins in the 10 eV-40 keV energy range. Results: We show how the flux of accelerated water ions with energies above 120 eV increases between 3.6 and 2.0 AU. The 24 h average increases by 4 orders of magnitude, mainly because high-flux periods become more common. The water ion energy spectra also become broader with time. This may indicate a larger and more uniform source region. At 2.0 AU the accelerated water ion flux is frequently of the same order as the solar wind proton flux. Water ions of 120 eV-few keV energy may thus constitute a significant part of the ions sputtering the nucleus surface. The ion density and mass in the comet vicinity is dominated by ions of cometary origin. The solar wind is deflected and the energy spectra broadened compared to an undisturbed solar wind. Conclusions: The flux of accelerated water ions moving from the upstream direction back toward the nucleus is a strongly nonlinear function of the heliocentric distance.

  10. Short- and medium-range order in Zr[subscript 80]Pt[subscript 20] liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, N.A.; Wessels, V.; Bendert, J.C.; Klein, S.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Kramer, M.J.; Hao, S.G.; Rustan, G.E.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.I.; Kelton, K.F.

    2011-12-09

    The atomic structures in equilibrium and supercooled liquids of Zr{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} were determined as a function of temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron diffraction studies of the levitated liquids (containerless processing) using the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) technique. The presence of a pronounced pre-peak at q - 1.7 {angstrom}{sup -1} in the static structure factor indicates medium-range order (MRO) in the liquid. The position and intensity of the pre-peak remain constant with cooling, indicating that the MRO is already present in the liquid above its melting temperature. An analysis of the liquid atomic structures obtained using the Reverse Monte Carlo method utilizing both the structure factor S(q) from x-ray diffraction experiments and the partial pair-correlation functions from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pre-peak arises from a Pt-Pt correlation that can be identified with icosahedral short-range order around the Pt atoms. The local atomic ordering is dominated by icosahedral-like structures, raising the nucleation barrier between the liquid and these phases, thus assisting glass formation.

  11. COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software for Microsoft® WindowsTM User's Guide Roderic D. M NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS SOFTWARE, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. AS A RESULT, THIS SOFTWARE IS SOLD "AS IS", AND YOU

  12. Three Challenges of Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    There's no doubt that Web 2.0--the social and technological phenomenon that enables users to generate content, interact, and share information across borders--can be a force for good in the world of education. The author's enthusiasm for collaborative Web-based content is tempered, however, by concern about these three challenges: (1) Partners…

  13. 0% 10% 20% 30% Employment Agency (2)

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    12% 3.5% 21% 22% 3.5% 17% 16% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% Other (7) Employment Agency (2) Internet Listing Paralegal Syracuse NY SevenTwenty Strategies Director of Marketing Washington DC Supreme Court of the United Designer New York NY Visual Marketing Partners Display Project Coordinator & Designer New York NY Fashion

  14. Do Web 2.0 Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The author and his colleague, Deborah Polin, traveled around the United States to get a first-hand look at how teachers are developing successful Web 2.0 activities for their classrooms. With funding from Intel, they interviewed 39 educators in 22 schools throughout the country about how they employed these tools in their classrooms in innovative…

  15. Internet2 and the K20 Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Describes the status of the K20 initiative, efforts to extend the advantages of the high-speed Internet2 (largely for research universities) to K-12 schools, state education networks, and teaching-oriented universities. Includes cost and requirements to join the initiative. (PKP)

  16. Social Participation in Health 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Hansen, Derek; Finholt, Thomas; Munson, Sean; Kellogg, Wendy; Thomas, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Computer scientists are working with biomedical researchers, policy specialists, and medical practitioners to usher in a new era in healthcare. A recently convened panel of experts considered various research opportunities for technology-mediated social participation in Health 2.0. PMID:21379365

  17. Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan

    2015-12-19

    Berkeley Lab Earth Sciences Division Director Susan Hubbard, the Project Lead for the Sustainable Systems Scientific Focus Area (SFA) 2.0, gives an overview of the project and its mission to develop a predictive understanding of terrestrial environments, from the genome to the watershed scales, to enable a new class of solutions for environmental and energy solutions.

  18. Looking for Collection 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buczynski, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Libraries are integrating Web 2.0 services into work practices, positioning themselves in online social environments, and deploying enhanced search and discovery tools. Collections conversely are not progressing to the same degree. Like many public services today, library budgets are stained. User-pay options are appearing in library systems,…

  19. Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: Tensions and Controversies in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Indra; Wareham, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background The term Web 2.0 became popular following the O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004; however, there are difficulties in its application to health and medicine. Principally, the definition published by O’Reilly is criticized for being too amorphous, where other authors claim that Web 2.0 does not really exist. Despite this skepticism, the online community using Web 2.0 tools for health continues to grow, and the term Medicine 2.0 has entered popular nomenclature. Objective This paper aims to establish a clear definition for Medicine 2.0 and delineate literature that is specific to the field. In addition, we propose a framework for categorizing the existing Medicine 2.0 literature and identify key research themes, underdeveloped research areas, as well as the underlying tensions or controversies in Medicine 2.0’s diverse interest groups. Methods In the first phase, we employ a thematic analysis of online definitions, that is, the most important linked papers, websites, or blogs in the Medicine 2.0 community itself. In a second phase, this definition is then applied across a series of academic papers to review Medicine 2.0’s core literature base, delineating it from a wider concept of eHealth. Results The terms Medicine 2.0 and Health 2.0 were found to be very similar and subsume five major salient themes: (1) the participants involved (doctors, patients, etc); (2) its impact on both traditional and collaborative practices in medicine; (3) its ability to provide personalized health care; (4) its ability to promote ongoing medical education; and (5) its associated method- and tool-related issues, such as potential inaccuracy in enduser-generated content. In comparing definitions of Medicine 2.0 to eHealth, key distinctions are made by the collaborative nature of Medicine 2.0 and its emphasis on personalized health care. However, other elements such as health or medical education remain common for both categories. In addition, this emphasis on personalized health care is not a salient theme within the academic literature. Of 2405 papers originally identified as potentially relevant, we found 56 articles that were exclusively focused on Medicine 2.0 as opposed to wider eHealth discussions. Four major tensions or debates between stakeholders were found in this literature, including (1) the lack of clear Medicine 2.0 definitions, (2) tension due to the loss of control over information as perceived by doctors, (3) the safety issues of inaccurate information, and (4) ownership and privacy issues with the growing body of information created by Medicine 2.0. Conclusion This paper is distinguished from previous reviews in that earlier studies mainly introduced specific Medicine 2.0 tools. In addressing the field’s definition via empirical online data, it establishes a literature base and delineates key topics for future research into Medicine 2.0, distinct to that of eHealth. PMID:18682374

  20. 2.0 CORE LOGO 2.01 OVERVIEW

    E-print Network

    Lotze, Heike K.

    2.0 CORE LOGO 2.01 OVERVIEW 2.02 CLEAR SPACE AND MINIMUM SIZE 2.03 EXAMPLES OF PLACEMENT APPLIED TO THE CORE LOGO 2.08 APPLYING THE LOGO PROPERLY 2.09 LINKS TO DALHOUSIE AUTHORIZED CORE LOGO as a university with real substance and stature, and seen as a vibrant, welcoming community. Our core logo

  1. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x<1 Å-1 and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x?1 Å-1. With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  2. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  3. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  4. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  5. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  6. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  7. Energy dependent response of the Fricke gel dosimeter prepared with 270 Bloom gelatine for photons in the energy range 13.93 keV-6 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavinato, C. C.; Campos, L. L.

    2010-07-01

    The spectrophotometric energy dependent response to photons with effective energies between 13.93 keV and 6 MeV of the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter developed at IPEN, prepared using 270 Bloom gelatine, was evaluated in order to verify the possible dosimeter application in other medicine areas in addition to radiosurgery, for example, breast radiotherapy and blood bags radiosterilization. Other dosimetric characteristics were also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that the FXG dosimeter can contribute to dosimetry in different medical application areas including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation technique that permits three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution evaluation.

  8. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0

    ScienceCinema

    Bill Collins

    2010-09-01

    Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Collins

    2010-02-09

    Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-02-04

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  13. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  14. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  15. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  16. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  17. Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales

    E-print Network

    Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

  18. Discovery of Water Maser Emission in Five AGN and a Possible Correlation Between Water Maser and Nuclear 2-10 keV Luminosities

    E-print Network

    Paul T. Kondratko; Lincoln J. Greenhill; James M. Moran

    2006-10-03

    We report the discovery of water maser emission in five active galactic nuclei (AGN) with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The positions of the newly discovered masers, measured with the VLA, are consistent with the optical positions of the host nuclei to within 1 sigma (0.3 arcsec radio and 1.3 arcsec optical) and most likely mark the locations of the embedded central engines. The spectra of three sources, 2MASX J08362280+3327383, NGC 6264, and UGC 09618 NED02, display the characteristic spectral signature of emission from an edge-on accretion disk with maximum orbital velocity of ~700, ~800, and ~1300 km s^-1, respectively. We also present a GBT spectrum of a previously known source MRK 0034 and interpret the narrow Doppler components reported here as indirect evidence that the emission originates in an edge-on accretion disk with orbital velocity of ~500 km s^-1. We obtained a detection rate of 12 percent (5 out of 41) among Seyfert 2 and LINER systems with 10000 km s^-1 water masers with available hard X-ray data, we report a possible relationship between unabsorbed X-ray luminosity (2-10 keV) and total isotropic water maser luminosity, L_{2-10} proportional to L_{H2O}^{0.5+-0.1}, consistent with the model proposed by Neufeld and Maloney in which X-ray irradiation and heating of molecular accretion disk gas by the central engine excites the maser emission.

  19. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the XMM-Newton LSS, CDFS and COSMOS surveys

    E-print Network

    Ranalli, P; Georgantopoulos, I; Fotopoulou, S; Hsu, L -T; Salvato, M; Comastri, A; Pierre, M; Cappelluti, N; Carrera, F J; Chiappetti, L; Clerc, N; Gilli, R; Iwasawa, K; Pacaud, F; Paltani, S; Plionis, E; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    The XMM-LSS, XMM-COSMOS, and XMM-CDFS surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and PSF. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of AGN and its evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 10^42-10^46 erg/s, and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power-law with LADE or LDDE evolution, are explored using Bayesian in...

  20. Neutron capture and total cross-section measurements and resonance parameter analysis of zirconium up to 2.5 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Leinweber, G.; Burke, J.; Lubitz, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic zirconium samples. The capture measurement was made at the 25-m flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at the 25-m flight station with a {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detector. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of all 11 data sets (4 capture and 7 transmission) using the least-squares multilevel R-matrix code REFIT. The present measurements were undertaken to resolve discrepancies between common usage (ENDF/B-VI) and the recent measurements of Salah et al. for the 300-eV zirconium doublet. The present measurements support the Salah et al. conclusions. Specifically, the results confirm the assignment of J = 3 for the {sup 91}Zr 292.5-eV resonance and include all significant resonances up to 2.5 keV. The zirconium resonance parameters {Gamma}{sub {gamma}} and {Gamma}{sub n}, determined in the present measurement, are compared with the ENDF/B-Vi parameters.

  1. Checking Potassium origin of new emission line at 3.5 keV with K XIX line complex at 3.7 keV

    E-print Network

    Dmytro Iakubovskyi

    2015-07-17

    Whether the new line at ~3.5 keV, recently detected in different samples of galaxy clusters, Andromeda galaxy and central part of our Galaxy, is due to Potassium emission lines, is now unclear. By using the latest astrophysical atomic emission line database AtomDB v. 3.0.2, we show that the most prospective method to directly check its Potassium origin will be the study of K XIX emission line complex at ~3.7 keV with future X-ray imaging spectrometers such as Soft X-ray spectometer on-board Astro-H mission or microcalorimeter on-board Micro-X sounding rocket experiment. To further reduce the remaining (factor ~3-5) uncertainty of the 3.7/3.5 keV ratio one should perform more precise modeling including removal of significant spatial inhomogeneities, detailed treatment of background components, and further extension of the modeled energy range.

  2. Cross sections for the production of excited He{sup +} ({ital np}){sup 2}{ital P}{sup {ital o}} states by 50{endash}150-keV proton impact on helium

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.C.; Bruch, R.

    1996-09-01

    Cross sections have been measured for the production of He{sup +} ({ital np}){sup 2}{ital P}{sup {ital o}} states, {ital n}=2,3,4, by proton impact on helium over a projectile velocity range of 1.42{endash}2.45 a.u. (50 {le}{ital E}{le}150 keV). Cross sections were determined by measuring the extreme ultraviolet photons emitted from excited He{sup +} ions. The data indicate a lower energy than expected for the maximum cross section. A comparison of the present results in terms of projectile energy dependance with the cross sections for excitation to He (1{ital snp}){sup 1}{ital P}{sup {ital o}}, ionization, and total electron capture suggests the primary mechanism for the production of excited He{sup +} at low energies is transfer excitation, with ionization excitation being the dominant mechanism at higher energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Evaluation of the 1077 keV ?-ray emission probability from 68Ga decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Li-Yang; Chen, Xiong-Jun; Chen, Guo-Chang

    2014-04-01

    68Ga decays to the excited states of 68Zn through the electron capture decay mode. New recommended values for the emission probability of 1077 keV ?-ray given by the ENSDF and DDEP databases all use data from absolute measurements. In 2011, JIANG Li-Yang deduced a new value for 1077 keV ?-ray emission probability by measuring the 69Ga(n,2n) 68Ga reaction cross section. The new value is about 20% lower than values obtained from previous absolute measurements and evaluations. In this paper, the discrepancies among the measurements and evaluations are analyzed carefully and the new values are re-recommended. Our recommended value for the emission probability of 1077 keV ?-ray is (2.72±0.16)%.

  4. FIG. 2.Maps of the keV (R12) band sky in the six projections: (a) north Galactic pole with l \\ 0 down and longitude increasing clockwise; (b) south1 4Galactic pole with l \\ 0 up and longitude increasing counterclockwise; (cf ) the l \\ 0, l \\ 270, l \\ 180,

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    FIG. 2.ÈMaps of the keV (R12) band sky in the six projections: (a) north Galactic pole with l \\ 0. SNOWDEN et al. (see 485, 127) PLATE 2 #12;FIG. 3.ÈSame as except for the keV (R45) bandFig. 2 3 4 SNOWDEN et al. (see 485, 127) PLATE 3 #12;FIG. 4.ÈSame as except for the 1.5 keV (R67) bandFig. 2 SNOWDEN et

  5. UQTk version 2.0 user manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, Bert J.; Sargsyan, Khachik; Safta, Cosmin

    2013-10-01

    The UQ Toolkit (UQTk) is a collection of libraries and tools for the quanti cation of uncer- tainty in numerical model predictions. Version 2.0 o ers intrusive and non-intrusive methods for propagating input uncertainties through computational models, tools for sensitivity anal- ysis, methods for sparse surrogate construction, and Bayesian inference tools for inferring parameters from experimental data. This manual discusses the download and installation process for UQTk, provides pointers to the UQ methods used in the toolkit, and describes some of the examples provided with the toolkit.

  6. Web 2.0 and Critical Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Web 2.0 upon culture, education, and knowledge is obfuscated by the pervasiveness of Web 2.0 applications and technologies. Web 2.0 is commonly conceptualized in terms of the tools that it makes possible, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Wikipedia. In the context of information literacy instruction, Web 2.0 is frequently conceptualized…

  7. CLIMATE ACTION PLAN 2.0 University of Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    CLIMATE ACTION PLAN 2.0 University of Pennsylvania #12;Published October 21, 2014 #12;TABLE 28 34 38 45 CLIMATE ACTION PLAN 2.0 #12;#12;5Penn Climate Action Plan 2.0 I am pleased to present the University of Pennsylvania's Climate Action Plan 2.0, our roadmap for environmental sustainability. Drawing

  8. New space research frequency band proposals in the 20- to 40.5-GHz range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Future space research communications systems may require spectra above 20 GHz. Frequency bands above 20 GHz are identified that are suitable for space research. The selection of the proper bands depends on consideration of interference with other radio services, adequate bandwidths, link performance, and technical requirements for practical implementation.

  9. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-08

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Collins, Bill

    2011-06-08

    Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. HARD X-RAY MICROFLARES DOWN TO 3 keV SM KRUCKER1, STEVEN CHRISTE1 , R. P. LIN1,2, GORDON J. HURFORD1 and

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    and spatial resolution, and energy coverage down to 3 keV provided by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar-thermal electron energy content between 1026 ­1027 erg. Except for the fact that the power-law indices are steeper. Introduction The Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) instru- ment (see Lin et al

  14. Chemical and icosahedral short-range orders in liquid and undercooled Al80Mn20 and Al80Ni20 alloys: A first-principles-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Le Bacq, O.; Pasturel, A.

    2005-09-01

    Atomic structures of stable liquid and undercooled liquid Al80Mn20 and Al80Ni20 alloys have been calculated by first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. For both alloys, the local structure as defined by the Faber-Ziman pair-correlation functions is characterized by a strong Al-transition-metal affinity, which leads to a well-pronounced chemical short-range order which is more temperature dependent for Al80Mn20 than for Al80Ni20. In addition, a structural analysis using three-dimensional pair analysis techniques has been performed in details. More particularly, we find that the fivefold local symmetry around Mn atoms is predominant in both stable and undercooled Al80Mn20 alloys and displays no significant variation with temperatures. On the contrary, in Al80Ni20, a strong variation of the topological short-range order is observed since in the undercooled state, the local environment of Ni atoms is characterized by the predominance of the fivefold symmetry over the close-packed local symmetry which is opposed to what occurs in the stable liquid phase.

  15. Long-range intercellular Ca2+ wave patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi, C. B.; Maïna, I.; Mohamadou, A.; Ekobena, H. P. F.; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    Modulational instability is utilized to investigate intercellular Ca2+ wave propagation in an array of diffusively coupled cells. Cells are supposed to be connected via paracrine signaling, where long-range effects, due to the presence of extracellular messengers, are included. The multiple-scale expansion is used to show that the whole dynamics of Ca2+ waves, from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation whose solutions are assumed to be plane waves. Their linear stability analysis is studied, with emphasis on the impact of long-range coupling, via the range parameter s. It is shown that s, as well as the number of interacting cells, importantly modifies the features of modulational instability, as small values of s imply a strong coupling, and increasing its value rather reduces the problem to a first-neighbor one. Our theoretical findings are numerically tested, as the generic equations are fully integrated, leading to the emergence of nonlinear patterns of Ca2+ waves. Strong long-range coupling is pictured by extended trains of breather-like structures whose frequency decreases with increasing s. We also show numerically that the number of interacting cells plays on the spatio-temporal formation of Ca2+ patterns, whilst the quasi-perfect intercellular communication depends on the paracrine coupling parameter.

  16. A possible line feature at 73 keV from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Mahoney, W. A.; Willett, J. B.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is reported for a possible line feature at 73 keV from the Crab Nebula. The experiment was conducted with a balloon-borne high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer on June 10, 1974, over Palestine, Texas. The intensity and the width of the line derived from the fitting of these data are approximately 0.0038 photon per (sq cm-sec) and less than 4.9 keV FWHM, respectively. The line is superposed on a power-law continuum of 11.2 E to the -2.16 photons per (sq cm-keV) in the energy range from 53 to 300 keV, which is consistent with other measurements of the Crab Nebula spectrum.

  17. FLEXAN (version 2.0) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1989-01-01

    The FLEXAN (Flexible Animation) computer program, Version 2.0 is described. FLEXAN animates 3-D wireframe structural dynamics on the Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation with a VAX/VMS host computer. Animation options include: unconstrained vibrational modes, mode time histories (multiple modes), delta time histories (modal and/or nonmodal deformations), color time histories (elements of the structure change colors through time), and rotational time histories (parts of the structure rotate through time). Concurrent color, mode, delta, and rotation, time history animations are supported. FLEXAN does not model structures or calculate the dynamics of structures; it only animates data from other computer programs. FLEXAN was developed to aid in the study of the structural dynamics of spacecraft.

  18. The r-Java 2.0 code: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, M.; Koning, N.; Shand, Z.; Ouyed, R.; Jaikumar, P.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations, along with a suite of other analysis tools. Methods: Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission and studying individual nucleosynthesis processes. Results: In this paper we discuss enhancements to this version of r-Java, especially the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated in r-Java 2.0 that includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced, and spontaneous fission), along with computation of the mass fragmentation, is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studied. The role of Coulomb interactions in NSE abundances is shown to be significant, supporting previous findings. A comparative analysis was undertaken during the development of r-Java 2.0 whereby we reproduced the results found in the literature from three other r-process codes. This code is capable of simulating the physical environment of the high-entropy wind around a proto-neutron star, the ejecta from a neutron star merger, or the relativistic ejecta from a quark nova. Likewise the users of r-Java 2.0 are given the freedom to define a custom environment. This software provides a platform for comparing proposed r-process sites.

  19. BSD Portals for LINUX 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNab, A. David; woo, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Portals, an experimental feature of 4.4BSD, extend the file system name space by exporting certain open () requests to a user-space daemon. A portal daemon is mounted into the file name space as if it were a standard file system. When the kernel resolves a pathname and encounters a portal mount point, the remainder of the path is passed to the portal daemon. Depending on the portal "pathname" and the daemon's configuration, some type of open (2) is performed. The resulting file descriptor is passed back to the kernel which eventually returns it to the user, to whom it appears that a "normal" open has occurred. A proxy portalfs file system is responsible for kernel interaction with the daemon. The overall effect is that the portal daemon performs an open (2) on behalf of the kernel, possibly hiding substantial complexity from the calling process. One particularly useful application is implementing a connection service that allows simple scripts to open network sockets. This paper describes the implementation of portals for LINUX 2.0.

  20. Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.; Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Janzou, S.; Cameron, C.

    2008-08-01

    The Solar Advisor Model (SAM) provides a consistent framework for analyzing and comparing power system costs and performance across the range of solar technologies and markets, from photovoltaic systems for residential and commercial markets to concentrating solar power and large photovoltaic systems for utility markets. This manual describes Version 2.0 of the software, which can model photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies for electric applications for several markets. The current version of the Solar Advisor Model does not model solar heating and lighting technologies.

  1. Enabling Problem Based Learning through Web 2.0 Technologies: PBL 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos; Ryberg, Thomas; Buus, Lillian; Peristeras, Vassilios; Lee, Deirdre; Porwol, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly the so-called Web 2.0, are affecting all aspects of our life: How we communicate, how we shop, how we socialise, how we learn. Facilitating learning through the use of ICT, also known as eLearning, is a vital part of modern educational systems. Established pedagogical…

  2. Oh! Web 2.0, Virtual Reference Service 2.0, Tools & Techniques (II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Harsh Bardhan; Mishra, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the theory and definition of the practice of librarianship, specifically addressing how Web 2.0 technologies (tools) such as synchronous messaging, collaborative reference service and streaming media, blogs, wikis, social networks, social bookmarking tools, tagging, RSS feeds, and mashups might intimate changes and how…

  3. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  4. SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence)

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Davies, Louise; Goodman, Daisy; Batalden, Paul; Davidoff, Frank; Stevens, David

    2015-01-01

    In the past several years, the science of health care improvement has advanced considerably. In this article, we describe the development of SQUIRE 2.0 and its key components. We undertook the revision between 2012 and 2015 using (1) interviews and focus groups to evaluate SQUIRE 1.0 plus feedback from an international steering group, (2) face-to-face consensus meetings to develop interim drafts, and (3) pilot testing with authors and a public comment period. SQUIRE 2.0 emphasizes 3 key components of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value, and safety of health care: formal and informal theory in planning, implementing, and evaluating improvement work; the context in which the work is done; and the study of the intervention(s). SQUIRE 2.0 is intended for reporting the range of methods used to improve health care, recognizing that they can be complex and multidimensional. It provides common ground to share these discoveries in the scholarly literature (www.squire-statement.org). PMID:26497490

  5. Heliospheric Neutral Atom Spectra Between 0.01 and 6 keV fom IBEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Gloeckler, G.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Moore, T. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Saul, L. A.; Scheer, J. A.; Schwardron, N.; Trattner, K. J.; Vanderspek, R.; Wurz, P.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 December, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been making detailed observations of neutrals from the boundaries of the heliosphere using two neutral atom cameras with overlapping energy ranges. The unexpected, yet defining feature discovered by IBEX is a Ribbon that extends over the energy range from about 0.2 to 6 keV. This Ribbon is superposed on a more uniform, globally distributed heliospheric neutral population. With some important exceptions, the focus of early IBEX studies has been on neutral atoms with energies greater than approx. 0.5 keV. With nearly three years of science observations, enough low-energy neutral atom measurements have been accumulated to extend IBEX observations to energies less than approx. 0.5 keV. Using the energy overlap of the sensors to identify and remove backgrounds, energy spectra over the entire IBEX energy range are produced. However, contributions by interstellar neutrals to the energy spectrum below 0.2 keV may not be completely removed. Compared with spectra at higher energies, neutral atom spectra at lower energies do not vary much from location to location in the sky, including in the direction of the IBEX Ribbon. Neutral fluxes are used to show that low energy ions contribute approximately the same thermal pressure as higher energy ions in the heliosheath. However, contributions to the dynamic pressure are very high unless there is, for example, turbulence in the heliosheath with fluctuations of the order of 50-100 km/s.

  6. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.; Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Koss, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Madejski, G.; and others

    2014-08-20

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index ? = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N {sub H} = (6-10) × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus ? and L{sub X} versus L {sub IR} phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  7. r-Java 2.0: the nuclear physics

    E-print Network

    Kostka, M; Shand, Z; Ouyed, R; Jaikumar, P

    2014-01-01

    [Aims:] We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations as well as a suite of other analysis tools. [Methods:] Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of; simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission as well as the study of individual nucleosynthesis processes. [Results:] In this paper we discuss enhancements made to this version of r-Java, paramount of which is the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated into r-Java 2.0 which includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced and spontaneous fission) as well as computation of the mass fragmentation is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studi...

  8. One-sided imaging of large, dense objects using the 511 keV photons from induced pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Tavora, L.M.; Gilboy, W.B.; Morton, E.J.; Morgado, R.E.; Estep, R.J.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1998-03-01

    The use of annihilation photons from photon-induced electron-positron pair production as a means of inspecting objects when only one side is accessible is described. The Z2 dependence of the pair production cross section and the high penetration of 511 keV photons suggest that this method should be capable of localizing high Z materials in lower Z matrices. The experimental results for the dependence of the back streaming photon yield on Z indicate that dynamic ranges of the order of 20 may be obtained for materials with 4 < Z < 82. Results for point to point images obtained in line scans of representative geometries are also shown. Simulation studies based on the EGS4 Monte Carlo code were also performed and their results show an agreement with experimental data of the order of 5%.

  9. Merged Sounding VAP Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D.; Jensen, M.; Turner, D.; Miloshevich, L.

    2010-03-15

    The Merged Sounding Value-Added Product (VAP) has been in the ARM and ASR pipeline since 2001. Output data streams have been added to the Evaluation Products section of the ARM website for the past five years. Currently, there are data for all of the ACRF fixed sites and all deployments of the Mobile Facility. Fifty-three years of Merged Sounding data is available as an evaluation product. The process of moving all to the ARM Data Archive has been started and will be completed shortly. A second version of the Merged Sounding VAP was developed to address several concerns: (1) Vaisala radiosondes have inherent problems obtaining an accurate measurement of relative humidity, (2) the profile can be extended from 20 km to 60 km above ground level based upon the height achieved by ECMWF profiles, and (3) ECMWF temperatures require adjustments at high altitude (between 1mb and 100 mb). Solutions to these issues have been incorporated in the new version of this VAP. Along with producing that second version of Merged Sounding, a secondary data stream - Sonde Adjust - was created. This VAP incorporates any humidity corrections to the Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92 radiosondes. The algorithms used to perform these corrections are documented by Wang et. al. (2002), Turner et. al. (2003), and Miloshevich et. al. (2004, 2009).

  10. New features in OSIRIS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. A.; Martins, S. F.; Abreu, P.; Martins, J.; Fiúza, F.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Decyk, V.; Tsung, F.; Tonge, J.; Mori, W. B.

    2009-11-01

    OSIRIS 2.0 [1] is a state of the art, fully relativistic massively parallel particle in cell code, that is widely used in kinetic plasma modeling for many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios. We report on the new developments done in the code, focusing on the new high performance vector SIMD code (Altivec/SSE3) for single precision calculations, detailing performance and floating point efficiency, and also parallel I/O for diagnostics, allowing for higher performance and scalability on HPC systems. We will also describe the new numerical precision features in the code, and we will also present the new algorithms incorporated into the code, in terms of field solver (4^th order Yee solver, etc.), new filtering techniques, perfectly matched layers (PML) boundary conditions, and boosted frame simulations. Finally, we also report on a new diagnostic tool to calculate the radiation produced with wavelengths below the simulation grid resolution. [4pt] [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002)

  11. Dynamic properties of Indiana, Fort Knox and Utah test range limestones and Danby Marble over the stress range 1 to 20 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The responses of the following carbonate materials to shock loading and release have been measured: Indiana limestone (18% porosity; saturated and dry), Jeffersonville/Louisville Limestones (Fort Knox limestone) (variable dolomitization, low porosity), Danby Marble (essentially pure calcite; low porosity), and a limestone from the Utah Test and Training Range (low porosity, with 22% silica). Various experimental configurations were used, some optimized to yield detailed waveform information, others to yield a clean combination of Hugoniot states and release paths. All made use of velocity interferometry as a primary diagnostic. The stress range of 0 - 20 GPa was probed (in most cases, emphasizing the stress range 0 -10 GPa). The primary physical processes observed in this stress regime were material strength, porosity, and polymorphic phase transitions between the CaCO{sub 3} phases I, II, III and VI. Hydration was also a significant reaction under certain conditions. The Indiana Limestone studies in particular represent a significant addition to the low-pressure database for porous limestone. Temperature dependence and the effect of freezing were assessed for the Fort Knox limestone. Experimental parameters and detailed results are provided for the 42 impact tests in this series.

  12. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2...

  13. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2...

  14. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2...

  15. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2...

  16. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2...

  17. Ultramar's TravelSync 2.0 Dashboard Introduction

    E-print Network

    Lance, Veronica P.

    Ultramar's TravelSync 2.0 Dashboard Introduction TravelSync 2.0 is a modern, web portal which combines travel-related resources and information into relevant dashboards that is traveler specific. The TravelSync 2.0 Dashboard is more than a portal to the online booking tool. With past and future travel

  18. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...they cover to the exclusion of all State laws in that field. If a...

  19. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...they cover to the exclusion of all State laws in that field. If a...

  20. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...they cover to the exclusion of all State laws in that field. If a...

  1. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...they cover to the exclusion of all State laws in that field. If a...

  2. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...they cover to the exclusion of all State laws in that field. If a...

  3. Exploring Library 2.0 on the Social Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Library 2.0 literature has described many of the possibilities Web 2.0 technologies offer to libraries. Case studies have assessed local use, but no studies have measured the Library 2.0 phenomenon by searching public social networking sites. This study used library-specific terms to search public social networking sites, blog search engines, and…

  4. Maths 1A20 Calculus 2014-15 Sheet 3 Functions: Domains, ranges, graphs and inverses

    E-print Network

    Collins, Sean

    to express cos 3 in terms of cos . 1Leonhard Euler, pronounced "oiler", one of the all-time great beautiful formula (known as Euler's 1 product for sin). sin x = x 1 - x2 2 1 - x2 42 1 - x2 92 . . . (the

  5. Full-range electrical characteristics of WS2 transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Han, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Hsin-Ying

    2015-03-01

    We fabricated transistors formed by few layers to bulk single crystal WS2 to quantify the factors governing charge transport. We established a capacitor network to analyze the full-range electrical characteristics of the channel, highlighting the role of quantum capacitance and interface trap density. We find that the transfer characteristics are mainly determined by the interplay between quantum and oxide capacitances. In the OFF-state, the interface trap density (<1012 cm-2) is a limiting factor for the subthreshold swing. Furthermore, the superior crystalline quality and the low interface trap density enabled the subthreshold swing to approach the theoretical limit on a back-gated device on SiO2/Si substrate.

  6. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    /7/8/IRRE9/10/RSH3+RWO211/FW12/13/ which can be read as (1) Direction = [DX or DY] (the building has the same lateral load-resisting system in both directions); (2) Material = [Unreinforced Masonry + solid fired clay bricks + cement: lime mortar]; (3) Lateral Load-Resisting System = [Wall]; (4) Date of construction = [pre-1939]; (5) Heaight = [exactly 2 storeys]; (6) Occupancy = [residential, unknown type]; (7) Building Position = [unknown = no entry]; (8) Shape of building plan = [unknown = no entry]; (9) Structural irregularity = [regular]; (10) Exterior walls = [unknown = no entry]; (11) Roof = [Shape: pitched and hipped, Roof covering: clay tiles, Roof system material: wood, Roof system type: wood trusses]; (12) Floor = [Floor system: Wood, unknown]; (13) Foundation = [unknown = no entry]. Mapping of GEM Building Taxonomy to selected taxonomies is included in the report -- for example, the above building would be referenced by previous structural taxonomies as: PAGER-STR as UFB or UFB4, by the World Housing Encyclopedia as 7 or 8 and by the European Macroseismic Scale (98) as M5. The Building Taxonomy data model is highly flexible and has been incorporated within a relational database architecture. Due to its ability to represent building typologies using a shorthand form, it is also possible to use the taxonomy for non-database applications, and we discuss possible application of adaptation for Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems, and for the insurance industry. The GEM Building Taxonomy was independently evaluated and tested by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), which received 217 TaxT reports from 49 countries, representing a wide range of building typologies, including single and multi-storey buildings, reinforced and unreinforced masonry, confined masonry, concrete, steel, wood, and earthern buildings used for residential, commercial, industrial, and educational occupancy. Based on these submissions and other feedback, the EERI team validated that the GEM Building Taxonomy is highly functional, robust and able to describe different buildings aroun

  7. X-ray spectroscopy for chemistry in the 2-4?keV energy regime at the XMaS beamline: ionic liquids, Rh and Pd catalysts in gas and liquid environments, and Cl contamination in ?-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul B J; Nguyen, Bao N; Nicholls, Rachel; Bourne, Richard A; Brazier, John B; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Brown, Simon D; Wermeille, Didier; Bikondoa, Oier; Lucas, Christopher A; Hase, Thomas P A; Newton, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    The 2-4?keV energy range provides a rich window into many facets of materials science and chemistry. Within this window, P, S, Cl, K and Ca K-edges may be found along with the L-edges of industrially important elements from Y through to Sn. Yet, compared with those that cater for energies above ca. 4-5?keV, there are relatively few resources available for X-ray spectroscopy below these energies. In addition, in situ or operando studies become to varying degrees more challenging than at higher X-ray energies due to restrictions imposed by the lower energies of the X-rays upon the design and construction of appropriate sample environments. The XMaS beamline at the ESRF has recently made efforts to extend its operational energy range to include this softer end of the X-ray spectrum. In this report the resulting performance of this resource for X-ray spectroscopy is detailed with specific attention drawn to: understanding electrostatic and charge transfer effects at the S K-edge in ionic liquids; quantification of dilution limits at the Cl K- and Rh L3-edges and structural equilibria in solution; in vacuum deposition and reduction of [Rh(I)(CO)2Cl]2 to ?-Al2O3; contamination of ?-Al2O3 by Cl and its potential role in determining the chemical character of supported Rh catalysts; and the development of chlorinated Pd catalysts in `green' solvent systems. Sample environments thus far developed are also presented, characterized and their overall performance evaluated. PMID:26524308

  8. Transport cross sections for proton-noble gases and proton-carbon scattering in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Predrag S.; Schultz, David R.

    2006-10-01

    Using the fully quantum mechanical treatment, elastic differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated over a wide range of center-of-mass collision energies, 0.1--10 000 eV, for protons scattered by noble gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe as well as carbon atoms. In addition, the momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections, relevant to transport modeling, have been computed from the quantal differential cross sections along with results of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The two complementary sets of results (classical and quantal) for the transport cross sections, enriched with the CTMC charge transfer data, provided deeper insight into the accuracy of the data over the broad energy range. Isotopic scaling relations, derived form the calculations, enable application of the results to the deuterium/tritium rich fusion plasma environment. All data are available through the worldwide website of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov)[1]. [1] P. S. Krstic and D. R. Schultz, Physics of Plasmas 13, 053501 (2006).

  9. 30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 2 lamps. 20.9 Section 20.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp...

  10. QuakeSim 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

    2012-01-01

    QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

  11. Acta Mathematica Universitatis Ostraviensis n (20xy) abcd 1 Range of density measures

    E-print Network

    Sleziak, Martin

    Sleziak1 and Milos Ziman Abstract. We investigate some properties of density measures ­ finitely additive/0588/09 #12;2 Martin Sleziak and Milos Ziman (c) µ|D = d. This kind of measure will be called a density

  12. Chapter 2.20 Msink20 Diamond Seeding & Lift-off (General Solvent Sink)

    E-print Network

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    seeding application is located to the left of the sink. 2.0 Manual Scope 2.1 This manual covers information about the msink20 available components and layout, as well as the standard procedure for utilizing the equipment. 3.0 Applicable Documents 3.1 4.0 Definitions & Process Terminology 4.1 Exhaust Monitor

  13. New measurement of the relative scintillation efficiency of xenon nuclear recoils below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Choi, B.; Giboni, K. L.; Lim, K.; Monzani, M. E.; Plante, G.; Santorelli, R.; Yamashita, M.; Baudis, L.; Manalaysay, A.

    2009-04-15

    Liquid xenon is an important detection medium in direct dark matter experiments, which search for low-energy nuclear recoils produced by the elastic scattering of WIMPs with quarks. The two existing measurements of the relative scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils below 20 keV lead to inconsistent extrapolations at lower energies. This results in a different energy scale and thus sensitivity reach of liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We report a new measurement of the relative scintillation efficiency below 10 keV performed with a liquid xenon scintillation detector, optimized for maximum light collection. Greater than 95% of the interior surface of this detector was instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, giving a scintillation yield of 19.6 photoelectrons/keV electron equivalent for 122-keV {gamma} rays. We find that the relative scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils of 5 keV is 0.14, staying constant around this value up to 10 keV. For higher energy recoils we measure a value of 0.21, consistent with previously reported data. In light of this new measurement, the XENON10 experiment's upper limits on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section, which were calculated assuming a constant 0.19 relative scintillation efficiency, change from 8.8x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} to 9.9x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for WIMPs of mass 100 GeV/c{sup 2}, and from 4.5x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} to 5.6x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for WIMPs of mass 30 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Diffusion of chromium and aluminum in Ni-20Cr and TDNiCr /Ni-20Cr-2ThO2/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wilcox, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients have been measured for Cr51 in fine- and coarse-grained TDNiCr (Ni-20Cr-2ThO2) and in fine-grained Ni-20Cr in the temperature range from 1038 to 1200 C. Selective diffusivities have also been determined for specimens of these alloys which were aluminized to give an initial surface concentration of 5.8 wt % Al. Finally, diffusion coefficients for interdiffusion of aluminum in TDNiCr and Ni-20Cr have been obtained from electron probe microanalysis of the aluminized specimens. For a given grain size and temperature there is no difference in diffusivities for chromium diffusion in TDNiCr or Ni-20Cr. Diffusion coefficients increase with decreasing grain size for both alloys. Comparison of aluminum diffusion data obtained from electron microprobe profiles with radiotracer chromium diffusivities suggests that aluminum diffuses approximately three times faster than chromium in TDNiCr and Ni-20Cr.

  15. Evaluating HDR photos using Web 2.0 technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guoping; Mei, Yujie; Duan, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) photography is an emerging technology that has the potential to dramatically enhance the visual quality and realism of digital photos. One of the key technical challenges of HDR photography is displaying HDR photos on conventional devices through tone mapping or dynamic range compression. Although many different tone mapping techniques have been developed in recent years, evaluating tone mapping operators prove to be extremely difficult. Web2.0, social media and crowd-sourcing are emerging Internet technologies which can be harnessed to harvest the brain power of the mass to solve difficult problems in science, engineering and businesses. Paired comparison is used in the scientific study of preferences and attitudes and has been shown to be capable of obtaining an interval-scale ordering of items along a psychometric dimension such as preference or importance. In this paper, we exploit these technologies for evaluating HDR tone mapping algorithms. We have developed a Web2.0 style system that enables Internet users from anywhere to evaluate tone mapped HDR photos at any time. We adopt a simple paired comparison protocol, Internet users are presented a pair of tone mapped images and are simply asked to select the one that they think is better or click a "no difference" button. These user inputs are collected in the web server and analyzed by a rank aggregation algorithm which ranks the tone mapped photos according to the votes they received. We present experimental results which demonstrate that the emerging Internet technologies can be exploited as a new paradigm for evaluating HDR tone mapping algorithms. The advantages of this approach include the potential of collecting large user inputs under a variety of viewing environments rather than limited user participation under controlled laboratory environments thus enabling more robust and reliable quality assessment. We also present data analysis to correlate user generated qualitative indices with quantitative image statistics which may provide useful guidance for developing better tone mapping operators.

  16. An electrically driven terahertz metamaterial diffractive modulator with more than 20 dB of dynamic range

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, N.; Reichel, K.; Mendis, R.; Mittleman, D. M.; Chen, H.-T.; Taylor, A. J.; Brener, I.; Benz, A.; Reno, J. L.

    2014-03-03

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a switchable diffraction grating for terahertz modulation based on planar active metamaterials, where a Schottky gate structure is implemented to tune the metamaterial resonances in real-time via the application of an external voltage bias. The diffraction grating is formed by grouping the active split-ring resonators into an array of independent columns with alternate columns biased. We observe off-axis diffraction over a wide frequency band in contrast to the narrow-band resonances, which permits operation of the device as a relatively high-speed, wide-bandwidth, high-contrast modulator, with more than 20?dB of dynamic range.

  17. Measurements of complex permittivity of microwave substrates in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Gordon, William L.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge of the dielectric properties of microwave substrates at low temperatures is useful in the design of superconducting microwave circuits. Results are reported for a study of the complex permittivity of sapphire (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon oxide (SiO2), lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in the 20 to 300 Kelvin temperature range, at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity were obtained from the scattering parameters, which were measured using a HP-8510 automatic network analyzer. For these measurements, the samples were mounted on the cold head of a helium gas closed cycle refrigerator, in a specially designed vacuum chamber. An arrangement of wave guides, with mica windows, was used to connect the cooling system to the network analyzer. A decrease in the value of the real part of the complex permittivity of these substrates, with decreasing temperature, was observed. For MgO and Al2O3, the decrease from room temperature to 20 K was of 7 and 15 percent, respectively. For LaAlO3, it decreased by 14 percent, for ZrO2 by 15 percent, and for SiO2 by 2 percent, in the above mentioned temperature range.

  18. Measurements of complex permittivity of microwave substrates in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Gordon, William L.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1990-01-01

    A knowledge of the dielectric properties of microwve substrates at low temperatures is useful in the design of superconducting microwave circuits. Results are reported for a study of the complex permittivity of sapphire (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon oxide (SiO2), lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in the 20 to 300 Kelvin temperature range, at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity were obtained from the scattering parameters, which were measured using an HP-8510 automatic network analyzer. For these measurements, the samples were mounted on the cold head of a helium gas closed cycle refrigerator, in a specially designated vacuum chamber. An arrangement of wave guides, with mica windows, was used to connect the cooling system to the network analyzer. A decrease in the value of the real part of the complex permittivity of these substrates, with decreasing temperature, was observed. For MgO and Al2O3, the decrease from room temperature to 20 K was of 7 and 15 percent, respectively. For LaAlO3, it decreased by 14 percent, for ZrO2 by 15 percent, and for SiO2 by 2 percent, in the above mentioned temperature range.

  19. RADIO CONTROL CRICKET V2.0

    E-print Network

    5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 D D C C B B A A PCLK PDATA PALE RADIO DATA SPI_SCK SPI_MOSI SPI_MISO CHP_SCK PCLK PDATA PALE ADC0 SPI_MISO CHP_OUT RF_DETECT AVCC AVCC VCC VCC AVCC VCC AVCC VCC VCC VCC J9 HDR 2 X AVCC AVCC AVCC AVCC RF_IN RF_OUT L1 L2 CHP_OUT R_BIAS XOSC1 XOSC2 DIO DCLK PCLK PDATA PALE RSSI C18 R13

  20. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  1. Using Web 2.0 for health promotion and social marketing efforts: lessons learned from Web 2.0 experts.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Jennifer Allyson; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 experts working in social marketing participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. The research aimed to document the current state of Web 2.0 practice. Perceived strengths (such as the viral nature of Web 2.0) and weaknesses (such as the time consuming effort it took to learn new Web 2.0 platforms) existed when using Web 2.0 platforms for campaigns. Lessons learned were identified--namely, suggestions for engaging in specific types of content creation strategies (such as plain language and transparent communication practices). Findings present originality and value to practitioners working in social marketing who want to effectively use Web 2.0. PMID:24878406

  2. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U??Ga??, (UC)??Ga?? and U??Cs?, (UC)??Cs??, respectively.

  3. Prevention 2.0: targeting cyberbullying @ school.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Zagorscak, Pavle; Jäkel, Anne; Göbel, Kristin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Although cyberbullying is characterized by worrying prevalence rates and associated with a broad range of detrimental consequences, there is a lack of scientifically based and evaluated preventive strategies. Therefore, the present study introduces a theory-based cyberbullying prevention program (Media Heroes; German original: Medienhelden) and evaluates its effectiveness. In a pretest-posttest design (9-month interval), schools were asked to randomly assign their participating classes to either control or intervention group. Longitudinal data were available from 593 middle school students (M Age?=?13.3 years, 53 % girls) out of 35 classes, who provided information on cyberbullying behavior as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. While the present results revealed worrying prevalence rates of cyberbullying in middle school, multilevel analyses clearly demonstrate the program's effectiveness in reducing cyberbullying behavior within intervention classes in contrast to classes of the control group. Hence, this study presents a promising program which evidentially prevents cyberbullying in schools. PMID:24122481

  4. New and Innovative Library Services: Moving with Web 2.0 / Library 2.0 Technology, a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, H. K.; Pathak, S. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2010-10-01

    We give an overview and definition of Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 technology, especially addressing how it changes access to collections for users. We also describe its unlimited possibilities. The various components of Library 2.0 viz blogs, wikis, RSS, instant messaging, social networking, podcasting, and tagging are briefly summarized. Initiatives at three special information centers and libraries (IUCAA — Astronomy and Astrophysics; IIT — Science and Technology; and NIV — Viral Diseases) are described. We conclude with a futuristic view of Library 2.0.

  5. 2001 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML 2.0 Redux for HPECUML 2.0 Redux for HPEC

    E-print Network

    Kepner, Jeremy

    © 2001 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML 2.0 Redux for HPECUML 2.0 Redux for HPEC Dr. Jeffrey E. Smith Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Manfred Koethe 88solutions Corp. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Conference September 25, 2003 #12;2© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. UML Overview

  6. Disappearance and reappearance of particles of energies 50 keV as seen by P78-2 (SCATHA) near geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Saflekos, N. A.; Garrett, H. G.; Hardy, D. A.; Mullen, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    The nightside particle environment as observed by the AFGL Rapid Scan Particle Detector on SCATHA showing large, sudden simultaneous changes in the fluxes of electrons and protons with energies above 50 keV (dropouts) is considered. An interesting feature of SCATHA dropouts is the quasiperiodic behavior of the particle flux amplitudes which often vary with a period of the order of 15 minutes both during the dropout and after the return. A flux return during eclipse caused a major spacecraft charging event of several kilovolts. The SCATHA observations are compared with those reported for other geosynchronous satellites. In agreement with ATS-5, a marked dependence in the frequency of occurrence due to an effect of the orbit is found. ATS-5 experienced few dropouts during quiet geomagnetic conditions. However, for an L shell greater than seven, SCATHA particle dropouts occur routinely during quiet conditions. Thus, for SCATHA's orbit, both the orbital position and geomagnetic conditions must be taken into account in evaluating the potential hazard of flux returns.

  7. 17 CFR 20.2 - Covered contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...”) Cocoa. ICUS Coffee C. ICUS Cotton No. 2. ICUS Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice. ICUS Sugar No. 11. ICUS.... NYMEX Brent Financial. NYMEX Central Appalachian Coal. NYMEX Coffee. NYMEX Cotton. NYMEX Crude...

  8. 17 CFR 20.2 - Covered contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...”) Cocoa. ICUS Coffee C. ICUS Cotton No. 2. ICUS Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice. ICUS Sugar No. 11. ICUS.... NYMEX Brent Financial. NYMEX Central Appalachian Coal. NYMEX Coffee. NYMEX Cotton. NYMEX Crude...

  9. 17 CFR 20.2 - Covered contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...”) Cocoa. ICUS Coffee C. ICUS Cotton No. 2. ICUS Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice. ICUS Sugar No. 11. ICUS.... NYMEX Brent Financial. NYMEX Central Appalachian Coal. NYMEX Coffee. NYMEX Cotton. NYMEX Crude...

  10. 17 CFR 20.2 - Covered contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Blendstock (RBOB). NYMEX Hot Rolled Coil Steel. NYMEX Natural Gas. NYMEX No. 2 Heating Oil, New York Harbor. NYMEX Palladium. NYMEX Platinum. NYMEX Sugar No. 11. NYMEX Uranium. Diversified Commodity Index (See §...

  11. 17 CFR 20.2 - Covered contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Blendstock (RBOB). NYMEX Hot Rolled Coil Steel. NYMEX Natural Gas. NYMEX No. 2 Heating Oil, New York Harbor. NYMEX Palladium. NYMEX Platinum. NYMEX Sugar No. 11. NYMEX Uranium. Diversified Commodity Index (See §...

  12. 20 CFR 703.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...substitute forms without OWCP's approval. Form No. Title (1) LS-271 Application for Self-Insurance. (2) LS-274 Report of Injury Experience. (3) LS-275 SI Self-Insurer's Agreement and Undertaking. (4)...

  13. 20 CFR 703.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...substitute forms without OWCP's approval. Form No. Title (1) LS-271 Application for Self-Insurance. (2) LS-274 Report of Injury Experience. (3) LS-275 SI Self-Insurer's Agreement and Undertaking. (4)...

  14. 20 CFR 703.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...substitute forms without OWCP's approval. Form No. Title (1) LS-271 Application for Self-Insurance. (2) LS-274 Report of Injury Experience. (3) LS-275 SI Self-Insurer's Agreement and Undertaking. (4)...

  15. 20 CFR 703.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...substitute forms without OWCP's approval. Form No. Title (1) LS-271 Application for Self-Insurance. (2) LS-274 Report of Injury Experience. (3) LS-275 SI Self-Insurer's Agreement and Undertaking. (4)...

  16. 20 CFR 703.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...substitute forms without OWCP's approval. Form No. Title (1) LS-271 Application for Self-Insurance. (2) LS-274 Report of Injury Experience. (3) LS-275 SI Self-Insurer's Agreement and Undertaking. (4)...

  17. Scenarios and Strategies for Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Graeme; Reddington, Martin; Kneafsey, Mary Beth; Sloman, Martyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to bring together ideas from the authors' review of the Web 2.0 literature, the data and their insights from this and other technology-related projects to produce a framework for strategies on Web 2.0 focusing on the implications for human resource professionals. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss…

  18. Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20

    E-print Network

    Yelick, Katherine

    Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20 P. N. Hilfinger (editor), Dan Bonachea, Kaushik Berkeley, California 94720 #12;Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20 P. N. Hilfinger (editor, and Katherine Yelick August, 2006 #12;Abstract The Titanium language is a Java dialect for high

  19. 26 CFR 20.2053-2 - Deduction for funeral expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Deduction for funeral expenses. 20.2053-2 Section 20.2053-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2053-2 - Deduction for funeral expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for funeral expenses. 20.2053-2 Section 20.2053-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2053-2 - Deduction for funeral expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for funeral expenses. 20.2053-2 Section 20.2053-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  2. 26 CFR 20.2053-2 - Deduction for funeral expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for funeral expenses. 20.2053-2 Section 20.2053-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2053-2 - Deduction for funeral expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for funeral expenses. 20.2053-2 Section 20.2053-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  4. Leadership 2.0: Social Media in Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Lisa; Vodicka, Devin; White, John

    2011-01-01

    Technology is always changing, always improving, and always pushing the envelope for how one works in education. In this increasingly connected age, people have seen rapid growth in social network tools such as Twitter and Facebook. These sites are representative of Web 2.0 resources where users contribute content. Other examples of Web 2.0 sites…

  5. Web 2.0 Strategy in Libraries and Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 challenges libraries to change from their predominantly centralised service models with integrated library management systems at the hub. Implementation of Web 2.0 technologies and the accompanying attitudinal shifts will demand reconceptualisation of the nature of library and information service around a dynamic, ever changing, networked,…

  6. What You Need to Know about Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imperatore, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Also known as the read/write or participatory Web, Web 2.0 includes such tools as blogs, podcasts, forums, wikis and social networks. It gives users the ability to take in information and create, organize and connect with others interested in the same topics. Web 2.0 is revolutionizing education because students and educators can easily and…

  7. MARS CLIMATE DATABASE v2.0 USER MANUAL

    E-print Network

    Forget, François

    MARS CLIMATE DATABASE v2.0 USER MANUAL (ESTEC Contract 11369/95/NL/JG) S. R. Lewis and M. Collins 24 February 1999 Abstract This document is the User Manual for version 2.0 of the Mars Climate, details of the dust distribution scenarios and descriptions of the variability models, see the Detailed

  8. Raptor: An Enterprise Knowledge Discovery Engine Version 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-08-31

    The Raptor Version 2.0 computer code uses a set of documents as seed documents to recommend documents of interest from a large, target set of documents. The computer code provides results that show the recommended documents with the highest similarity to the seed documents. Version 2.0 was specifically developed to work with SharePoint 2007 and MS SQL server.

  9. Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide, Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    2010-06-29

    The Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide editorial team is pleased to announce the release of Version 2.0. Version 2.0 supersedes Version 1.0, which was released in July 2007 and was the result of a project initiated ...

  10. Electro-optical climatology microcomputer version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert L.; Regan, Bradley T.

    1992-08-01

    Electro-optical Climatology (EOCLIMO) Ver 2.0 was developed to enhance employment of precision guided munitions and target acquisition systems. This paper explains how EOCLIMO was produced, and interpretation of each output type. Guidance is provided on EOCLIMO 2.0 program manipulation, station/data comparisons, geographical map/narrative display, and transmittance versus ceiling output.

  11. Web 2.0 in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2014-01-01

    A key characteristic of successful mathematics teachers is that they are able to provide varied activities that promote student learning and assessment. Web 2.0 applications can provide an assortment of tools to help produce creative activities. A Web 2.0 tool enables the student to enter data and create multimedia products using text, graphics,…

  12. On Recommending Web 2.0 Tools to Personalise Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juškeviciene, Anita; Kurilovas, Eugenijus

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to present research results on using Web 2.0 tools for learning personalisation. In the work, personalised Web 2.0 tools selection method is presented. This method takes into account student's learning preferences for content and communication modes tailored to the learning activities with a view to help the learner to quickly and…

  13. Information Literacy Instruction in the Web 2.0 Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humrickhouse, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how library educators can implement Web 2.0 tools in their Information Literacy programs to better prepare students for the rigors of academic research. Additionally, this paper looks at transliteracy and constructivism as the most useful teaching methods in a Web 2.0 classroom and attempts to pinpoint specific educational…

  14. Culture, Learning Styles, and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores Web 2.0 in interactive learning environments. Specifically, the article examines Web 2.0 as an interactive learning platform that holds potential, but is also limited by learning styles and cultural value preferences. The article explores the issue of control from both teacher and learner perspectives, and in particular the…

  15. Introduction to Web 2.0: Facebook, Texting, Twitter,

    E-print Network

    . · It is online media that is interactive-anyone can make it, say something about it, and update it in real time tend to be frequent) #12;Web 2.0 Technologies: Wikis · Wikis are flexible,dynamic web pages that allow have to say) #12;Web 2.0 Technologies: Tip of the Iceberg · Augmented Reality software · You

  16. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relation to other provisions. 20.2 Section 20.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY...

  17. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relation to other provisions. 20.2 Section 20.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY...

  18. Changing Paradigms Managed Learning Environments and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Emory M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how emerging technologies and Web 2.0 services are transforming the structure of the web and their potential impact on managed learning environments (MLS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). Design/methodology/approach: Innovative Web 2.0 applications are reviewed in the paper to…

  19. A Framework for Web 2.0 Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.; Kuswara, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to conceptualising and performing Web 2.0-enabled learning design. Based on the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge model of educational practice, the approach conceptualises Web 2.0 learning design by relating Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessing, and different types…

  20. Unleashing the Power of Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2008-01-01

    As Web 2.0 technologies impact the evolution of online learning, they are certain to blur the definitional lines between electronic portfolios and personal learning environments (PLEs). According to Gary Brown, director of Washington State University's Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology, the Web 2.0 technologies that are emerging…

  1. 2 CFR 176.20 - Agency responsibilities (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 2 CFR 215.62 or the agency's implementation of the OMB Circular A-102 grants management common... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency responsibilities (general). 176.20 Section 176.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and...

  2. 2 CFR 176.20 - Agency responsibilities (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate enforcement or termination action in accordance with 2 CFR 215.62 or the agency's implementation... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency responsibilities (general). 176.20 Section 176.20 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR...

  3. 2 CFR 176.20 - Agency responsibilities (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enforcement or termination action in accordance with 2 CFR 215.62 or the agency's implementation of the OMB... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency responsibilities (general). 176.20 Section 176.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and...

  4. 2 CFR 176.20 - Agency responsibilities (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... enforcement or termination action in accordance with 2 CFR 215.62 or the agency's implementation of the OMB... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency responsibilities (general). 176.20 Section 176.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and...

  5. 2 CFR 176.20 - Agency responsibilities (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... enforcement or termination action in accordance with 2 CFR 215.62 or the agency's implementation of the OMB... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency responsibilities (general). 176.20 Section 176.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and...

  6. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  7. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... applicable section 7520 interest rate. If the executor elects the alternate valuation date under section...

  8. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... applicable section 7520 interest rate. If the executor elects the alternate valuation date under section...

  9. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... applicable section 7520 interest rate. If the executor elects the alternate valuation date under section...

  10. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... applicable section 7520 interest rate. If the executor elects the alternate valuation date under section...

  11. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... applicable section 7520 interest rate. If the executor elects the alternate valuation date under section...

  12. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  13. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  14. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  15. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  16. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the...

  17. Information Literacy 2.0: Empowering Students through Personal Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nicole E.; Bussert, Kaila

    2007-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, wikis, and social networking sites have impacted the Information Literacy (IL) curriculum at The American University in Cairo, where librarians teach LALT 101, a required, semester-long IL course. During fall 2005 and spring 2006, librarians used a Web 2.0 photo sharing tool, Flickr (www.flickr.com), to teach…

  18. Students as Digital Citizens on Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebel, Michelle; Jamison, Barbara; Bennett, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Internet tools associated with Web 2.0 such as wikis, blogs, and video podcasts are increasingly available in elementary classrooms. ("Web 2.0" is a vaguely defined, folk-tech term that means, roughly, the Internet and all software and devices, constantly improving, that strive to exploit it in creative and useful ways.) Today, elementary students…

  19. 46 CFR 2.45-20 - Probation, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Probation, suspension, and revocation. 2...Society Activities § 2.45-20 Probation, suspension, and revocation. ...the classification society approval on probation, or suspend or revoke the...

  20. 46 CFR 2.45-20 - Probation, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probation, suspension, and revocation. 2...Society Activities § 2.45-20 Probation, suspension, and revocation. ...the classification society approval on probation, or suspend or revoke the...

  1. 46 CFR 2.45-20 - Probation, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Probation, suspension, and revocation. 2...Society Activities § 2.45-20 Probation, suspension, and revocation. ...the classification society approval on probation, or suspend or revoke the...

  2. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 20, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is published online biannually by the European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (EUROCALL). This issue offers regular sections on: (1) up-to-date information on Special Interest Groups; (2) reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects in which EUROCALL members participate; (3) reports and reviews…

  3. 1. Interview 2. 20 Flight Rock

    E-print Network

    Seely, Robert

    Prokopy 10:James A. Gardner 11:Jim Campobello 1:Jackson Garland 2:Kent Stewart 3:Richard Cook 4:David Fell Kiss 4. Woman 5. Wonderful Christmastime 6. Gimme Some Truth 7. In Spite of All The Danger 8:Bruce Dumes 4:Robert Berry 5:Richard Cook 6:Dan Kozak 7:J.A.Gardner,D.Prokopy 8:Jeffrey Rutsch 9:Bruce

  4. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty if the day is one on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or the birth of a child, (1) she is unable to work or (2) working would be injurious to her health. [Board...

  5. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty if the day is one on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or the birth of a child, (1) she is unable to work or (2) working would be injurious to her health. [Board...

  6. 20 CFR 320.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 320.2 Definitions. As used in this part— Base-year employer means the railroad employer(s) for whom a... base year. The base year is the calendar year immediately preceding the benefit year for which a claim... means the claimant, the base-year employer(s), or any person so designated under this part....

  7. 20 CFR 302.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE § 302.2 Definitions. Base year. The term “base year” means the completed calendar year immediately... monthly compensation base for that month and also excluding payments of the character described in § 302.4 of this part. Monthly compensation base. The term “monthly compensation base” means the greater...

  8. High range gamma radiation meter

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.; Bjarke, G.O.; Eisen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A low power meter has been constructed and tested to measure gamma fields from .1 R/hr to 1500 R/hr over the energy range of 60 keV to 1.2 MeV. The portable, battery-powered meter consists of a local display unit and remote probe. The display unit indicates gamma intensities via a 4-1/2 digit liquid crystal display (LCD) and a 50-segment bargraph LCD.

  9. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-09-01

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay D

    2011-06-03

    Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2011-06-08

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-02-09

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay D

    2010-02-04

    Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn

    2010-02-02

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Home Energy Saver v.2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-09-01

    A web-based residential energy calculator. Provides customized estimates of residential energy use, energy bills, and CO2 emissions, based on building description information provided by the user. Energy use is estimated by end-use and device, using engineering models. Space heating and cooling use is based on the DOE-2.1E building simulation model. Other end-uses (water heating, appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment) are based on engineering models developed by LBNL. Users can estimate their household carbon footprint andmore »compare it to average vaules for their neighborhood and other regions, displayed using the Google Maps API. Energy bills can be calculated using either average energy price data or actual utility tariffs (including time-of-use) contained in the LBNL Tariff Analysis Project (TAP). HES includes a link to the TAP energy bill calculator web service. The HES software also includes extensive default input data for required user inputs.« less

  16. Home Energy Saver v.2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    A web-based residential energy calculator. Provides customized estimates of residential energy use, energy bills, and CO2 emissions, based on building description information provided by the user. Energy use is estimated by end-use and device, using engineering models. Space heating and cooling use is based on the DOE-2.1E building simulation model. Other end-uses (water heating, appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment) are based on engineering models developed by LBNL. Users can estimate their household carbon footprint and compare it to average vaules for their neighborhood and other regions, displayed using the Google Maps API. Energy bills can be calculated using either average energy price data or actual utility tariffs (including time-of-use) contained in the LBNL Tariff Analysis Project (TAP). HES includes a link to the TAP energy bill calculator web service. The HES software also includes extensive default input data for required user inputs.

  17. ASCA Observations of the Starburst-Driven Superwind Galaxy NGC 2146: Broad Band (0.6 - 9 keV) Spectral Properties

    E-print Network

    R. Della Ceca; R. E. Griffiths; T. M. Heckman; M. D. Lehnert; K. A. Weaver

    1998-10-26

    We report ASCA GIS and SIS observations of the nearby (D = 11.6 Mpc), nearly edge-on, starburst galaxy NGC 2146. These X-ray spectral data complement ROSAT PSPC and HRI imaging discussed by Armus et al., 1995. The broad band (0.6-9 keV) X-ray spectrum of NGC 2146 is best described by a two component model: the soft X-ray emission with a Raymond-Smith thermal plasma model having a temperature of kT $\\sim 0.8$ keV; the hard X-ray emission with a thermal plasma model having kT $\\sim 8$ keV or a power-law model having a photon index of $\\sim 1.7$. We do not find compelling evidence of substantial excess absorption above the Galactic value. The soft (hard) thermal component provides about 30% (70%) of the total luminosity in the 0.5 - 2.0 keV energy band, while in the 2-10 keV energy range only the hard component plays a major role. The spectral results allow us to set tighter constraints on the starburst-driven superwind model, which we show can satisfactorily account for the luminosity, mass, and energy content represented by the soft X-ray spectral component. We estimate that the mass outflow rate ($\\sim$ 9 M$_{\\odot}$ per year) is about an order of magnitude greater than the predicted rate at which supernovae and stellar winds return mass into the interstellar medium and, therefore, argue that the flow is strongly "mass-loaded" with material in and around the starburst. The estimated outflow velocity of the hot gas is close to the escape velocity from the galaxy, so the fate of the gas is not clear. We suggest that the hard X-ray spectral component is due to the combined emission of X-ray binaries and/or young supernovae remnants associated with the starburst.

  18. On-line range prediction system, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Nhan

    1988-01-01

    The on-line range prediction system is designed for providing a prediction of the target range in the case of a laser data dropout. It consists of real time implementation of a Kalman filter on an IBM PC/AT equipped with necessary hardware. The system was set up and tested at Crows Landing in the Fall of 1987. The improvements made on the on-line range prediction system during 1988 are examined. Solutions are proposed and discussed to the several problems encountered during system tests. Then, the improvements made on the filter software are explained, namely, accounting for the time lag and providing data continously. Finally, the ideas are mentioned that can be considered in the future.

  19. NASA Taxonomy 2.0 Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne; Busch, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the project to develop a Taxonomy for NASA. The benefits of this project are: Make it easy for various audiences to find relevant information from NASA programs quickly, specifically (1) Provide easy access for NASA Web resources (2) Information integration for unified queries and management reporting ve search results targeted to user interests the ability to move content through the enterprise to where it is needed most (3) Facilitate Records Management and Retention Requirements. In addition the project will assist NASA in complying with E-Government Act of 2002 and prepare NASA to participate in federal projects.

  20. COVER SHEET Creese, Jennifer (2007) Web 2.0 / Business 2.0: New Web Technologies, Organisations and WCM.

    E-print Network

    Liang, Huizhi "Elly"

    2007-01-01

    COVER SHEET Creese, Jennifer (2007) Web 2.0 / Business 2.0: New Web Technologies, Organisations by the corporate sector ­ from the steam ship to the World Wide Web, big business has seen the potential and has and their appeal for big business, examines the issues and challenges for web content management implicit

  1. Oh! Web 2.0, Virtual Reference Service 2.0, Tools and Techniques (I): A Basic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Harsh Bardhan; Mishra, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study targets librarians and information professionals who use Web 2.0 tools and applications with a view to providing snapshots on how Web 2.0 technologies are used. It also aims to identify values and impact that such tools have exerted on libraries and their services, as well as to detect various issues associated with the implementation…

  2. Enabling the transition towards Earth Observation Science 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Desnos, Yves-Louis

    2015-04-01

    Science 2.0 refers to the rapid and systematic changes in doing Research and organising Science driven by the rapid advances in ICT and digital technologies combined with a growing demand to do Science for Society (actionable research) and in Society (co-design of knowledge). Nowadays, teams of researchers around the world can easily access a wide range of open data across disciplines and remotely process them on the Cloud, combining them with their own data to generate knowledge, develop information products for societal applications, and tackle complex integrative complex problems that could not be addressed a few years ago. Such rapid exchange of digital data is fostering a new world of data-intensive research, characterized by openness, transparency, and scrutiny and traceability of results, access to large volume of complex data, availability of community open tools, unprecedented level of computing power, and new collaboration among researchers and new actors such as citizen scientists. The EO scientific community is now facing the challenge of responding to this new paradigm in science 2.0 in order to make the most of the large volume of complex and diverse data delivered by the new generation of EO missions, and in particular the Sentinels. In this context, ESA - in particular within the framework of the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element - is supporting a variety of activities in partnership with research communities to ease the transition and make the most of the data. These include the generation of new open tools and exploitation platforms, exploring new ways to exploit data on cloud-based platforms, dissiminate data, building new partnership with citizen scientists, and training the new generation of data scientists. The paper will give a brief overview of some of ESA activities aiming to facilitate the exploitation of large amount of data from EO missions in a collaborative, cross-disciplinary, and open way, from science to applications and education.

  3. Forbush decreases and solar events seen in the 10 - 20GeV energy range by the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope

    E-print Network

    I. Braun; J. Engler; J. R. Hörandel; J. Milke

    2008-10-27

    Since 1993, a muon telescope located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Muon Telescope) has been recording the flux of single muons mostly originating from primary cosmic-ray protons with dominant energies in the 10 - 20 GeV range. The data are used to investigate the influence of solar effects on the flux of cosmic-rays measured at Earth. Non-periodic events like Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements are detected in the registered muon flux. A selection of recent events will be presented and compared to data from the Jungfraujoch neutron monitor. The data of the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope help to extend the knowledge about Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements to energies beyond the neutron monitor regime.

  4. An imaging grating diffractometer for traceable calibration of grating pitch in the range 20 ?m to 350 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasil, D. A.; Alves, J. A. P.; Pekelsky, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the development of a grating diffratometer to provide traceable calibration of grating pitch in range 20 ?m to 350 nm. The approach is based on the Littrow configuration in which a laser beam is directed onto the grating which is mounted on a rotary table and can be turned so that each selected diffraction order is retro-reflected in the laser incidence direction. A beamsplitter and a lens direct the reflected diffraction order to form a small image spot on a CCD camera and the spot centering is used to adjust to rotation angle, thereby giving the diffraction angle. Knowing the diffraction angle for several orders and the wavelength of the laser, the average grating pitch can be determined to an uncertainty the order of 14 pm.

  5. BioCat 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Noonan, Christine F.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Franklin, Trisha L.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Madison, Michael C.; Piatt, Andrew W.

    2013-09-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Biosurveillance Integration Center (NBIC) was established in 2008 with a primary mission to “(1) enhance the capability of the Federal Government to (A) rapidly identify, characterize, localize, and track a biological event of national concern by integrating and analyzing data relating to human health, animal, plant, food, and environmental monitoring systems (both national and international); and (B) disseminate alerts and other information to Member Agencies and, in coordination with (and where possible through) Member Agencies, to agencies of State, local, and tribal governments, as appropriate, to enhance the ability of such agencies to respond to a biological event of national concern; and (2) oversee development and operation of the National Biosurveillance Integration System (NBIS).” Inherent in its mission then and the broader NBIS, NBIC is concerned with the identification, understanding, and use of a variety of biosurveillance models and systems. The goal of this project is to characterize, evaluate, classify, and catalog existing disease forecast and prediction models that could provide operational decision support for recognizing a biological event having a potentially significant impact. Additionally, gaps should be identified and recommendations made on using disease models in an operational environment to support real-time decision making.

  6. Quasi-monoenergetic 200 keV photon field using a radioactive source with backscatter layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajudin, Suffian M.; Namito, Yoshihito; Sanami, Toshiya; Hirayama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    A quasi-monoenergetic photon field with energy of ˜200 keV was obtained using a radioactive source with a backscatter layout. The backscatter layout allows the calibration of a dosimeter for two different energies with a single radioactive source. The setup was optimized through calculations and experiments to minimize the low energy component and to obtain field uniformity. The optimal backscatter layout was found to comprise a 1 × 1 m2 steel floor, a radioactive source placed 20 cm above the floor, and a 10-cm cubic lead block placed directly above the source. Under the proposed layout and using a 208-MBq Cs-137 source, a monoenergetic photon field with 190 ± 9.6 keV (FWHM) and a dose rate of 3.18 ± 0.18 µSv/h was obtained within a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 area, at a distance of 15 to 25 cm above the lead block.

  7. Electrical interface characteristics (I-V), optical time of flight measurements, and the x-ray (20 keV) signal response of amorphous-selenium/crystalline-silicon heterojunction structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, David M.; Ho, Chu An; Belev, George; De Crescenzo, Giovanni; Kasap, Safa O.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the dark current, optical TOF (time of flight) properties, and the X-ray response of amorphousselenium (a-Se)/crystalline-silicon (c-Si) heterostructures for application in digital radiography. The structures have been studied to determine if an x-ray generated electron signal, created in an a-Se layer, could be directly transferred to a c-Si based readout device such as a back-thinned CCD (charge coupled device). A simple first order band-theory of the structure indicates that x-ray generated electrons should transfer from the a-Se to the c-Si, while hole transfer from p-doped c-Si to the a-Se should be blocked, permitting a low dark signal as required. The structures we have tested have a thin metal bias electrode on the x-ray facing side of the a-Se which is deposited on the c-Si substrate. The heterostructures made with pure a-Se deposited on epitaxial p-doped (5×10 14 cm-3) c-Si exhibited very low dark current of 15 pA cm-2 at a negative bias field of 10 V ?m-1 applied to the a-Se. The optical TOF (time of flight) measurements show that the applied bias drops almost entirely across the a-Se layer and that the a-Se hole and electron mobilities are within the range of commonly accepted values. The x-ray signal measurements demonstrate the structure has the expected x-ray quantum efficiency. We have made a back-thinned CCD coated with a-Se and although most areas of the device show a poor x-ray response, it does contain small regions which do work properly with the expected x-ray sensitivity. Improved understanding of the a-Se/c-Si interface and preparation methods should lead to properly functioning devices.

  8. 26 CFR 20.2207A-2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2207A-2 Effective date. The provisions of § 20.2207A-1 are effective with respect to estates of decedents dying after March 1, 1994. With respect to estates of decedent dying on or before such date, the executor of the...

  9. 03/11/2008 10:55 AMGeotimes -December 2007 -Birthing the Sierra Nevada Page 1 of 2file:///Users/cathy/Desktop/Geotimes%20-%20December%202007%20-%20Birthing%20the%20Sierra%20Nevada.webarchive

    E-print Network

    Busby, Cathy

    03/11/2008 10:55 AMGeotimes - December 2007 - Birthing the Sierra Nevada Page 1 of 2file:///Users/cathy/Desktop/Geotimes%20-%20December%202007%20-%20Birthing%20the%20Sierra%20Nevada.webarchive Subscribe Geotimes issue, researchers looking into the timing of the uplift of the Sierra Nevada have created a new model for how

  10. Direct gamma-spectrometric measurement of the 226Ra 186.2keV line for detecting 238U/226Ra disequilibrium in determining the environmental dose rate for the luminescence dating of sediments.

    PubMed

    De Corte, F; Umans, H; Vandenberghe, D; De Wispelaere, A; Van den Haute, P

    2005-01-01

    In the age determination of sediments according to the luminescence method, it is important to know whether there was secular equilibrium in the Th and U decay series during accumulation of the environmental radiation dose in geological times. This can be investigated via gamma-ray spectrometry, whereby--in the (238)U series--(214)Pb and (214)Bi are considered as the indicators for (226)Ra-mobility, and (210)Pb as the indicator for (226)Rn-emanation. In the present work, the direct measurement of (226)Ra--which can give extra information on the interpretation of the radioactive equilibrium--is investigated as to its precision and accuracy. Since there is a serious spectral interference on its 186.2keV gamma-line (by (235)U at 185.7keV), various correction procedures were outlined and their performance was checked via the analysis of (certified) reference materials, leading to the recommendation of a "method of choice". PMID:15990322

  11. Document Structure Description 2.0 Anders Mller, BRICS

    E-print Network

    Møller, Anders

    1 Document Structure Description 2.0 Anders Møller, BRICS brics.dk> December 2002. Minor updates March and September 2005. Copyright © 2002-2005 BRICS. All Rights Reserved. Table of Contents 1 of a DSD2 processor and a number of example DSD2 schemas are available at http://www.brics.dk/DSD/. 2

  12. Diversinet Java Crypto Module Software Version: 2.0

    E-print Network

    IMS Health Diversinet Java Crypto Module Software Version: 2.0 FIPS 140-2 Non-Proprietary Security Diversinet Java Crypto Module Page 2 of 18 © 2013 IMS Health This document may be freely reproduced............................................................................................................................3 2 DIVERSINET JAVA CRYPTO MODULE

  13. 46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)). 54.20-2 Section 54.20-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces...

  14. 46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)). 54.20-2 Section 54.20-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces...

  15. 46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)). 54.20-2 Section 54.20-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces...

  16. 46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)). 54.20-2 Section 54.20-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces...

  17. 46 CFR 54.20-2 - Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces UW-2(a)). 54.20-2 Section 54.20-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-2 Fabrication for hazardous materials (replaces...

  18. Information management using Web 2.0 technology

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Juliet (Juliet Maria)

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0, the ultimate platform for tacit based knowledge work has finally arrived. User driven, collaborative platform based tools including wikis, web mash-ups, discussion boards, linkage based search engines, and tagging ...

  19. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ken

    2015-01-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  20. MARS CLIMATE DATABASE v2.0 DETAILED DESIGN DOCUMENT

    E-print Network

    Forget, François

    and data examples given have been prepared using the version 2.0 database. The MCD User Manual (Lewis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3.3 Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 Dust

  1. 2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 DEGREES NORTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

  3. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

  4. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

  5. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

  6. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Introduction § 20.2 Relation to...this subchapter. (b) Migratory bird hunting stamps. The provisions of this part...to the provisions of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451,...

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 1859 Courtesy of Library of Congress NORTH AND EAST FRONTS - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. TSUBAME 2.0 TSUBAME 1.02.0

    E-print Network

    .06 828.67 773.38 636.36 1448.03 Green500 Tianhe 1-A11 Cray Jaguar81 Dawning Nebulae13 /HP GPU 7 6-7CPUTSUBAME x86 3 CPU 20 2010 620 x86 CPUCray Jaguar Jaguar TSUBAME2.0 CPU CPU ASUCA 1 2CPU6-7 3 Jaguar ASUCA[5] GPUASUCA3990GPU[6] 145Teraflops 76.1TeraFlops 4WRFASUCA Jaguar 50Teraflops

  9. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O'Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  10. The NOAO NVO Portal and the Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.; Fuentes, E.; Gasson, D.

    2008-08-01

    Web developers are building Internet applications that are as rich as desktop applications. These new applications often use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (Ajax), integrate external services, have lightweight development models, quick turn-around periods, and are based on a unique source of data. The NOAO NVO Portal is just one example of an application falling under the Web 2.0 pattern in astronomy. We discuss the concept of the Web 2.0 with respect to its planning, development, and deployment.

  11. Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

    Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

  12. What Web 2.0 Means to Facilities Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    It's official--the Web is now social. Actually, it has always been social to a degree, but now it's "mostly" social. A lot of terms have been coined or adopted to describe various aspects of this phenomenon--social media, social networking, consumer-generated media (CGM) and Web 2.0. While it is hard to define "exactly" what Web 2.0 is, or when…

  13. SPHY v2.0: Spatial Processes in HYdrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terink, W.; Lutz, A. F.; Simons, G. W. H.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Droogers, P.

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces and presents the Spatial Processes in HYdrology (SPHY) model (v2.0), its development background, its underlying concepts, and some example applications. SPHY has been developed with the explicit aim of simulating terrestrial hydrology on flexible scales, under various physiographical and hydroclimatic conditions, by integrating key components from existing and well-tested models. SPHY is a spatially distributed leaky bucket type of model, and is applied on a cell-by-cell basis. The model is written in the Python programming language using the PCRaster dynamic modeling framework. SPHY (i) integrates most hydrologic processes, (ii) has the flexibility to be applied in a wide range of hydrologic applications, and (iii) on various scales, and (iv) can easily be implemented. The most relevant hydrological processes that are integrated into the SPHY model are rainfall-runoff processes, cryosphere processes, evapotranspiration processes, the dynamic evolution of vegetation cover, lake/reservoir outflow, and the simulation of root-zone moisture contents. Studies in which the SPHY model was successfully applied and tested are described in this paper, including (i) real-time soil moisture predictions to support irrigation management in lowland areas, (ii) climate change impact studies in snow- and glacier-fed river basins, and (iii) operational flow forecasting in mountainous catchments.

  14. Profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    PubMed

    van der Goot, Annemieke Catharina; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Millar, Robert Peter; Paris, Monique Christina Johanna; Ganswindt, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Unlike their wild counterparts, many white rhinoceros females in captivity fail to reproduce successfully such that current captive populations are not self-sustaining. The causes of the problem are poorly understood. Variation in cycle length and long periods of acyclicity are characteristics of the majority of these non-reproducing females in captivity but it is unknown whether these characteristics are a feature of reproductively successful free-ranging females. This study therefore aimed to monitor cyclic activity in a wild population of southern white rhinoceros at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, by measuring the concentrations of immunoreactive fecal progestagen metabolites (fPM). Five adult females were tracked twice per week for 20 months and if located a fresh fecal sample was collected. Reproductive events and group structural dynamics were also recorded and subsequently correlated with the fPM data. The baseline concentration of fPM was 0.69±0.20?g/g DW while concentrations during pregnancy were 30-400-fold higher. The females exhibited estrous cycle lengths of 30.6±7.7 days and, based on fPM data, gestation length in one female was 502±3 days. Year-round monitoring showed no clear evidence of seasonality in ovarian activity. During cyclic luteal activity females were often seen in the presence of a dominant bull. One female stopped cycling after removal of the local dominant bull and luteal activity only returned after a new bull was introduced. This suggests that white rhinoceros females in the wild might need external stimuli from a male to ovulate. These findings indicate that the irregular cyclicity reported for white rhinoceros housed in zoos and animal parks may result from conditions in captivity and account for reduced fertility. PMID:26372226

  15. New interstellar molecular transitions in the 2 millimeter range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Blake, D. H.; Lovas, F. J.; Suenram, R. D.; Ulich, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A Sgr B2 kinetic temperature of about 47 K is derived based on observations of K components of the 9K-8K transition of CH3CCH. Interstellar line emission is detected in the 2 mm wavelength region from SO, (S-34)O, SO2, CH3OH, CH3CCH, CH3CH2CN, HC3N, and nine unidentified transitions. The methylacetylene K component data combined with the derived data reduction technique, demonstrates the utility of the molecule as a temperature probe of molecular clouds when two or more rotational transitions are observed. Evidence for the existence of interstellar HNO is presented, and an attempt is made to detect sulfuric acid, formic anhydride, and the 0-18 isotopic for CO2 in interstellar clouds and in the Venusian atmosphere during inferior conjunction.

  16. 20 CFR 71.2 - Computation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of benefits. 71.2 Section 71.2 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY... JAPANESE GOVERNMENT GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.2 Computation of benefits. (a) For the purpose of...

  17. 20 CFR 233.2 - Computation of reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of reduction. 233.2 Section 233.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REDUCTION IN THE WINDFALL BENEFIT ANNUITY COMPONENT § 233.2 Computation of reduction. The amount of the reduction to be...

  18. Hash Function Luffa Specification Ver. 2.0

    E-print Network

    Kaminsky, Alan

    Hash Function Luffa Specification Ver. 2.0 Christophe De Canni`ere ESAT-COSIC, Katholieke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Chaining 8 3.1 Message Padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Round Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.1 Message Injection Function for w = 3

  19. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  20. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  1. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  2. The LAGRANTO Lagrangian analysis tool - version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Wernli, H.

    2015-08-01

    Lagrangian trajectories are widely used in the atmospheric sciences, for instance to identify flow structures in extratropical cyclones (e.g., warm conveyor belts) and long-range transport pathways of moisture and trace substances. Here a new version of the Lagrangian analysis tool LAGRANTO (Wernli and Davies, 1997) is introduced, which offers considerably enhanced functionalities. Trajectory starting positions can be defined easily and flexibly based on different geometrical and/or meteorological conditions, e.g., equidistantly spaced within a prescribed region and on a stack of pressure (or isentropic) levels. After the computation of the trajectories, a versatile selection of trajectories is offered based on single or combined criteria. These criteria are passed to LAGRANTO with a simple command language (e.g., "GT:PV:2" readily translates into a selection of all trajectories with potential vorticity, PV, greater than 2 PVU; 1 PVU = 10-6 K m2 kg-1 s-1). Full versions of this new version of LAGRANTO are available for global ECMWF and regional COSMO data, and core functionality is provided for the regional WRF and MetUM models and the global 20th Century Reanalysis data set. The paper first presents the intuitive application of LAGRANTO for the identification of a warm conveyor belt in the North Atlantic. A further case study then shows how LAGRANTO can be used to quasi-operationally diagnose stratosphere-troposphere exchange events. Whereas these examples rely on the ECMWF version, the COSMO version and input fields with 7 km horizontal resolution serve to resolve the rather complex flow structure associated with orographic blocking due to the Alps, as shown in a third example. A final example illustrates the tool's application in source-receptor analysis studies. The new distribution of LAGRANTO is publicly available and includes auxiliary tools, e.g., to visualize trajectories. A detailed user guide describes all LAGRANTO capabilities.

  3. Low-power 20-meter 3D ranging SPAD camera based on continuous-wave indirect time-of-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisai, S.; Ferretti, L.; Villa, F.; Ruggeri, A.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2012-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) image acquisitions is the enabling technology of a great number of applications; culture heritage morphology study, industrial robotics, automotive active safety and security access control are example of applications. The most important feature is the high frame-rate, to detect very fast events within the acquired scenes. In order to reduce the computational complexity, Time-of-Flight algorithms for single sensor cameras are used. To achieve high-frame rate and high distance measurement accuracy it is important to collect the most part of the reflected light using sensor with very high sensitivity, allowing the implementation of a low-power light source. We designed and developed a single-photon detection based 3D ranging camera, capable to acquire distance image up to 22.5 m, with a resolution down to one centimeter. The light source used in this prototype employs 8 laser diodes sinusoidally modulated. The imager used in the application is based on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 ?m technology. The sensor has 1024 pixels arranged in a 32x32 squared layout, with overall dimensions of 3.5mm x 3.5mm. The camera acquires 3D images through the continuous-wave indirect Time of Flight (cw-iTOF) technique. The typical frame-rate is 20 fps while the theoretical maximum frame-rate is 5 kfps. The precision is better than 5 cm within 22.5 m range, and can be effectively used in indoor applications, e.g. in industrial environment.

  4. Students as Web 2.0 Authors: Implications for Assessment Design and Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Thompson, Celia; Sheard, Judithe; Clerehan, Rosemary; Hamilton, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Students now have at their disposal a range of Web 2.0 authoring forms such as audio and video podcasting, blogging, social bookmarking, social networking, virtual world activities and wiki writing. Many university educators are interested in enabling students to demonstrate their learning by creating content in these forms. However, the design…

  5. Collaborative Writing with Web 2.0 Technologies: Education Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodahl, Cornelia; Hadjerrouit, Said; Hansen, Nils Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are becoming popular in teaching and learning environments. Among them several online collaborative writing tools, like wikis and blogs, have been integrated into educational settings. Research has been carried out on a wide range of subjects related to wikis, while other, comparable tools like Google Docs and EtherPad remain…

  6. The Open Ed Tech: Never Mind the Edupunks; or, The Great Web 2.0 Swindle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Brian; Groom, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Has the wave of the open web crested? What does "open educational technology" look like, and does it stand for anything? In this article, the authors discuss the rise of open educational technology. The present range of Web 2.0 service providers offers a self-evident strategic technology framework. Without much effort, online teachers and learners…

  7. Learning with Web 2.0: Social Technology and Discursive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Lowe, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of Internet technologies which facilitate activities that are, above all, social and participatory, allowing children and adults to create and share their own content, and to communicate in a wide range of forums. Correspondingly, there has been great popular and expert interest in the potential of Web 2.0

  8. Redefining Vernacular Literacies in the Age of Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, David; Lee, Carmen K. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the characteristics of vernacular literacies on Web 2.0, focusing on the writing activities performed on the photo-sharing site Flickr.com. This site provides people with many possibilities for writing, ranging from individual tags to extensive profiles. The study investigates these forms of writing to address questions…

  9. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-06-08

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2010-02-04

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2012-12-24

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  12. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  13. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing

    2015-05-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km2 array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as "two outputs" device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×105 photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 105, which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described.

  14. Investigation of the Equivalence of National Dew-Point Temperature Realizations in the -50 °C to + 20 °C Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Martti; Anagnostou, Miltiadis; Bell, Stephanie; Stevens, Mark; Benyon, Robert; Bergerud, Reidun Anita; Bojkovski, Jovan; Bosma, Rien; Nielsen, Jan; Böse, Norbert; Cromwell, Plunkett; Kartal Dogan, Aliye; Aytekin, Seda; Uytun, Ali; Fernicola, Vito; Flakiewicz, Krzysztof; Blanquart, Bertrand; Hudoklin, Domen; Jacobson, Per; Kentved, Anders; Lóio, Isabel; Mamontov, George; Masarykova, Alexandra; Mitter, Helmut; Mnguni, Regina; Otych, Jan; Steiner, Anton; Szilágyi Zsófia, Nagyné; Zvizdic, Davor

    2012-09-01

    In the field of humidity quantities, the first CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6 is at its end. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was completed in early 2008, about 4 years after the starting initial measurements in the project. In total, 24 NMIs from different countries took part in the comparison. This number includes 22 EURAMET countries, and Russia and South Africa. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was carried out in three parallel loops, each with two chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. It is shown that the standard uncertainty due to the long-term instability was smaller than 0.008 °C in all loops. The standard uncertainties due to links between the loops were found to be smaller than 0.025 °C at -50 °C and 0.010 °C elsewhere. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from the EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Taking into account 16 different primary dew-point realizations and 8 secondary realizations, the results demonstrate the equivalence of a large number of laboratories at an uncertainty level that is better than achieved in other multilateral comparisons so far in the humidity field.

  15. Ground Support for the Space-Based Range Flight Demonstration 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkes, Darryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

  16. Communication: A simple full range analytical potential for H 2 b 3 ?u + , H-He 2?+, and He 2 1 ?g +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnecke, Sascha; Tang, K. T.; Toennies, J. Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Tang-Toennies potential for the weakly interacting systems H 2 b 3 ?u + , H-He 2?+, and He 2 1 ?g + is extended down to the united atom limit of vanishing internuclear distance. A simple analytic expression connects the united atom limiting potential with the Tang-Toennies potential in the well region. The new potential model is compared with the most recent ab initio calculations for all three systems. The agreement is better than 20% (H2 and He2) or comparable with the differences in the available ab initio calculations (H-He) over six orders of magnitude corresponding to the entire range of internuclear distances.

  17. The development of the Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0): Tests of reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Tiffany M.; Allen, H. Raymond; Han, Hongmei; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the psychometric characteristics of the Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0). A sample of 563 adults composed of four groups classified by gender and ethnicity (Caucasian men and women and African-American men and women) were studied. Support for the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the BMA 2.0 was found for both men and women. A study of convergent validity was conducted. The BMA 2.0 was found to have adequate reliability and validity. Norms were established for the BMA 2.0 estimates of current body size (CBS), ideal body size (IBS), and acceptable body size (ABS) for Caucasian and African-American men and women. In summary, the BMA 2.0 is a reliable and valid computerized measure of CBS, IBS, ABS, the CBS–IBS discrepancy (body dissatisfaction), and provides an estimate of over/underestimation of body size as compared to individuals of the same sex and body mass index. PMID:19244002

  18. NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere Model. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere Model-Version 2.0 (MET-V 2.0) and contains an explanation on the use of the computer program along with an example of the MET-V 2.0 model products. The MET-V 2.0 provides an update to the 1988 version of the model. It provides information on the total mass density, temperature, and individual species number densities for any altitude between 90 and 2,500 km as a function of latitude, longitude, time, and solar and geomagnetic activity. A description is given for use of estimated future 13-mo smoothed solar flux and geomagnetic index values as input to the model. Address technical questions on the MET-V 2.0 and associated computer program to Jerry K. Owens, Spaceflight Experiments Group, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (256-961-7576; e-mail Jerry.Owens@msfc.nasa.gov).

  19. Scintillation properties of Yb3+-doped YAlO3 in the temperature range from 4.2 to 175 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumune, T.; Kurihara, M.; Maehata, K.; Ishibashi, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2013-10-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of the emission wavelength spectrum of YAP:Yb by irradiating with ?-rays from a 90Sr/90Y source in the temperature range from 4.2 to 175 K. The light yield of YAP:Yb was characterized using an avalanche photodiode in the detection of 662-keV ?-rays from a 137Cs source in the temperature range from 50 to 175 K. The light yield was found to increase with decreasing temperature and reached 3840 photons/MeV at a temperature of 50 K. By extrapolating the temperature dependence of the light yield using that of the integrated emission spectra, the experimental light yield was evaluated to be 4300 photons/MeV at a temperature of 4.2 K.

  20. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (˜15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  1. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Alivisatos

    2010-09-01

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Alivisatos

    2010-02-09

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Don

    2010-02-03

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  5. The (3He,tf) as a surrogate reaction to determine (n,f) cross sections in the 10 to 20 MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. S.; Clark, R. M.; Goldblum, B. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Phair, L.; Burke, J. T.; Beausang, C. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Darakchieva, B.; Dietrich, F. S.; Evtimova, M.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Hatarik, R.; Jewett, C. C.; Lesher, S. R.; McMahan, M. A.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Wiedeking, M.

    2009-02-25

    The surrogate reaction 238U(3He,tf) is used to determine the 237Np(n,f) cross section indirectly over an equivalent neutron energy range from 10 to 20 MeV. A self-supporting ~;;761 mu g/cm2 metallic 238U foil was bombarded with a 42 MeV 3He2+ beam from the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Outgoing charged particles and fission fragments were identified using the Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies (STARS), consists of two 140 mu m and one 1000 mu m Micron S2 type silicon detectors. The 237Np(n,f) cross sections, determined indirectly, were compared with the 237Np(n,f) cross section data from direct measurements, the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VII.0), and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL 3.3) and found to closely follow those datasets. Use of the (3He,tf) reaction as a surrogate to extract (n,f) cross section in the 10 to 20 MeV equivalent neutron energy is found to be suitable.

  6. A MATLABTM Power System Simulation Package Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    MATPOWER A MATLABTM Power System Simulation Package Version 2.0 December 24, 1997 User's Manual Ray D. Zimmerman Deqiang (David) Gan rz10@cornell.edu deqiang@ee.cornell.edu © 1997 Power Systems.........................................................................................................................................3 2.3 Running a Power Flow

  7. 20 CFR 203.2 - General definition of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relation to an employer, or (c) he is an employee representative, or (d) he is an officer of an employer. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General definition of employee. 203.2 Section... EMPLOYEES UNDER THE ACT § 203.2 General definition of employee. An individual shall be an employee...

  8. 20 CFR 227.2 - Initial supplemental annuity rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum or any private pension, is $23 for an... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Initial supplemental annuity rate. 227.2 Section 227.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  9. 20 CFR 10.2 - What do these regulations contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What do these regulations contain? 10.2... AMENDED General Provisions Introduction § 10.2 What do these regulations contain? This part 10 sets forth... various subparts of this part contain the following: (a) Subpart A. The general statutory...

  10. No evidence of the 17-keV neutrino in the decay of [sup 71]Ge

    SciTech Connect

    DiGregorio, D.E.; Gil, S.; Huck, H.; Batista, E.R.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Gattone, A.O. )

    1993-06-01

    We have measured the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of the electron capture decay of [sup 71]Ge in search for a possible mass component of the emitted neutrino. The main relevance of this experiment is given by the collected statistics which is 20 times larger than in a previously published work studying the same decay. Analyses of the data exclude the presence of a massive component of 17.2[sub [minus]1.1][sup +1.3] keV and (1.6[plus minus]0.7)% mixing fraction claimed by Zlimen [ital et] [ital al]. for this same nucleus, at the 99.0% confidence level.

  11. PEG/Ion -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.2 M Sodium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    Magnesium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 6. 0.2 M Sodium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 7. 0.2 M Calcium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 3. 0.2 M Ammonium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350 4. 0.2 M Lithium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 5. 0.2 M 3350 8. 0.2 M Potassium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 9. 0.2 M Ammonium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 10. 0.2 M

  12. Incorporating Web 2.0 Technologies from an Organizational Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) provides support for the organization, facilitation, and dissemination of online educational and scientific materials and information to a wide range of stakeholders. ARCUS is currently weaving the fabric of Web 2.0 technologies—web development featuring interactive information sharing and user-centered design—into its structure, both as a tool for information management and for educational outreach. The importance of planning, developing, and maintaining a cohesive online platform in order to integrate data storage and dissemination will be discussed in this presentation, as well as some specific open source technologies and tools currently available, including: ? Content Management: Any system set up to manage the content of web sites and services. Drupal is a content management system, built in a modular fashion allowing for a powerful set of features including, but not limited to weblogs, forums, event calendars, polling, and more. ? Faceted Search: Combined with full text indexing, faceted searching allows site visitors to locate information quickly and then provides a set of 'filters' with which to narrow the search results. Apache Solr is a search server with a web-services like API (Application programming interface) that has built in support for faceted searching. ? Semantic Web: The semantic web refers to the ongoing evolution of the World Wide Web as it begins to incorporate semantic components, which aid in processing requests. OpenCalais is a web service that uses natural language processing, along with other methods, in order to extract meaningful 'tags' from your content. This metadata can then be used to connect people, places, and things throughout your website, enriching the surfing experience for the end user. ? Web Widgets: A web widget is a portable 'piece of code' that can be embedded easily into web pages by an end user. Timeline is a widget developed as part of the SIMILE project at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) for displaying time-based events in a clean, horizontal timeline display. Numerous standards, applications, and 3rd party integration services are also available for use in today's Web 2.0 environment. In addition to a cohesive online platform, the following tools can improve networking, information sharing, and increased scientific and educational collaboration: ? Facebook (Fan pages, social networking, etc) ? Twitter/Twitterfeed (Automatic updates in 3 steps) ? Mobify.me (Mobile web) ? Wimba, Adobe Connect, etc (real time conferencing) Increasingly, the scientific community is being asked to share data and information within and outside disciplines, with K-12 students, and with members of the public and policy-makers. Web 2.0 technologies can easily be set up and utilized to share data and other information to specific audiences in real time, and their simplicity ensures their increasing use by the science community in years to come.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  14. UCbase 2.0: ultraconserved sequences database (2014 update).

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, Vincenzo; Martoglia, Riccardo; Mandreoli, Federica; Anderlucci, Laura; Emmett, Warren; Bicciato, Silvio; Taccioli, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    UCbase 2.0 (http://ucbase.unimore.it) is an update, extension and evolution of UCbase, a Web tool dedicated to the analysis of ultraconserved sequences (UCRs). UCRs are 481 sequences >200 bases sharing 100% identity among human, mouse and rat genomes. They are frequently located in genomic regions known to be involved in cancer or differentially expressed in human leukemias and carcinomas. UCbase 2.0 is a platform-independent Web resource that includes the updated version of the human genome annotation (hg19), information linking disorders to chromosomal coordinates based on the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine classification, a query tool to search for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and a new text box to directly interrogate the database using a MySQL interface. To facilitate the interactive visual interpretation of UCR chromosomal positioning, UCbase 2.0 now includes a graph visualization interface directly linked to UCSC genome browser. Database URL: http://ucbase.unimore.it. PMID:24951797

  15. Automated registration of 3D-range with 2D-color images: an overview

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    Stamos)) Input: Range ImagesInput: Range Images 3D Line Extraction3D Line Extraction Input: 2D ImagesInput: 2D Images 2D Line Extraction2D Line Extraction 3D Line Clustering3D Line Clustering 2D Feature2D Feature Line Extraction3D Line Extraction Input: 2D ImagesInput: 2D Images 2D Line Extraction2D Line Extraction

  16. Range Cattle Research and Education Center Research Report RC-2005-2

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Range Cattle Research and Education Center Research Report RC-2005-2 February 2005 CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2004 Range Cattle Research and Education Center R. S. Kalmbacher Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions influence

  17. mHealth 2.0: Experiences, Possibilities, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Diamantidis, Clarissa

    2014-01-01

    With more than 1 billion users having access to mobile broadband Internet and a rapidly growing mobile app market, all stakeholders involved have high hopes that this technology may improve health care. Expectations range from overcoming structural barriers to access in low-income countries to more effective, interactive treatment of chronic conditions. Before medical health practice supported by mobile devices ("mHealth") can scale up, a number of challenges need to be adequately addressed. From a psychological perspective, high attrition rates, digital divide of society, and intellectual capabilities of the users are key issues when implementing such technologies. Furthermore, apps addressing behavior change often lack a comprehensive concept, which is essential for an ongoing impact. From a clinical point of view, there is insufficient evidence to allow scaling up of mHealth interventions. In addition, new concepts are required to assess the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Regarding technology interoperability, open standards and low-energy wireless protocols appear to be vital for successful implementation. There is an ongoing discussion in how far health care-related apps require a conformity assessment and how to best communicate quality standards to consumers. "Apps Peer-Review" and standard reporting via an "App synopsis" appear to be promising approaches to increase transparency for end users. With respect to development, more emphasis must be placed on context analysis to identify what generic functions of mobile information technology best meet the needs of stakeholders involved. Hence, interdisciplinary alliances and collaborative strategies are vital to achieve sustainable growth for "mHealth 2.0," the next generation mobile technology to support patient care. PMID:25099752

  18. mHealth 2.0: Experiences, Possibilities, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stefan; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schumacher, Nikolaus; Krocza, Johann; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2014-01-01

    With more than 1 billion users having access to mobile broadband Internet and a rapidly growing mobile app market, all stakeholders involved have high hopes that this technology may improve health care. Expectations range from overcoming structural barriers to access in low-income countries to more effective, interactive treatment of chronic conditions. Before medical health practice supported by mobile devices ("mHealth") can scale up, a number of challenges need to be adequately addressed. From a psychological perspective, high attrition rates, digital divide of society, and intellectual capabilities of the users are key issues when implementing such technologies. Furthermore, apps addressing behavior change often lack a comprehensive concept, which is essential for an ongoing impact. From a clinical point of view, there is insufficient evidence to allow scaling up of mHealth interventions. In addition, new concepts are required to assess the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Regarding technology interoperability, open standards and low-energy wireless protocols appear to be vital for successful implementation. There is an ongoing discussion in how far health care-related apps require a conformity assessment and how to best communicate quality standards to consumers. "Apps Peer-Review" and standard reporting via an "App synopsis" appear to be promising approaches to increase transparency for end users. With respect to development, more emphasis must be placed on context analysis to identify what generic functions of mobile information technology best meet the needs of stakeholders involved. Hence, interdisciplinary alliances and collaborative strategies are vital to achieve sustainable growth for "mHealth 2.0," the next generation mobile technology to support patient care. PMID:25099752

  19. Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Section of {sup 232}Th in the Energy Range from 0.06 to 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Karamanis, D.; Petit, M.; Andriamonje, S.; Barreau, G.; Bercion, M.; Billebaud, A.; Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Moral, R. del; Giovinazzo, J.; Lacoste, V.; Marchand, C.; Perrot, L.; Pravikoff, M.; Thomas, J.C.

    2001-11-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 232}Th has been measured relative to {sigma}(n, {gamma}) for {sup 197}Au and {sigma}(n,f) for {sup 235}U in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. Neutrons were produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reactions at the 4-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan. The activation technique was used, and the cross section was measured relative to the {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) standard cross section up to 1 MeV. The characteristic gamma lines of the product nuclei {sup 233}Pa and {sup 198}Au were measured with a 40% high-purity germanium detector. Above this energy, the reaction {sup 235}U(n,f) was also used as a second standard, and the fission fragments were detected with a photovoltaic cell. The results, after applying the appropriate corrections, indicate that the cross sections are close to the JENDL-3 database values up to 800 keV and over 1.4 MeV. For energies in the intermediate range, our values are slightly lower than those from all the libraries.

  20. [Adolescents in Web 2.0: risks and chances ].

    PubMed

    Salisch, Maria von

    2014-01-01

    That almost all adolescents possess an individual access to the internet and that they use it every day, lays the foundation for the improved means of self presentation and participation that are known by the notion of Web 2.0. Social networks and other interactive internet formats give rise to new risks like cyber mobbing which is the topic of three contributions. At the same time, Web 2.0 offers chances in the form of online counseling and online therapy that cater to the preferences of media-friendly target group of adolescents. PMID:24877775

  1. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

  2. Long-Range Magnetic Ordering in Pyrochlore Iridate Eu2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Mackie, J. M.; Maclaughlin, D. E.; Bernal, O. O.; Ohta, Y.; Nakatsuji, S.

    2010-03-01

    In the pyrochlore iridate Eu2Ir2O7 [1,,] Eu^3+ is nonmagnetic (L = S, J = 0) and S(Ir^4+) = 1/2 [1], so that it is a rare example of a frustrated S=1/2 pyrochlore. Spin-glass-like behavior at the metal-insulator transition (MIT) and no magnetic ordering down to 0.3 K have been reported for this compound [2,,]. We discuss ?SR measurements on Eu2Ir2O7 polycrystalline samples that yield strong evidence for long-range magnetic ordering. We observe well-defined muon spin precession frequencies below TM 120 K, consistent with the MIT temperature [2] but indicating long-range ordering instead of a spin-glass like transition. Significant dynamic muon spin relaxation persists to low temperatures, as is often the case in frustrated antiferromagnets. Work supported by NSF (U.S.), Grants 0801407 (UCR) and 0604105 (CSULA), and MEXT (Japan), Grants-in-Aid Nos. 17071003 and 19052003. [1] B. J. Kim et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 101, 076402 (2008). [2] N. Taira et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, 5527 (2001). [3] C. L. Chien and A. W. Sleight, Phys. Rev. B 18, 2031 (1978).

  3. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F. Feldman, U.; Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  4. Measurement of high-energy (10-60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N.; Feldman, U.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.

    2014-11-01

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10-60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10-60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  5. Measurement of high-energy (10-60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy.

    PubMed

    Seely, J F; Glover, J L; Hudson, L T; Ralchenko, Y; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N; Feldman, U; Di Stefano, C A; Kuranz, C C; Drake, R P; Chen, Hui; Williams, G J; Park, J

    2014-11-01

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10-60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 ?m in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10-60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. PMID:25430194

  6. First limits on the 3-200 keV X-ray spectrum of the quiet Sun using RHESSI

    E-print Network

    Iain G. Hannah; G. J Hurford; H. S. Hudson; R. P. Lin; K. van Bibber

    2007-02-27

    We present the first results using the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, RHESSI, to observe solar X-ray emission not associated with active regions, sunspots or flares (the quiet Sun). Using a newly developed chopping technique (fan-beam modulation) during seven periods of offpointing between June 2005 to October 2006, we obtained upper limits over 3-200 keV for the quietest times when the GOES12 1-8A flux fell below $10^{-8}$ Wm$^{-2}$. These values are smaller than previous limits in the 17-120 keV range and extend them to both lower and higher energies. The limit in 3-6 keV is consistent with a coronal temperature $\\leq 6$ MK. For quiet Sun periods when the GOES12 1-8A background flux was between $10^{-8}$ Wm$^{-2}$ and $10^{-7}$ Wm$^{-2}$, the RHESSI 3-6 keV flux correlates to this as a power-law, with an index of $1.08 \\pm 0.13$. The power-law correlation for microflares has a steeper index of $1.29 \\pm 0.06$. We also discuss the possibility of observing quiet Sun X-rays due to solar axions and use the RHESSI quiet Sun limits to estimate the axion-to-photon coupling constant for two different axion emission scenarios.

  7. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  8. The Water Dimer Investigated in the 2OH Spectral Range Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Suas-David, N; Vanfleteren, T; Földes, T; Kassi, S; Georges, R; Herman, M

    2015-10-01

    Two setups based on CW cavity ring-down spectroscopy were used at Bruxelles and Rennes to record jet-cooled water dimer absorption between 7188 and 7285, and between 7357 and 7386 cm(-1). Some 19 absorption features are reported, significantly more than in the literature. Limited high-resolution information is available due to strong overlap between neighboring vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) structures and to spectral broadening induced by short upper state vibrational predissociation lifetimes, likely to range between 100 and 20 ps. Rotational band contours analyses are performed to assign the partly resolved VRT structures to the v1v2v3,vfvb = 000,11; 200,00; 000,20; and 101,00 zero-order vibrational states. Their wavenumbers are found to be 7192.34, 7225.86, 7240.57, and 7256.99 cm(-1), respectively. Both so-called acceptor-switching tunneling components are involved in the assignments whose tentative character is discussed. PMID:26348119

  9. Apacic++ 2.0, A Parton Cascade In C++

    E-print Network

    F. Krauss; A. Schaelicke; G. Soff

    2005-03-09

    The new version of the parton shower module APACIC++ for the SHERPA event generator framework is presented. It incorporates some features, that are specific for the consistent merging with multi-particle matrix elements at tree-level. This publication also includes some exemplary results and a short description of the upgraded class structure of APACIC++, version 2.0.

  10. 26 CFR 20.2044-2 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2044-2 Effective dates... effective with respect to estates of a decedent-spouse dying after March 1, 1994. With respect to estates of decedent-spouses dying on or before such date, taxpayers may rely on any reasonable interpretation of...

  11. 26 CFR 20.2044-2 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2044-2 Effective dates... effective with respect to estates of a decedent-spouse dying after March 1, 1994. With respect to estates of decedent-spouses dying on or before such date, taxpayers may rely on any reasonable interpretation of...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2044-2 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2044-2 Effective dates... effective with respect to estates of a decedent-spouse dying after March 1, 1994. With respect to estates of decedent-spouses dying on or before such date, taxpayers may rely on any reasonable interpretation of...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2044-2 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2044-2 Effective dates... effective with respect to estates of a decedent-spouse dying after March 1, 1994. With respect to estates of decedent-spouses dying on or before such date, taxpayers may rely on any reasonable interpretation of...

  14. Open Problems in Web 2.0 User Content Sharing

    E-print Network

    sharing solutions provided by CSPs, and distributed access-control related technologies. For each open "Web 2.0" is not necessarily the next version of Web technologies. Rather, it is, among other things- ographical information, calendars, addresses, user's past and present physical location information, people

  15. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Nitash Balsara

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  16. Webquest 2.0: An Instructional Model for Digital Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Diana F. Abernathy

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…

  17. Social Work Information Center 2.0: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, F. Grace

    2009-01-01

    The social work library at USC provides a case study of an academic library's transition to an information center service model. Analysis of the collection, user community, Web 2.0 applications, and Web usage data demonstrates how the changes facilitated library services and information literacy instruction. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)

  18. 2.0 at AASL 2009 National Conference in Charlotte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    2009-01-01

    School library media specialists are information and communication specialists who lead and model these roles in schools and at their major professional events making use of the relevant new Web 2.0 tools available to them to network, collaborate, and share. Using these tools effectively helps them become leaders in their buildings and districts.…

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  20. N2 vs H20 as purge/hydrostatic head

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, J.C.

    1996-03-21

    This document provides the information to explain to the customer the ETP for the N2 vs H20 as Purge/Hydrostatic Head. This ETP follows the format described in Issurance of New Characterization Equipment Engineering Desk Instructions, 75200-95-013.

  1. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS): USER'S MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for Multiple Projections System (MPS) Version 2.0, based on the 3% reasonable further progress (RFP) tracking system that was developed in FY92/FY93. The 3% RFP tracking system is a Windows application, and enhancements to convert the 3% RFP track...

  2. Special Issue Synthetic Cell Biology Cell Biology 2.0

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    Special Issue ­ Synthetic Cell Biology Cell Biology 2.0 Wendell A. Lim1 , Rebecca Alvania3 Vico Synthetic Cell Biology sounds intriguing, but the name begs the question ­ why should we try in harnessing and unleashing the power of cells for new and future applications, synthetic biology also has

  3. Librarians 2.0: Sowing Padi in (the) SEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an exploratory survey as part of a presentation for the Bridging Worlds 2008 conference. It seeks to understand how library institutions in the South East Asia (SEA) region have implemented Web 2.0 technologies--blogs, RSS feeds, wikis, or the use of services like Flickr, YouTube, de.lici.ous.…

  4. Gravitational and Space Biology Volume 20, Number 2

    E-print Network

    #12;Gravitational and Space Biology Volume 20, Number 2 June 2007 Publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology ISSN 1089-988X ASGSB EDITORIAL BOARD Augusto Cogoli Zero NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA John Kiss Miami University Oxford, OH Patrick Masson

  5. 20. HANGAR BAY #2 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANGAR BAY #2 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING CONFLAGRATION STATION, UPTAKE SPACE AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES - PORT SIDE SHOWING VARIOUS DECK WINCHES, ROLLER DOORS, HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM HOSE REELS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Jay Keasling

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  7. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    ScienceCinema

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  8. Habitable Zones. The Problem: Find Earth 2.0

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Habitable Zones. #12;The Problem: Find Earth 2.0 · Requirements: need and pressure #12;The Habitable Zone in the Solar System LocaFon depends on assumpFnuously Habitable Zone #12;The ConFnuously Habitable Zone The faint young Sun problem

  9. Tweeting and Blogging: Moving towards Education 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tian; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that employed Twitter and blogs as instructional Web 2.0 tools to support student learning in an undergraduate-level class. Case study methodology entailing a usage survey, an exit survey, and 12 in-depth semi-structured interviews was sought to examine patterns and characteristics of students' usage of…

  10. Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

  11. Integrating Web 2.0 across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    For many years, educators have touted the benefits of learning with educational tools such as spreadsheets and databases that allow students to actively process and manipulate information (Jonassen, 1995). Hundreds if not thousands of Web 2.0 tools have been created in the last few years, taking the "technology as tool" metaphor to a new level. In…

  12. Social Dimension of Web 2.0 in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary engineers need to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of the market for engineering and technology services. Social dimension of Web 2.0 which penetrates our society more thoroughly with the availability of broadband services has the potential to contribute decisively to the sustainable development of…

  13. Web 2.0 Technologies: Applications for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajt, Susanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of new students, referred to as the Millennial Generation, brings a new set of challenges to the community college. The influx of these technologically sophisticated students, who interact through the social phenomenon of Web 2.0 technology, bring expectations that may reshape institutions of higher learning. This chapter…

  14. Web 2.0 Tools for Supporting Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodostadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools provide enormous opportunities for teaching and learning, yet their application in education is still underdeveloped. What is more, it is no longer possible for teachers to ignore such a technological advance, while they are expected to provide students with opportunities to take control of their learning. However, teachers are still…

  15. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 718a). (c) National wildlife refuges. The provisions... migratory game birds under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 927, as... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relation to other provisions. 20.2...

  16. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 718a). (c) National wildlife refuges. The provisions... migratory game birds under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 927, as... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relation to other provisions. 20.2...

  17. 50 CFR 20.2 - Relation to other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 451, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 718a). (c) National wildlife refuges. The provisions... migratory game birds under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 927, as... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relation to other provisions. 20.2...

  18. Experience of Integrating Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkova, Katerina; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Putnik, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Web users in the 21st century are no longer only passive consumers. On a contrary, they are active contributors willing to obtain, share and evolve information. In this paper we report our experience regarding the implementation of Web 2.0 concept in several Computer Ethics related courses jointly conducted at two Universities. These courses have…

  19. Guidelines for Using Social Media Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Guidelines for Using Social Media ­ Version 2.0 Effective 8/18/2014 Harvard University recognizes the importance and benefits of communicating through social media. Social media is a powerful vehicle through about Harvard, and connect with our audiences online. Harvard supports the use of social media to share

  20. Emergent Learning and Learning Ecologies in Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roy; Karousou, Regina; Mackness, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be…