Akio YAMAMOTO; Keisuke KOBAYASHI
1989-01-01
In the r-z geometry, a second order differential equation for spherical harmonics moments is derived, and for simplicity, it includes only higher order of scattering within a group Using the finite difference approximation for this spherical harmonics equation, a multi-group transport code of a general order of approximation is developed. Sample calculations are carried out for external source problem in
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios
2014-05-01
The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ASAP: interactive quantification of 2D airway geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Souza, Neil D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.
1996-04-01
Evaluation of most normal and patho-pulmonary physiology has relied upon indirect measures of pulmonary function which yield global estimates of underlying structural and functional deficits, which are usually very heterogeneous in nature. Early signs of disease are not recognizable by these techniques, nor are they usually recognizable by the manifestation of physical symptoms. As X-ray CT technology has improved, imaging has held a promise to provide the detailed information here-to-fore missing in standard pulmonary function evaluations. A full solution to the imaging and analysis problem requires true dynamic volumetric approaches to facilitate tracking the lung through space during respiratory maneuvers, and following the radiopacified blood and airflow tracers as they pass through the pulmonary vascular bed or wash in or out of the alveolar air spaces. However, high- resolution, high-speed, stacked single-slice approaches for lung imaging have brought the state-of-the-art to a point where quantitative airway evaluation can play an important role in the study of lung disease and normal lung physiology, if one limits the evaluation to those airway segmented sliced in true cross-sections, or to the evaluation of those airway segments for which a true cross-sectional image can be reformatted from the original stacked sections. This paper presents a software system, called ASAP (for Airway Segmentation and Analysis Program), which provides a rapid, minimally-interactive method for objective identification of airway borders and the reporting of associated geometric measures of diameters and wall thicknesses. We demonstrate that this system yields highly reproducible results both within and between observers, and quantitative measures are accurate to within the resolution of the scanner when phantoms of known geometry are evaluated. Results included here demonstrate that the well-accepted half-max criteria for border definition is a rough approximation, which when applied to structures such as intrathoracic airways yields incorrect results. Our analysis shows that the inner and outer wall detection thresholds must be customized based upon the size of the structure of interest.
Radiation transport calculation in high enthalpy environments for 2D-axisymmetric geometries
Gogel, T.H.; Dupuis, M.; Messerschmid, E.W. )
1993-01-01
The radiative source terms and boundary heat fluxes for generic, 2D-axisymmetric geometries are presently obtained via a Monte Carlo method whose geometrical discretization employs curvilinear structured grids. Attention is given to both the spectral behavior of gas radiation and the thermochemical nonequilibrium conditions of the medium, using the NEQAIR data base. The radiation-simulation method proceeds from a given flowfield solution for the given geometry; the radiative source terms are obtained in a form that is adequate for coupling with the flowfield energy equations. 20 refs.
Numerical simulations of annular wire-array z-pinches in (x,y), (r,{theta}), and (r,z) geometries
Marder, B.M.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.
1997-12-01
The Total Immersion PIC (TIP) code has been used in several two-dimensional geometries to understand better the measured dynamics of annular, aluminum wire-array z-pinches. The areas investigated include the formation of the plasma sheath from current-induced individual wire explosions, the effects of wire number and symmetry on the implosion dynamics, and the dependence of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on initial sheath thickness. A qualitative change in the dynamics with increasing wire number was observed, corresponding to a transition between a z-pinch composed of non-merging, self-pinching individual wires, and one characterized by the rapid formation and subsequent implosion of a continuous plasma sheath. A sharp increase in radiated power with increasing wire number has been observed experimentally near this calculated transition. Although two-dimensional codes have correctly simulated observed power pulse durations, there are indications that three dimensional effects are important in understanding the actual mechanism by which these pulse lengths are produced.
Westerly, David C.; Mo, Xiaohu; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Mackie, Thomas R.; DeLuca, Paul M.
2013-01-01
Purpose: Pencil beam algorithms are commonly used for proton therapy dose calculations. Szymanowski and Oelfke [“Two-dimensional pencil beam scaling: An improved proton dose algorithm for heterogeneous media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3313–3330 (2002)10.1088/0031-9155/47/18/304] developed a two-dimensional (2D) scaling algorithm which accurately models the radial pencil beam width as a function of depth in heterogeneous slab geometries using a scaled expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth and kinetic energy. However, an assumption made in the derivation of the technique limits its range of validity to cases where the input expression for the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. The goal of this work is to derive a generalized form of 2D pencil beam scaling that is independent of the scattering power model and appropriate for use with any expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth. Methods: Using Fermi-Eyges transport theory, the authors derive an expression for the radial pencil beam width in heterogeneous slab geometries which is independent of the proton scattering power and related quantities. The authors then perform test calculations in homogeneous and heterogeneous slab phantoms using both the original 2D scaling model and the new model with expressions for the radial kernel width in water computed from both local and nonlocal scattering power models, as well as a nonlocal parameterization of Molière scattering theory. In addition to kernel width calculations, dose calculations are also performed for a narrow Gaussian proton beam. Results: Pencil beam width calculations indicate that both 2D scaling formalisms perform well when the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. Computing the radial kernel width from a nonlocal scattering model results in the local 2D scaling formula under-predicting the pencil beam width by as much as 1.4 mm (21%) at the depth of the Bragg peak for a 220 MeV proton beam in homogeneous water. This translates into a 32% dose discrepancy for a 5 mm Gaussian proton beam. Similar trends were observed for calculations made in heterogeneous slab phantoms where it was also noted that errors tend to increase with greater beam penetration. The generalized 2D scaling model performs well in all situations, with a maximum dose error of 0.3% at the Bragg peak in a heterogeneous phantom containing 3 cm of hard bone. Conclusions: The authors have derived a generalized form of 2D pencil beam scaling which is independent of the proton scattering power model and robust to the functional form of the radial kernel width in water used for the calculations. Sample calculations made with this model show excellent agreement with expected values in both homogeneous water and heterogeneous phantoms. PMID:23718585
Westerly, David C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Mo Xiaohu; DeLuca, Paul M. Jr. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Institute of Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Mackie, Thomas R. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)
2013-06-15
Purpose: Pencil beam algorithms are commonly used for proton therapy dose calculations. Szymanowski and Oelfke ['Two-dimensional pencil beam scaling: An improved proton dose algorithm for heterogeneous media,' Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3313-3330 (2002)] developed a two-dimensional (2D) scaling algorithm which accurately models the radial pencil beam width as a function of depth in heterogeneous slab geometries using a scaled expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth and kinetic energy. However, an assumption made in the derivation of the technique limits its range of validity to cases where the input expression for the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. The goal of this work is to derive a generalized form of 2D pencil beam scaling that is independent of the scattering power model and appropriate for use with any expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth. Methods: Using Fermi-Eyges transport theory, the authors derive an expression for the radial pencil beam width in heterogeneous slab geometries which is independent of the proton scattering power and related quantities. The authors then perform test calculations in homogeneous and heterogeneous slab phantoms using both the original 2D scaling model and the new model with expressions for the radial kernel width in water computed from both local and nonlocal scattering power models, as well as a nonlocal parameterization of Moliere scattering theory. In addition to kernel width calculations, dose calculations are also performed for a narrow Gaussian proton beam. Results: Pencil beam width calculations indicate that both 2D scaling formalisms perform well when the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. Computing the radial kernel width from a nonlocal scattering model results in the local 2D scaling formula under-predicting the pencil beam width by as much as 1.4 mm (21%) at the depth of the Bragg peak for a 220 MeV proton beam in homogeneous water. This translates into a 32% dose discrepancy for a 5 mm Gaussian proton beam. Similar trends were observed for calculations made in heterogeneous slab phantoms where it was also noted that errors tend to increase with greater beam penetration. The generalized 2D scaling model performs well in all situations, with a maximum dose error of 0.3% at the Bragg peak in a heterogeneous phantom containing 3 cm of hard bone. Conclusions: The authors have derived a generalized form of 2D pencil beam scaling which is independent of the proton scattering power model and robust to the functional form of the radial kernel width in water used for the calculations. Sample calculations made with this model show excellent agreement with expected values in both homogeneous water and heterogeneous phantoms.
DRC Plus: augmenting standard DRC with pattern matching on 2D geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Vito; Yang, Jie; Rodriguez, Norma; Capodieci, Luigi
2007-03-01
Design rule constraints (DRC) are the industry workhorse for constraining design to ensure both physical and electrical manufacturability. However, as technology processes continue to shrink and aggressive resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and optical proximity correction (OPC) are applied, standard DRC sometimes fails to fully capture the concept of design manufacturability. Consequently, some DRC-clean layout designs are found to be difficult to manufacture. Attempts have been made to "patch up" standard DRC with additional rules to identify these specific problematic cases. However, due to the lack of specificity with DRC, these efforts often meet with mixed-success. Although it typically resolves the issue at hand, quite often, it is the enforcement of some DRC rule that causes other problematic geometries to be generated, as designers attempt to meet all the constraints given to them. In effect, designers meet the letter of the law, as defined by the DRC implementation code, without understanding the "spirit of the rule". This leads to more exceptional cases being added to the DRC manual, further increasing its complexity. DRC Plus adopts a different approach. It augments standard DRC by applying fast 2D pattern matching to design layout to identify problematic 2D configurations which are difficult to manufacture. The tool then returns specific feedback to designers on how to resolve these issues. This basic approach offers several advantages over other DFM techniques: It is enforceable, it offers a simple pass/no-pass criterion, it is simple to document as part of the design manual, it does not require compute intensive simulations, and it does not require highly-accurate lithographic models that may not be available during design. These advantages allow DRC Plus to be inserted early in the design flow, and enforced in conjunction with standard DRC.
Maduri, Rajesh Kumar
2008-02-01
. The master elements considered for 2-D quadrilateral, 2-D triangular and 3-D hexahedral elements are a 2 unit square, a 2 unit equilateral triangle and a 2 unit cube respectively. For the master element, 2-D C00 or 3-D C000 p-version local approximations...
The differences in the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in 2D and 3D geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuchugov, P. A.; Rozanov, V. B.; Zmitrenko, N. V.
2014-06-01
Results are presented from theoretical analysis and numerical simulations aimed to clarify specific features of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in 2D and 3D geometries. Two series of simulations, one with an isolated single-mode perturbation of the interface and the other with a random density perturbation, were performed. It is shown that the relative evolutions of integral characteristics for the first and the second series are different in 2D and 3D geometries. An attempt is made to interpret this result in the framework of the previously developed evolutionary approach based on the concept of the "critical age" of the perturbation (where, by the age is meant the product of the wavenumber and amplitude). The critical age corresponds to the destruction of the main mushroom-like structure formed during the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to the onset of the secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Geometry and Dynamics of a Coupled 4D-2D Quantum Field Theory
Stefano Bolognesi; Chandrasekhar Chatterjee; Jarah Evslin; Kenichi Konishi; Keisuke Ohashi; Luigi Seveso
2015-09-14
Geometric and dynamical aspects of a coupled 4D-2D interacting quantum field theory - the gauged nonAbelian vortex - are investigated. The fluctuations of the internal 2D nonAbelian vortex zeromodes excite the massless 4D Yang-Mills modes and in general give rise to divergent energies. This means that the well-known 2D CP(N-1) zeromodes associated with a nonAbelian vortex become nonnormalizable. Moreover, all sorts of global, topological 4D effects such as the nonAbelian Aharonov-Bohm effect come into play. These topological global features and the dynamical properties associated with the fluctuation of the 2D vortex moduli modes are intimately correlated, as shown concretely here in a U(1) x SU(N) x SU(N) model with scalar fields in a bifundamental representation of the two SU(N) factor gauge groups.
Geometry and Dynamics of a Coupled 4D-2D Quantum Field Theory
Bolognesi, Stefano; Evslin, Jarah; Konishi, Kenichi; Ohashi, Keisuke; Seveso, Luigi
2015-01-01
Geometric and dynamical aspects of a coupled 4D-2D interacting quantum field theory - the gauged nonAbelian vortex - are investigated. The fluctuations of the internal 2D nonAbelian vortex zeromodes excite the massless 4D Yang-Mills modes and in general give rise to divergent energies. This means that the well-known 2D CP(N-1) zeromodes associated with a nonAbelian vortex become nonnormalizable. Moreover, all sorts of global, topological 4D effects such as the nonAbelian Aharonov-Bohm effect come into play. These topological global features and the dynamical properties associated with the fluctuation of the 2D vortex moduli modes are intimately correlated, as shown concretely here in a U(1) x SU(N) x SU(N) model with scalar fields in a bifundamental representation of the two SU(N) factor gauge groups.
Manipulation of 3D Cluster Size and Geometry by Release from 2D Micropatterns
Chen, Christopher S.
of stem cell maintenance and differentiation in both em and CHRISTOPHER S. CHEN 1 1 Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 510 Skirkanich Hall, 210--A novel method to control three-dimensional cell cluster size and geometry using two
Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...
Effects of Training Method and Gender on Learning 2D/3D Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khairulanuar, Samsudin; Nazre, Abd Rashid; Jamilah, H.; Sairabanu, Omar Khan; Norasikin, Fabil
2010-01-01
This article reports the findings of an experimental study involving 36 primary school students (16 girls, 20 boys, Mean age = 9.5 years, age range: 8-10 years) in geometrical understanding of 2D and 3D objects. Students were assigned into two experimental groups and one control group based on a stratified random sampling procedure. The first…
Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Wendt, Joel Robert; Rivera, Jonathan M.
2003-06-01
High-quality-factor microcavities in two-dimensional photonic crystals at optical frequencies have a number of technological applications, such as cavity quantum electrodynamics, optical switching, filtering, and wavelength multiplexing. For such applications, it is useful to have a simple approach to tune the microcavity resonant wavelength. In this letter, we propose a microcavity design by which we can tune the resonant wavelength by changing the cavity geometry while still obtaining a high quality factor.
Determining Transition State Geometries in Liquids Using 2D-IR
Harris, Charles; Cahoon, James F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.
2007-12-11
Many properties of chemical reactions are determined by the transition state connecting reactant and product, yet it is difficult to directly obtain any information about these short-lived structures in liquids. We show that two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy can provide direct information about transition states by tracking the transformation of vibrational modes as a molecule crossed a transition state. We successfully monitored a simple chemical reaction, the fluxional rearrangement of Fe(CO)5, in which the exchange of axial and equatorial CO ligands causes an exchange of vibrational energy between the normal modes of the molecule. This energy transfer provides direct evidence regarding the time scale, transition state, and mechanism of the reaction.
2D Geometry Predicts Perceived Visual Curvature in Context-Free Viewing
Dresp-Langley, Birgitta
2015-01-01
Planar geometry was exploited for the computation of symmetric visual curves in the image plane, with consistent variations in local parameters such as sagitta, chordlength, and the curves' height-to-width ratio, an indicator of the visual area covered by the curve, also called aspect ratio. Image representations of single curves (no local image context) were presented to human observers to measure their visual sensation of curvature magnitude elicited by a given curve. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed on both the individual and the average data using two types of model: (1) a power function where y (sensation) tends towards infinity as a function of x (stimulus input), most frequently used to model sensory scaling data for sensory continua, and (2) an “exponential rise to maximum” function, which converges towards an asymptotically stable level of y as a function of x. Both models provide satisfactory fits to subjective curvature magnitude as a function of the height-to-width ratio of single curves. The findings are consistent with an in-built sensitivity of the human visual system to local curve geometry, a potentially essential ground condition for the perception of concave and convex objects in the real world. PMID:26346803
Manipulation of 3D Cluster Size and Geometry by Release from 2D Micropatterns
Leight, Jennifer L.; Liu, Wendy F.; Chaturvedi, Ritika R.; Chen, Sophia; Yang, Michael T.; Raghavan, Srivatsan; Chen, Christopher S.
2013-01-01
A novel method to control three-dimensional cell cluster size and geometry using two-dimensional patterning techniques is described. Cells were first cultured on two-dimensional micropatterned collagen using conventional soft lithography techniques. Collagenase was used to degrade the micropatterned collagen and release cells from the micropatterns, forming clusters of cells which were then resuspended in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. This method facilitated the formation of uniformly sized clusters within a single sample. By systematically varying the geometry of the two-dimensional micropatterned islands, final cluster size and cell number in three dimensions could be controlled. Using this technique, we showed that proliferation of cells within collagen gels depended on the size of clusters, suggesting an important role for multicellular structure on biological function. Furthermore, by utilizing more complex two-dimensional patterns, non-spherical structures could be produced. This technique demonstrates a simple way to exploit two-dimensional micro-patterning in order to create complex and structured multicellular clusters in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:23730348
Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Lokitz, Bradley S; Messman, Jamie M; Stafford, Christopher M; Kilbey, II, S Michael
2013-01-01
We report a simple, one step process for developing wrinkling patterns in azlactone-based polymer thin films and brushes in 2D and 3D surfaces. The polymer used in this work wrinkles spontaneously upon deposition and solidification on a substrate without applying any external strain to the substrate, with the mode of deposition defining the direction of the wrinkles. Wrinkle formation is shown to occur on a variety of substrates over large areas. We also find that a very thin brush-like layer of an azlactone-containing block copolymer also exhibits wrinkled topology. Given the spontaneity and versatility of wrinkle formation, we further demonstrate two proofs-of-concept, i) that these periodic wrinkled structures are not limited to planar surfaces, but are also developed in complex geometries including tubes, cones and other 3D structures; and ii) that this one-step wrinkling process can be used to guide the deposition of metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, creating a periodic, nanopatterned film.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Chao-ying; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao
2015-04-01
Theoretically, Fresnel volume ray theory is more suitable for handling real seismic propagation problems because the traveltime depends not only on the velocity distribution along a traditional geometric ray but also on the velocity distribution within a vicinal region (referred to as first Fresnel volume, abbreviated as FFV) which embraces the geometric ray. In this study, we used an exact solution to calculate multi-phase FFV rays for both 2-D and 3-D cases and introduced a normalized coefficient to account for different contributions inside the FFV ray on the traveltimes. Furthermore, we draw a new formula to calculate the partial traveltime derivatives with respective to the velocity variations and depth changes of the reflectors and finally present a simultaneous inversion method for updating both velocity field and reflector geometry by using these multi-phase FFV rays for both in 2-D and 3-D cases. Using synthetic data examples, we compare the reconstructions of the velocity field and the reflector geometry using the FFV ray tomographic methods and the traditional ray tomography approaches. The simulated inversion results for both 2-D and 3-D cases show that the FFV ray tomographic method is advantageous over the traditional ray tomography method, especially when the ray density is relatively low. The other advantage for the FFV ray tomography method is that it can capture the coarse velocity structure and reflector geometry by starting with a low-frequency data set and then map the fine velocity structure and the detailed reflector geometry by using a high-frequency data set.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Domingos, Sérgio R.; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Rupenyan, Alisa; Woutersen, Sander
2015-06-01
Salt bridges play an important role in protein folding and in supramolecular chemistry, but they are difficult to detect and characterize in solution. Here, we investigate salt bridges between glutamate (Glu-) and arginine (Arg+) using two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The 2D-IR spectrum of a salt-bridged dimer shows cross peaks between the vibrational modes of Glu- and Arg+, which provide a sensitive structural probe of Glu-⋯Arg+ salt bridges. We use this probe to investigate a ?-turn locked by a salt bridge, an ?-helical peptide whose structure is stabilized by salt bridges, and a coiled coil that is stabilized by intra- and intermolecular salt bridges. We detect a bidentate salt bridge in the ?-turn, a monodentate one in the ?-helical peptide, and both salt-bridge geometries in the coiled coil. To our knowledge, this is the first time 2D-IR has been used to probe tertiary side chain interactions in peptides, and our results show that 2D-IR spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating salt bridges in solution.
Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Domingos, Sérgio R; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Rupenyan, Alisa; Woutersen, Sander
2015-06-01
Salt bridges play an important role in protein folding and in supramolecular chemistry, but they are difficult to detect and characterize in solution. Here, we investigate salt bridges between glutamate (Glu(-)) and arginine (Arg(+)) using two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The 2D-IR spectrum of a salt-bridged dimer shows cross peaks between the vibrational modes of Glu(-) and Arg(+), which provide a sensitive structural probe of Glu(-)?Arg(+) salt bridges. We use this probe to investigate a ?-turn locked by a salt bridge, an ?-helical peptide whose structure is stabilized by salt bridges, and a coiled coil that is stabilized by intra- and intermolecular salt bridges. We detect a bidentate salt bridge in the ?-turn, a monodentate one in the ?-helical peptide, and both salt-bridge geometries in the coiled coil. To our knowledge, this is the first time 2D-IR has been used to probe tertiary side chain interactions in peptides, and our results show that 2D-IR spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating salt bridges in solution. PMID:26049464
On the twisted chiral potential in 2d and the analogue of rigid special geometry for 4-folds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaste, Peter
1999-06-01
We discuss how to obtain an N = (2,2) supersymmetric SU(3) gauge theory in two dimensions via geometric engineering from a Calabi-Yau 4-fold and compute its non-perturbative twisted chiral potential tilde W(?). The relevant compact part of the 4-fold geometry consists of two intersecting Bbb P1's fibered over Bbb P2. The rigid limit of the local mirror of this geometry is a complex surface that generalizes the Seiberg-Witten curve and on which there exist two holomorphic 2-forms. These stem from the same meromorphic 2-form as derivatives w.r.t. the two moduli, respectively. The middle periods of this meromorphic form give directly the twisted chiral potential. The explicit computation of these and of the four-point Yukawa couplings allows for a non-trivial test of the analogue of rigid special geometry for a 4-fold with several moduli.
Miller, Willard
Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications SIGMA ? (200?), 00?, ?? pages online ???? Original article is available at http://www.emis.de/journals/SIGMA/200?/00?/ Abstract], for a precise definition, it has been shown that the algebra is finite dimensional and closes at order six
Fevotte, F.; Lathuiliere, B.
2013-07-01
The large increase in computing power over the past few years now makes it possible to consider developing 3D full-core heterogeneous deterministic neutron transport solvers for reference calculations. Among all approaches presented in the literature, the method first introduced in [1] seems very promising. It consists in iterating over resolutions of 2D and ID MOC problems by taking advantage of prismatic geometries without introducing approximations of a low order operator such as diffusion. However, before developing a solver with all industrial options at EDF, several points needed to be clarified. In this work, we first prove the convergence of this iterative process, under some assumptions. We then present our high-performance, parallel implementation of this algorithm in the MICADO solver. Benchmarking the solver against the Takeda case shows that the 2D-1D coupling algorithm does not seem to affect the spatial convergence order of the MOC solver. As for performance issues, our study shows that even though the data distribution is suited to the 2D solver part, the efficiency of the ID part is sufficient to ensure a good parallel efficiency of the global algorithm. After this study, the main remaining difficulty implementation-wise is about the memory requirement of a vector used for initialization. An efficient acceleration operator will also need to be developed. (authors)
Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Chang, J H
2008-10-01
We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. This discretization is a discontinuous finite element method that utilizes the piecewise linear basis functions developed by Stone and Adams. We describe an asymptotic analysis that shows this method to be accurate for many problems in the thick diffusion limit on arbitrary polygons, allowing this method to be applied to radiative transfer problems with these types of meshes. We also present numerical results for multiple problems on quadrilateral grids and compare these results to the well-known bi-linear discontinuous finite element method.
On the Effect of Apex Geometry on Wall Shear Stress and Pressure in a 2-D Arterial Bifurcation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Anne; Haljasmaa, Igor; Galdi, Giovanni
2000-11-01
There is strong evidence to support the hypothesis that vascular geometry plays an important role in the initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms as well as other vascular diseases through its influence on hemodynamics. Cerebral aneurysms are nearly always found at arterial bifurcations in and near the Circle of Willis. It is commonly believed that the cause of initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms is at least indirectly related to the effect of hemodynamic wall pressure and shear stress on the arterial tissue at arterial bifurcations. In this work, we use analytical and numerical approaches to investigate the hypothesis that local geometric factors can have a significant impact on the magnitude and spatial gradients of wall pressure and shear stress at the apex of arterial bifurcations. We find that sharp corners such as those at arterial bifurcations and the juncture between grafted vessels can be a source of localized high wall pressure and shear stress. In fact, it can be shown analytically that perfectly sharp corners (zero radius of curvature) will lead to unbounded magnitudes of shear stress and pressure . As the radius of curvature is increased (the corner is rounded), the maximum in magnitude in wall shear stress shifts away from the apex to the lateral sides of the bifurcation. Significantly, the unbounded pressure and shear stress at perfectly sharp corners are unrelated to the fluid inertia. As shown here, the large values of pressure and shear stress which have previously been reported in studies in sharp corner models (zero radius of curvature) are grid dependent approximations for unbounded pressure and shear stress.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Walker
2008-03-31
Shapes, lines, and more! Here are some fun games to practice geometry and not get bored! Here\\'s a review to help you through the fun... Identify Geometric Shapes and then you will be on your way! After you have reviewed...show me all you know with this Shape Quiz and then all the fun begins!!! Is it a polygon or not? You tell me. Drag them into the bins and we will see! ...
A one-loop test for construction of 4D N=4 SYM from 2D SYM via fuzzy sphere geometry
Matsuura, So
2015-01-01
As a perturbative check of the construction of four-dimensional (4D) ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM) from mass deformed ${\\cal N}=(8,8)$ SYM on the two-dimensional (2D) lattice, the one-loop effective action for scalar kinetic terms is computed in ${\\cal N}=4$ $U(k)$ SYM on ${\\mathbb R}^2 \\times$ (fuzzy $S^2$), which is obtained by expanding 2D ${\\cal N}=(8,8)$ $U(N)$ SYM with mass deformation around its fuzzy sphere classical solution. The radius of the fuzzy sphere is proportional to the inverse of the mass. We consider the two successive limits; (1) decompactify the fuzzy sphere to a noncommutative (Moyal) plane and (2) turn off the noncommutativity of the Moyal plane. It is clear at the classical level to obtain the ordinary ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM on ${\\mathbb R}^4$ in the limits, while it is nontrivial at the quantum level. The one-loop effective action for $SU(k)$ sector of the gauge group $U(k)$ coincides with that of the ordinary 4D ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM in the above limits. Although "noncomm...
Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2014-01-01
We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with ?m-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.
2015-08-01
This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information, show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous syn-rift recognized within the basin, suggest that their complete structural geometry could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.
Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2015-01-01
Purpose Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting “self-calibration” was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard (“true”) calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the “self” and “true” calibration methods were on the order of 10?3 mm?1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion The proposed geometric “self” calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general non-circular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced “task-based” 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2015-03-01
Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting "self-calibration" was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard ("true") calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the "self" and "true" calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The proposed geometric "self" calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced "task-based" 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.
2D MHD calculations for recent Argon Double Shell Experiments on Double Eagle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waisman, Eduardo M.; Coleman, P.; Ingermanson, R.; Parks, D.; Steen, P.; Failor, B.; Levine, J.; Song, Y.; Sze, H.
1999-11-01
2D MHD calculations for Argon double puff z-pinch implosions in the 200ns, 4MA regime are compared with experimental results obtained on DOUBLE EAGLE at MPI. To do the calculations the 2D MHD code DELTA is employed. DELTA operates on a triangular unstructured mesh. To obtain the initial conditions for the implosion a module of DELTA, the NOZZLE code, is used to calculate the gas density distribution in r,z. The NOZZLE code solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the supersonic transient flow in the actual geometry from plenum to exit (see a companion paper by R. Ingermanson et al on this subject). DELTA is then used to follow the implosion dynamics of this initial density profile. A Collisional Radiation Equilibrium Model (CREMIT) is employed to calculate radiation self-consistently. The results of these calculations are compared with the experimentally measured K-shell radiation yield and power, as well as with filtered X-ray pinhole images designed to observe zippering and final pinch radius.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia
2012-01-01
This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…
Direct Numerical Solution of Poisson's Equation in Cylindrical (r; z) Coordinates
numerically for the electrostatic potential OE(r; z) in a cylindrical region (r !Rwall ; 0!z! L). The method at the axial boundaries (z = 0; L). \\Lambda Corresponding author: email: chao@pppl.gov, Tel. (609 by a uniform mesh with constant spacing \\Delta r and \\Delta z in the r and z directions: z = (i + 1 2 ) \\Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, A.; Tableman, A.; An, W.; Tsung, F. S.; Lu, W.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.
2015-01-01
For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional and kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class of problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry and the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion of only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [1] to model one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields and currents in azimuthal harmonics and truncating the expansion. The complex amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r-z grid and a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder's correction to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. In this paper, we describe an implementation of this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell description in r-z and a gridless description in ?. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number of harmonics and higher order particle shapes. Examples for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and beam loading are also presented and directions for future work are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.
1992-01-01
Two dimensional (2-D) atmospheric models provide results for altitude versus latitude as a function of time and are developed primarily for two reasons: to help understand atmospheric occurrences and to give assessments and/or make predictions of future changes in the atmosphere. Historically, the formulation of transport in 2-D models has been a difficult problem. Most current 2-D models have a transport that is either an Eulerian mean circulation with large stratospheric eddy diffusion or a residual (diabatic or Lagragian) mean circulation which typically is accompanied with small stratospheric eddy diffusion. Because of the assumption of zonal averaging, 2-D models are primarily useful in making predictions of atmospheric changes of time scales longer than a season. Although decadel atmospheric changes may be reasonably well represented with a 2-D model, the year to year changes which result from interannual transport differences, stratospheric warmings, semiannual oscillations, or quasi-biennial oscillations may not be well represented in the stratosphere and troposphere.
Bagchi, Arjun; Mandal, Ipsita; Miwa, Akitsugu
2009-01-01
We make a detailed study of the infinite dimensional Galilean Conformal Algebra (GCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions. Classically, this algebra is precisely obtained from a contraction of the generators of the relativistic conformal symmetry in 2d. Here we find quantum mechanical realisations of the (centrally extended) GCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d CFTs. These parent CFTs are non-unitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We therefore develop, in parallel to the usual machinery for 2d CFT, many of the tools for the analysis of the quantum mechanical GCA. These include the representation theory based on GCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and a nonrelativistic Kac table. In particular, the null vectors of the GCA lead to differential equations for the four point function. The solution to these equations in the simplest case is explicitly obtained and checked to be consistent with various requiremen...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotsch, Bettina V.
2015-07-01
Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.
2D constant-loss taper for mode conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horth, Alexandre; Kashyap, Raman; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.
2015-03-01
Proposed in this manuscript is a novel taper geometry, the constant-loss taper (CLT). This geometry is derived with 1D slabs of silicon embedded in silicon dioxide using coupled-mode theory (CMT). The efficiency of the CLT is compared to both linear and parabolic tapers using CMT and 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is shown that over a short 2D, 4.45 ?m long taper the CLT's mode conversion efficiency is ~90% which is 10% and 18% more efficient than a 2D parabolic or linear taper, respectively.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 ? solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are required. Nature of problem: In inertial confinement fusion and related experiments with lasers and particle beams, energy transport by thermal radiation becomes important. Under these conditions, the radiation field strongly interacts with the hydrodynamic motion through emission and absorption processes. Solution method: The equations of radiation transfer coupled with Lagrangian hydrodynamics, heat diffusion and beam tracing (laser or ions) are solved, in two-dimensional axial-symmetric geometry ( R-Z coordinates) using a fractional step scheme. Radiation transfer is solved with angular resolution. Matter properties are either interpolated from tables (equations-of-state and opacities) or computed by user routines (conductivities and beam attenuation). Restrictions: The code has been designed for typical conditions prevailing in inertial confinement fusion (ns time scale, matter states close to local thermodynamical equilibrium, negligible radiation pressure, …). Although a wider range of situations can be treated, extrapolations to regions beyond this design range need special care. Unusual features: A special computer language, called r94, is used at top levels of the code. These parts have to be converted to standard C by a translation program (supplied as part of the package). Due to the complexity of code (hydro-code, grid generation, user interface, graphic post-processor, translator program, installation scripts) extensive manuals are supplied as part of the package. Running time: 567 seconds for the example supplied.
Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory
P. Ginsparg; Gregory Moore
1992-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity 1 -- path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity 2 -- canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology 1 -- method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology 2 -- loops on the lattice; matrix
California at Santa Cruz, University of
What is an anomaly? Current Conservation Anomaly in 2-d QED: Schwinger model Current Matrix in 2-d QED: Schwinger model Current Matrix Elements Two Different Approaches Gauge anomalies in the SM Anomaly in 2-d QED: Schwinger model Current Matrix Elements Two Different Approaches Gauge anomalies
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry
Hirn, Matthew
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon
Santos, Bricio; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Ríos, Angel; Valcárcel, Miguel
2007-05-01
A simple methodology for converting a commercial CE-MS instrument into an integrated 2-D CE system has been developed. The first-dimensional capillary operates as a typical CE instrument with UV/visible detection. Fractions leaving the first dimension are automatically collected and introduced into the second dimension, performed on a CE-MS apparatus, for analysis. The integrated system allows fractions in the second dimension to be analyzed using various electrophoretic modes. As an example, in this work we performed the separation of two families of antibiotics (nitroimidazoles and tetracyclines) in the first dimension and the subsequent resolution of the antibiotics in each family (nitroimidazoles were resolved by MEKC and tetracyclines by CZE) in the second dimension. The proposed system, which operates in an highly automatic manner, is flexible and allows various combination of electrophoretic modes to be implemented. In addition, the use of a mass spectrometer detector in the second dimension further increases the analytical potential of the system as a result of the high selectivity and wealth of structural information provided by the MS detector. PMID:17427255
A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry
DeLorey, T.F.
1993-06-01
Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.
Optimal Deterministic Algorithms for 2-d and 3-d Shallow Cuttings
Chan, Timothy M.
hulls in 3-d, dynamic nearest neighbor search in 2-d, convex layers (onion peeling) in 3-d, -nets geometry, including halfspace range reporting in 2-d and 3-d, k nearest neighbors search in 2-d, ( k Shallow cuttings were introduced by Matousek [25] as a tool for range searching, specifically, halfspace
TOPAZ. 2D Finite Element Heat Conduction Code
1985-01-01
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety
2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin
2015-07-01
We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1?cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15?µm in a 170?µm displacement range. The high payload (20?mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.
Qutb al-D?n Sh?r?z? (1236-1311), Persian polymath physician in the medieval period.
Nadim, Mostafa; Farjam, Mojtaba
2014-05-15
Qutb al-D?n Sh?r?z?, a great physician in the medieval period of the Iranian Islamic age, is also called All?ma (polymath) for his extraordinary expertise in almost all fields of contemporary sciences. The peaceful and cultural environment of his hometown and family contributed to his development despite a time of horror from Mongolian repeated invasions of the Islamic countries. Sh?r?z? never ceased learning and researching and migrated widely in order to find scientists to learn from them. He worked in many centres as a teacher and researcher. He practised medicine and educated students, and his books on other fields of science reflect his comprehensive mastery of most of the basic sciences and the humanities. Sh?r?z??'s social and political roles make him one of the paramount of Iranian elites who contributed to the re-establishment of the Iranian-Islamic civilisation after its destruction by the Mongolians in the thirteenth century. PMID:24833544
FASTWO - A 2-D interactive algebraic grid generator
Raymond Ching-Chung Luh; C. K. Lombard
1988-01-01
This paper presents a very simple and effective computational procedure, FASTWO, for generating patched composite finite difference grids in 2-D for any geometry. Major components of the interactive graphics based method that is closely akin to and borrows many tools from transfinite interpolation are highlighted. Several grids produced by FASTWO are shown to illustrate its powerful capability. Comments about extending
Recovering 3D tumor locations from 2D bioluminescence images
Huang, Xiaolei
Recovering 3D tumor locations from 2D bioluminescence images Xiaolei Huang1 , Dimitris Metaxas1 Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is an emerging technique for sensitive and nonin- vasive imaging, which can be used bioluminescence images, then register and visualize the reconstructed tumor with detailed animal geometry
Algebraic Structures and Differential Geometry in 2D String Theory
Edward Witten; Barton Zwiebach
1992-01-28
A careful treatment of closed string BRST cohomology shows that there are more discrete states and associated symmetries in $D=2$ string theory than has been recognized hitherto. The full structure, at the $SU(2)$ radius, has a natural description in terms of abelian gauge theory on a certain three dimensional cone $Q$. We describe precisely how symmetry currents are constructed from the discrete states, explaining the role of the ``descent equations.'' In the uncompactified theory, we compute the action of the symmetries on the tachyon field, and isolate the features that lead to nonlinear terms in this action. The resulting symmetry structure is interpreted in terms of a homotopy Lie algebra.
Galax2d: 2D isothermal Euler equations solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, Wim
2015-03-01
Galax2d computes the 2D stationary solution of the isothermal Euler equations of gas dynamics in a rotating galaxy with a weak bar. The gravitational potential represents a weak bar and controls the flow. A damped Newton method solves the second-order upwind discretization of the equations for a steady-state solution, using a consistent linearization and a direct solver. The code can be applied as a tool for generating flow models if used on not too fine meshes, up to 256 by 256 cells for half a disk in polar coordinates.
Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Thomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.
2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height.
Oakes, Terry
2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Well separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Well separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Somewhat separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Overlapping. #12;2D Gaussian
Sevrin, A.
1993-06-01
After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.
Sevrin, A
1994-01-01
After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, it is shown that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given. (Talk presented at the Journees Relativistes '93, Brussels, April, 1993).
Bose-condensed states in 2D trapped gases
Gora Shlyapnikov
2007-01-01
I will discuss finite-size effects in trapped finite-temperature two-dimensional Bose gases, which include the formation of either true or quasicondensates. It will also be shown how the finite-size effects influence the crossover to the BEC regime. The second half of the talk will be dedicated to dipolar Bose gases in quasi2D geometries. I will shown how the excitation spectrum acquires
Koshelkin, Andrey V.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2012-01-01
We show from the action integral that under the assumption of longitudinal dominance and transverse confinement, QCD4 in (3+1) dimensional space-time can be approximately compactified into QCD2 in (1+1) dimensional space-time. In such a process, we find the relation between the coupling constant $g(2D)$ in QCD2 and the coupling constant $g(4D)$ in QCD4. We also show that quarks and gluons in QCD2 acquire masses as a result of the compactification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemens, Alexander; van Hecke, Martin
2013-03-01
We probe the jamming of 2D wet foams by lateral compression of a bidisperse foam monolayer sandwiched between a glass plate and a fluid surface. Boundaries and residual gravitational effects prevent the foam to be truly unjammed, obstructing the observation of a jammed/unjammed transition. Instead, we find a clear transition from a ``gravity jammed'' to a ``boundary jammed'' state, where the bulk modulus jumps from essentially zero to a finite value, in agreement with theory. In addition, we probe the nonaffine bubble motion, which becomes large near this transition.
Subtracted Geometry From Harrison Transformations
Amitabh Virmani
2012-06-27
We consider the rotating non-extremal black hole of N=2 D=4 STU supergravity carrying three magnetic charges and one electric charge. We show that its subtracted geometry is obtained by applying a specific SO(4,4) Harrison transformation on the black hole. As previously noted, the resulting subtracted geometry is a solution of the N=2 S=T=U supergravity.
Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.
Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.
2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals
Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald
2012-01-01
Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871
2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.
Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald
2012-01-01
Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871
Cao, Jianming
electron pulses as a four-dimensional diagnosis of plasma dynamics P. F. Zhu,1 Z. C. Zhang,2 L. Chen,2 R. ZUltrashort electron pulses as a four-dimensional diagnosis of plasma dynamics P. F. Zhu, Z. C. Zhang, L. Chen, R. Z. Li, J. J. Li et al. Citation: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103505 (2010); doi: 10
in matematica, fisica e filosofia V e n e r d i 2 6 M a r z o 2 0 0 4
Di Nasso, Mauro
LÃ?infinito in matematica, fisica e filosofia V e n e r d i 2 6 M a r z o 2 0 0 4 curatori: Vieri, UniversitÃ di Pisa Lucio Russo Dip. Matematica dell'UniversitÃ di Roma II Steven Shore Dip. Fisica Carlo Toffalori Dip. Matematica e Fisica, UniversitÃ di Camerino Vieri Benci Dip. Matematica Applicata
2-D axisymmetric line transport
Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. ); Klein, R.I. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Astronomy)
1990-11-20
The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.
2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets
Turner, L.R.
1991-01-01
In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-{theta} coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs.
Assessment of 2D resistivity structures using 1D inversions
Beard, Les Paul
1987-01-01
of the apparent resistivity values as a function of depth (electrode spacing). This method often fails to clearly represent the true subsurface geometry and resistivity coutrast. By interpreting the several soundings in a 2D environment as if the earth were... Resistivity ranges for common rock and soil types 1. 3 The principle of the four-elect, rode array 1. 4 The Schlumberger resistivity array 1. 5 Effect of electrode spacing on current lines in a two-layer earth 1. 6 Apparent resistivity contours...
Eldar, Yonina
COMPRESSED 3D ULTRASOUND IMAGING WITH 2D ARRAYS Michael Birk*, Amir Burshtein*, Tanya Chernyakova's Nyquist rate, which greatly increases the volume of data that must be processed. In 3D ultrasound imaging extend previous work on frequency domain beamforming for 2D ultrasound imaging to the geometry imposed
NKG2D signaling in cancer immunosurveillance.
López-Soto, Alejandro; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Acebes-Huerta, Andrea; Villa-Alvarez, Mónica; Gonzalez, Segundo
2015-04-15
The immune system is able to detect and eliminate transformed cells. The activating receptor NKG2D is particularly relevant for cancer immunosurveillance. NKG2D ligand expression renders tumor cells more susceptible to be killed by NK and T cells, and correlates with the clinical outcome of the disease. However, tumors develop mechanisms to overcome the NKG2D-mediated immune response, which has been associated with poor prognosis and impairment of the clinical benefits of immunotherapy in many human cancers. The highly specific pattern of expression displayed by the NKG2D ligands, mainly confined to tumor cells, together with the strong immune response triggered by this receptor clearly supports the idea that the NKG2D-mediated pathway may be a powerful target for the treatment of cancer. This review draws together the most recent discoveries concerning the biology of the NKG2D signaling and their therapeutic relevance in the context of cancer. PMID:24615398
Purcaru, Elena
2012-01-01
The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.
SAR Target Feature Extraction and Recognition Based on 2D-DLPP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Ping; Wu, Jingxian; Wu, Renbiao
In this paper, a new feature extraction algorithm named 2D-DLPP (Two-dimensional Discriminant Locality Preserving Projections) is used for SAR ATR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition). First, SAR target images are preprocessed by log-transformation and 2D FFT, then 2D-DLPP is applied to extract target feature which can not only preserve local information by capturing the local geometry of manifold but also implement sample dimension reduction effectively. Finally, classification with SVM (Support Vector Machine) is performed to get the good recognition rate. Experimental results based on MSTAR (Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition) SAR data demonstrate that 2D-DLPP can obtain more effective target feature and improve the recognition rate obviously compared with 2D-LDA (Two-dimensional Linear Discriminant Analysis).
What is Descriptive Geometry for ? Hellmuth Stachel, Institute of Geometry, TU Vienna
Nawratil, Georg
geometry through 2D images thus offering insight into structure and metrical properties of spatial objects, processes and principles. The education in Descriptive Geometry provides a training of the students somewhere within or next to the field of Mathemat- ics, but also near to Architecture, Mechanical
Lott, Geoffrey A; Utterback, James K; Widom, Julia R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H
2011-01-01
By applying a phase-modulation fluorescence approach to 2D electronic spectroscopy, we studied the conformation-dependent exciton-coupling of a porphyrin dimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Our measurements specify the relative angle and separation between interacting electronic transition dipole moments, and thus provide a detailed characterization of dimer conformation. Phase-modulation 2D fluorescence spectroscopy (PM-2D FS) produces 2D spectra with distinct optical features, similar to those obtained using 2D photon-echo spectroscopy (2D PE). Specifically, we studied magnesium meso tetraphenylporphyrin dimers, which form in the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. Comparison between experimental and simulated spectra show that while a wide range of dimer conformations can be inferred by either the linear absorption spectrum or the 2D spectrum alone, consideration of both types of spectra constrains the possible structures to a "T-shaped" geometry. The...
Structural Theory of 2-d Adinkras
Iga, Kevin
2015-01-01
Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study 1-dimensional supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2-d Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2-d Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. H\\"ubsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of H\\"ubsch's even-split doubly even code.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Confinement of nonneutral plasma in unconventional geometries
Turner, L.
1990-01-01
Our interest in efficient storage of cold, nonneutral plasma has been motivated by the elegant studies on cryogenic nonneutral electron plasmas at UCSD and by the remarkable results obtained from the laser-cooled ion plasmas at the NIST, Boulder, Colorado. Also motivating our study is the perceived need to develop the most expedient means of storing antimatter, whether it be antiprotons for gravitational studies or positrons for a variety of physics experiments and diagnostic purposes. One of the most explored technologies of confining nonneutral plasmas is the Penning trap. The maximum number density of cold nonneutral plasma that can be stored in such a trap is B{sup 2}/2{mu}{sub 0}mc{sup 2}, in which B{sup 2}/2{mu}{sub 0} is the (homogeneous) magnetic energy density and mc{sup 2} is the rest energy of the stored charges. In this paper, we shall present a synopsis of the results of our theoretical exploration of the effect on this hydrostatic limit, the so-called Brillouin'' limit, of altering the geometry of the confining vacuum magnetic field while maintaining the field's azimuthal symmetry. In particular, we shall analyze equilibrium confinement by, first, a poloidal magnetic field, B{sub 4}(r,z){cflx r} + B{sub z}(r,z){cflx z}, and second, a toroidal magnetic field, along with the concomitant electrostatic fields.
What is the order of 2D polymer escape transition?
Hsiao-Ping Hsu; Kurt Binder; Leonid I. Klushin; Alexander M. Skvortsov
2007-09-10
An end-grafted flexible polymer chain in 3d space between two pistons undergoes an abrupt transition from a confined coil to a flower-like conformation when the number of monomers in the chain, N, reaches a critical value. In 2d geometry, excluded volume interactions between monomers of a chain confined inside a strip of finite length 2L transform the coil conformation into a linear string of blobs. However, the blob picture raises questions on the nature of this escape transition. To check the theoretical predictions based on the blob picture we study 2d single polymer chains with excluded volume interactions and with one end grafted in the middle of a strip of length 2L and width H by simulating self-avoiding walks on a square lattice with the pruned-enriched-Rosenbluth method (PERM). We estimate the free energy, the end-to-end distance, the number of imprisoned monomers, the order parameter, and its distribution. It is shown that in the thermodynamic limit of large N and L but finite L/N, there is a small but finite jump in several average characteristics, including the order parameter. We also present a theoretical description based on the Landau free energy approach, which is in good agreement with the simulation results. Both simulation results and the analytical theory indicate that the 2d escape transition is a weak first-order phase transition.
Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This site departs from the common themes taught in general geometry classes and introduces projective geometry, which has to do with special properties resulting from the intersection of lines, planes, and points. The coincidence of such elements is what is referred to as an incidence, and this is the basis of the topic. The site makes extensive use of animated figures to demonstrate principles involved in projective geometry, such as path curves, pivot transforms, and the curious concept of counter space. The author does a good job of explaining what is depicted in the figures as well as the underlying theory.
The Use of Geometric Properties of 2D Arrays across Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibson, Brett M.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Costa, Rachel; Bemis, Rhyannon
2009-01-01
Four- to 10-year-old children (n = 50) participated in a 2D search task that included geometry (with- and without lines) and feature conditions. During each of 27 trials, participants watched as a cartoon character hid behind one of three landmarks arranged in a triangle on a computer screen. During feature condition trials, participants could use…
NETGEN -An Advancing Front 2D/3D-Mesh Generator Based on Abstract Rules
Schoeberl, Joachim
NETGEN - An Advancing Front 2D/3D-Mesh Generator Based on Abstract Rules Joachim Schoberl Abstract In this paper, the algorithms of the automatic mesh generator NETGEN are described. The domain is provided by a Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG). The whole task of 3D mesh generation splits into four subproblems of special
Toward a 2-D magneto-optical trap for polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummon, Matthew; Stuhl, Benjamin; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Ye, Jun
2012-06-01
The additional structure that arises from the rotational degree of freedom in diatomic molecules makes difficult the adaptation of a traditional atomic magneto-optical trap (MOT) for use with molecules. We describe progress toward development of a 2-D MOT for laser cooled yttrium monoxide molecules based on a resonant LC baseball coil geometry.
2D and 3D Method of Characteristic Tools for Complex Nozzle Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Tharen
2003-01-01
This report details the development of a 2D and 3D Method of Characteristic (MOC) tool for the design of complex nozzle geometries. These tools are GUI driven and can be run on most Windows-based platforms. The report provides a user's manual for these tools as well as explains the mathematical algorithms used in the MOC solutions.
2D electronic materials for army applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Regan, Terrance; Perconti, Philip
2015-05-01
The record electronic properties achieved in monolayer graphene and related 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride show promise for revolutionary high-speed and low-power electronic devices. Heterogeneous 2D-stacked materials may create enabling technology for future communication and computation applications to meet soldier requirements. For instance, transparent, flexible and even wearable systems may become feasible. With soldier and squad level electronic power demands increasing, the Army is committed to developing and harnessing graphene-like 2D materials for compact low size-weight-and-power-cost (SWAP-C) systems. This paper will review developments in 2D electronic materials at the Army Research Laboratory over the last five years and discuss directions for future army applications.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Recurrence in 2D Inviscid Channel Flow
Li, Y Charles
2010-01-01
I will prove a recurrence theorem which says that any $H^s$ ($s>2$) solution to the 2D inviscid channel flow returns repeatedly to an arbitrarily small $H^0$ neighborhood. Periodic boundary condition is imposed along the stream-wise direction. The result is an extension of an early result of the author [Li, 09] on 2D Euler equation under periodic boundary conditions along both directions.
2d Turbulence, percolation and SLE
Gregory Falkovich
2007-01-01
We analyze isolines of scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in different cases of 2d turbulence and found that they belong to the SLE class, i.e. to curves that can be mapped to 1d Brownian motion. Such curves have conformal invariant statistics. We find that vorticity isolines in 2d turbulence are equivalent (within our 5% accuracy) to SLE6 i.e. to percolation despite
2d index and surface operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei
2014-03-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.
Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric
2015-10-21
We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems. PMID:26376707
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Practical Linear Algebra: A Geometry Toolbox Third edition
Farin, Gerald
Practical Linear Algebra: A Geometry Toolbox Third edition Chapter 3: Lining Up: 2D Lines Gerald.farinhansford.com/books/pla c 2013 Farin & Hansford Practical Linear Algebra 1 / 27 #12;Outline 1 Introduction to 2D Lines 2 of a Point 9 A Meeting Place: Computing Intersections 10 WYSK Farin & Hansford Practical Linear Algebra 2
'Graphenization' of 2D simple monatomic liquids.
Hoang, Vo Van
2014-05-21
We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the formation of 2D materials with a honeycomb structure from 2D simple monatomic liquids with honeycomb interaction potential (Rechtsman et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 228301). Models are observed by cooling from the melt at various cooling rates. Thermodynamics of the phase transitions is analyzed in detail. Depending on the cooling rate, amorphous or crystalline honeycomb structures have been found. Structural properties of the crystalline honeycomb structure are studied via radial distribution function (RDF), coordination number and ring distribution, including 2D visualization of the atomic configurations. We find evidence for the existence of polycrystalline honeycomb structures and new structural defects, not previously reported. The atomic mechanism that forms the solid phase of a honeycomb structure from the liquid state has been analyzed by monitoring the spatio-temporal arrangement of atoms in 6-fold rings and/or atoms with the coordination number [Formula: see text], occurring upon cooling from the melt. Since knowledge of how real 2D solids with honeycomb structures form from the vapor or liquid phase is still completely lacking, our simulations highlight the situation and give a deeper understanding of the structure and thermodynamics of real 2D materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, etc. PMID:24769527
Optical Microscope for Quantum Gases in a 2D Trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakr, Waseem; Gillen, Jonathon; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus
2009-05-01
Ultracold quantum gases are used to experimentally realize and quantitatively study fundamental models of condensed matter physics. When combined with optical lattice potentials, ultracold quantum gases allow for a large scale implementation of quantum materials with ultra cold atoms playing the role of electrons or cooper pairs in real materials. We create a new type of quantum simulator by combining a quantum gas in a deeply 2D surface trap with a high numerical aperture microscope. We describe the current status of the experiment which enables optical imaging with an exceptionally large numerical aperture of up to NA=0.8. This microscope access allows us to efficiently collect fluorescence photons for low- background imaging and very high optical resolution on the 500,m scale. Optical lattice potentials are generated by direct projection of the lattice potentials using a novel trapping approach with a hologram generation of the lattice geometry.
Novel antenna coupled 2D plasmonic terahertz detection.
Allen, Jim; Dyer, Greg; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur
2010-03-01
Resonant plasmonic detectors are potentially important for terahertz (THz) spectroscopic imaging. We have fabricated and characterized antenna coupled detectors that integrate a broad-band antenna, which improves coupling of THz radiation. The vertex of the antenna contains the tuning gates and the bolometric barrier gate. Incident THz radiation may excite 2D plasmons with wave-vectors defined by either a periodic grating gate or a plasmonic cavity determined by ohmic contacts and gate terminals. The latter approach of exciting plasmons in a cavity defined by a short micron-scale channel appears most promising. With this short-channel geometry, we have observed multiple harmonics of THz plasmons. At 20 K with detector bias optimized we report responsivity on resonance of 2.5 kV/W and an NEP of 5 x 10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.
Interpretive 2-D treatment of scrape-off-layer plasmas
Umansky, M.; Allen, A.; Daughton, W. [MIT Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
The width of the scrape-off-layer in a tokamak is determined by cross field transport. In Alcator C-mod the plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer are measured at upstream and divertor plate locations. We solve a 2-D scrape-off-layer heat conduction equation in the flux geometry (as determined by EFIT) of the C-mod experiment. Bolometric measurements are utilized for the radiative loss term. We use the end wall probe measurements of electron temperature as a boundary condition and the fast scanning probe measurements of upstream temperature are treated as constraints to determine the cross field transport and thermal conductivity. Results are compared with 1-D onion-skin-model predictions.
Premixed Flame Dynamics in Narrow 2D Channels
Ayoobi, Mohsen
2015-01-01
Premixed flames propagating within small channels show complex combustion phenomena that differ from flame propagation at conventional scales. Available experimental and numerical studies have documented stationary/non-stationary and/or asymmetric modes that depend on properties of the incoming reactant flow as well as channel geometry and wall temperatures. The present work seeks to illuminate mechanisms leading to symmetry-breaking and limit cycle behavior that are fundamental to these combustion modes. Specifically, four cases of lean premixed methane/air combustion -- two equivalence ratios (0.53 and 0.7) and two channel widths (2 and 5mm) -- are investigated in a 2D configuration with constant channel length and bulk inlet velocity, where numerical simulations are performed using detailed chemistry. External wall heating is simulated by imposing a linear temperature gradient as a boundary condition on both walls. In the 2mm-channel, both equivalence ratios produce flames that stabilize with symmetric fla...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Desseyn, H. O.; And Others
1985-01-01
Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rusin, David J., 1957-
A short article designed to provide an introduction to computational geometry, intended for topics whose geometric aspects are fairly straightforward, but for which the main questions involve efficient, accurate computation. A number of geometric questions arise involving large sets of points (e.g. which of these points are closest together?) which are arguably combinatorics or statistics, but which have been included here.
Thin films versus 2D sheets in layered structures: graphene and 2D metallic sheets
Bo E. Sernelius
2012-09-19
We study an interface between two media separated by a strictly 2D sheet. We show how the amplitude reflection coefficient can be modeled by that for an interface where the 2D sheet has been replaced by a film of small but finite thickness. We give the relationship between the 3D dielectric function of the thin film and the 2D dielectric function of the sheet. We choose graphene and a 2D metallic sheet as illustrative examples. This approach turns out to be very useful when treating graphene or graphene like sheets in non-planar structures
2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine
Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.
2009-01-21
Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.
Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247
The 2006 Ultrasonic Benchmark Problem — FDTD Simulations in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Mohan, K. V.; Sridharan, C.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2007-03-01
The 2006 ultrasonic benchmark problem involves pulse-echo angle beam scanning of a notch located on an inclined planar back surface. The response from a side-drilled hole is to be used as a reference. The models are to simulate (a) the peak-to-peak B-scan P- and SV- responses of the slots normalized by the appropriate SDH response and (b) the maximum peak-to-peak corner response of the slots (either mode-converted or not). At CNDE, several simulation tools are being developed to assess/predict UT response for various geometries. The Finite-Difference-Time-Difference (FDTD) scheme is one such simulation tool that has been under development in 1D, 2D and 3D. The FDTD is an explicit time domain tool that can simulate pulse propagation characteristics in acoustic/elastic media. The computational domain is limited by implementing Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) at the domain boundaries. We present the results of calculations based on 2D FDTD to determine the response of rectangular shaped surface-breaking defects located on an inclined planar back surface. Comparisons will be made between predictions and measurements made available for the pulse-echo response.
2D Models for Dust-driven AGB Star Winds
Peter Woitke
2006-02-16
New axisymmetric (2D) models for dust-driven winds of C-stars are presented which include hydrodynamics with radiation pressure on dust, equilibrium chemistry and time-dependent dust formation with coupled grey Monte Carlo radiative transfer. Considering the most simple case without stellar pulsation (hydrostatic inner boundary condition) these models reveal a more complex picture of the dust formation and wind acceleration as compared to earlier published spherically symmetric (1D) models. The so-called exterior $\\kappa$-mechanism causes radial oscillations with short phases of active dust formation between longer phases without appreciable dust formation, just like in the 1D models. However, in 2D geometry, the oscillations can be out-of-phase at different places above the stellar atmosphere which result in the formation of dust arcs or smaller caps that only occupy a certain fraction of the total solid angle. These dust structures are accelerated outward by radiation pressure, expanding radially and tangentially like mushroom clouds, while dust-poor matter is falling back towards the star at other places. A highly dynamical and turbulent dust formation zone is created in this way, which again leads to inhomogeneous dust production. Further away from the star, flow instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) have time to fragment the outward moving arcs and shells to produce numerous small-scale cloud-like sub-structures.
Harmonic generation in 2D layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janisch, Corey; Ma, Ding; Mehta, Nikhil; Laura-Elias, Ana; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Terrones, Mauricio; Liu, Zhiwen
2014-09-01
Two-Dimensional (2D) layered materials have garnered interest due to their novel optical and electronic properties. In this work, we investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) in Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) monolayers grown on SiO2/Si substrates and suspended on a transmission electron microscopy grid; we find an unusually large second order susceptibility, which is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than common nonlinear crystals. We have also developed a Green's function based formalism to model the harmonic generation from a 2D layer .
Design of a high-order front tracking method in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahab, Mehdi
This document presents a proposal for a new high-order front tracking method in 2D. A thorough review of existing methods for moving and/or irregular boundaries is presented. From this review, the 1D front-tracking approach of Gatti-Bono emerges as the most promising starting point for a higher-dimensional method. The Gatti-Bono method in 1D is then explained in detail, and a 2D extension is proposed. This extension incorporates a number of ideas from the literature on embedded boundary methods for stationary irregular geometries.
Compact model of output conductance in nanoscale bulk MOSFET based on 2D analytical calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidemann, Michaela; Kloes, Alexander; Iñiguez, Benjamin
2008-11-01
In this paper we present a new way to calculate channel length shortening in saturation for standard bulk MOSFETs by solving 2D Poisson's equation. Compared to most existing models, we use in our model only physically meaningful and geometry-independent fitting parameters, which gives our model a good scalability. 2D Poisson is solved in analytical closed form by applying the conformal mapping technique. This gives the model the advantage additionally to its application in circuit simulations to be useful in calculating device scaling behavior. Our model describes the output conductance of MOSFETs down to 50 nm effective channel length very well.
Pierre Rognon; François Molino; Cyprien Gay
2009-02-13
We describe the geometry of foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams) in two main asymptotic regimes: fully dry floor tiles and dry pancakes. We predict an abrupt transition between both regimes, with a substantial change in the Plateau border radius. This should be observable in different types of experiments on such 2D GG foams: when foam is being progressively dried or wetted, when it is being squeezed further or stretched, when it coarsens through film breakage or Oswald ripening.
Dong, Fan; Xiong, Ting; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhou, Ying
2015-05-14
Herein, we report a facile strategy for the creation of 2D layered heterostructures with intimate interfacial contact and exposed reactive facets. The 2D layered heterostructures with intimate contact by sharing the interfacial oxygen atoms and exposed reactive facets endowed the as-prepared BiOIO3/BiOI nanostructures with highly enhanced visible photocatalytic performance for NO removal. PMID:25875135
Raman Spectroscopy Using a Tilted 2D MOT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwolek, Jonathan M.; Knutson, Erin; Narducci, Frank A.
2014-05-01
We demonstrate Raman spectroscopy using a cold and continuous beam of Rubidium atoms from a vapor-loaded, tilted two-dimensional magneto optical trap (2D MOT). The atoms emerge through a pinhole into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, and form a cold and slow moving beam of atoms with flux 109 atoms/sec with a most probable velocity of 10 m/s. The atoms travel across a set of laser beams which include an on-resonant state preparation beam, a beam tuned to drive a stimulated Raman transition, and another on-resonant readout beam. We observed Raman spectra which can include as many as 11 peaks. The width of the clock transition is consistent with the transit time of the atoms through the Raman fields. The width of the magnetic transitions is determined by laboratory magnetic noise. We have measured Rabi cycling on the clock transition using Raman beams in a co-propagating geometry by varying the laser power rather than pulse duration. Further developments will be made by introducing a momentum kick by using Raman beams in a counter-propagating geometry. Office of Naval Research.
Gauge Dressing of 2D Field Theories
Ian I. Kogan; Alex Lewis; Oleg A. Soloviev
1996-07-05
By using the gauge Ward identities, we study correlation functions of gauged WZNW models. We show that the gauge dressing of the correlation functions can be taken into account as a solution of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation. Our method is analogous to the analysis of the gravitational dressing of 2D field theories.
GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B Java 2D
Hill, Gary
followed by Java 2D and then finally Java 3D. Abstract Window Toolkit The Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT.awt.font · java.awt.geom · java.awt.print · java.awt.image.renderable To be able to draw/render onto components
Animation : 2D versus 3D and their combined effect
Au, Kristin C
2014-01-01
This thesis studies the differences in the perception of space and character movement between 2D and 3D animation. 2D animation is defined by elements constructed in a 2D environment while 3D animation by elements constructed ...
Transformation Composition Transformational Geometry
Ferguson, Thomas S.
Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Transformational Geometry Christopher Ograin Christopher Ograin Transformational Geometry #12;Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Geo Transformational Geometry #12;Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Definitions Transformation
The geometry behind double geometry
Martin Cederwall
2014-08-27
Generalised diffeomorphisms in double field theory rely on an O(d,d) structure defined on tangent space. We show that any (pseudo-)Riemannian metric on the doubled space defines such a structure, in the sense that the generalised diffeomorphisms defined using such a metric form an algebra, provided a covariant section condition is fulfilled. Consistent solutions of the section condition gives further restrictions. The case previously considered corresponds to a flat metric. The construction makes it possible to apply double geometry to a larger class of manifolds. Examples of curved defining metrics are given. We also comment on the role of the defining geometry for the symmetries of double field theory, and on the continuation of the present construction to the U-duality setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribault, Sylvain; Schomerus, Volker
2004-02-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the euclidean AdS3 model [1] and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models.
2D mapping of DPF plasma sources
Goldstein, D.B.; Brzosko, J.R.
1995-12-31
A novel method of 2D plasma ion source mapping has been developed. The existence of localized, fast ion sources (E > 2.0 MeV) up to a distance of 5.0 cm from the PF axis is shown. The pioneering work of W. Bostick and V. Nardi revealed the existence of hot-spots (often called micropinches or PDERs) distributed on the PF axis. These observations have been confirmed and are still being studied in many labs elsewhere. Since PDERs are zones of high ion acceleration, their position can be mapped via the detection of radioactivity induced by these ions on external targets. A 2D mapping system has been used to identify these objects.
Supersymmetric Extension of GCA in 2d
Mandal, Ipsita
2010-01-01
We derive the infinite dimensional Supersymmetric Galilean Conformal Algebra (SGCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions by performing group contraction on 2d superconformal algebra. We also obtain the representations of the generators in terms of superspace coordinates. Here we find realisations of the SGCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d SCFTs which are non-unitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We focus on the Neveu-Schwarz sector of the parent SCFTs and develop, in parallel to the GCA studies recently in (arXiv:0912.1090), the representation theory based on SGCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and their descendants which are null states.
3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation from 2D transversal ultrasound images.
Yeom, Eunseop; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jin, Changzhu; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Lee, Sang-Joon
2014-12-01
Visualizing and analyzing the morphological structure of carotid bifurcations are important for understanding the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of stroke and transient ischemic attack. For delineation of vasculatures in the carotid artery, ultrasound examinations have been widely employed because of a noninvasive procedure without ionizing radiation. However, conventional 2D ultrasound imaging has technical limitations in observing the complicated 3D shapes and asymmetric vasodilation of bifurcations. This study aims to propose image-processing techniques for better 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation in a rat by using 2D cross-sectional ultrasound images. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging system with a probe centered at 40MHz was employed to obtain 2D transversal images. The lumen boundaries in each transverse ultrasound image were detected by using three different techniques; an ellipse-fitting, a correlation mapping to visualize the decorrelation of blood flow, and the ellipse-fitting on the correlation map. When the results are compared, the third technique provides relatively good boundary extraction. The incomplete boundaries of arterial lumen caused by acoustic artifacts are somewhat resolved by adopting the correlation mapping and the distortion in the boundary detection near the bifurcation apex was largely reduced by using the ellipse-fitting technique. The 3D lumen geometry of a carotid artery was obtained by volumetric rendering of several 2D slices. For the 3D vasodilatation of the carotid bifurcation, lumen geometries at the contraction and expansion states were simultaneously depicted at various view angles. The present 3D reconstruction methods would be useful for efficient extraction and construction of the 3D lumen geometries of carotid bifurcations from 2D ultrasound images. PMID:24965564
Capacity and Coding for 2D Channels
Khare, Aparna
2011-02-22
-Francois Chamberland Srinivas Shakkottai Natarajan Gautam Head of Department, Costas N. Georghiades December 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Capacity and Coding for 2D Channels. (December 2010) Aparna Khare, B. Tech, National Institute.... Jean-Francois Chamberland, and Dr. Natarajan Gautam, for being a part of my committee. I would also like to thank Dr. Krishna Narayanan and Dr. Serap Savari for laying the foundations for my understanding in information theory and communications. I...
2-D color code quantum computation
Austin G. Fowler
2011-01-10
We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a 2-D color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. CNOT is implemented between pairs of triple defect logical qubits via braiding.
Magnetorotational Supernova Explosion - 2D Numerical Simulation
N. V. Ardeljan; G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; S. G. Moiseenko
1997-07-22
Results of 2D numerical simulation of magnetorotational mechanism of supernova explosion are presented. It is shown that due to the differential rotation of the star toroidal component of magnetic field appears and grows with time. Angular momentum transfers outwards by the toroidal magnetic field. With the evolution of the process part of the envelope of the star is throwing away. The amount of thrown away mass and energy are estimated. The results of the simulation are qualitatively correspond to supernova explosion picture.
Uniaxial deformation of 2D polydisperse froths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, M. A.; Emília Rosa, M.
1999-10-01
We have studied experimentally the uniaxial deformation of polydisperse 2D monolayer liquid foams. The main topics addressed are: (i) the frequency of T1 events; (ii) the trajectories of individual bubbles; (iii) the variation of topological disorder; (iv) the change in foam energy (length of films) and in the orientation of the films. We compare the results for polydisperse froths with those previously reported for a honeycomb froth.
Aygun, M.; Sahin, Y.; Boztosun, I.
2007-04-23
In a homogeneous magnetic field, we present the solution of the radial Schroedinger equation for V(r)=-(Z/r) + gr + {lambda}r{sup 2} potential. Within an alternative approach, the asymptotic iteration method, we obtain the energy eigenvalues for any arbitrary magnetic fields. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies, wL = 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, are compared with wL = 0 which corresponds to the non-magnetic field case. We present that this method works for weak and strong magnetic field cases i.e. any Larmor frequencies as well as it gives the energy eigenvalues for any n, m quantum numbers.
Fluctuating Pressure Data from 2-D Nozzle Cold Flow Tests (Dual Bell)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nesman, Tomas E.
2001-01-01
Rocket engines nozzle performance changes as a vehicle climbs through the atmosphere. An altitude compensating nozzle, ACN, is intended to improve on a fixed geometry bell nozzle that performs at optimum at only one trajectory point. In addition to nozzle performance, nozzle transient loads are an important consideration. Any nozzle experiences large transient toads when shocks pass through the nozzle at start and shutdown. Additional transient toads will occur at transitional flow conditions. The objectives of cold flow nozzle testing at MSFC are CFD benchmark / calibration and Unsteady flow / sideloads. Initial testing performed with 2-D inserts to 14" transonic wind tunnel. Recent review of 2-D data in preparation for nozzle test facility 3-D testing. This presentation shows fluctuating pressure data and some observations from 2-D dual-bell nozzle cold flow tests.
2D array based on fermat spiral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, O.; Martín, C. J.; Godoy, G.; Ullate, L. G.
2010-01-01
The main challenge faced by 3D ultrasonic imaging with 2D array transducer is the large number of elements required to achieve an acceptable level of quality in the images. Therefore, the optimization of the array layout to reduce the number of active elements in the aperture has been a research topic in the last years. Nowadays, CMUT array technology has made viable the production of 2D arrays with larger flexibility on elements size, shape and position. This is opening new options in 2D array design, allowing to revise as viable alternatives others layouts that had been studied in the past, like circular and Archimedes spiral layout. In this work the problem of designing an imaging system array with a diameter of 60 ? and a limited number of elements using the Fermat spiral layout has been studied. This study has been done for two different numbers of electronic channels (N = 128 and N = 256). As summary, a general discussion of the results and the most interesting cases are presented.
NOTE: Efficient implementation of the rank correlation merit function for 2D\\/3D registration
M. Figl; C. Bloch; C. Gendrin; C. Weber; S. A. Pawiro; J. Hummel; P. Markelj; F. Pernus; H. Bergmann; W. Birkfellner
2010-01-01
A growing number of clinical applications using 2D\\/3D registration have been presented recently. Usually, a digitally reconstructed radiograph is compared iteratively to an x-ray image of the known projection geometry until a match is achieved, thus providing six degrees of freedom of rigid motion which can be used for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy or computer-assisted interventions. Recently, stochastic
INTRODUCTION Device-to-device (D2D) communications are
Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"
points or base stations. Bluetooth and WiFi-Direct are the two most popular D2D tech- niques, both from traditional D2D technologies, such as WiFi direct. Resource control in network assisted D2D resources with other cellular or D2D links. Finally, as signaling can be exchanged directly between a pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.
2014-05-01
Assuming axial symmetry and a uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed numerically for determination of the gas temperature in the case of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in He-SrBr2 formed in a newly-designed large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge-free zone, in order to find the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. The model determines the gas temperature of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.
Wang, Suna; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Wang, Daqi
2010-04-01
In the title coordination compound, catena-poly[[[bis[diaquacadmium(II)]-mu(2)-trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene]bis{mu(2)-2,2'-[(5-carboxymethoxy-m-phenylene)dioxy]diacetato}] trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene solvate dihydrate], {[Cd(2)(C(12)H(10)O(9))(2)(C(12)H(10)N(2))(H(2)O)(4)].C(12)H(10)N(2).2H(2)O}(n), (I), each Cd(II) centre adopts a pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. The incompletely deprotonated 2,2'-[(5-carboxymethoxy-m-phenylene)dioxy]diacetate (TCMB) ligands and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (bpe) ligands both act as bidentate bridges, linking the Cd(II) centres into one-dimensional ladders, which are connected into an undulating two-dimensional (6,3) layer through O-H...N hydrogen bonds between the carboxylate groups of the TCMB ligands and the N atoms of the uncoordinated bpe ligands. Each undulating layer polycatenates two other identical layers, exhibiting the unusual combination of both 2D --> 2D parallel and 2D --> 3D parallel interpenetration (2D and 3D are two- and three-dimensional, respectively). PMID:20354293
Atoms dictating shape: The discrete geometry of conformal two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Utt, Kainen; Terrones, Humberto; Pacheco, Alejandro; Harriss, Edmund; Barraza-Lopeez, Salvador
2015-03-01
The electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of two-dimensional (2D) materials depends on their shape (geometry). 2D materials are nets, with covalent bonds representing edges, and where atoms are vertices. Here we use a mathematical language to tell the shape of meshes and discuss the geometry of 2D materials of varied lattice structures, such as: hexagonal boron nitride, black phosphorus monolayers, low-buckled silicene, germanene, blue phosphorous, newly predicted III-V buckled 2D compounds such as AlP, conformal ``thicker'' layered materials such as 2D tin, ``single-layer'' transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2's), and a single-quintuple-layer of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. We characterize the geometry of each atom position without recourse to a continuum parametric model. The new framework generalizes the discrete geometry we introduced recently for graphene.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
Predicting fracture using 2D finite element modelling.
MacNeil, J A M; Adachi, J D; Goltzman, D; Josse, R G; Kovacs, C S; Prior, J C; Olszynski, W; Davison, K S; Kaiser, S M
2012-05-01
A decrease in bone density at the hip or spine has been shown to increase the risk of fracture. A limitation of the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is that it provides only a measure of a bone sample's average density when projected onto a 2D surface. Effectively, what determines bone fracture is whether an applied load exceeds ultimate strength, with both bone tissue material properties (can be approximated through bone density), and geometry playing a role. The goal of this project was to use bone geometry and BMD obtained from radiographs and DXA measurements respectively to estimate fracture risk, using a two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the sagittal plane of lumbar vertebrae. The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) data was used for this study. There were 4194 men and women over the age of 50 years, with 786 having fractures. Each subject had BMD testing and radiographs of their lumbar vertebrae. A single two dimensional FEM of the first to fourth lumbar vertebra was automatically generated for each subject. Bone tissue stiffness was assigned based on the BMD of the individual vertebrae, and adjusted for patient age. Axial compression boundary conditions were applied with a force proportional to body mass. The resulting overall strain from the applied force was found. Men and women were analyzed separately. At baseline, the sensitivity of BMD to predict fragility fractures in women and men was 3.77% and 0.86%, while the sensitivity of FEM to predict fragility fractures for women and men was 10.8% and 11.3%. The FEM ROC curve demonstrated better performance compared to BMD. The relative risk of being considered at high fracture risk using FEM at baseline, was a better predictor of 5 year incident fragility fracture risk compared to BMD. PMID:21959170
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A northern California test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayeda, Kevin; Malagnini, Luca; Phillips, W. Scott; Walter, William R.; Dreger, Douglas
2005-06-01
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. [2003] has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ``apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%) (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than ~0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7 <= f <= 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2-D direct wave-based measures.
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2-D direct wave-based measures.
Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
2013-09-01
The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:23672590
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerbus, R. T.; Goldburg, W. I.
2013-10-01
The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R?, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(?u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(?xu), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent ?, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R? but show signs of becoming gaussian as R? increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(?u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichnan prediction. For the enstrophy cascade, the intermittency decreases as a power law in R?. This study suggests the need for a new look at the statistics of 2D turbulence.
Numerical models of 2-D and 3-D geophysical convection
Travis, B.J.
1990-01-01
A suite of computational models has been developed which simulate thermal/chemical convection over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers both in 2-D annular and 3-D Cartesian geometries, for small Reynolds number flow, and a variety of boundary conditions. These simulators are revealing the patterns of convection that may occur in the earth, from mantle scale down to more localized regions such as mid-ocean spreading centers, on down to the scale of magma chambers. Features such as surface plates, variable viscosity and chemical buoyancy can have a dramatic impact on convective patterns compared to those seen in simple, constant property, free or fixed surface systems. In most cases, the nonlinear dynamics of these systems derive from thermal and chemical forces, rather than inertial. These models can be used to study general features and dynamics of convecting viscous fluids, and can also be used to constrain possible explanations for geophysical observations such as heat flow, gravity, topography, plate speeds, and isotopic distributions. Computational resources have reached a level at which numerical solutions of complex processes are feasible.
Duality between Spin networks and the 2D Ising model
Valentin Bonzom; Francesco Costantino; Etera R. Livine
2015-04-11
The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories which couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.
2D axisymmetric analysis of SRM ignition transient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, S. D.; Han, Samuel S.; Pardue, B. A.
1993-06-01
To analyze ignition transient of Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, a transient two-dimensional numerical model based on turbulent compressible Navier-Stokes equations in a generalized coordinate system was developed. One-dimensional numerical models (Peretz et al., 1973; Han, 1992; Pardue and Han, 1992) with empirical correlations data obtained from steady turbulent boundary layer flows agrees reasonably well with test rocket data by adjusting a few parameters. However, a 1D model can not provide a physical insight into the complex multidimensional thermal fields and flowfields in the chamber and the converging-diverging rocket nozzle. As an interim step, a 2D model was developed and compared with test data. A modified version of SIMPLE algorithm was used for the numerical model, and the standard k-epsilon model with a wall function was used for turbulence closure. Transient flowfields and thermal fields in the combustion chamber and the attached nozzle were obtained for a selected rocket geometry and propellant. Transient behaviors of the flow and thermal fields were analyzed, and were found to be in good agreement with physical expectations.
Fiber Orientation analysis in a 2D Converging Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsheh, M.; Brown, M.; Aidun, C. K.
2003-11-01
The orientation distribution of dilute fiber suspension flow inside a converging rectangular ¡®2D¡¯ nozzle is studied experimentally. This geometry is the idealized version of systems used in manufacturing paper and other fiber composite webs. An Infra-Red pulsed laser sheet is used to illuminate a 3 mm thick layer along the nozzle centerline with an exposure time of 20 msec. A high-speed camera is used to capture the fiber orientation distribution. Two different configurations are used for flow entering into the nozzle. In the first system, the flow passes through a flow straightener and a turbulent generator grid prior to entering the converging nozzle. In the second system, the fiber suspension passes through a set of step expansion tubes before entering the nozzle. Although the orientation distribution at inlet is different in these configurations, at high contraction ratios, they show very similar distribution profiles downstream suggesting that the orientation distribution is dominated by the accelerating flow inside the nozzle rather than the inlet conditions or turbulent intensity. The experimental results are compared to two- and three-dimensional Jeffery¡¯s equations. The effects of fiber concentration, fiber aspect ratio, and Reynolds number on fiber orientation will be presented.
2D-fractal based algorithms for nanoparticles characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia
2014-02-01
Fractal geometry concerns the study of non-Euclidean geometrical figures generated by a recursive sequence of mathematical operations. The proposed 2D-fractal approach was applied to characterise the image structure and texture generated by fine and ultra-fine particles when impacting on a flat surface. The work was developed with reference to particles usually produced by ultra-fine milling addressed to generate nano-particles population. In order to generate different particle populations to utilize in the study, specific milling actions have been thus performed adopting different milling actions and utilising different materials, both in terms of original size class distribution and chemical-physical attributes. The aim of the work was to develop a simple, reliable and low cost analytical set of procedures with the ability to establish correlations between particles detected by fractal characteristics and their milled-induced-properties (i.e. size class distribution, shape, surface properties, etc.). Such logic should constitute the core of a control engine addressed to realize a full monitoring of the milling process as well as to establish correlation between operative parameters, fed and resulting products characteristics.
2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement
Ferdinando Gliozzi
2010-06-24
In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way which allows them to back-react. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form and extension is determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze in particular quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory (CFT). Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov.
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Parabolic geometries BGG sequences
Drmota, Michael
Parabolic geometries BGG sequences Prolongation procedures BGG Sequences and Geometric sequences and overdetermined systems #12;Parabolic geometries BGG sequences Prolongation procedures Parabolic geometries are a large class of differential geometric structures, which can be described
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
MIchael A. Pope
2010-02-01
Six early cores of the MASURCA R-Z program were modeled using ERANOS 2.1. These cores were designed such that their neutron spectra would be similar to that of an oxide-fueled sodium-cooled fast reactor, some containing enriched uranium and others containing depleted uranium and plutonium. Effects of modeling assumptions and solution methods both in ECCO lattice calculations and in BISTRO Sn flux solutions were evaluated using JEFF-3.1 cross-section libraries. Reactivity effects of differences between JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI.8 were also quantified using perturbation theory analysis. The most important nuclide with respect to reactivity differences between cross-section libraries was 23Na, primarily a result of differences in the angular dependence of elastic scattering which is more forward-peaked in ENDF/B-VI.8 than in JEFF-3.1. Differences in 23Na inelastic scattering cross-sections between libraries also generated significant differences in reactivity, more due to the differences in magnitude of the cross-sections than the angular dependence. The nuclide 238U was also found to be important with regard to reactivity differences between the two libraries mostly due to a large effect of inelastic scattering differences and two smaller effects of elastic scattering and fission cross-sections. In the cores which contained plutonium, 239Pu fission cross-section differences contributed significantly to the reactivity differences between libraries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kwan-Ho; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho
2014-03-01
Rare-earth-filled skutterudites R z Fe4- x Co x Sb12 (R: Yb, La, Ce) were prepared, and their transport and thermoelectric properties were examined. All specimens showed p-type conduction and exhibited a degenerate semiconductor behavior. R0.9Fe3CoSb12 had lower electrical conductivities and higher Seebeck coefficients than RFe4Sb12, which meant that Co led to charge compensation through electron donations. All specimens had positive Hall coefficients, and their carrier concentrations were decreased by charge compensation with increasing Co substitution. The thermal conductivities of R0.9Fe3CoSb12 were lower than those of RFe4Sb12 due to the decreased carrier concentration, as well as the lattice scattering induced by the substitution of Co for Fe. Yb-filled and La-filled skutterudites showed enhanced thermoelectric figures of merit through charge compensation with Co, but Ce-filled skutterudites did not. Yb2˜3+ and La3+ ions required charge compensation to stabilize their skutterudite phases, but Ce3˜4+ ions did not.
Lee, In-Kwon
1 2012 2D 3D * 0 , 1 , 2 0,2 1 ( 0 skrcjstk, 2 iklee)@yonsei.ac.kr 1 rinthel@gmail.com Stereoscopic Rendering Engine for 2D Game Young-Jin Oh 0 , Ji-yong Kwon 1 , In-Kwon Lee 2 0,2 Dept.of Computer Science, Yonsei University. 1 Dept. of Information Media, The University of Suwon. 2D 3D . 2D
Reactive 2D\\/3D garment pattern design modification
Ze Gang Luo; Matthew Ming-fai Yuen
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new 3D garment simulation result update algorithm for the 2D garment pattern design modification. The proposed algorithm enables the 3D garment fitting simulation result directly to react to the modification in the 2D patterns. The algorithm performs a topological invariant deformation of the 2D pattern mesh after the boundary of the 2D pattern undergoes a topological
Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sovilj, Siniša; Magjarevi?, Ratko; Abed, Amr Al; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates
2014-06-01
The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D) biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D) ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.
2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria
2006-01-01
A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems that require coordination of vision and robotic motion.
Retrospective analysis of 2D patient-specific IMRT verifications.
Childress, Nathan L; White, R Allen; Bloch, Charles; Salehpour, Mohammad; Dong, Lei; Rosen, Isaac I
2005-04-01
We performed 858 two-dimensional (2D) patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy verifications over a period of 18 months. Multifield, composite treatment plans were measured in phantom using calibrated Kodak EDR2 film and compared with the calculated dose extracted from two treatment planning systems. This research summarizes our findings using the normalized agreement test (NAT) index and the percent of pixels failing the gamma index as metrics to represent the agreement between measured and computed dose distributions. An in-house dose comparison software package was used to register and compare all verifications. We found it was important to use an automatic positioning algorithm to achieve maximum registration accuracy, and that our automatic algorithm agreed well with anticipated results from known phantom geometries. We also measured absolute dose for each case using an ion chamber. Because the computed distributions agreed with ion chamber measurements better than the EDR2 film doses, we normalized EDR2 data to the computed distributions. The distributions of both the NAT indices and the percentage of pixels failing the gamma index were found to be exponential distributions. We continue to use both the NAT index and percent of pixels failing gamma with 5%/3 mm criteria to evaluate future verifications, as these two metrics were found to be complementary. Our data showed that using 2%/2 mm or 3%/3 mm criteria produces results similar to those using 5%/3 mm criteria. Normalized comparisons that have a NAT index greater than 45 and/or more than 20% of the pixels failing gamma for 5%/3 mm criteria represent outliers from our clinical data set and require further analysis. Because our QA verification results were exponentially distributed, rather than a tight grouping of similar results, we continue to perform patient-specific QA in order to identify and correct outliers in our verifications. The data from this work could be useful as a reference for other clinics to indicate anticipated trends in 2D verifications under various conditions. PMID:15895566
GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. I. Parameter Space Exploration with 2D Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Benjamin; Van Loo, Sven; Tan, Jonathan C.; Bruderer, Simon
2015-09-01
We utilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to develop a numerical model for giant molecular cloud (GMC)–GMC collisions between nearly magnetically critical clouds. The goal is to determine if, and under what circumstances, cloud collisions can cause pre-existing magnetically subcritical clumps to become supercritical and undergo gravitational collapse. We first develop and implement new photodissociation region based heating and cooling functions that span the atomic to molecular transition, creating a multiphase ISM and allowing modeling of non-equilibrium temperature structures. Then in 2D and with ideal MHD, we explore a wide parameter space of magnetic field strength, magnetic field geometry, collision velocity, and impact parameter and compare isolated versus colliding clouds. We find factors of ?2–3 increase in mean clump density from typical collisions, with strong dependence on collision velocity and magnetic field strength, but ultimately limited by flux-freezing in 2D geometries. For geometries enabling flow along magnetic field lines, greater degrees of collapse are seen. We discuss observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, focussing on 13CO(J = 2–1), 13CO(J = 3–2), and 12CO(J = 8–7) integrated intensity maps and spectra, which we synthesize from our simulation outputs. We find that the ratio of J = 8–7 to lower-J emission is a powerful diagnostic probe of GMC collisions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Peter R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1987-01-01
High quality ab initio electonic structure calculations were performed on the 2D Rydberg series in Al I. The configuration 3s3p2(2D) is shown to contribute substantially to the lowest four 2D Rydberg states. The same configuration also contributes substantially to a 2D state embedded in the ionization continuum. Computed oscillator strengths for the first six members of the 2D Rydberg transitions are given: these should be of substantially high accuracy than currently available values.
Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence
Cerbus, R T
2013-01-01
The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R_{\\lambda}, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(\\delta u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(\\partial_x u), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent \\mu, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R_{\\lambda} but show signs of becoming gaussian as R_{\\lambda} increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(\\delta u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichn...
Ballot, J; Prat, V; Reese, D R; Rieutord, M
2011-01-01
We present complete 2D computations of g modes in distorted polytropic models of stars performed with the Two-dimensional Oscillation Program (TOP). We computed low-degree modes (l=1 modes with radial order n=-1...-14, and l=2,3 modes with n=-1...-5 and -16...-20) of a nonrotating model and followed them by slowly increasing the rotation rate up to 70 % of the Keplerian break-up velocity. We use these computations to determine the domain of validity of perturbative methods up to the 3rd order. We study the evolution of the regularities of the spectrum and show quantitative agreement with the traditional approximation for not too large values of the ratio of the rotation rate to the pulsation frequency. We also show the appearance of new types of modes, called "rosette" modes due to their spatial structure. Thanks to the ray theory for gravito-inertial waves that we developed, we can associate these modes with stable periodic rays.
A Contrario 2D Point Alignment Detection.
Lezama, Jose; Morel, Jean-Michel; Randall, Gregory; Gioi, Rafael Grompone von
2015-03-01
In spite of many interesting attempts, the problem of automatically finding alignments in a 2D set of points seems to be still open. The difficulty of the problem is illustrated here by very simple examples. We then propose an elaborate solution. We show that a correct alignment detection depends on not less than four interlaced criteria, namely the amount of masking in texture, the relative bilateral local density of the alignment, its internal regularity, and finally a redundancy reduction step. Extending tools of the a contrario detection theory, we show that all of these detection criteria can be naturally embedded in a single probabilistic a contrario model with a single user parameter, the number of false alarms. Our contribution to the a contrario theory is the use of sophisticated conditional events on random point sets, for which expectation we nevertheless find easy bounds. By these bounds the mathematical consistency of our detection model receives a simple proof. Our final algorithm also includes a new formulation of the exclusion principle in Gestalt theory to avoid redundant detections. Aiming at reproducibility, a source code and an online demo open to any data point set are provided. The method is carefully compared to three state-of-the-art algorithms and an application to real data is discussed. Limitations of the final method are also illustrated and explained. PMID:26353257
2D Turbulence with Complicated Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roullet, G.; McWilliams, J. C.
2014-12-01
We examine the consequences of lateral viscous boundary layers on the 2D turbulence that arises in domains with complicated boundaries (headlands, bays etc). The study is carried out numerically with LES. The numerics are carefully designed to ensure all global conservation laws, proper boundary conditions and a minimal range of dissipation scales. The turbulence dramatically differs from the classical bi-periodic case. Boundary layer separations lead to creation of many small vortices and act as a continuing energy source exciting the inverse cascade of energy throughout the domain. The detachments are very intermittent in time. In free decay, the final state depends on the effective numerical resolution: laminar with a single dominant vortex for low Re and turbulent with many vortices for large enough Re. After very long time, the turbulent end-state exhibits a striking tendency for the emergence of shielded vortices which then interact almost elastically. In the forced case, the boundary layers allow the turbulence to reach a statistical steady state without any artificial hypo-viscosity or other large-scale dissipation. Implications are discussed for the oceanic mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.
2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varnai, T.
2012-01-01
Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.
On free 4D Abelian 2-form and anomalous 2D Abelian 1-form gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, S.; Kumar, R.; Malik, R. P.
2010-01-01
We demonstrate a few striking similarities and some glaring differences between (i) the free four- (3+1)-dimensional (4D) Abelian 2-form gauge theory, and (ii) the anomalous two- (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Abelian 1-form gauge theory, within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism. We demonstrate that the Lagrangian densities of the above two theories transform in a similar fashion under a set of symmetry transformations even though they are endowed with a drastically different variety of constraint structures. With the help of our understanding of the 4D Abelian 2-form gauge theory, we prove that the gauge-invariant version of the anomalous 2D Abelian 1-form gauge theory is a new field-theoretic model for the Hodge theory where all the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry find their physical realizations in the language of proper symmetry transformations. The corresponding conserved charges obey an algebra that is reminiscent of the algebra of the cohomological operators. We briefly comment on the consistency of the 2D anomalous 1-form gauge theory in the language of restrictions on the harmonic state of the (anti-) BRST and (anti-) co-BRST invariant version of the above 2D theory.
A fast 2D/3D algorithm for georegistration and targeting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merritt, Scott A.
2008-04-01
Targeting and precision-guided munitions rely on precise image and video registration. Current approaches for geo-registration typically utilize registration algorithms that operate in two-dimensional (2D) transform spaces, in the absence of an underlying three-dimensional (3D) surface model. However, because of their two-dimensional motion assumptions, these algorithms place limitations on the types of imagery and collection geometries that can be used. Incorporating a 3D reference surface enables the use of 2D-to-3D registration algorithms and removes many such limitations. The author has previously demonstrated a fast 2D-to-3D registration algorithm for registration of live video to surface data extracted from medical images. The algorithm uses an illumination-tolerant gradient-descent based optimization to register a 2D image to 3D surface data in order to globally locate the camera's origin with respect to the 3D model. The rapid convergence of the algorithm is achieved through a reformulation of the optimization problem that allows many data elements to be re-used through multiple iterations. This paper details the extension of this algorithm to the more difficult problem of registering aerial imagery to terrain data.
Influence of individual cell motility on the 2D front roughness dynamics of tumour cell colonies.
Muzzio, N E; Pasquale, M A; González, P H; Arvia, A J
2014-06-01
The dynamics of in situ 2D HeLa cell quasi-linear and quasi-radial colony fronts in a standard culture medium is investigated. For quasi-radial colonies, as the cell population increased, a kinetic transition from an exponential to a constant front average velocity regime was observed. Special attention was paid to individual cell motility evolution under constant average colony front velocity looking for its impact on the dynamics of the 2D colony front roughness. From the directionalities and velocity components of cell trajectories in colonies with different cell populations, the influence of both local cell density and cell crowding effects on individual cell motility was determined. The average dynamic behaviour of individual cells in the colony and its dependence on both local spatio-temporal heterogeneities and growth geometry suggested that cell motion undergoes under a concerted cell migration mechanism, in which both a limiting random walk-like and a limiting ballistic-like contribution were involved. These results were interesting to infer how biased cell trajectories influenced both the 2D colony spreading dynamics and the front roughness characteristics by local biased contributions to individual cell motion. These data are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical cell colony spreading data and provide additional evidence of the validity of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation, within a certain range of time and colony front size, for describing the dynamics of 2D colony front roughness. PMID:24893945
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuntz, Gilles
The first section of this paper on World Wide Web applications related to dynamic geometry addresses dynamic geometry and teaching, including the relationship between dynamic geometry and direct manipulation, key features of dynamic geometry environments, the importance of direct engagement of the learner using construction software for…
2-D studies of Relativistic electron beam plasma instabilities in an inhomogeneous plasma
Shukla, Chandrashekhar; Patel, Kartik
2015-01-01
Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [Phys. Rev Letts. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nano tube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and simulations with the help of 2-D Particle - In - Cell code. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/ks...
Black Hole Geometries in Noncommutative String Theory
Supriya Kar; Sumit Majumdar
2005-10-05
We obtain a generalized Schwarzschild (GS-) and a generalized Reissner-Nordstrom (GRN-) black hole geometries in (3+1)-dimensions, in a noncommutative string theory. In particular, we consider an effective theory of gravity on a curved $D_3$-brane in presence of an electromagnetic (EM-) field. Two different length scales, inherent in its noncommutative counter-part, are exploited to obtain a theory of effective gravity coupled to an U(1) noncommutative gauge theory to all orders in $\\Theta$. It is shown that the GRN-black hole geometry, in the Planckian regime, reduces to the GS-black hole. However in the classical regime it may be seen to govern both Reissner-Nordstrom and Schwarzschild geometries independently. The emerging notion of 2D black holes evident in the frame-work are analyzed. It is argued that the $D$-string in the theory may be described by the near horizon 2D black hole geometry, in the gravity decoupling limit. Finally, our analysis explains the nature of the effective force derived from the nonlinear EM-field and accounts for the Hawking radiation phenomenon in the formalism.
2D Geodynamic models of Microcontinent Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tetreault, Joya; Buiter, Susanne
2013-04-01
Continental fragments (microcontinents and continental ribbons) are rifted-off blocks of relatively unthinned continental crust situated among the severely thinned crust of passive margins. The existence of these large crustal blocks would suggest that the passive margin containing them either underwent simultaneous differential rifting or multi-stage rifting in order to produce continental breakup and seafloor spreading in more than one location in the span of approximately 100 km. Also, because continental fragments do not occur on every passive margin, there must be something particular about the crust and/or lithosphere that led to the production of these features. Some proposed mechanisms for microcontinent and continental ribbon formation include (1) structural inheritance, (2) strain localization by serpentinized mantle or magmatic underplating, and (3) plume interaction with an active rift. Pre-existing weakness and inherited structural fabrics in typical continental crust from past tectonic events, such as varying rheology of accreted terranes and collisional suture zones, could be reactivated and serve as foci for deformation. The second theory is that strain is localized in certain regions by large amounts of weakened material that are either serpentinized mantle or mafic bodies underplating the thinned crust. Another possible process that could lead to continental fragment formation is magmatic influence of hot plume material that focuses in various regions, producing rifts in separate areas. The Jan Mayen and Seychelles microcontinents both have geological and plate reconstruction evidence to support the plume interaction theory. We use 2-D geodynamic experiments to assess the importance of structural inheritance, strain localization by regions of weakened mantle material, and contributions to rifting from plume material on producing crustal blocks surrounded by seafloor or thinned/hyperextended crust. Our preliminary results suggest that each of these three mechanisms, working alone, cannot produce concurrent or multi-stage differential thinning and continental break-up. We infer that multistage extension produced by a combination of these mechanisms could be necessary to produce microcontinents and continental ribbons.
A large 2D PSD for thermal neutron detection
Knott, R.B.; Watt, G.; Boldeman, J.W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai, New South Wales (Australia). Physics Div.; Smith, G.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Instrumentation Div.
1996-12-31
A 2D PSD based on a MWPC has been constructed for a small angle neutron scattering instrument. The active area of the detector was 640 x 640 mm{sup 2}. To meet the specifications for neutron detection efficiency and spatial resolution, and to minimize parallax, the gas mixture was 190 kPa {sup 3}He plus 100 kPa CF{sub 4} and the active volume had a thickness of 30 mm. The design maximum neutron count-rate of the detector was 10{sup 5} events per second. The (calculated) neutron detection efficiency was 60% for 2{angstrom} neutrons and the (measured) neutron energy resolution on the anode grid was typically 20% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active area was determined using the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) was thereby defined by the wire geometry. A 16 channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator module has been developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1 V/fC, noise linewidth of 0.4 fC (fwhm) and channel-to-channel cross-talk of less than 5%. The Proportional Counter Operating System (PCOS III) (LeCroy Corp USA) was used for event encoding. The ECL signals produced by the 16 channel modules were latched in PCOS III by a trigger pulse from the anode and the fast encoders produce a position and width for each event. The information was transferred to a UNIX workstation for accumulation and online display.
G. Varotto; E. M. Staderini
2008-01-01
This paper describes a simple 2D model for the propagation of electro-magnetic (EM) pulses in human tissues. To assess the reliability of using this model for fast attenuation evaluation of UWB radar pulses in the body, the model is compared with a well known 3D FDTD numeric simulator using a simple multilayer geometry. Results from the 2D model were found
Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel
2013-11-01
The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.
Differential CYP 2D6 Metabolism Alters Primaquine Pharmacokinetics
Potter, Brittney M. J.; Xie, Lisa H.; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T.; Bandara Herath, H. M. T.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.
2015-01-01
Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity. PMID:25645856
The response of manganin gauges shock loaded in the 2-D straining mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Z.; Partom, Y.; Yaziv, D.
1981-02-01
We measured the response of shock loaded manganin gauges in the two-dimensional (2-D) straining mode. This mode, usually achieved by using wire gauges, was obtained for commercial foil-like gauges emplaced in the transverse configuration. In this configuration the plane of the gauge is perpendicular to the shock front. Measurements of gauge response during shock compression as well as in the release phase are compared to data for 1-D straining mode. The two geometries yield significantly different responses which are attributed to the viscoplastic properties of the gauge material.
Construction of a new apparatus to study 2D superfluid dynamics in BECs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Zach; Doehrmann, Jessica; Anderson, Brian P.
2015-05-01
We are in the process of constructing a new apparatus at the University of Arizona with the intent of studying two-dimensional superfluid dynamics, quantum turbulence, and vortex dynamics in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates. The trap geometries used in such experiments enable the application of high resolution imaging methods that permit direct, in situ detection of vortices and wave phenomena in BECs. In this poster, we describe our design of a new apparatus aimed specifically at studying 2D superfluid phenomena, discuss technical challenges, and present progress towards the completion of our new apparatus.
Additional Invariants and Statistical Equilibria for the 2D Euler Equations on a spherical domain
Herbert, Corentin
2013-01-01
The role of the domain geometry for the statistical mechanics of 2D Euler flows is investigated. It is shown that for a spherical domain, there exists invariant subspaces in phase space which yield additional angular momentum, energy and enstrophy invariants. The microcanonical measure taking into account these invariants is built and a mean-field, Robert-Sommeria-Miller theory is developed in the simple case of the energy-enstrophy measure. The variational problem is solved analytically and a partial energy condensation is obtained. The thermodynamic properties of the system are also discussed.
Cho, Byungmoon; Yetzbacher, Michael K; Kitney, Katherine A; Smith, Eric R; Jonas, David M
2009-11-26
Four-level two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform relaxation spectra are simulated with response functions for a chromophore pair in the exponential relaxation (optical Bloch model) limit. The parameters in this study are chosen to model coupled carbonyl stretching vibrations. As long as coherence persists, every peak in the real 2D spectra has a partially mixed absorptive/dispersive ("phase-twisted") shape because the nonlinear signals are not symmetric with respect to interchange of the first two pulses. This asymmetry in 2D relaxation spectra arises from coherence between singly excited states and a red shift of the doubly excited state. Coherence between the singly excited states causes oscillation of the 2D spectra and the associated spectrally resolved pump-probe (SRPP) transients at the quantum beat frequency. Projecting the phase-twisted nature of the 2D peaks onto the detection frequency axis, the SRPP peaks are also asymmetric about their maximum when not at maximum or minimum amplitude. Three-dimensional Fourier transform (3DFT) methods are used to simulate absorption/dispersion and beam geometry distortions of the multilevel 2D spectra with cross peaks. The distortions can be understood by consideration of their effects on individual coherence pathways that contribute to peaks in the 2D spectra. The beam geometry distortion explains some unequal cross peak amplitudes previously observed experimentally by Khalil et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 362). A representation of 2D spectra that reduces beam geometry distortion is presented. If the transformation to correct for beam geometry distortion is combined with the transformations that correct absorptive/dispersive propagation distortions (J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 044511), the recovered 2D spectrum matches the ideal 2D spectrum after all coherence is destroyed. In the presence of coherence, the new representation reduces the error in the distorted 2D spectrum by a factor of 4 for practical 2D-IR experimental conditions. PMID:19780599
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi
2015-01-01
Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...
Space-Time Foam in 2D and the Sum Over Topologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loll, R.; Westra, W.
2003-10-01
It is well-known that the sum over topologies in quantum gravity is ill-defined, due to a super-exponential growth of the number of geometries as a function of the space-time volume, leading to a badly divergent gravitational path integral. Not even in dimension 2, where a non-perturbative quantum gravity theory can be constructed explicitly from a (regularized) path integral, has this problem found a satisfactory solution. In the present work, we extend a previous 2d Lorentzian path integral, regulated in terms of Lorentzian random triangulations, to include space-times with an arbitrary number of handles. We show that after the imposition of physically motivated causality constraints, the combined sum over geometries and topologies is well-defined and possesses a continuum limit which yields a concrete model of space-time foam in two dimensions.
Coupling 2-D cylindrical and 3-D x-y-z transport computations
Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.; Pitcairn, T.N.
1998-06-30
This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical geometry to three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular x-y-z splice option for multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solutions to the neutron (photon) transport equation. Of particular interest are the simple transformations developed and applied in order to carry out the required spatial and angular interpolations. The spatial interpolations are linear and equivalent to those applied elsewhere. The angular interpolations are based on a high order spherical harmonics representation of the angular flux. Advantages of the current angular interpolations over previous work are discussed. An application to an intricate streaming problem is provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method for efficient and accurate prediction of particle behavior in complex geometries.
Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.
Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G
2015-03-19
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis. PMID:26262874
1 function fe2d_d 2 % 'fe2d_d.m' 2D finite element Matlab code for Scheme 2 applied
Garvie, Marcus R
1 function fe2d_d 2 % 'fe2d_d.m' 2D finite element Matlab code for Scheme 2 applied 3 % to the predator-prey system with Kinetics 1. The nodes and elements 4 % of the unstructured grid are loaded from/(h1*h2); 103 K_ji = K_ij; 104 K_ii = triangle_area*t2/(h1^2); 105 K_jj = triangle_area*t3/(h2^2); 106
b 7 ---' -. r ' -. a " ^ n -l a -n r e n r i r n r r z I A r r e f r e l i r ) *
Marsh, Helene
$tlot? wfl b 7 - - - ' - . r ' - . a " ^ n - l a - n r ' e n r i r n r r z I A r r e f r e l i r ) * \\ r ! u u w ! Aerial surveys conducted since L97/r have confirmed the presence of significant :op-rst aeriaf survey for Dugongs off the coast of the Northern . / r . - \\ - - r l r l o r y \\ f 1 9 . L
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and Cattell's personality traits
JITKA LINDOVA ´; Martina Hrušková; V?ra Pivo?ková; Aleš Kub?na; Jaroslav Flegr
2008-01-01
The ratio between second and fourth finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic; it is lower in men than in women. Studies using broad personality domains yielded correlations of 2D:4D with neuroticism, extraversion or agreeableness, but the obtained results have been inconsistent. We correlated 2D:4D of 184 women and 101 men withtheir scores in Cattell's 16 Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire. We found
Proper time is stochastic time in 2d quantum gravity
J. Ambjorn; R. Loll; Y. Watabiki; W. Westra; S. Zohren
2009-11-21
We show that proper time, when defined in the quantum theory of 2d gravity, becomes identical to the stochastic time associated with the stochastic quantization of space. This observation was first made by Kawai and collaborators in the context of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity, but the relation is even simpler and more transparent in he context of 2d gravity formulated in the framework of CDT (causal dynamical triangulations).
Backscattering in a 2D topological insulator and the conductivity of a 2D strip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.
2015-01-01
A strip of the 2D HgTe topological insulator is studied. The same-spin edge states in an ideal system propagate in opposite directions on different sides of the strip and do not mix by tunneling. Impurities, edge irregularities, and phonons produce transitions between the counterpropagating edge states on different edges. This backscattering determines the conductivity of an infinitely long strip. The conductivity at finite temperature is determined in the framework of the kinetic equation. It is found that the conductivity exponentially grows with the strip width. In the same approximation the nonlocal resistance coefficients of a four-terminal strip are found.
Numerically robust geometry engine for compound solid geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlachoudis, V.; Sinuela-Pastor, D.
2014-06-01
Monte Carlo programs heavily rely on a fast and numerically robust solid geometry engines. However the success of solid modeling, depends on facilities for specifying and editing parameterized models through a user-friendly graphical front-end. Such a user interface has to be fast enough in order to be interactive for 2D and/or 3D displays, but at the same time numerically robust in order to display possible modeling errors at real time that could be critical for the simulation. The graphical user interface "flair"(1) for FLUKA(2,3) currently employs such an engine where special emphasis has been given on being fast and numerically robust. The numerically robustness is achieved by a novel method of estimating the floating precision of the operations, which dynamically adapts all the decision operations accordingly. Moreover a predictive caching mechanism is ensuring that logical errors in the geometry description are found online, without compromising the processing time by checking all regions.
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
2D to 3D to 2D Dimensionality Crossovers in Thin BSCCO Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gary A.
2003-03-01
With increasing temperature the superfluid fraction in very thin BSCCO films undergoes a series of dimensionality crossovers. At low temperatures the strong anisotropy causes the thermal excitations to be 2D pancake-antipancake pairs in uncoupled layers. At higher temperatures where the c-axis correlation length becomes larger than a layer there is a crossover to 3D vortex loops. These are initially elliptical, but as the 3D Tc is approached they become more circular as the anisotropy scales away, as modeled by Shenoy and Chattopadhyay [1]. Close to Tc when the correlation length becomes comparable to the film thickness there is a further crossover to a 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, with a drop of the superfluid fraction to zero at T_KT which can be of the order of 1 K below T_c. Good agreement with this model is found for experiments on thin BSCCO 2212 films [2]. 1. S. R. Shenoy and B. Chattopadhyay, Phys. Rev. B 51, 9129 (1995). 2. K. Osborn et al., cond-mat/0204417.
Practical Linear Algebra: A Geometry Toolbox Third edition
Farin, Gerald
Practical Linear Algebra: A Geometry Toolbox Third edition Chapter 2: Here and There: Points.farinhansford.com/books/pla c 2013 Farin & Hansford Practical Linear Algebra 1 / 48 #12;Outline 1 Introduction to Points & Hansford Practical Linear Algebra 2 / 48 #12;Introduction to Points and Vectors in 2D Hurricane Katrina
Joint Estimation of Motion, Structure and Geometry from Stereo Sequences
that only describes the projection of this motion on the 2D image plane [23]. Since depth information as well. In contrast to structure from motion, scene flow does not relate to a static world. InsteadJoint Estimation of Motion, Structure and Geometry from Stereo Sequences Levi Valgaerts1 , Andr
Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms.
Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C; Sun, Xiaochun
2015-03-15
CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333
Buechler, H. P.; Micheli, A.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.; Demler, E.; Lukin, M.; Prokof'ev, N.
2007-02-09
We discuss techniques to tune and shape the long-range part of the interaction potentials in quantum gases of bosonic polar molecules by dressing rotational excitations with static and microwave fields. This provides a novel tool towards engineering strongly correlated quantum phases in combination with low-dimensional trapping geometries. As an illustration, we discuss the 2D superfluid-crystal quantum phase transition for polar molecules interacting via an electric-field-induced dipole-dipole potential.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Geometry and Topology is "a fully refereed international journal dealing with all aspects of geometry and topology and their applications." The publisher, Geometry & Topology Publications (GTP), is a non-profit organization based in the Mathematics Department of the University of Warwick at Coventry, UK. Visitors can browse the journal, available free of charge electronically, or search by keyword or author. The moderate collection within the Geometry and Topology Monographs series includes research monographs and refereed conference proceedings.
Baldwin, John T.
with high school teachers on `how to teach geomety' 2 One session of History of Mathematics on `the the axiomatization of geometry affect the teaching of high school geometry? #12;Geometry and Proof John T. Baldwin conclusions? Checking the truth of the premises is 1 Mathematics if the premises are mathematical. #12
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonald, Nathaniel J.
2001-01-01
Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Nieman
2007-11-22
Gotta Getcha some Great Goofy Geometry Games! Billy Bug is so hungry! Move him to the right coordinate so that he can eat! Make the puzzle pieces bigger or smaller to fit the puzzle in Cyberchase Geometry! If you want a definition of any geometry term.. click the word Definition ...
Geometries for Possible Kinematics
Chao-Guang Huang; Yu Tian; Xiao-Ning Wu; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou
2010-07-21
The algebras for all possible Lorentzian and Euclidean kinematics with $\\frak{so}(3)$ isotropy except static ones are re-classified. The geometries for algebras are presented by contraction approach. The relations among the geometries are revealed. Almost all geometries fall into pairs. There exists $t \\leftrightarrow 1/(\
Noise in 2D SPECT and in SOLSTICE Frank Natterer
Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
Noise in 2D SPECT and in SOLSTICE Frank Natterer November 1999 Summary. We study the performance of SOLSTICE and 2D SPECT in the presence of random fluctuations in the detectors. We show that the quotient (distance detector-centre, slice thickness) are assumed to be the same or (SPECT angle, tilt angle) adjusted
Novel 2-D photonic bandgap structure for microstrip lines
Vesna Radisic; Yongxi Qian; Roberto Coccioli; Tatsuo Itoh
1998-01-01
A new two-dimensional (2-D) photonic bandgap (PBG) structure for microstrip lines is proposed, in which a periodic 2-D pattern consisting of circles is etched in the ground plane of microstrip line. No drilling through the substrate is required. Three PBG circuits were fabricated with different circle radii to determine the optimum dimensions, as well as a PBG circuit with the
Communication Single-scan 2D DOSY NMR spectroscopy
Frydman, Lucio
to the frequency set X1 that one is attempting to determine. These coher- ences can then be identified the acquisition of 2D DOSY spectra, where the indirect dimension is meant to encode molecular displacements rather. Introduction Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) plays a fundamental role in expanding
32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion from Class 2-D. 1639...THE MINISTRY § 1639.4 Exclusion from Class 2-D. A registrant...that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school; or (b) He fails to...
32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusion from Class 2-D. 1639...THE MINISTRY § 1639.4 Exclusion from Class 2-D. A registrant...that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school; or (b) He fails to...
32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusion from Class 2-D. 1639...THE MINISTRY § 1639.4 Exclusion from Class 2-D. A registrant...that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school; or (b) He fails to...
32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusion from Class 2-D. 1639...THE MINISTRY § 1639.4 Exclusion from Class 2-D. A registrant...that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school; or (b) He fails to...
Abstract Line Drawings from 2D Images Minjung Son
Kang, Henry
over detail, focus, and style. 1. Introduction Line drawing is a simple yet effective means of visualAbstract Line Drawings from 2D Images Minjung Son POSTECH sionson@postech.ac.kr Henry Kang line drawings from 2D images, aiming to facilitate effec- tive visual communication. In contrast
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
2D Edge Length 3D Surface Area
van Vliet, Lucas J.
143 Chapter 7 2D Edge Length and 3D Surface Area Existing estimators for edge length in 2D and surface area in 3D are applied to a binary representation of an object. In this paper we estimate length and surface area through grey-volume measurements. Volume is measured without thresholding which introduces
Coordinating Linear and 2D Displays to Support Exploratory Search
Anselm Spoerri
2007-01-01
Linear and 2D displays have complementary strengths and this paper illustrates how they can be used in concert to support users in the search process. Linear lists are the dominant way for presenting search results and users are most familiar with such result displays. However, ranked lists can only display a limited number of results, whereas 2D layouts can display
Syndrome identification based on 2D analysis Stefan Boehringer*,1
Würtz, Rolf P.
2D pictures of patients each being affected with one of 10 syndromes (fragile X syndrome; CorneliaARTICLE Syndrome identification based on 2D analysis software Stefan Boehringer*,1 , Tobias Vollmar de Lange syndrome; WilliamsBeuren syndrome; PraderWilli syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type III
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.
Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung
2015-07-01
Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4?. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4? to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) ?, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ER? in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ? 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ER? transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116
Developing Mobile BIM/2D Barcode-Based Automated Facility Management System
Chen, Yen-Pei
2014-01-01
Facility management (FM) has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D) graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D) object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD). This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM) system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment. PMID:25250373
Developing mobile BIM/2D barcode-based automated facility management system.
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yen-Pei
2014-01-01
Facility management (FM) has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D) graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D) object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD). This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM) system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment. PMID:25250373
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zenghui; X-L Feng, Philip
2015-06-01
Black phosphorus (P), a layered material that can be isolated down to individual 2D crystalline sheets, exhibits highly anisotropic mechanical properties due to its corrugated crystal structure in each atomic layer, which are intriguing for two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical devices. Here we lay the framework for describing the mechanical resonant responses in free-standing black P structures, by using a combination of analytical modeling and numerical simulation. We find that thicker devices (>100 nm) operating in the elastic plate regime exhibit pronounced signatures of mechanical anisotropy, and can lead to new multimode resonant characteristics in terms of mode sequences, shapes, and orientational preferences that are unavailable in nanomechanical resonators made of isotropic materials. In addition, through investigating devices with different geometries, we identify the resonant responses’ dependence on crystal orientation in asymmetric devices, and evaluate the effects from the degree of anisotropy. The results suggest a pathway towards harnessing the mechanical anisotropy in black P for building novel 2D nanomechanical devices and resonant transducers with engineerable multimode functions.
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
A community benchmark for viscoplastic thermal convection in a 2-D squared box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tosi, Nicola; Stein, Claudia; Noack, Lena; Hüttig, Christian; Maierova, Petra; Samuel, Henri; Davies, Rhodri; Wilson, Cian; Kramer, Stephen; Thieulot, Cedric; Glerum, Anne; Fraters, Menno; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul
2015-04-01
Numerical simulations of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle often employ a pseudo-plastic rheology in order to mimic the plate-like behavior of the lithosphere. Yet the benchmark tests available in the literature are largely based on simple linear rheologies in which the viscosity is either assumed to be constant or weakly dependent on temperature. We present a suite of simple test cases based on non-linear rheologies featuring temperature-, pressure-, and strain-rate dependent viscosity. Eleven different codes based on the finite-volume, finite-element, or spectral method have been used to run five benchmark cases leading to stagnant lid, mobile lid, and periodic convection in a 2-D squared box. For two of these cases, we also show resolution tests from all contributing codes. In addition, we present a bifurcation analysis describing the transition from mobile lid to periodic regime and from periodic to stagnant lid regime in dependence of the yield stress. At a reference resolution of around 100 cells or elements in both vertical and horizontal directions, all codes reproduce the required diagnostic quantities with a discrepancy of at most ~3% in the presence of both linear and non-linear rheologies. Furthermore they all consistently predict the critical value of the yield stress at which the transition between different convective regimes occurs. As the most recent mantle convection codes are capable to handle a number of different domain geometries (2-D and 3-D, rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical) within a single solution framework, this benchmark is expected to be a useful tool to validate simulations of viscoplastic thermal convection also in geometries that are more complex and computationally demanding than a simple 2-D box.
Almost but not quite 2D, Non-linear Bayesian Inversion of CSEM Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, A.; Key, K.; Bodin, T.
2013-12-01
The geophysical inverse problem can be elegantly stated in a Bayesian framework where a probability distribution can be viewed as a statement of information regarding a random variable. After all, the goal of geophysical inversion is to provide information on the random variables of interest - physical properties of the earth's subsurface. However, though it may be simple to postulate, a practical difficulty of fully non-linear Bayesian inversion is the computer time required to adequately sample the model space and extract the information we seek. As a consequence, in geophysical problems where evaluation of a full 2D/3D forward model is computationally expensive, such as marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) mapping of the resistivity of seafloor oil and gas reservoirs, Bayesian studies have largely been conducted with 1D forward models. While the 1D approximation is indeed appropriate for exploration targets with planar geometry and geological stratification, it only provides a limited, site-specific idea of uncertainty in resistivity with depth. In this work, we extend our fully non-linear 1D Bayesian inversion to a 2D model framework, without requiring the usual regularization of model resistivities in the horizontal or vertical directions used to stabilize quasi-2D inversions. In our approach, we use the reversible jump Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (RJ-MCMC) or trans-dimensional method and parameterize the subsurface in a 2D plane with Voronoi cells. The method is trans-dimensional in that the number of cells required to parameterize the subsurface is variable, and the cells dynamically move around and multiply or combine as demanded by the data being inverted. This approach allows us to expand our uncertainty analysis of resistivity at depth to more than a single site location, allowing for interactions between model resistivities at different horizontal locations along a traverse over an exploration target. While the model is parameterized in 2D, we efficiently evaluate the forward response using 1D profiles extracted from the model at the common-midpoints of the EM source-receiver pairs. Since the 1D approximation is locally valid at different midpoint locations, the computation time is far lower than is required by a full 2D or 3D simulation. We have applied this method to both synthetic and real CSEM survey data from the Scarborough gas field on the Northwest shelf of Australia, resulting in a spatially variable quantification of resistivity and its uncertainty in 2D. This Bayesian approach results in a large database of 2D models that comprise a posterior probability distribution, which we can subset to test various hypotheses about the range of model structures compatible with the data. For example, we can subset the model distributions to examine the hypothesis that a resistive reservoir extends overs a certain spatial extent. Depending on how this conditions other parts of the model space, light can be shed on the geological viability of the hypothesis. Since tackling spatially variable uncertainty and trade-offs in 2D and 3D is a challenging research problem, the insights gained from this work may prove valuable for subsequent full 2D and 3D Bayesian inversions.
Optimal calibration marker mesh for 2D X-ray sensors in 3D reconstruction.
Desbat, Laurent; Mennessier, Catherine; Champleboux, Guillaume
2002-04-01
Image intensifiers suffer from distortions due to magnetic fields. In order to use this X-ray projections images for computer-assisted medical interventions, image intensifiers need to be calibrated. Opaque markers are often used for the correction of the image distortion and the estimation of the acquisition geometry parameters. Information under the markers is then lost. In this work, we consider the calibration of image intensifiers in the framework of 3D reconstruction from several 2D X-ray projections. In this context, new schemes of marker distributions are proposed for 2D X-ray sensor calibration. They are based on efficient sampling conditions of the parallel-beam X-ray transform when the detector and source trajectory is restricted to a circle around the measured object. Efficient sampling are essentially subset of standard sampling in this situation. The idea is simply to exploit the data redundancy of standard sampling and to replace some holes of efficient schemes by markers. Optimal location of markers in the sparse efficient sampling geometry can thus be found. In this case, the markers can stay on the sensor during the measurement with--theoretically--no loss of information (when the signal-to-noise ratio is large). Even if the theory is based on the parallel-beam X-ray transform, numerical experiments on both simulated and real data are shown in the case of weakly divergent beam geometry. We show that the 3D reconstruction from simulated data with interlaced markers is essentially the same as those obtained from data with no marker. We show that efficient Fourier interpolation formulas based on optimal sparse sampling schemes can be used to recover the information hidden by the markers. PMID:12161923
2D vs. 3D mammography observer study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent
2011-03-01
Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.
Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing.
Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J
2015-06-01
Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications. PMID:25917134
Seven-degree-of-freedom, quantum scattering dynamics study of the H2D++H2 reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dunyou; Xie, Zhen; Bowman, Joel M.
2010-02-01
A quantum scattering dynamics, time-dependent wavepacket propagation method is applied to study the reaction of H2D++H2?H3++HD on the Xie-Braams-Bowman potential energy surface. The reduced-dimensional, seven-degree-of-freedom approach is employed in this calculation by fixing one Jacobi and one torsion angle related to H2D+ at the lowest saddle point geometry of D2d on the potential energy surface. Initial state selected reaction probabilities are presented for various initial rovibrational states. The ground state reaction probability shows no threshold for this reaction, in other words, this reaction can occur without an activation barrier. The vibrational excitation shows that the stretching motion of H+-HD only has a small effect on the reaction probability; the vibrational excitation of HD in H2D+ hinders the reactivity. By contrast, rotational excitation of H+-HD greatly enhances the reactivity with the reaction probability increased double or triple at high rotational states compared to the ground state. Reactive resonances, seen in all the initial state selected reaction probabilities, are also found in the integral cross section for the ground state of H2D+ and H2. The thermal rate coefficient is also calculated and is found to be in semiquantitative agreement with experiment; however, quantum scattering approaches including more degrees of freedom, especially including all the angles, are necessary to study this reaction in the future.
NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Host Defense.
Lanier, Lewis L
2015-06-01
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and subsets of CD4(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells (iNKT), and ?? T cells. In humans, NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit, and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least eight genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslation. In general, healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyperproliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves as a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone "stress." Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system, and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808
An Evaluation of Multimodal 2D+3D Face Biometrics
Kyong I. Chang; Kevin W. Bowyer; Patrick J. Flynn
2005-01-01
Abstract—We report on the largest experimental,study to date in multimodal 2D+3D face recognition, involving 198 persons in the gallery and either 198 or 670 time-lapse probe images. PCA-based methods,are used separately for each modality and match,scores in the separate,face spaces,are combined,for multimodal,recognition. Major conclusions,are: 1) 2D and 3D have similar recognition performance when considered individually, 2) combining 2D and 3D
Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee
2015-07-01
Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must be noted that clinical 2D versus 3D datasets may have additional differences—for example, if 2D measurements are made with a different dosimeter than 3D measurements. Factors such as inherent dosimeter differences may be an important additional consideration to the extra dimension of available data that was evaluated in this study.
Cluster algebras in scattering amplitudes with special 2D kinematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Marcus A. C.
2014-02-01
We study the cluster algebra of the kinematic configuration space of an -particle scattering amplitude restricted to the special 2D kinematics. We found that the -point two-loop MHV remainder function in special 2D kinematics depends on a selection of the -coordinates that are part of a special structure of the cluster algebra related to snake triangulations of polygons. This structure forms a necklace of hypercube beads in the corresponding Stasheff polytope. Furthermore at , the cluster algebra and the selection of the -coordinates in special 2D kinematics replicates the cluster algebra and the selection of -coordinates of the two-loop MHV amplitude in 4D kinematics.
Generation of high quality 2D meshes for given bathymetry
Colmenero, Jorge, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2014-01-01
This thesis develops and applies a procedure to generate high quality 2D meshes for any given ocean region with complex coastlines. The different criteria used in determining mesh element sizes for a given domain are ...
Adaptive finite element modeling for 2D electromagnetic problems using
Key, Kerry
Adaptive finite element modeling for 2D electromagnetic problems using unstructured grids Kerry Key;Techniques Employed: Unstructured Finite Elements: Grid of irregular triangular elements. Adaptive Finite Element Method: FE solution computed iteratively, using successively refined grids until desired solution
Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar
2015-08-01
Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.
2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of ...
2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of parking garage. Farther east is 408 8th Street (National Art And Frame Company). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Collective excitations in 2D hard-disc fluid.
Huerta, Adrian; Bryk, Taras; Trokhymchuk, Andrij
2015-07-01
Collective dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) hard-disc fluid was studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the range of packing fractions that covers states up to the freezing. Some striking features concerning collective excitations in this system were observed. In particular, the short-wavelength shear waves while being absent at low packing fractions were observed in the range of high packing fractions, just before the freezing transition in a 2D hard-disc fluid. In contrast, the so-called "positive sound dispersion" typically observed in dense Lennard-Jones-like fluids, was not detected for the 2D hard-disc fluid. The ratio of specific heats in the 2D hard-disc fluid shows a monotonic increase with density approaching the freezing, resembling in this way the similar behavior in the vicinity of the Widom line in the case of supercritical fluids. PMID:25595625
Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing.
Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar
2015-08-28
Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples. PMID:26204797
Scheduling and 2D placement heuristics for partially reconfigurable systems
Santambrogio, Marco Domenico
This paper proposes new scheduling and 2D placement heuristics for partially dynamically reconfigurable systems. One specific focus of this work is to deal with applications containing hundreds of tasks grouped in a few ...
Conformal field theory of critical Casimir interactions in 2D
Bimonte, Giuseppe
Thermal fluctuations of a critical system induce long-ranged Casimir forces between objects that couple to the underlying field. For two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theories (CFT) we derive an exact result for the ...
Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2009-05-18
The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a speci?c 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Geometry of Thin Nematic Elastomer Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz
2014-12-01
A thin sheet of nematic elastomer attains 3D configurations depending on the nematic director field upon heating. In this Letter, we describe the intrinsic geometry of such a sheet and derive an expression for the metric induced by general nematic director fields. Furthermore, we investigate the reverse problem of constructing a director field that induces a specified 2D geometry. We provide an explicit recipe for how to construct any surface of revolution using this method. Finally, we show that by inscribing a director field gradient across the sheet's thickness, one can obtain a nontrivial hyperbolic reference curvature tensor, which together with the prescription of a reference metric allows dictation of actual configurations for a thin sheet of nematic elastomer.
Geometry of thin nematic elastomer sheets.
Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz
2014-12-19
A thin sheet of nematic elastomer attains 3D configurations depending on the nematic director field upon heating. In this Letter, we describe the intrinsic geometry of such a sheet and derive an expression for the metric induced by general nematic director fields. Furthermore, we investigate the reverse problem of constructing a director field that induces a specified 2D geometry. We provide an explicit recipe for how to construct any surface of revolution using this method. Finally, we show that by inscribing a director field gradient across the sheet's thickness, one can obtain a nontrivial hyperbolic reference curvature tensor, which together with the prescription of a reference metric allows dictation of actual configurations for a thin sheet of nematic elastomer. PMID:25554907
Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa
2006-04-01
A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.
2D Jet Simulation Testing SUNY Stony Brook
McDonald, Kirk
2D Jet Simulation Testing Yan Zhan SUNY Stony Brook Feb 3rd 2014 1 #12;Mesh & Boundary Conditions Width (W) Length (L) Grid # in x (Nx) Grid # in y ( Ny) Total Grid # (Nt) 5D 50D 212 2120 449,440 4D 50D 170 2120 360,400 3D 50D 127 2120 269,240 2D 50D 85 2120 180,200 1D 50D 42 2120 89,040 2 W L axis
Rotation invariance principles in 2D\\/3D registration
Wolfgang Birkfellner; Joachim Wirth; Wolfgang Burgstaller; Bernard Baumann; Harald Staedele; Beat Hammer; Niels C. Gellrich; Augustinus L. Jacob; Pietro Regazzoni; Peter Messmer
2003-01-01
2D\\/3D patient-to-computed tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 2D\\/3D registration is the fast that
2D superconductivity: Classification of universality classes by infinite symmetry
Carlo A. Trugenberger
2005-01-01
I consider superconducting condensates which become incompressible in the infinite gap limit. Classical 2D incompressible fluids possess the dynamical symmetry of area-preserving diffeomorphisms. I show that the corresponding infinite dynamical symmetry of 2D superconducting fluids is the coset W1+??W¯1+?U(1)diagonal, with W1+? the chiral algebra of quantum area-preserving diffeomorphisms and I derive its minimal models. These define a discrete set of
2D superconductivity: Classification of universality classes by infinite symmetry
Carlo A. Trugenberger
2005-01-01
I consider superconducting condensates which become incompressible in the infinite gap limit. Classical 2D incompressible fluids possess the dynamical symmetry of area-preserving diffeomorphisms. I show that the corresponding infinite dynamical symmetry of 2D superconducting fluids is the coset W?WU1, with W the chiral algebra of quantum area-preserving diffeomorphisms and I derive its minimal models. These define a discrete set of
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.
i HOG(I, pi)+ ij Displacement2D
Xiao, Jianxiong
S(I, p) = iV wH i ·HOG(I, pi)+ ijE wD ij ·Displacement2D (pi, pj)+ ijE wE ij·Edge(I, pi, pj for corners 2D displacement Cylinder and Pyramid = Corner Localization + + + Given a single-view input image interior sports & leisure cultural water & snow mountains & desert forest & field transportation historical
Mathematical aspects of 2D PET using dual curvilinear detectors
Ivan G. Kazantsev; Samuel Matej; Robert M. Lewitt
2005-01-01
In this work we investigate the problem of inverting data acquired from finite-length curvilinear detectors in the 2D case. In our previous modeling of the forward problem we dealt with explicit formulas for the elements of system and Gram matrices involved in 2D and 3D algebraic reconstruction from planograms. In this paper we continue our efforts to model curvilinear panel
Efficient implementation of the 2-D Capon spectral estimator
Andreas Jakobssoiz; S. Lawrence Marple; P. Stoica
1999-01-01
We present a computationally efficient algorithm for computing the 2-D Capon spectral estimator. The implementation is based on the fact that the 2-D data covariance matrix will have a Toeplitz-Block-Toeplitz structure, with the result that the inverse covariance matrix can be expressed in closed form by using a special case of the Gohberg-Heinig formula that is a function of strictly
A 2D-3D Hybrid Approach to Video Stabilization
Zhiyong Huang; Fazhi He; Xiantao Cai; Yuan Chen; Xiao Chen
2011-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel 2D-3D hybrid video stabilization method which combines virtues of 2D and 3D video stabilization methods in one routine. It attempts to achieve high-quality camera motions and to retain full frame coherence in each frame, at while, ensure that local regions undergo a similarity transformation. We solve the stabilization problem by integrating 3D and
Codeine Intoxication Associated with Ultrarapid CYP2D6 Metabolism
Yvan Gasche; Youssef Daali; Marc Fathi; Alberto Chiappe; Silvia Cottini; Pierre Dayer; Jules Desmeules
2004-01-01
Life-threatening opioid intoxication developed in a patient after he was given small doses of codeine for the treatment of a cough associated with bilateral pneumonia. Co- deine is bioactivated by CYP2D6 into morphine, which then undergoes further glucu- ronidation. CYP2D6 genotyping showed that the patient had three or more functional alleles, a finding consistent with ultrarapid metabolism of codeine. We
2D microscopic model of graphene fracture properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, Peter
2015-05-01
An analytical two-dimensional (2D) microscopic fracture model based on Morse-type interaction is derived containing no adjustable parameter. From the 2D Young’s moduli and 2D intrinsic strengths of graphene measured by nanoindentation based on biaxial tension and calculated by density functional theory for uniaxial tension the widely unknown breaking force, line or edge energy, surface energy, fracture toughness, and strain energy release rate were determined. The simulated line energy agrees well with ab initio calculations and the fracture toughness of perfect graphene sheets is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and the fracture toughness evaluated for defective graphene using the Griffith relation. Similarly, the estimated critical strain energy release rate agrees well with result of various theoretical approaches based on the J-integral and surface energy. The 2D microscopic model, connecting 2D and three-dimensional mechanical properties in a consistent way, provides a versatile relationship to easily access all relevant fracture properties of pristine 2D solids.
Imperfect 2D phosphorus, yet an almost perfect semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penev, Evgeni; Liu, Yuanyue; Xu, Fangbo; Zhang, Ziang; Yakobson, Boris
2015-03-01
The deep gap states created by defects in semiconductors typically deteriorate the performance of (opto)electronic devices. This has limited the applications of two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenides (MX2) and underscored the need for a new 2D semiconductor without defect-induced deep gap states. The talk will discuss why a 2D mono-elemental semiconductor can be a promising candidate. This is exemplified by a first-principles study of 2D phosphorus (``phosphorene''), a recently fabricated high-mobility semiconductor. Most of the defects, including intrinsic point defects and grain boundaries, are electronically inactive, thanks to the homoelemental bonding, which is not preferred in heteroelemental system such as MX2. Unlike MX2, where the edges create deep gap states and cannot be eliminated by passivation, the edge states of 2D P can be removed from the band gap by hydrogen termination. It is further found that both the type and the concentration of charge carriers in 2D P can be tuned by doping with foreign atoms. The work sheds light on the role of defects on the electronic structure of low-dimensional materials in general. Present affiliation: NREL
Imaging and diffraction characterisation of 2D inorganic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shmeliov, A.; Shannon, M.; Wang, P.; E, H.; Nellist, P. D.; Nicolosi, V.
2012-07-01
2D nanomaterials are a novel class of materials, noted for their potential in a range of high impact applications, such as sensing catalysis, and composite reinforcement. However, their structural features have not yet been fully characterised. In this work we have shown that 2D nanostructures of hBN, MoS2, and WS2, prepared by liquid exfoliation, can stack in sequences different from the bulk stacking. In 2D hBN non-sequential stacking was observed. 2D MoS2 and WS2 appear to have stacking where Mo/W atoms are located on the top of each other which differs from naturally occurring 2H and 3R polytypes. The majority of the hBN and MoS2 2D nanostructures retain the stacking of their bulk counterparts, while in 2D WS2 non-bulk stacking dominates. The conclusions are based primarily on the atomically resolved ADF STEM images with supporting evidence from electron diffraction.
Dissipation in turbulent solutions of 2D Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory L.
2001-07-01
We establish local balance equations for smooth functions of the vorticity in the DiPerna-Majda weak solutions of two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Euler equations, analogous to the balance proved by Duchon and Robert for kinetic energy in three dimensions. The anomalous term or defect distribution therein corresponds to the `enstrophy cascade' of 2D turbulence. It is used to define a rather natural notion of a `dissipative Euler solution' in 2D. However, we show that the DiPerna-Majda solutions with vorticity in Lp for p>2 are conservative and have zero defect. Instead, we must seek an alternative approach to dissipative solutions in 2D. If we assume an upper bound on the energy spectrum of 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes solutions by the Kraichnan-Batchelor k-3 spectrum, uniformly for high Reynolds number, then we show that the zero viscosity limits of the Navier-Stokes solutions exist, with vorticities in the zero-index Besov space B0,?2, and that these give a weak solution of the 2D incompressible Euler equations. We conjecture that for this class of weak solutions enstrophy dissipation may indeed occur, in a sense which is made precise.
Interactive Geometry Dictionary: Areas in Geometry
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
The applets in this Interactive Geometry Dictionary (IGD) will allow students an opportunity to explore finding the area of some common shapes. The applets demonstrate how to find the area of a triangle using the area of a parallelogram, which in turn can be found using the area of a rectangle. This tool also supports the lesson "What's My Area" cataloged separately.
Functional Differential Geometry Functional Differential Geometry
and culture, and we only sketch an idea using mathematical idioms. We are insufficiently precise to convey an idea to a person who does not share our culture. Our problem is that since we share the culture we find- ential geometry aimed at relativ
Twistors to twisted geometries
Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone
2010-10-15
In a previous paper we showed that the phase space of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph can be parametrized in terms of twisted geometries, quantities describing the intrinsic and extrinsic discrete geometry of a cellular decomposition dual to the graph. Here we unravel the origin of the phase space from a geometric interpretation of twistors.
Geometry of multihadron production
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Barbara H.
2004-01-01
This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…
Vector Electric Geometry Model
Wang Ju-feng; LiuYun; LiBin
2008-01-01
The classical electric geometry model unifies the thunder and lightning flashover characteristic logical circuit's structure size, very good explained the line shield expiration phenomenon. But the classical electric geometry model had not considered that the lightning leader the electrical field intensity influence, is being circled strikes the segmental arc is the zero hour, the line still had circles strikes the
An automated pipeline to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.
Kim, Changki; Vink, Martin; Hu, Minghui; Love, James; Stokes, David L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban
2010-06-01
Electron crystallography relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and is particularly well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. To obtain 2D crystals from purified membrane proteins, the detergent in a protein-lipid-detergent ternary mixture must be removed, generally by dialysis, under conditions favoring reconstitution into proteoliposomes and formation of well-ordered lattices. To identify these conditions a wide range of parameters such as pH, lipid composition, lipid-to-protein ratio, ionic strength and ligands must be screened in a procedure involving four steps: crystallization, specimen preparation for electron microscopy, image acquisition, and evaluation. Traditionally, these steps have been carried out manually and, as a result, the scope of 2D crystallization trials has been limited. We have therefore developed an automated pipeline to screen the formation of 2D crystals. We employed a 96-well dialysis block for reconstitution of the target protein over a wide range of conditions designed to promote crystallization. A 96-position magnetic platform and a liquid handling robot were used to prepare negatively stained specimens in parallel. Robotic grid insertion into the electron microscope and computerized image acquisition ensures rapid evaluation of the crystallization screen. To date, 38 2D crystallization screens have been conducted for 15 different membrane proteins, totaling over 3000 individual crystallization experiments. Three of these proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals. Our automated pipeline outperforms traditional 2D crystallization methods in terms of throughput and reproducibility. PMID:20349145
Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V
2015-01-01
Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. PMID:25062896
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins. PMID:26049436
2D/3D switchable LCD monitor with chromatic separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaskevich, Evgeny B.
2010-02-01
The 2D/3D switchable LCD stereoscopic display is based on the method of chromatic stereoscopic frame separation that occurs between the left and right eye with the use of two spectrally independent backlight sources with primary color sets RGBLeft and RGBRigth. Semiconductor lasers and/or LEDs with narrow band spectral filters could be used as backlight sources. In a 3D mode, the RGB sources illuminate alternatively and synchronously with the alternative displaying of stereo pair frames. Glasses with chromatic filters are used for watching in 3D mode and separate light from two RGB sources between the eyes of the viewer and in that way separate stereoscopic frames. In a 2D mode, any one of the RGB sources would work. In this case, the display looks like an ordinary display. Two RGB sources could be used for color enhancement in 2D mode. The quality of the images in 3D mode is the same as in 2D. Frame frequency is two times less in 3D mode as compared to 2D. The suggested method competes with two known methods for LCD that use glasses: "Shutter-Glasses Method" and "Polarization Method." It has certain advantages: image quality and stereo channel separation are independent from viewing angle or head tilt of viewer, and there are no active components in the glasses.
Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying
2014-10-01
Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.
2D full wave modeling for a synthetic Doppler backscattering diagnostic
Hillesheim, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Kubota, S.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Holland, C.
2012-10-15
Doppler backscattering (DBS) is a plasma diagnostic used in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices to measure the fluctuation level of intermediate wavenumber (k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s}{approx} 1) density fluctuations and the lab frame propagation velocity of turbulence. Here, a synthetic DBS diagnostic is described, which has been used for comparisons between measurements in the DIII-D tokamak and predictions from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. To estimate the wavenumber range to which a Gaussian beam would be sensitive, a ray tracing code and a 2D finite difference, time domain full wave code are used. Experimental density profiles and magnetic geometry are used along with the experimental antenna and beam characteristics. An example of the effect of the synthetic diagnostic on the output of a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation is presented.
Automatic Detection of 2D and 3D Lung Nodules in Chest Spiral CT Scans
El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Falk, Robert; Farag, Aly
2013-01-01
Automatic detection of lung nodules is an important problem in computer analysis of chest radiographs. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for isolating lung abnormalities (nodules) from spiral chest low-dose CT (LDCT) scans. The proposed algorithm consists of three main steps. The first step isolates the lung nodules, arteries, veins, bronchi, and bronchioles from the surrounding anatomical structures. The second step detects lung nodules using deformable 3D and 2D templates describing typical geometry and gray-level distribution within the nodules of the same type. The detection combines the normalized cross-correlation template matching and a genetic optimization algorithm. The final step eliminates the false positive nodules (FPNs) using three features that robustly define the true lung nodules. Experiments with 200?CT data sets show that the proposed approach provided comparable results with respect to the experts. PMID:23509444
2D full wave modeling for a synthetic Doppler backscattering diagnostic.
Hillesheim, J C; Holland, C; Schmitz, L; Kubota, S; Rhodes, T L; Carter, T A
2012-10-01
Doppler backscattering (DBS) is a plasma diagnostic used in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices to measure the fluctuation level of intermediate wavenumber (k(?)?(s) ~ 1) density fluctuations and the lab frame propagation velocity of turbulence. Here, a synthetic DBS diagnostic is described, which has been used for comparisons between measurements in the DIII-D tokamak and predictions from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. To estimate the wavenumber range to which a Gaussian beam would be sensitive, a ray tracing code and a 2D finite difference, time domain full wave code are used. Experimental density profiles and magnetic geometry are used along with the experimental antenna and beam characteristics. An example of the effect of the synthetic diagnostic on the output of a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation is presented. PMID:23126989
Simulation of 2D and 3Dcavity flow using the Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lubing; Qian, Yuehong; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Dandan
2007-11-01
The lid-driven cavity flow is a well-known benchmark problem for fluid simulations. Due to the simplicity of the cavity geometry, numerical simulation is relatively easy and straightforward; in addition, it retains a rich flow physics manifested by the vortex structures in the center and corner regions varying with the Reynolds number (Re). Therefore, it has been studied extensively by different simulation approaches. But still there are some aspects which are not agreed upon and need further investigation. All simulations are conducted by using the Lattice Boltzmann Method in fine grid systems and with parallel algorithm. First, some detailed results are presented and compared with classic solutions found in literatures for code validation. Then the transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in 2D and 3D situations are conducted by increasing the Reynolds number; detailed results for time-velocity histories, and relative Fourier power spectra, phase diagram are given. Some accuracy estimation will be also included.
Toward an Efficient Icing CFD Process Using an Interactive Software Toolkit: Smagglce 2D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vickerman, Mary B.; Choo, Yung K.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional CID analysis for iced airfoils can be a labor-intensive task. The software toolkit SmaggIce 2D is being developed to help streamline the CID process and provide the unique features needed for icing. When complete, it will include a combination of partially automated and fully interactive tools for all aspects of the tasks leading up to the flow analysis: geometry preparation, domain decomposition. block boundary demoralization. gridding, and linking with a flow solver. It also includes tools to perform ice shape characterization, an important aid in determining the relationship between ice characteristics and their effects on aerodynamic performance. Completed tools, work-in-progress, and planned features of the software toolkit are presented here.
Study of the mechanical behavior of a 2-D carbon-carbon composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, W. B.; Herakovich, C. T.
1987-01-01
The out-of-plane fracture of a 2-D carbon-carbon composite was observed and characterized to gain an understanding of the factors influencing the stress distribution in such a laminate. Finite element analyses of a two-ply carbon-carbon composite under in-plane, out-of-plane, and thermal loading were performed. Under in-plane loading all components of stress were strong functions of geometry. Additionally, large thermal stresses were predicted. Out-of-plane tensile tests revealed that failure was interlaminar, and that cracks propagated along the fiber-matrix interface. An elasticity solution was utilized to analyze an orthotropic fiber in an isotropic matrix under uniform thermal load. The analysis reveals that the stress distributions in a transversely orthotropic fiber are radically different than those predicted assuming the fiber to be transversely isotropic.
Phase Mixing of Alfvén Waves Near a 2D Magnetic Null Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, J. A.
2013-09-01
The propagation of linear Alfvén wave pulses in an inhomogeneous plasma near a 2D coronal null point is investigated. When a uniform plasma density is considered, it is seen that an initially planar Alfvén wavefront remains planar, despite the varying equilibrium Alfvén speed, and that all the wave collects at the separatrices. Thus, in the non-ideal case, these Alfvénic disturbances preferentially dissipate their energy at these locations. For a non-uniform equilibrium density, it is found that the Alfvén wavefront is significantly distorted away from the initially planar geometry, inviting the possibility of dissipation due to phase mixing. Despite this however, we conclude that for the Alfvén wave, current density accumulation and preferential heating still primarily occur at the separatrices, even when an extremely non-uniform density profile is considered.
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath
Havlicek, Hans
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath Institut für Geometrie, TU Wien rath@geometrie.tuwien.ac.at http://www.geometrie.tuwien.ac.at/rath Version 1999-11-15 #12;Geometrie im Internet - Wolfgang Rath......................................................................................... 5 1.1 SCHNELLER EINSTIEG INS INTERNET
Integrating Transformation Geometry into Traditional High School Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Okolica, Steve; Macrina, Georgette
1992-01-01
Describes a geometry course that integrates transformation geometry into traditional high school geometry. Discussion of the scope and sequence of the course includes the topics of proof, congruence, translations, rotations, reflections, dilations, quadrilaterals, parallel lines, and similarity. (MDH)
ARC2D - EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHODS FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biyabani, S. R.
1994-01-01
ARC2D is a computational fluid dynamics program developed at the NASA Ames Research Center specifically for airfoil computations. The program uses implicit finite-difference techniques to solve two-dimensional Euler equations and thin layer Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the Beam and Warming implicit approximate factorization algorithm in generalized coordinates. The methods are either time accurate or accelerated non-time accurate steady state schemes. The evolution of the solution through time is physically realistic; good solution accuracy is dependent on mesh spacing and boundary conditions. The mathematical development of ARC2D begins with the strong conservation law form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates, which admits shock capturing. The Navier-Stokes equations can be transformed from Cartesian coordinates to generalized curvilinear coordinates in a manner that permits one computational code to serve a wide variety of physical geometries and grid systems. ARC2D includes an algebraic mixing length model to approximate the effect of turbulence. In cases of high Reynolds number viscous flows, thin layer approximation can be applied. ARC2D allows for a variety of solutions to stability boundaries, such as those encountered in flows with shocks. The user has considerable flexibility in assigning geometry and developing grid patterns, as well as in assigning boundary conditions. However, the ARC2D model is most appropriate for attached and mildly separated boundary layers; no attempt is made to model wake regions and widely separated flows. The techniques have been successfully used for a variety of inviscid and viscous flowfield calculations. The Cray version of ARC2D is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Cray series computers and requires approximately 5Mb memory. The program is fully vectorized. The tape includes variations for the COS and UNICOS operating systems. Also included is a sample routine for CONVEX computers to emulate Cray system time calls, which should be easy to modify for other machines as well. The standard distribution media for this version is a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII Card Image format magnetic tape. The Cray version was developed in 1987. The IBM ES/3090 version is an IBM port of the Cray version. It is written in IBM VS FORTRAN and has the capability of executing in both vector and parallel modes on the MVS/XA operating system and in vector mode on the VM/XA operating system. Various options of the IBM VS FORTRAN compiler provide new features for the ES/3090 version, including 64-bit arithmetic and up to 2 GB of virtual addressability. The IBM ES/3090 version is available only as a 9-track, 1600 BPI IBM IEBCOPY format magnetic tape. The IBM ES/3090 version was developed in 1989. The DEC RISC ULTRIX version is a DEC port of the Cray version. It is written in FORTRAN 77 for RISC-based Digital Equipment platforms. The memory requirement is approximately 7Mb of main memory. It is available in UNIX tar format on TK50 tape cartridge. The port to DEC RISC ULTRIX was done in 1990. COS and UNICOS are trademarks and Cray is a registered trademark of Cray Research, Inc. IBM, ES/3090, VS FORTRAN, MVS/XA, and VM/XA are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. DEC and ULTRIX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.
ARC2D - EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHODS FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (CRAY VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, T. H.
1994-01-01
ARC2D is a computational fluid dynamics program developed at the NASA Ames Research Center specifically for airfoil computations. The program uses implicit finite-difference techniques to solve two-dimensional Euler equations and thin layer Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the Beam and Warming implicit approximate factorization algorithm in generalized coordinates. The methods are either time accurate or accelerated non-time accurate steady state schemes. The evolution of the solution through time is physically realistic; good solution accuracy is dependent on mesh spacing and boundary conditions. The mathematical development of ARC2D begins with the strong conservation law form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates, which admits shock capturing. The Navier-Stokes equations can be transformed from Cartesian coordinates to generalized curvilinear coordinates in a manner that permits one computational code to serve a wide variety of physical geometries and grid systems. ARC2D includes an algebraic mixing length model to approximate the effect of turbulence. In cases of high Reynolds number viscous flows, thin layer approximation can be applied. ARC2D allows for a variety of solutions to stability boundaries, such as those encountered in flows with shocks. The user has considerable flexibility in assigning geometry and developing grid patterns, as well as in assigning boundary conditions. However, the ARC2D model is most appropriate for attached and mildly separated boundary layers; no attempt is made to model wake regions and widely separated flows. The techniques have been successfully used for a variety of inviscid and viscous flowfield calculations. The Cray version of ARC2D is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Cray series computers and requires approximately 5Mb memory. The program is fully vectorized. The tape includes variations for the COS and UNICOS operating systems. Also included is a sample routine for CONVEX computers to emulate Cray system time calls, which should be easy to modify for other machines as well. The standard distribution media for this version is a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII Card Image format magnetic tape. The Cray version was developed in 1987. The IBM ES/3090 version is an IBM port of the Cray version. It is written in IBM VS FORTRAN and has the capability of executing in both vector and parallel modes on the MVS/XA operating system and in vector mode on the VM/XA operating system. Various options of the IBM VS FORTRAN compiler provide new features for the ES/3090 version, including 64-bit arithmetic and up to 2 GB of virtual addressability. The IBM ES/3090 version is available only as a 9-track, 1600 BPI IBM IEBCOPY format magnetic tape. The IBM ES/3090 version was developed in 1989. The DEC RISC ULTRIX version is a DEC port of the Cray version. It is written in FORTRAN 77 for RISC-based Digital Equipment platforms. The memory requirement is approximately 7Mb of main memory. It is available in UNIX tar format on TK50 tape cartridge. The port to DEC RISC ULTRIX was done in 1990. COS and UNICOS are trademarks and Cray is a registered trademark of Cray Research, Inc. IBM, ES/3090, VS FORTRAN, MVS/XA, and VM/XA are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. DEC and ULTRIX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
Hao Wu; Marine Thiébaut; Wei-Fan Hu; Alexander Farutin; Salima Rafaï; Ming-Chih Lai; Philippe Peyla; Chaouqi Misbah
2015-02-13
Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as well as scaling laws. This study raises the question of the relevance of these scenarios to complex situations encountered in vivo.
Quantum interference in 2D atomic-scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crommie, M. F.; Lutz, C. P.; Eigler, D. M.; Heller, E. J.
1996-07-01
Electrons occupying surface states on the close-packed faces of the noble metals form a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas that is accessible to the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Using a cryogenic STM, we have observed quantum mechanical interference patterns arising from 2D electrons on the surface of Cu. These interference patterns can be artificially controlled by arranging individual Fe atoms into "quantum corrals" on the Cu surface. Quantum corrals behave qualitatively like 2D hard-wall boxes, but a quantitative understanding is obtained within a multiple scattering formalism. The scattering here is characterized by a complex phase shift which can be extracted from the electronic density pattern near a quantum corral.
Diffraction from 2d Lenses in the ISM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stinebring, D.; Matters, J.; Hemberger, D.
2007-07-01
One explanation for extreme scattering events (quasar flux variations with ringing and an extended flux minimum lasting for weeks) is refraction by lens-like structures in the ISM. Prompted by this and intriguing features in pulsar scintillation arcs, we have used an e-m wave propagation code to explore the flux time signature expected for a 2d lens with a Gaussian column density profile.This builds on the work of Clegg, Fey, and Lazio (1998; CFL), but considers 2d rather than 1d lens structures and simulates the light curves with a wave optics approach. We find results that are consistent with CFL in many ways, but demonstrate a richer interference structure at entry and egress from the lens. Also, we do not see evidence for an inner caustic in these 2d simulations. It is possible that the inner caustic is an artifact of the 1d model that CFL analyzed.
Genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology of NKG2D ligands.
Carapito, Raphael; Bahram, Seiamak
2015-09-01
Human and mouse NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are absent or only poorly expressed by most normal cells but are upregulated by cell stress, hence, alerting the immune system in case of malignancy or infection. Although these ligands are numerous and highly variable (at genetic, genomic, structural, and biochemical levels), they all belong to the major histocompatibility complex class I gene superfamily and bind to a single, invariant, receptor: NKG2D. NKG2D (CD314) is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and subsets of T cells that have a key role in the recognition and lysis of infected and tumor cells. Here, we review the molecular diversity of NKG2DLs, discuss the increasing appreciation of their roles in a variety of medical conditions, and propose several explanations for the evolutionary force(s) that seem to drive the multiplicity and diversity of NKG2DLs while maintaining their interaction with a single invariant receptor. PMID:26284473
Simultaneous 2D strain sensing using polymer planar Bragg gratings.
Rosenberger, Manuel; Eisenbeil, Waltraud; Schmauss, Bernhard; Hellmann, Ralf
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG) fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain. PMID:25686313
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Microscale 2D separation systems for proteomic analysis
Xu, Xin; Liu, Ke; Fan, Z. Hugh
2012-01-01
Microscale 2D separation systems have been implemented in capillaries and microfabricated channels. They offer advantages of faster analysis, higher separation efficiency and less sample consumption than the conventional methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC) in a column and slab gel electrophoresis. In this article, we review their recent advancement, focusing on three types of platforms, including 2D capillary electrophoresis (CE), CE coupling with capillary LC, and microfluidic devices. A variety of CE and LC modes have been employed to construct 2D separation systems via sophistically designed interfaces. Coupling of different separation modes has also been realized in a number of microfluidic devices. These separation systems have been applied for the proteomic analysis of various biological samples, ranging from a single cell to tumor tissues. PMID:22462786
Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang
2010-07-01
This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.
A relaxation-assisted 2D IR spectroscopy method
Kurochkin, Dmitry V.; Naraharisetty, Sri Ram G.; Rubtsov, Igor V.
2007-01-01
A method of two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy called relaxation-assisted 2D IR (RA 2DIR) is proposed that utilizes vibrational energy relaxation transport in molecules to enhance cross-peak amplitudes. This method substantially increases the range of distances accessible by 2D IR and is capable of identifying long-range connectivity patterns in molecules. RA 2DIR is illustrated in interactions among CN and CO modes in 3-cyanocoumarin and 4-acetylbenzonitrile, where the distances between the CN and CO groups are ?3.1 and ?6.5 ?, respectively. A 6-fold increase in cross-peak amplitude was observed in 4-acetylbenzonitrile when the dual-frequency RA 2DIR method was used. PMID:17557837
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Anandaroop; Key, Kerry; Bodin, Thomas; Myer, David; Constable, Steven
2014-12-01
We apply a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to sample the Bayesian posterior model probability density function of 2-D seafloor resistivity as constrained by marine controlled source electromagnetic data. This density function of earth models conveys information on which parts of the model space are illuminated by the data. Whereas conventional gradient-based inversion approaches require subjective regularization choices to stabilize this highly non-linear and non-unique inverse problem and provide only a single solution with no model uncertainty information, the method we use entirely avoids model regularization. The result of our approach is an ensemble of models that can be visualized and queried to provide meaningful information about the sensitivity of the data to the subsurface, and the level of resolution of model parameters. We represent models in 2-D using a Voronoi cell parametrization. To make the 2-D problem practical, we use a source-receiver common midpoint approximation with 1-D forward modelling. Our algorithm is transdimensional and self-parametrizing where the number of resistivity cells within a 2-D depth section is variable, as are their positions and geometries. Two synthetic studies demonstrate the algorithm's use in the appraisal of a thin, segmented, resistive reservoir which makes for a challenging exploration target. As a demonstration example, we apply our method to survey data collected over the Scarborough gas field on the Northwest Australian shelf.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Monish R.; Feng, Le
2014-02-01
An analytic examination of 3D holography under a 90° recording geometry was carried out earlier in which 2D spatial Laplace transforms were introduced in order to develop transfer functions for the scattered outputs under readout [1,2]. Thereby, the resulting reconstructed output was obtained in the 2D Laplace domain whence the spatial information would be found only by performing a 2D Laplace inversion. Laplace inversion in 2D was attempted by testing a prototype function for which the analytic result was known using two known inversion algorithms, viz., the Brancik and the Abate [2]. The results indicated notable differences in the 3D plots between the algorithms and the analytic result, and hence were somewhat inconclusive. In this paper, we take a closer look at the Brancik algorithm in order to understand better the implications of the choices of key parameters such as the real and imaginary parts of the Bromwich contour and the grid sizes of the summation operations. To assess the inversion findings, three prototype test cases are considered for which the analytic solutions are known. For specific choices of the algorithm parameters, optimal values are determined that minimize errors in general. It is found that even though errors accumulate near the edges of the grid, overall reasonably accurate inversions are possible to obtain with optimal parameter choices that are verifiable via cross-sectional views. Further work is ongoing whereby the optimized algorithm is to be applied to the 3D holography problem.
Acoustic Receptivity of a Blasius Boundary Layer with 2-D and Oblique Surface Waviness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Rudolph A.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2000-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to examine acoustic receptivity and subsequent boundary-layer instability evolution for a Blasius boundary layer formed on a flat plate in the presence of two-dimensional (2-D) and oblique (3-D) surface waviness. The effect of the non-localized surface roughness geometry and acoustic wave amplitude on the receptivity process was explored. The surface roughness had a well defined wavenumber spectrum with fundamental wavenumber k (sub w). A planar downstream traveling acoustic wave was created to temporally excite the flow near the resonance frequency of an unstable eigenmode corresponding to k (sub ts) = k (sub w). The range of acoustic forcing levels, epsilon, and roughness heights, DELTA h, examined resulted in a linear dependence of receptivity coefficients; however, the larger values of the forcing combination epsilon dot DELTA h resulted in subsequent nonlinear development of the Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave. This study provided the first experimental evidence of a marked increase in the receptivity coefficient with increasing obliqueness of the surface waviness in excellent agreement with theory. Detuning of the 2-D and oblique disturbances was investigated by varying the streamwise wall-roughness wavenumber a,, and measuring the T-S response. For the configuration where laminar-to-turbulent breakdown occurred, the breakdown process was found to be dominated by energy at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies, indicative of K-type breakdown.
NOTE: Efficient implementation of the rank correlation merit function for 2D/3D registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figl, M.; Bloch, C.; Gendrin, C.; Weber, C.; Pawiro, S. A.; Hummel, J.; Markelj, P.; Pernuš, F.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.
2010-10-01
A growing number of clinical applications using 2D/3D registration have been presented recently. Usually, a digitally reconstructed radiograph is compared iteratively to an x-ray image of the known projection geometry until a match is achieved, thus providing six degrees of freedom of rigid motion which can be used for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy or computer-assisted interventions. Recently, stochastic rank correlation, a merit function based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was presented as a merit function especially suitable for 2D/3D registration. The advantage of this measure is its robustness against variations in image histogram content and its wide convergence range. The considerable computational expense of computing an ordered rank list is avoided here by comparing randomly chosen subsets of the DRR and reference x-ray. In this work, we show that it is possible to omit the sorting step and to compute the rank correlation coefficient of the full image content as fast as conventional merit functions. Our evaluation of a well-calibrated cadaver phantom also confirms that rank correlation-type merit functions give the most accurate results if large differences in the histogram content for the DRR and the x-ray image are present.
Efficient implementation of the rank correlation merit function for 2D/3D registration.
Figl, M; Bloch, C; Gendrin, C; Weber, C; Pawiro, S A; Hummel, J; Markelj, P; Pernus, F; Bergmann, H; Birkfellner, W
2010-10-01
A growing number of clinical applications using 2D/3D registration have been presented recently. Usually, a digitally reconstructed radiograph is compared iteratively to an x-ray image of the known projection geometry until a match is achieved, thus providing six degrees of freedom of rigid motion which can be used for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy or computer-assisted interventions. Recently, stochastic rank correlation, a merit function based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was presented as a merit function especially suitable for 2D/3D registration. The advantage of this measure is its robustness against variations in image histogram content and its wide convergence range. The considerable computational expense of computing an ordered rank list is avoided here by comparing randomly chosen subsets of the DRR and reference x-ray. In this work, we show that it is possible to omit the sorting step and to compute the rank correlation coefficient of the full image content as fast as conventional merit functions. Our evaluation of a well-calibrated cadaver phantom also confirms that rank correlation-type merit functions give the most accurate results if large differences in the histogram content for the DRR and the x-ray image are present. PMID:20844334
Efficient implementation of the rank correlation merit function for 2D/3D registration
Figl, M; Bloch, C; Gendrin, C; Weber, C; Pawiro, S A; Hummel, J; Markelj, P; Pernuš, F; Bergmann, H; Birkfellner, W
2010-01-01
A growing number of clinical applications using 2D/3D registration have been presented recently. Usually, a digitally reconstructed radiograph is compared iteratively to an x-ray image of the known projection geometry until a match is achieved, thus providing six degrees of freedom of rigid motion which can be used for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy or computer-assisted interventions. Recently, stochastic rank correlation, a merit function based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was presented as a merit function especially suitable for 2D/3D registration. The advantage of this measure is its robustness against variations in image histogram content and its wide convergence range. The considerable computational expense of computing an ordered rank list is avoided here by comparing randomly chosen subsets of the DRR and reference x-ray. In this work, we show that it is possible to omit the sorting step and to compute the rank correlation coefficient of the full image content as fast as conventional merit functions. Our evaluation of a well-calibrated cadaver phantom also confirms that rank correlation-type merit functions give the most accurate results if large differences in the histogram content for the DRR and the x-ray image are present. PMID:20844334
Magnetic properties of 2D nickel nanostrips: structure dependent magnetism and Stoner criterion.
Kashid, Vikas; Shah, Vaishali; Salunke, H G; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Blügel, Stefan
2015-08-12
We have investigated different geometries of two-dimensional (2D) infinite length Ni nanowires of increasing width using spin density functional theory calculations. Our simulations demonstrate that the parallelogram motif is the most stable and structures that incorporate the parallelogram motif are more stable as compared to rectangular structures. The wires are conducting and the conductance channels increase with increasing width. The wires have a non-linear behavior in the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance ratios (BAMR) with respect to the magnetization directions. All 2D nanowires as well as Ni (1 1 1) and Ni (1 0 0) monolayer investigated are ferromagnetic under the Stoner criterion and exhibit enhanced magnetic moments as compared to bulk Ni and the respective Ni monolayers. The easy axis for all nickel nanowires under investigation is observed to be along the wire axis. The double rectangular nanowire exhibits a magnetic anomaly with a smaller magnetic moment when compared to Ni (1 0 0) monolayer and is the only structure with an easy axis perpendicular to the wire axis. The Stoner parameter which has been known to be structure independent in bulk and surfaces is found to vary with the structure and the width of the nanowires. The less stable rectangular and rhombus shaped nanowires have a higher ferromagnetic strength than parallelogram shaped nanowires. PMID:26189771
Dual 2d CFT Identification of Extremal Black Rings from Holes
Ghodsi, Ahmad; Sheikh-Jabbari, M M
2013-01-01
Five dimensional Einstein gravity vacuum solutions in general fall into two classes of black rings with horizon topology S^2 \\times S^1, and black holes with horizon topology S^3. These solutions are specified by their mass and two spins. There are "overlapping" regions of this parameter space where one has extremal rings and holes of the same spins. We show that for such regions the hole has generically a larger entropy than the ring, and likewise, the central charge of the proposed chiral 2d CFT dual to the hole is larger than that of the ring. For special places of this overlapping region where one of the spins tends to zero, the entropies of the extremal ring and hole also tend to zero and essentially become equal. In this case we are dealing with Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH) black holes or rings. The near horizon geometry of the near-EVH hole and rings both contain locally AdS_3 throats, providing a basis for the EVH/CFT proposal, a 2d CFT description of the low energy excitations of EVH hole or ring...
Mitri, F G
2015-09-01
The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque. PMID:25773968
Magnetic properties of 2D nickel nanostrips: structure dependent magnetism and Stoner criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashid, Vikas; Shah, Vaishali; Salunke, H. G.; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Blügel, Stefan
2015-08-01
We have investigated different geometries of two-dimensional (2D) infinite length Ni nanowires of increasing width using spin density functional theory calculations. Our simulations demonstrate that the parallelogram motif is the most stable and structures that incorporate the parallelogram motif are more stable as compared to rectangular structures. The wires are conducting and the conductance channels increase with increasing width. The wires have a non-linear behavior in the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance ratios (BAMR) with respect to the magnetization directions. All 2D nanowires as well as Ni (1 1 1) and Ni (1 0 0) monolayer investigated are ferromagnetic under the Stoner criterion and exhibit enhanced magnetic moments as compared to bulk Ni and the respective Ni monolayers. The easy axis for all nickel nanowires under investigation is observed to be along the wire axis. The double rectangular nanowire exhibits a magnetic anomaly with a smaller magnetic moment when compared to Ni (1 0 0) monolayer and is the only structure with an easy axis perpendicular to the wire axis. The Stoner parameter which has been known to be structure independent in bulk and surfaces is found to vary with the structure and the width of the nanowires. The less stable rectangular and rhombus shaped nanowires have a higher ferromagnetic strength than parallelogram shaped nanowires.
An interactive 2-D power-line modeling and simulation tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, David; Adelman, Ross
2012-06-01
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Power-Line unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS) is a tool for estimating and analyzing quasi-static electric and magnetic fields due to power lines. This tool consists of an interactive 2-D graphical user interface (GUI) and a compute engine that can be used to calculate and visualize the E-Field and H-Field due to as many as seven conductors (two 3-phase circuits and a ground wire). ARL-PLUMS allows the user to set the geometry of the lines and the load conditions on those lines, and then calculate Ey, Ez, Hy, or Hz along a linear path or cutting plane, or in the form of a movie. The path can be along the ground or in the air to simulate the fields that might be observed, for example, by a robotic vehicle or a UAV. ARL-PLUMS makes several simplifying assumptions in order to allow simulations to be completed on a laptop PC interactively. In most cases, the results are excellent, providing a "90% solution" in just a few minutes of total modeling and simulation time. This paper describes the physics used by ARL-PLUMS, including the simplifying assumptions and the 2-D Method of Moments solver. Examples of electric and magnetic fields for different wire configurations, including typical 3-phase distribution and transmissions lines, are provided. Comparisons to similar results using a full 3-D model are also shown, and a discussion of errors that may be expected from the 2-D simulations is provided.
Turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block: thermal stability effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2013-04-01
Momentum and scalar transport in turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography has been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. The physical geometry of the topography, surface characteristics (e.g., roughness and temperature) and atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in momentum and scalar flux distribution. Numerous studies of flow over simplified topography, 2-D or 3-D blocks and sinusoidal hills have been conducted under neutral boundary-layer conditions. However, thermal stability effects are seldom taken into account due to the challenge of performing such laboratory simulations, for instance, wind-tunnel experiments. A limited number of experimental data sets are currently available, which severely hinders understanding of the underlying physics. Such data sets are also in high demand for development of new parameterization of surface fluxes and validation in numerical models such as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). We present an experimental investigation of neutral and thermally-stratified boundary-layer flows over a surface-mounted 2-D block at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory boundary-layer wind tunnel. The 2-D block, with a width to height ratio of 2:1, was fully immersed in the surface layer of the turbulent boundary layer. Thermal stratification conditions were achieved by independently controlling the temperature of both the air flow and the test section floor and block surfaces. Measurements were obtained, using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors, to quantify the thermal stability effects on the turbulent flow properties, especially the separation/recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures, the subsequent boundary layer recovery and spatial distribution of surface fluxes. This work aims to enhance our understanding of the thermal stability effects on the turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography, and provide a reliable database for validating and improving LES modeling.
2-D synthetic seismic and log cross sections from stratigraphic forward models
Shuster, M.W. (KSEPL (Shell Research), Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Aigner, T. (Universitat Tubingen (Germany))
1993-09-01
In an effort to fully utilize deterministic stratigraphic forward modeling techniques in subsurface stratigraphic analysis, Shell has developed a computer interface to routinely create synthetic logs and one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2-D) seismic responses from 2-D stratigraphic simulations. Each 2-D stratigraphic model can contain up to 200 timelines defining age equivalent stratigraphic layers with laterally variable lithofacies and depths. Synthetic gamma-ray, density, and velocity responses are calculated for the simulated lithofacies using user-specified rock and fluid properties. Vertically incident synthetic seismograms are created using calculated reflection coefficients and user-defined input wavelets. Because the chronostratigraphy is know a priori, log correlations and the interpolated seismic geometries follow timelines exactly. The power of this technique as an aid in sequence stratigraphic interpretations is shown from three case studies: (1) a simulation of an idealized clastic system assuming constant clastic input and sinusoidal fourth- and third-order sea level variations, (2) simulations of the Permian mixed clastic-carbonate infill of the Midland basin, and (3) a detailed simulation of one third-order carbonate depositional sequence (lower-middle San Andres Formation) from the Northwest Shelf, Permian basin. Some general conclusions form these case studies include the following: (a) seismic and well log-defined topsets, forests, bottom-sets, and related event terminations can be unequivocally related to relative sea level fluctuations; (b) Exxon-type sequence boundaries are not necessarily seismically imageable and their identification on well logs is not straight forward; and (c) buildups and lateral variations in amplitude related to lithofacies variations can be modeled. Synthetic logs and seismic sections from stratigraphic forward models may be useful in constraining interpretations of subsurface data and in stratigraphic prediction.
Quantitative microvascular corrosion casting by 2D- and 3D-morphometry.
Minnich, B; Bartel, H; Lametschwandtner, A
2001-01-01
As a system of tubes (blood vessels) the cardiovascular system changes actively and passively diameters to adapt its transport capacities for respiratory gases, nutrients, heat, metabolites and waste products to and off the body's organs, tissues and cells. In most healthy organs blood vessels form a hierarchically arranged three-dimensional network with the geometry defined by vessel diameters, interbranching distances (defining branching frequencies and number of branching sites, i.e. nodes), intervascular distances, and branching angles. In the present study 2D- and 3D-morphometry is applied to quantify these parameters and their changes as they occur in resin casts during metamorphosis of the tadpole lung (2D-morphometry) and filter apparatus vasculature (3D-morphometry). It is shown that 2D-morphometry should be limited to the analysis of high powered images of flat two-dimensional vascular networks (example: tadpole lung alveolar vascular bed) to prevent underestimation of parameters. In contrast, 3D-morphometry can be applied over a wide range of magnifications whereby accuracy of measurements increases with the portion the structure to be measured occupies within the field of view. Together with a careful control of precasting conditions (application of vasoactive drugs, anaesthetics), casting conditions (pressure during rinsing and casting, amount of final shrinkage of casting media), and postcasting conditions (thermal burdening during maceration, sputtering, evaporation, and SEM inspection; thickness of conductive metal layers) 3D-morphometry enables to gain reliable data from resin casts of highly complex real vascular networks in healthy and diseased organs in the developing, juvenile, adult and aged state, as well as in different physiological states. PMID:11729958
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it improves not only the interpretation, but also the quantification.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas
2014-06-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.
Synthesis of 2D materials in arc plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashurin, A.; Keidar, M.
2015-08-01
In this article we review recent efforts focused on synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) materials in an arc-plasma based process with particular focus on graphene. We present state-of-the-art experimental data on various attempts to employ the arc plasma technique for the graphene synthesis and consider growth mechanisms including precipitation, surface-catalyzed processes and a substrate-independent approach. The potential of arc synthesis for the growth of other types of 2D materials and future prospects are discussed.
CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lis, Dariusz C.; Wootten, Alwyn; Marcelino, Nuria; Cernicharo, Jose; Tercero, Belen
2013-10-01
CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of Kelvin, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+, and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.
A new parallel scan spectral SPR 2D sensing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Le; Ma, Suihua; He, Yonghong; Lu, Weiping; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Yaou; Guo, Jihua
2009-02-01
In this paper, a new parallel scan spectral surface plasmon resonance (SPR) 2D sensing system is presented. With a lineshaped light illumination, an image acquired with area CCD detector provides both SPR wavelength information and 1D spatial distribution. Thus, 2D distribution of refractive index of the entire sensing plane can be obtained with 1D optical line parallel scan. A refractive index distribution model and a manually dotted DNA array are measured with this system. The technology shows advantages of both high sensitivity and high throughput in these results, and could have potential applications in biochips analysis.
Exchange Frequencies in the 2D Wigner Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernu, B.; Cândido, Ladir; Ceperley, D. M.
2001-01-01
Using path integral Monte Carlo we have calculated exchange frequencies as electrons undergo ring exchanges in a ``clean'' 2D Wigner crystal as a function of density. The results show agreement with WKB calculations at very low density, but show a more rapid increase with density near melting. Remarkably, the exchange Hamiltonian closely resembles the measured exchanges in 2D 3He. Using the resulting multispin exchange model we find the spin Hamiltonian for rs<=175+/-10 is a frustrated antiferromagnetic; its likely ground state is a spin liquid. For lower density the ground state will be ferromagnetic.
Exchange frequencies in the 2D Wigner crystal.
Bernu, B; Cândido, L; Ceperley, D M
2001-01-29
Using path integral Monte Carlo we have calculated exchange frequencies as electrons undergo ring exchanges in a "clean" 2D Wigner crystal as a function of density. The results show agreement with WKB calculations at very low density, but show a more rapid increase with density near melting. Remarkably, the exchange Hamiltonian closely resembles the measured exchanges in 2D (3)He. Using the resulting multispin exchange model we find the spin Hamiltonian for r(s) < or = 175 +/- 10 is a frustrated antiferromagnetic; its likely ground state is a spin liquid. For lower density the ground state will be ferromagnetic. PMID:11177961
Exchange Frequencies in the 2d Wigner Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernu, B.; Cândido, Ladir; Ceperley, D. M.; Gianinetti, P.
2002-12-01
Path Integral Monte Carlo is used to calculate exchange frequencies as electrons undergo ring exchanges in a "clean" 2d Wigner crystal as a function of density. Agreement with WKB calculations is found at very low density, but the results show an enhanced increase with density near melting. Remarkably, the exchange Hamiltonian closely resembles the measured exchanges in 2d 3He. Using the resulting multi-spin exchange model we find the spin Hamiltonian for rs ? 175 ± 10 is a frustrated antiferromagnetic, with a spin liquid ground state. For lower density the ground state will be ferromagnetic. Some effects of a magnetic field are presented.
Exchange Frequencies in the 2d Wigner Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernu, B.; Gianinetti, P.; Cândido, Ladir; Ceperley, D. M.
Path Integral Monte Carlo is used to calculate exchange frequencies as electrons undergo ring exchanges in a "clean" 2d Wigner crystal as a function of density. Agreement with WKB calculations is found at very low density, but the results show an enhanced increase with density near melting. Remarkably, the exchange Hamiltonian closely resembles the measured exchanges in 2d 3He. Using the resulting multi-spin exchange model we find the spin Hamiltonian for rs ? 175 ± 10 is a frustrated antiferromagnetic, with a spin liquid ground state. For lower density the ground state will be ferromagnetic. Some effects of a magnetic field are presented.
Experimental validation of equations for 2D DIC uncertainty quantification.
Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.
2010-03-01
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) equations have been derived for predicting matching uncertainty in two-dimensional image correlation a priori. These equations include terms that represent the image noise and image contrast. Researchers at the University of South Carolina have extended previous 1D work to calculate matching errors in 2D. These 2D equations have been coded into a Sandia National Laboratories UQ software package to predict the uncertainty for DIC images. This paper presents those equations and the resulting error surfaces for trial speckle images. Comparison of the UQ results with experimentally subpixel-shifted images is also discussed.
On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems
Ji, X. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
1996-06-01
The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez; Wang-Kong Tse; Diego A. R. Dalvit
2015-07-29
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-06-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703
Integrability from 2d {N}=(2,2) dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Masahito; Yan, Wenbin
2015-10-01
We study integrable models in the context of the recently discovered Gauge/YBE correspondence, where the Yang–Baxter equation (YBE) is promoted to a duality between two supersymmetric gauge theories. We study flavored elliptic genus of 2d {N}=(2,2) quiver gauge theories, which are defined from statistical lattices regarded as quiver diagrams. Our R-matrices are written in terms of theta functions and simplify considerably when the gauge groups at the quiver nodes are Abelian. We also discuss the modularity properties of the R-matrix, reduction of 2d index to 1d Witten index, and string theory realizations of our theories.
Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug
2014-07-01
The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693
Machine Learning Applied in 2D Parasitic Extraction
Li, Zhixing
2014-12-15
geometry to predict the parasitic capacitance based on machine learning. A simplification algorithm is proposed to reduce the number of conductors for quicker and easier regression modeling and the regression models can improve by machine learning technique...
Noncommutative Geometry and Physics
Connes, Alain
2006-11-03
In this very short essay we shall describe a 'spectral' point of view on geometry which allows to start taking into account the lessons from both renormalization and of general relativity. We shall first do that for renormalization and explain in rough outline the content of our recent collaborations with Dirk Kreimer and Matilde Marcolli leading to the universal Galois symmetry of renormalizable quantum field theories provided by the renormalization group in its cosmic Galois group incarnation. As far as general relativity is concerned, since the functional integral cannot be treated in the traditional perturbative manner, it relies heavily as a 'sum over geometries' on the chosen paradigm of geometric space. This will give us the occasion to discuss, in the light of noncommutative geometry, the issue of 'observables' in gravity and our joint work with Ali Chamseddine on the spectral action, with a first attempt to write down a functional integral on the space of noncommutative geometries.
Proof in Transformation Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, A. W.
1971-01-01
The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)
Complex Geometry and Supersymmetry
Ulf Lindstrom
2012-04-03
I stress how the form of sigma models with (2, 2) supersymmetry differs depending on the number of manifest supersymmetries. The differences correspond to different aspects/formulations of Generalized K\\"ahler Geometry.
Special Bohr - Sommerfeld geometry
Nikolay A. Tyurin
2015-08-27
We present a new approach to special lagrangian geometry which works for Bohr - Sommerfeld lagrangian submanifolds of symplectic manifolds with integer symplectic forms. This leads to construction of finite dimensional moduli spaces of SBS lagrangian cycles over algebraic varieties.
Algebraic Geometry Jean Gallier
Gallier, Jean
, 2011 #12;2 #12;Contents 1 Elementary Algebraic Geometry 7 1.1 History and Problems.2 Projective Fibre Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 7.3 Projective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 7.5 Finiteness Theorems for Projective Morphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 7.6 Serre
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emenaker, Charles E.
1999-01-01
Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)
Unsolved Problems in Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steen, Lynn Arthur
1979-01-01
Describes some unsolved problems in geometry, as well as some recently solved ones. Indicates that each advance generates more problems than it solves, thus ensuring a constant growth in unsolved problems. (GA)
Radioligand receptor assay for 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 and 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2/D3.
Hughes, M R; Baylink, D J; Jones, P G; Haussler, M R
1976-07-01
A competitive protein binding assay for measurement of the plasma concentration of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3] has been extended to include the immediate precursor of this hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3). In addition, the assay system is capable of measuring the two metabolic products of ergocalciferol, namely. 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25-OHD2) and 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [1alpha, 25-(OH)2D2]. The target tissue assay system consists of a high affinity cytosol receptor protein that binds the vitamin D metabolites and a limited number of acceptor sites on the nuclear chromatin. By utilizing a series of chromatographic purification steps, a single plasma sample can be assayed for any of the four vitamin D metabolites either individually or combined. Therefore, the assay procedure allows for both the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the total active vitamin D level in a given plasma sample. To show that the binding assay was capable of measuring 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D2 as well as 1alpha, 25 (OH)2D3, two groups of rats were raised. One group, supplemented with vitamin D3, produced assayable material that represented 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. The other group, fed only vitamin D2 in the diet, yielded plasma containing only 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D2 as the hormonal form of the vitamin. The circulating concentrations of the two active sterols were nearly identical (15 ng/100 ml) in both groups, indicating that the competitive binding assay can be used to measure both hormonal forms in plasma. In a separate experiment, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D2 was generated in an in vitro kidney homogenate system using 25-OHD2 as substrate. Comparison of this sterol with 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 in the assay system showed very similar binding curves; the D2 form was slightly less efficient (77%). Comparison of the respective 25-hydroxy forms (25-OHD2 vs. 25-OHD3) at concentrations 500-fold that of 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, again suggested that the binding of the D2 metabolite was slightly less efficient (71%). Finally, the assay was employed to measure the total active vitamin D metabolite pools in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with varying degrees of hypervitaminosis D. The normal plasma levels of 25-OHD and 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D measured in Tucson adults were 25-40 ng/ml and 2.1-4.5 ng/100 ml, respectively. Both sterols were predominately (greater than 90%) in the form of vitamin D3 metabolites in this environment. Typical cases of hypervitaminosis D exhibited approximately a 15-fold increase in the plasma 25-OHD concentration, and a dramatic changeover to virtually all metabolites existing in the form of D2 vitamins. In contrast, the circulating concentration of 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D was not substantially enhanced in vitamin D-intoxicated patients. We therefore conclude that hypervitaminosis D is not a result of abnormal plasma levels of 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D but may be cuased by an excessive circulating concentration of 25-OHD. PMID:1084355
Shim, Sang-Hee; Zanni, Martin T.
2010-01-01
We have recently developed a new and simple way of collecting 2D infrared and visible spectra that utilizes a pulse shaper and a partly collinear beam geometry. 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies are powerful tools for studying molecular structures and their dynamics. They can be used to correlate vibrational or electronic eigenstates, measure energy transfer rates, and quantify the dynamics of lineshapes, for instance, all with femtosecond time-resolution. As a result, they are finding use in systems that exhibit fast dynamics, such as sub-millisecond chemical and biological dynamics, and in hard-to-study environments, such as in membranes. While powerful, these techniques have been difficult to implement because they require a series of femtosecond pulses to be spatially and temporally overlapped with precise time-resolution and interferometric phase stability. However, many of the difficulties associated with implementing 2D spectroscopies are eliminated by using a pulse shaper and a simple beam geometry, which substantially lowers the technical barriers required for researchers to enter this exciting field while simultaneously providing many new capabilities. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the methods for collecting 2D spectra so that an outsider considering using 2D spectroscopy in their own research can judge which approach would be most suitable for their research aims. This paper focuses primarily on 2D IR spectroscopy, but also includes our recent work on adapting this technology to collecting 2D Vis spectra. We review work that has already been published as well as cover several topics that we have not reported previously, including phase cycling methods to remove background signals, eliminate unwanted scatter, and shift data collection into the rotating frame. PMID:19290321
Investigations of flowfields found in typical combustor geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.
1982-01-01
Experimental and theoretical research undertaken on 2-D axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions is reported. The flow enters the test section and proceeds into a larger chamber (the expansion ratio D/d = 2) via a sudden or gradual expansion (sidewall angle alpha = 90 and 45 degrees). Inlet swirl vanes are adjustable to a variety of vane angles with values of phi = 0, 38, 45, 60 and 70 degrees being emphasized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAteer, R. T. J.
2013-06-01
When Mandelbrot, the father of modern fractal geometry, made this seemingly obvious statement he was trying to show that we should move out of our comfortable Euclidean space and adopt a fractal approach to geometry. The concepts and mathematical tools of fractal geometry provides insight into natural physical systems that Euclidean tools cannot do. The benet from applying fractal geometry to studies of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) are even greater. SOC and fractal geometry share concepts of dynamic n-body interactions, apparent non-predictability, self-similarity, and an approach to global statistics in space and time that make these two areas into naturally paired research techniques. Further, the iterative generation techniques used in both SOC models and in fractals mean they share common features and common problems. This chapter explores the strong historical connections between fractal geometry and SOC from both a mathematical and conceptual understanding, explores modern day interactions between these two topics, and discusses how this is likely to evolve into an even stronger link in the near future.
Matrix Models and 2D Critical String Theory --2D Black Hole by c=1 Matrix Model--
Tamiaki Yoneya
1992-11-18
(Lecture at the workshop "Basic Problems in String Theory", Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto, October 19-21) In this talk, we first review the possibility of matrix models toward a nonperturbative (critical) string theory. We then discuss whether the $c=1$ matrix model can describe the black hole solution of 2D critical string theory. We show that there exists a class of integral transformations which send the Virasoro condition for the tachyon field around the 2D black hole to that around the linear dilaton vacuum. In particular, we construct an explicit integral formula wihich describes a continuous deformation of the linear dilaton vacuum to the black hole background.
A community benchmark for viscoplastic thermal convection in a 2-D square box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tosi, N.; Stein, C.; Noack, L.; Hüttig, C.; Maierová, P.; Samuel, H.; Davies, D. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Thieulot, C.; Glerum, A.; Fraters, M.; Spakman, W.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.
2015-07-01
Numerical simulations of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle often employ a pseudoplastic rheology in order to mimic the plate-like behavior of the lithosphere. Yet the benchmark tests available in the literature are largely based on simple linear rheologies in which the viscosity is either assumed to be constant or weakly dependent on temperature. Here we present a suite of simple tests based on nonlinear rheologies featuring temperature, pressure, and strain rate-dependent viscosity. Eleven different codes based on the finite volume, finite element, or spectral methods have been used to run five benchmark cases leading to stagnant lid, mobile lid, and periodic convection in a 2-D square box. For two of these cases, we also show resolution tests from all contributing codes. In addition, we present a bifurcation analysis, describing the transition from a mobile lid regime to a periodic regime, and from a periodic regime to a stagnant lid regime, as a function of the yield stress. At a resolution of around 100 cells or elements in both vertical and horizontal directions, all codes reproduce the required diagnostic quantities with a discrepancy of at most ˜3% in the presence of both linear and nonlinear rheologies. Furthermore, they consistently predict the critical value of the yield stress at which the transition between different regimes occurs. As the most recent mantle convection codes can handle a number of different geometries within a single solution framework, this benchmark will also prove useful when validating viscoplastic thermal convection simulations in such geometries.
2D Unstructured Finite Volume Lattice Boltzmann Model for Flow with Complex Geometric Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Leitao; Schaefer, Laura
2013-11-01
Many of the numerical issues of LBM (lattice Boltzmann method) are not yet fully solved. One of the issues is its inability of handling complex geometric boundaries. Some published work, which is based on collision-streaming discretization of the LBE and corresponding lattice-like mesh, introduced successful treatments for curved boundaries. However, those schemes are not applicable to the boundaries with large curvature like porous media since the lattice-like mesh is not able to recognize it. In order to solve this issue, a 2D FVM (finite volume method)-based numerical framework is proposed, which completely uncouples the lattice structure and the spatial discretization and therefore brings the freedom of using any type of lattice structure while keeping the basic framework unchanged. The model is solved on an unstructured triangular mesh and triangular control volume. Boundary schemes of isothermal and thermal flow for the new numerical framework are also studied. Finally, a variety of isothermal and thermal flow problems are simulated and compared with other work. The proposed model can simulate the flow with a complex geometry to the desired accuracy in addition to complementing the simple geometry of the existing LB model.
Holographic Entanglement Entropy from 2d CFT: Heavy States and Local Quenches
Curtis T. Asplund; Alice Bernamonti; Federico Galli; Thomas Hartman
2014-10-22
We consider the entanglement entropy in 2d conformal field theory in a class of excited states produced by the insertion of a heavy local operator. These include both high-energy eigenstates of the Hamiltonian and time-dependent local quenches. We compute the universal contribution from the stress tensor to the single interval Renyi entropies and entanglement entropy, and conjecture that this dominates the answer in theories with a large central charge and a sparse spectrum of low-dimension operators. The resulting entanglement entropies agree precisely with holographic calculations in three-dimensional gravity. High-energy eigenstates are dual to microstates of the BTZ black hole, so the corresponding holographic calculation is a geodesic length in the black hole geometry; agreement between these two answers demonstrates that entanglement entropy thermalizes in individual microstates of holographic CFTs. For local quenches, the dual geometry is a highly boosted black hole or conical defect. On the CFT side, the rise in entanglement entropy after a quench is directly related to the monodromy of a Virasoro conformal block.
Fast Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Reconstruction for 2D SPECT
Fast Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Reconstruction for 2D SPECT P. Khurd, Student Member, IEEE-- To be clinically useful, reconstruction in SPECT should be accomplished rapidly and also result in good image methods that has been used for SPECT are gradient methods, wherein at each iteration, a search direction
A Meshless Method for Variational Nonrigid 2-D Shape Registration
Ribeiro, Eraldo
A Meshless Method for Variational Nonrigid 2-D Shape Registration Wei Liu and Eraldo Ribeiro to a variational functional. Secondly, we in- troduce a meshless deformation model that can adapt computation and a meshless deformation model. Shape registration is an ill-posed problem as there can be many ambiguous
Procter & Gamble Co. 379 F.2d 675
Shamos, Michael I.
Morrissey v. Procter & Gamble Co. 379 F.2d 675 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit June, Procter & Gamble Company, infringed, by copying, almost precisely, Rule 1. In its motion for summary of 2Morrissey v. Proctor & Gamble Co. 9/26/2007http
Detection of N2D+ in a Protoplanetary Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.
2015-08-01
Observations of deuterium fractionation in the solar system, and in interstellar and circumstellar material, are commonly used to constrain the formation environment of volatiles. Toward protoplanetary disks, this approach has been limited by the small number of detected deuterated molecules, i.e., DCO+ and DCN. Based on ALMA Cycle 2 observations toward the disk around the T Tauri star AS 209, we report the first detection of N2D+ (J = 3–2) in a protoplanetary disk. These data are used together with previous Submillimeter Array observations of N2H+ (J = 3–2) to estimate a disk-averaged D/H ratio of 0.3–0.5, an order of magnitude higher than disk-averaged ratios previously derived for DCN/HCN and DCO+/HCO+ around other young stars. The high fractionation in N2H+ is consistent with model predictions. The presence of abundant N2D+ toward AS 209 also suggests that N2D+ and the N2D+/N2H+ ratio can be developed into effective probes of deuterium chemistry, kinematics, and ionization processes outside the CO snow line of disks.
Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code
Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. (HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States))
1991-10-01
This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.
Vortex Crystals from 2D Euler Flow: Experiment and Simulation
California at San Diego, University of
Chapter 4 Vortex Crystals from 2D Euler Flow: Experiment and Simulation 4.1 Introduction in a lower vorticity 123 #12; 124 3 1 vorticity (10 sec ) 3 300 30 Figure 4.1: Vortex crystals observed in magnetized electron columns [9]. The color map is logarithmic. This figure shows vortex crystals with (from
Stability Enhancement by Boundary Control in 2D Channel Flow
Andras Balogh; WeiñJiu Liu; Miroslav Krstic
2000-01-01
In this paper we stabilize the parabolic equilibrium prole in a 2D channel o w using ac- tuators and sensors only at the wall. The control of channel o w was previously considered by Speyer and coworkers, and Bewley and coworkers, who derived feedback laws based on lin- ear optimal control, and implemented by wallñnormal actuation. With an objective to
Development of a 2-D 2-group neutron noise simulator
DemaziÃ¨re, Christophe
absorber'' type of noise source can also be determined. Different benchmark cases show that this neutronDevelopment of a 2-D 2-group neutron noise simulator C. Demazie` re* Chalmers University August 2003 Abstract In this paper, the development of a so-called neutron noise simulator is reported
Motion indicators in the 2D standard map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Süli, Á.
2006-09-01
In this article four motion (chaos) indicators were analyzed and compared using the framework of the 2D standard map. These indicators, namely the LCE, FLI, RLI and SALI may provide a global picture of the phase space. Until now a detailed comparison of these methods have not been performed. To supersede this imperfection is the aim of the present paper.
Creation of a scalar potential in 2D dilaton gravity
Behrndt, K.
1994-09-01
The authors investigate quantum corrections of the 2-d dilaton gravity near the singularity. Their motivation comes from a s-wave reduced cosmological solution which is classically singular in the scalar fields (dilaton and moduli). As a result they find, that the singularity disappears and a dilaton/moduli potential is created.
INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED 2D ELECTROPHORESIS GELS
Adali, Tulay
INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED 2D ELECTROPHORESIS GELS Nicolle Correat, Haleh Safavit differentially expressed pro- teins in simulated two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gels us- ing spatial in the spatial domain. 1. INTRODUCTION Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gel has been widely used to separate
Kinematics of segregating granular mixtures in quasi-2D heaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yi; Umbanhowar, Paul; Ottino, Julio; Lueptow, Richard
2012-11-01
Segregation of granular mixtures of different sized particles in heap flow appears in a variety of contexts. Our recent experiments showed that when bi-disperse mixtures of different sized spherical particles fill a quasi-two dimensional (2D) silo, three different final heap configurations - stratified, segregated, and mixed - occur, depending on either 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity. However, since it is difficult to measure the kinematic details of the segregating granular mixtures in heap flow experimentally, the underlying mechanisms for how 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity influences final particle configurations have not been well understood. In this work, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate heap flow of bi-disperse mixtures in experimental scale quasi-2D heaps. The final particle distributions in the simulations agree quantitatively with experiments. We measure several key kinematic properties of the segregating granular mixtures including the local flow rate, velocity, and flowing layer thickness. We correlate the characteristics of these kinematic properties with the local particle distributions of the mixtures. This provides new insights for understanding the mechanisms of segregation and stratification in heap flow including the linear decrease in flow rate and maximum velocity down the heap as well as the relatively constant flowing layer thickness along the length of the heap. Funded by Dow Chemical Co.
2D signature for detection and identification of drugs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei
2011-06-01
The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.
2D SNS junction with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
Fominov, Yakov
2D SNS junction with Rashba spin-orbit interaction Ol'ga V. Dimitrova and M. V. Feigel'man #12 interaction #12;Hamiltonian of the SNS system #12;Main results Andreev energy is determined via supercurrent in the SNS junction Taking into account of the electron-electron interaction: a supercurrent
3D-2D SPATIOTEMPORAL REGISTRATION FOR HUMAN MOTION ANALYSIS
Leow, Wee Kheng
's motion. The proposed research problem is by nature very complex. In this thesis, we formulate sports3D-2D SPATIOTEMPORAL REGISTRATION FOR HUMAN MOTION ANALYSIS WANG RUIXUAN A THESIS SUBMITTED;Abstract Computer systems are increasingly being used to assist coaches in sports coaching. There are two
Detection of N$_2$D$^+$ in a protoplanetary disk
Huang, Jane
2015-01-01
Observations of deuterium fractionation in the solar system, and in interstellar and circumstellar material, are commonly used to constrain the formation environment of volatiles. Toward protoplanetary disks, this approach has been limited by the small number of detected deuterated molecules, i.e. DCO$^+$ and DCN. Based on ALMA Cycle 2 observations toward the disk around the T Tauri star AS 209, we report the first detection of N$_2$D$^+$ (J=3-2) in a protoplanetary disk. These data are used together with previous Submillimeter Array observations of N$_2$H$^+$ (J=3-2) to estimate a disk-averaged D/H ratio of 0.3--0.5, an order of magnitude higher than disk-averaged ratios previously derived for DCN/HCN and DCO$^+$/HCO$^+$ around other young stars. The high fractionation in N$_2$H$^+$ is consistent with model predictions. The presence of abundant N$_2$D$^+$ toward AS 209 also suggests that N$_2$D$^+$ and the N$_2$D$^+$/N$_2$H$^+$ ratio can be developed into effective probes of deuterium chemistry, kinematics, ...
Ultralow Electron Temperatures in 2D Electron Gases
Zumbühl, Dominik
Ultralow Electron Temperatures in 2D Electron Gases by efficient silver sinter heat exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4 Materials and Methods 16 4.1 Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers in the cryostat, the mixing chamber. A new mixing chamber was designed into which 16 silver sinter heat exchangers
THz devices based on 2D electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Huili Grace; Yan, Rusen; Song, Bo; Encomendero, Jimy; Jena, Debdeep
2015-05-01
In two-dimensional electron systems with mobility on the order of 1,000 - 10,000 cm2/Vs, the electron scattering time is about 1 ps. For the THz window of 0.3 - 3 THz, the THz photon energy is in the neighborhood of 1 meV, substantially smaller than the optical phonon energy of solids where these 2D electron systems resides. These properties make the 2D electron systems interesting as a platform to realize THz devices. In this paper, I will review 3 approaches investigated in the past few years in my group toward THz devices. The first approach is the conventional high electron mobility transistor based on GaN toward THz amplifiers. The second approach is to employ the tunable intraband absorption in 2D electron systems to realize THz modulators, where I will use graphene as a model material system. The third approach is to exploit plasma wave in these 2D electron systems that can be coupled with a negative differential conductance element for THz amplifiers/sources/detectors.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
Illustrating the Streaming Construction of 2D Delaunay Triangulations
California at Berkeley, University of
Illustrating the Streaming Construction of 2D Delaunay Triangulations Martin Isenburg Comp. Sci, languages, and systems General Terms: Algorithms Keywords: streaming computation, out-of-core computation in sensor technology support the collection of data sets far larger than the memory capacity of a personal
Graphene band structure and its 2D Raman mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narula, Rohit; Reich, Stephanie
2014-08-01
High-precision simulations are used to generate the 2D Raman mode of graphene under a range of screening conditions and laser energies EL. We reproduce the decreasing trend of the 2D mode FWHM vs EL and the nearly linearly increasing dispersion ??2D/?EL seen experimentally in freestanding (unscreened) graphene, and propose relations between these experimentally accessible quantities and the local, two-dimensional gradients |? | of the electronic and TO phonon bands. In light of state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations that acutely treat the long-range e-e interactions of isolated graphene and its experimentally observed 2D Raman mode, our calculations determine a 40% greater slope of the TO phonons about K than given by explicit phonon measurements performed in graphite or GW phonon calculations in graphene. We also deduce the variation of the broadening energy ? [EL] for freestanding graphene and find a nominal value ? ˜140 meV, showing a gradually increasing trend for the range of frequencies available experimentally.
Implicit Adaptive Mesh Refinement for 2D Reduced Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics
Bobby Philip; Luis Chacon; Michael Pernice
2007-01-01
An implicit structured-adaptive-mesh-refinement (SAMR) solver for 2D reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described. The time-implicit discretization is able to step over fast normal modes, while the spatial adaptivity resolves thin, dynamically evolving features. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method is used for the nonlinear solver engine. For preconditioning, we have extended the optimal \\
SINGULAR BOHR-SOMMERFELD RULES FOR 2D INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS
SINGULAR BOHR-SOMMERFELD RULES FOR 2D INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS Yves Colin de Verdi#18;ere #3;; #3://www-fourier.ujf-grenoble.fr/prepublications.html Abstract In this paper, we describe Bohr-Sommerfeld rules for semi-classical completely integrable systems-classical Bohr-Sommerfeld rules match very accurately the \\purely quantum" computations. Keywords: eigenvalues
2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas
T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-07-08
By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.
INVERSE DESIGN OF 2-D AIRFOIL VIA VIBRATIONAL GENETIC ALGORITHM
Y. Volkan PEHLIVANOGLU; Abdurrahman HACIOGLU
Within this study, it is aimed to provide an efficient algorithm for inverse design of 2-D airfoil in different flow conditions. For this purpose, as a stochastic search method, current vibrational genetic algorithm (VGA) is improved and used to accelerate the algorithm for inverse design. From the results obtained, it is concluded that VGA decreased the required time for optimal
Shed NKG2D ligand boosts NK cell immunity.
Narni-Mancinelli, Emilie; Vivier, Eric
2015-06-01
Ligands for natural killer (NK) cell activating receptors can be released from tumor cells and are believed to promote tumor growth by acting as decoys for effector lymphocytes. In a recent paper published in Science, Deng et al. report another scenario in which a shed form of the MULT1 mouse NKG2D ligand boosts NK cell functions. PMID:25849247
Model based phase unwrapping of 2-D signals
Benjamin Friedlander; J. M. Francos
1996-01-01
A parametric model and a corresponding parameter estimation algorithm for unwrapping 2-D phase functions are presented. The proposed algorithm performs global analysis of the observed signal. Since this analysis is based on parametric model fitting, the proposed phase unwrapping algorithm has low sensitivity to phase aliasing due to low sampling rates and noise, as well as to local errors. In
Consistent 2-D phase unwrapping guided by a quality map
Thomas J. Flynn
1996-01-01
The problem of 2D phase unwrapping arises when a spatially varying quantity is measured module some period. One needs to reconstruct a smooth unwrapped phase, consistent with the original data, by adding a multiple of the period to each sample. Smoothness typically cannot be enforced over all of the scene, due to noise and localized jumps. An unwrapping algorithm may
Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors
Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B
2015-01-01
The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.
2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications
2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications Jacob Lercke Skytte Kongens Lyngby 2014 Ph an exploratory study in relation to dairy based applications, with a major emphasis on the microstructure within dairy production. First, the underlying theo- retical concepts is introduced alongside the applied
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)
US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...
Relaxation and 3d-2d passage theorems in hyperelasticity
Hafsa, Omar Anza
2011-01-01
We give an overview of relaxation and 3d-2d passage theorems in hyperelasticity in the framework of the multidimensional calculus of variations. Some open questions are addressed. This paper, which is an expanded version of the outline-paper [AHM09b], comes as a companion to [AHM09a].
Immobilizing 2D Serial Chains in Form Closure Grasps
Rimon, Elon
Immobilizing 2D Serial Chains in Form Closure Grasps Technical Report Elon Rimon Dept. of ME research area in robotics. This paper explores the problem by studying the immobilization of serial chains. In earlier work we established that any serial chain of n = 3 polygons without parallel edges can
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
Combined Wronskian solutions to the 2D Toda molecule equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wen-Xiu
2011-10-01
By combining two pieces of bi-directional Wronskian solutions, molecule solutions in Wronskian form are presented for the finite, semi-infinite and infinite bilinear 2D Toda molecule equations. In the cases of finite and semi-infinite lattices, separated-variable boundary conditions are imposed. The Jacobi identities for determinants are the key tool employed in the solution formulations.
Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors
Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al
2015-01-01
The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmore »process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.« less
ADVANCES IN 2-D CORRELATION IN NIR SPECTROSCOPY
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Two-dimensional (2-D) vibrational correlation spectroscopy has now advanced to the stage of realizing many of its touted advantages. Those advantages primarily are: elucidation of chemical interactions of functional groups, simplification of complex spectra, enhancement of spectral resolution by sp...
2D and 3D Elasticity Imaging Using Freehand Ultrasound
Drummond, Tom
2D and 3D Elasticity Imaging Using Freehand Ultrasound Joel Edward Lindop Pembroke College March to mechanical properties (e.g., stiffness) to which conventional forms of ultrasound, X-ray and magnetic that occur between the acquisition of multiple ultrasound images. Likely applications include improved
Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)
2015-08-04
Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Mike; Weidemann, Michaela; Kloes, Alexander; Iñíguez, Benjamín
2010-11-01
In this paper we present a new way to calculate the electrostatic potential of Schottky barrier Double-Gate MOSFETs (SB-DG-MOSFET) in subthreshold region. Compared to the most existing models, our model does not introduce any kind of fitting parameters, all parameters depend on geometry and boundary conditions. This is beneficial for its advantage application in circuit simulations. We solve 2D Poisson equation in an analytical closed-form with the conformal mapping technique. The model is compared with data simulated by TCAD Sentaurus for channel lengths down to 22 nm and is in good agreement to this simulation results.
The Anglo-Australian Observatory's 2dF Facility
I. J. Lewis; R. D. Cannon; K. Taylor; K. Glazebrook; J. A. Bailey; I. K. Baldry; J. R. Barton; T. J. Bridges; G. B. Dalton; T. J. Farrell; P. M. Gray; A. Lankshear; C. McCowage; I. R. Parry; R. M. Sharples; K. Shortridge; G. A. Smith; J. Stevenson; J. O. Straede; L. G. Waller; J. D. Whittard; J. K. Wilcox; K. C. Willis
2002-02-08
The 2dF (Two-degree Field) facility at the prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides multiple object spectroscopy over a 2 degree field of view. Up to 400 target fibres can be independently positioned by a complex robot. Two spectrographs provide spectra with resolutions of between 500 and 2000, over wavelength ranges of 440nm and 110nm respectively. The 2dF facility began routine observations in 1997. 2dF was designed primarily for galaxy redshift surveys and has a number of innovative features. The large corrector lens incorporates an atmospheric dispersion compensator, essential for wide wavelength coverage with small diameter fibres. The instrument has two full sets of fibres on separate field plates, so that re-configuring can be done in parallel with observing. The robot positioner places one fibre every 6 seconds, to a precision of 0.3 arcsec (20micron) over the full field. All components of 2dF, including the spectrographs, are mounted on a 5-m diameter telescope top-end ring for ease of handling and to keep the optical fibres short in order to maximise UV throughput . There is a pipeline data reduction system which allows each data set to be fully analysed while the next field is being observed. In this paper we provide the historical background to the 2dF facility, the design philosophy, a full technical description and a summary of the performance of the instrument. We also briefly review its scientific applications and possible future developments.
Priority-based task reassignments in hierarchical 2D mesh-connected systems using tableaux
Dohan Kim
2011-01-01
Task reassignments in 2D mesh-connected systems (2D-MSs) have been researched and simulated for several decades. We propose a hierarchical 2D mesh-connected system (2D-HMS) in order to exploit the regular nature of a 2D-MS. In our approach priority-based task assignments and reassignments in a 2D-HMS are represented by tableaux and their algorithms. We provide examples of priority-based task reassignments in a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiflu, H. G.; Kruse, S. E.; Harro, D.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.
2013-12-01
Electrical resistivity tomography is commonly used to identify geologic features associated with sinkhole formation. In covered karst terrain, however, it can be difficult to resolve the depth to top of limestone with this method. This is due to the fact that array lengths, and hence depth of resolution, are often limited by residential or commercial lot dimensions in urban environments. Furthermore, the sediments mantling the limestone are often clay-rich and highly conductive. The resistivity method has limited sensitivity to resistive zones beneath conductive zones. This sensitivity can be improved significantly with electrodes implanted at depth in the cover sediments near the top of limestone. An array of deep electrodes is installed with direct push technology in the karst cover. When combined with a surface array in which each surface electrode is underlain by a deep electrode, the array geometry is similar to a borehole array turned on its side. This method, called the Multi-Electrode Resistivity Implant Technique (MERIT), offers the promise of significantly improved resolution of epikarst and cover collapse development zones in the overlying sediment, the limestone or at the sediment-bedrock interface in heterogeneous karst environments. With a non-traditional array design, the question of optimal array geometries arises. Optimizing array geometries is complicated by the fact that many plausible 4-electrode readings will produce negative apparent resistivity values, even in homogeneous terrain. Negative apparent resistivities cannot be used in inversions based on the logarithm of the apparent resistivity. New algorithms for seeking optimal array geometries have been developed by modifying the 'Compare R' method of Wilkinson and Loke. The optimized arrays show significantly improved resolution over basic arrays adapted from traditional 2D surface geometries. Several MERIT case study surveys have been conducted in covered karst in west-central Florida, with 28-electrode arrays with electrodes 2-5 meters apart, and the deep arrays buried at 4-8 meters depth. Ground penetrating radar surveys, SPT borings and coring data provide selected 'ground truthing'. The case studies show that inclusion of the deep electrode array permits karst features such as undulations at the top of limestone and raveling zones within surficial sediments to be imaged. These features are not accessible from surface arrays with equivalent surface footprints. The method also has better resolution at depth at the ends of the lines, where surface arrays are typically plotted with a trapezoidal truncation due to poor resolution at the lower corners of the profile.
Modeling seismic wave propagation and amplification in 1D/2D/3D linear and nonlinear unbounded media
Semblat, Jean-François
2011-01-01
To analyze seismic wave propagation in geological structures, it is possible to consider various numerical approaches: the finite difference method, the spectral element method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the finite volume method, etc. All these methods have various advantages and drawbacks. The amplification of seismic waves in surface soil layers is mainly due to the velocity contrast between these layers and, possibly, to topographic effects around crests and hills. The influence of the geometry of alluvial basins on the amplification process is also know to be large. Nevertheless, strong heterogeneities and complex geometries are not easy to take into account with all numerical methods. 2D/3D models are needed in many situations and the efficiency/accuracy of the numerical methods in such cases is in question. Furthermore, the radiation conditions at infinity are not easy to handle with finite differences or finite/spectral elements whereas it is explicitely accounted in the B...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prástaro, Agostino
2008-02-01
Following our previous results on this subject [R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(I): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. The general theory, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 239-266; R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(II): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. Applications to Riemannian geometry PDE's, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 267-285; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's and Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996; A. Prástaro, Quantum and integral (co)bordism in partial differential equations, Acta Appl. Math. (5) (3) (1998) 243-302; A. Prástaro, (Co)bordism groups in PDE's, Acta Appl. Math. 59 (2) (1999) 111-201; A. Prástaro, Quantized Partial Differential Equations, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2004, 500 pp.; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. I: Integral bordism groups in PDE's, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 319 (2006) 547-566; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. II: Variational PDE's and integral bordism groups, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 321 (2006) 930-948; A. Prástaro, Th.M. Rassias, Ulam stability in geometry of PDE's, Nonlinear Funct. Anal. Appl. 8 (2) (2003) 259-278; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, I, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, II, Collier-MacMillan, Canada, Ltd, Toronto, Ontario, 1968], integral bordism groups of the Navier-Stokes equation are calculated for smooth, singular and weak solutions, respectively. Then a characterization of global solutions is made on this ground. Enough conditions to assure existence of global smooth solutions are given and related to nullity of integral characteristic numbers of the boundaries. Stability of global solutions are related to some characteristic numbers of the space-like Cauchy dataE Global solutions of variational problems constrained by (NS) are classified by means of suitable integral bordism groups too.
A scanning-mode 2D shear wave imaging (s2D-SWI) system for ultrasound elastography.
Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Li, Yongchuan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Ge; Jin, Qiaofeng; Mu, Peitian; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong
2015-09-01
Ultrasound elastography is widely used for the non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a quantitative method for assessing tissue stiffness. SWI has been demonstrated to be less operator dependent than quasi-static elastography, and has the ability to acquire quantitative elasticity information in contrast with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire two dimensional (2D) quantitative images of the tissue elasticity distribution. This study proposes and evaluates a scanning-mode 2D SWI (s2D-SWI) system. The hardware and image processing algorithms are presented in detail. Programmable devices are used to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. An analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transformation based shear wave speed determination method are proposed, which can be implemented using parallel computation. Imaging of tissue mimicking phantoms, and in vitro, and in vivo imaging test are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The s2D-SWI system represents a new choice for the quantitative mapping of tissue elasticity, and has great potential for implementation in commercial ultrasound scanners. PMID:26025508
Integrable Background Geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderbank, David M. J.
2014-03-01
This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
NONE
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However, for areas over approximately 600 m{sup 2}, the Wall Walker would cost less than the baseline. Using the Wall Walker 2-D LMS, ALARA exposure and worker safety is improved, and there is potential for increased productivity. This innovative technology performed better than the baseline by providing real-time monitoring of the tool or instrument position. Also, the Wall Walker 2-D LMS can traverse any two-dimensional path at constant speeds of up to 18.3 linear meters per minute (60 linear feet per minute). The survey production rate for the innovative technology was about 0.6 m{sup 2}/min (6 ft{sup 2}/min); the baseline production rate was approximately 0.3 m{sup 2}/min (3 ft{sup 2}/min), using the same surveying instrument and maximum scanning rate.
Geometry, noncommutative algebra and representations
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Geometry, noncommutative algebra and representations Iain Gordon http://www.maths.ed.ac.uk/~igordon/ University of Edinburgh 16th December 2006 1 Iain Gordon Geometry, noncommutative algebra and representations #12;2 Iain Gordon Geometry, noncommutative algebra and representations #12;Outline 1 Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans
2006-01-01
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23 30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vassiliou, Peter J.
2009-10-01
Cartan's method of moving frames is briefly recalled in the context of immersed curves in the homogeneous space of a Lie group G. The contact geometry of curves in low dimensional equi-affine geometry is then made explicit. This delivers the complete set of invariant data which solves the G-equivalence problem via a straightforward procedure, and which is, in some sense a supplement to the equivariant method of Fels and Olver. Next, the contact geometry of curves in general Riemannian manifolds (M,g) is described. For the special case in which the isometries of (M,g) act transitively, it is shown that the contact geometry provides an explicit algorithmic construction of the differential invariants for curves in M. The inputs required for the construction consist only of the metric g and a parametrisation of structure group SO(n); the group action is not required and no integration is involved. To illustrate the algorithm we explicitly construct complete sets of differential invariants for curves in the Poincaré half-space H3 and in a family of constant curvature 3-metrics. It is conjectured that similar results are possible in other Cartan geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.
2011-09-01
Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.
2011-01-01
Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions. PMID:21880160
A Meshless Method for Variational Nonrigid 2-D Shape Registration
Liu, Wei
2011-01-01
We present a method for nonrigid registration of 2-D geometric shapes. Our contribution is twofold. First, we extend the classic chamfer-matching energy to a variational functional. Secondly, we introduce a meshless deformation model that can handle significant high-curvature deformations. We represent 2-D shapes implicitly using distance transforms, and registration error is defined based on the shape contours' mutual distances. In addition, we model global shape deformation as an approximation blended from local deformation fields using partition-of-unity. The global deformation field is regularized by penalizing inconsistencies between local fields. The representation can be made adaptive to shape's contour, leading to registration that is both flexible and efficient. Finally, registration is achieved by minimizing a variational chamfer-energy functional combined with the consistency regularizer. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on a number of experiments.
Tradeoffs for reliable quantum information storage in 2D systems.
Bravyi, Sergey; Poulin, David; Terhal, Barbara
2010-02-01
We ask whether there are fundamental limits on storing quantum information reliably in a bounded volume of space. To investigate this question, we study quantum error correcting codes specified by geometrically local commuting constraints on a 2D lattice of finite-dimensional quantum particles. For these 2D systems, we derive a tradeoff between the number of encoded qubits k, the distance of the code d, and the number of particles n. It is shown that kd{2}=O(n) where the coefficient in O(n) depends only on the locality of the constraints and dimension of the Hilbert spaces describing individual particles. The analogous tradeoff for the classical information storage is k sqrt[d]=O(n). PMID:20366755
Visible light stealth based on 2D holographic antireflection coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ying; Yao, Guozheng; Zhao, Lili
2014-11-01
The reflection efficiency of material surface can be reduced by fabricated sub-micron periodic structures. Part of the light energy will propagate along the surface of the material as guided wave, thereby, the interaction between material and light is increased and the light absorption efficiency in visible light stealth material is improved. In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) relief periodic structure with 300nm was fabricated by holographic lithography. Test results show that the reflection efficiency of the material surface can be reduce after fabricated 2D periodic structures. However, because of the presence of diffraction orders, the zero order transmission diffraction efficiency is reduced in short wavelength band. Through rational design of the duty cycle and etching depth, the diffraction efficiency of reflection can be reduced, and then, the optical coupling efficiency of the material can be improved and the visible light stealth properties of the material can be improved too.
Leber congenital amaurosis caused by mutations in GUCY2D.
Boye, Shannon E
2015-01-01
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that account for the most severe form of early-onset retinal dystrophy. Mutations in retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (GUCY2D) are associated with LCA1, a prevalent form. GUCY2D encodes guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), a protein expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors that regulates cGMP and Ca(2+) levels within these cells. LCA1 patients present with severely impaired vision, reduced, or ablated electroretinogram and nystagmus. Despite a high degree of visual disturbance, LCA1 patients retain normal photoreceptor laminar architecture, except for foveal cone outer segment abnormalities and, in some patients, foveal cone loss. This article will summarize clinical characterization of patients and proof of concept gene replacement studies in several animal models of GC1 deficiency, both of which have laid the groundwork for clinical application of a gene therapy for treatment of LCA1. PMID:25256176
In search of a 2-dB coding gain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, J. H.; Vo, Q. D.
1985-01-01
A recent code search found a (15,1/5), a (14,1/6), and a (15,1/6) convolutional code which, when concatenated with a 10-bit (1023,959) Reed-Solomon (RS) code, achieves a bit-error rate (BER) of 0.000001 at a bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0.50 dB, 0.47 dB and 0.42 B, respectively. All of these three codes outperform the Voyager communication system, our baseline, which achieves a BER of 10.000001 at bit SNR of 2.53 db, by more than 2 dB. The 2 dB coding improvement goal was exceeded.
In search of a 2-dB coding gain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, J. H.; Vo, Q. D.
1985-11-01
A recent code search found a (15,1/5), a (14,1/6), and a (15,1/6) convolutional code which, when concatenated with a 10-bit (1023,959) Reed-Solomon (RS) code, achieves a bit-error rate (BER) of 0.000001 at a bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0.50 dB, 0.47 dB and 0.42 B, respectively. All of these three codes outperform the Voyager communication system, our baseline, which achieves a BER of 10.000001 at bit SNR of 2.53 db, by more than 2 dB. The 2 dB coding improvement goal was exceeded.
A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paesler, Michael
2012-02-01
A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.
Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir
2014-03-01
Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.
2D Superexchange mediated magnetization dynamics in an optical lattice
R. C. Brown; R. Wyllie; S. B. Koller; E. A. Goldschmidt; M. Foss-Feig; J. V. Porto
2014-11-25
The competition of magnetic exchange interactions and tunneling underlies many complex quantum phenomena observed in real materials. We study non-equilibrium magnetization dynamics in an extended 2D system by loading effective spin-1/2 bosons into a spin-dependent optical lattice, and we use the lattice to separately control the resonance conditions for tunneling and superexchange. After preparing a non-equilibrium anti-ferromagnetically ordered state, we observe relaxation dynamics governed by two well-separated rates, which scale with the underlying Hamiltonian parameters associated with superexchange and tunneling. Remarkably, with tunneling off-resonantly suppressed, we are able to observe superexchange dominated dynamics over two orders of magnitude in magnetic coupling strength, despite the presence of vacancies. In this regime, the measured timescales are in agreement with simple theoretical estimates, but the detailed dynamics of this 2D, strongly correlated, and far-from-equilibrium quantum system remain out of reach of current computational techniques.
3-D Object Recognition Using 2-D Views
Wenjing Li; George Bebis; Nikolaos G. Bourbakis
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of recognizing 3-D objects from 2-D images using geometric models and assuming different viewing angles and positions. Our goal is to recognize and localize instances of specific objects (i.e., model-based) in a scene. This is in contrast to category-based object recognition methods where the goal is to search for instances of objects that belong to a
Fast DRR Generation for 2D\\/3D Registration
Wolfgang Birkfellner; Rudolf Seemann; Michael Figl; Johann Hummel; Christopher Ede; Peter Homolka; Xinhui Yang; Peter Niederer; Helmar Bergmann
2005-01-01
\\u000a We present a simple and rapid method for generation of perspective digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) for 2D\\/3D registration\\u000a based on splat rendering. Suppression of discretization artefacts by means of computation of Gaussian footprints – which is\\u000a a considerable computational burden in classical splat rendering – is replaced by stochastic motion of either the voxels in\\u000a the volume to be rendered,
Bipartite dimer representation of squared 2d-Ising correlations
Béatrice de Tilière
2014-09-15
The Bozonisation identities of [Dub11] show that squared 2d-Ising order and disorder correlations are equal to +- the ratio of bipartite dimer partition functions. In this self-contained paper, we give another proof of these identities using the approach of [BdT14]. Our proof is more direct and allows to keep track of order and disorder in XOR-Ising configurations.
GPGPU simulations of 2D lattice neutral models in ecology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oura, Takeshi; Tokita, Kei
2013-08-01
2D lattice neutral models in ecology are studied using general-purpose computing on graphic processing units (GPGPU). Processing times of GPGPU and CPU simulations are compared for various system sizes and it is found out that the larger the system size, the faster the GPGPU version, and the efficiency of GPGPU is maximally 263 times higher. Ecological significance of the GPGPU simulations and the lattice neutral model is also reported.
Feature based 3D garment design through 2D sketches
Charlie C. L. Wang; Yu Wang; Matthew Ming-fai Yuen
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new approach for intuitively modeling a 3D garment around a 3D human model by 2D sketches input. Our approach is feature based - every human model has pre-defined features, and the constructed garments are related to the features on human models. Firstly, a feature template for creating a customized 3D garment is defined according to the
Valley and spin currents in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Wang
2015-03-01
In two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), carriers are indexed by both the spin and the valley pseudospin (labelling the degenerate band extrema in momentum space). 2D TMDs is therefore an ideal laboratory for exploring these internal quantum degrees of freedom for new electronics, and controlling the flow of spin and pseudospin is at the heart of such applications. We will discuss two mechanisms for generating spin and valley currents of electrons in 2D group-VIB TMDs: (I) the valley and spin Hall effects arising from the Berry curvatures; and (II) the nonlinear valley and spin currents arising from Fermi pocket anisotropy. The two effects have distinct scaling with the electric field, and different dependence of the current direction on the field direction and crystalline axis. We will discuss the possibility to observe and distinguish the two effects as distinct patterns of polarized electroluminescence at p-n junction in 2D TMDs. The nonlinear current response also makes possible the generation of pure spin and valley flows without net charge current, either by an AC bias or by an inhomogeneous temperature distribution. We will also discuss the valley Hall effect of charged excitons in monolayer TMDs, which arises from the effective coupling of the excitonic valley pseudospin to its center of mass motion by the exchange interaction between the electron and hole constituents. The work is supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong SAR (HKU17305914P, HKU9/CRF/13G), and the Croucher Foundation under the Croucher Innovation Award.
2-D Video Motion Detection (VMD) theory and operations manual
Hush, D.R.; Schnetzer, E.E.
1988-08-01
This document describes the 2-D Video Motion Detection system. The system uses the difference between an image and a time averaged reference to detect moving objects in a scene. The objects are tracked over several frames to infer whether they exhibit purposeful motion and are targets of interest. The system is robust in the sense that it can track multiple objects under difficult scenarios. 8 figs.
NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dismond, Harriett R.
2012-01-01
The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.
2D micro particle assembly using atomic force microscope
Metin Sitti; Kiyotaka Hirahara; Hideki Hashimoto
1998-01-01
A micro particle manipulation system using atomic force microscope (AFM) as the manipulator has been proposed. The size of the particles to be manipulated are approximately 1-2 ?m. Optical microscope (OM) is utilized as the vision sensor, and AFM cantilever behaves also as a force sensor which enables contact point detection and surface alignment sensing. A 2D OM real-time image
A 2D high- ? Hall MHD implicit nonlinear solver
L. Chacón; D. A. Knoll
2003-01-01
A nonlinear, fully implicit solver for a 2D high-? (incompressible) Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) model is proposed. The task in non-trivial because HMHD supports the whistler wave. This wave is dispersive (??k2) and therefore results in diffusion-like numerical stability limits for explicit time integration methods. For HMHD, implicit approaches using time steps above the explicit numerical stability limits result in diagonally
Implicit adaptive mesh refinement for 2D reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Bobby Philip; Luis Chacón; Michael Pernice
2008-01-01
An implicit structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) solver for 2D reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described. The time-implicit discretization is able to step over fast normal modes, while the spatial adaptivity resolves thin, dynamically evolving features. A Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method is used for the nonlinear solver engine. For preconditioning, we have extended the optimal “physics-based” approach developed in [L. Chacón, D.A.
Novel method for fabrication of volume 2D photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buczynski, Ryszard; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Filipkowski, Adam; Pysz, Dariusz; Hudelist, Florian; Waddie, Andrew; Stepien, Ryszard; Taghizadeh, Mo
2008-04-01
Photonic crystals are wavelength-scale periodic structures built from dielectrics with different refractive indexes As standard 2D photonic crystals are fabricated by lithographic methods, but in this case only planar structure can be obtained. We have adapted stack and draw technique that is usually used for photonic crystal fiber fabrication to develop volume 2D photonic crystals. Technology allows fabrication of high contrast structures with air holes as well as low contrast solid-all structures where air holes are replaced with glass micro rods of refractive index. Use of soft glasses with a high difference in refractive index allows development of a structure where partial photonic band gap exists. The proposed method offers possibility of fabrication volume 2D photonic crystal with a diameter in the order of 1 mm and height of a few mm. Large area photonic crystals are very attractive as new optical material named 'photonic glass' with built-in photonic bandgap functionality. Preliminary fabrication test were performed for two pairs of soft glasses NC21/F2 and SK222/Zr3. The considered glasses are thermally matched and are synthesized in-house except of F2 glass (standard Schott glass). Obtained structures are regular with some defects on the borders between intermediate performs. Some glass diffusion is observed between Zr3 and SK222 glasses. With this technique a 2D photonic crystal with a hexagonal lattice was fabricated with a pair of soft glasses SK222 and Zr3. Microrod diameter is 749nm and lattice constant 1110 nm. Photonic crystal consists of 166421 elements (425 elements on diagonal) and its total surface is about field ~0,178mm2.
Numerical simulation of 2D and 3D compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huml, Jaroslav; Kozel, Karel; P?íhoda, Jaromír
2013-02-01
The work deals with numerical solutions of 2D inviscid and laminar compressible flows in the GAMM channel and DCA 8% cascade, and of 3D inviscid compressible flows in a 3D modification of the GAMM channel (Swept Wing). The FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method and the Lax-Wendroff scheme (Richtmyer's form) with Jameson's artificial dissipation were applied to obtain the numerical solutions. The results are discussed and compared to other similar results and experiments.
2-D phase unwrapping and instantaneous frequency estimation
Umberto Spagnolini
1995-01-01
The phase of complex signals is wrapped since it can only be measured modulo-2?; unwrapping searches for the 2?-combinations that minimize the discontinuity of the unwrapped phase, as only the unwrapped phase can be analyzed and interpreted by further processing. Given an estimate of the phase gradient (i.e., of the instantaneous frequency), the 2-D unwrapped phase can be obtained as
2D Hybrid Nanostructured Dirac Materials for Broadband Transparent Electrodes.
Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Li; Zhao, Shuli; Deng, Bing; Chen, Hongliang; Ma, Bangjun; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin
2015-08-01
Broadband transparent electrodes based on 2D hybrid nanostructured Dirac materials between Bi2 Se3 and graphene are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Bi2 Se3 nanoplates are preferentially grown along graphene grain boundaries as "smart" conductive patches to bridge the graphene boundary. These hybrid films increase by one- to threefold in conductivity while remaining highly transparent over broadband wavelength. They also display outstanding chemical stability and mechanical flexibility. PMID:26079564
2D Visual Odometry method for Global Positioning Measurement
R. Garcia Garcia; M. A. Sotelo; I. Parra; D. Fernaindez; M. Gavilan
2007-01-01
The goal of this paper is to develop a method for estimating the 2D trajectory of a road vehicle using visual odometry. To do so, the ego-motion of the vehicle relative to the road is computed using a stereo-vision system mounted next to the rear view mirror. Feature points are computed using Harris detector. After that, features are matched between
Optimal Resources for Topological 2D Stabilizer Codes: Comparative Study
H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado
2007-01-01
We study the resources needed to construct topological 2D stabilizer codes as\\u000aa way to estimate in part their efficiency and this leads us to perform a\\u000acomparative study of surface codes and color codes. This study clarifies the\\u000asimilarities and differences between these two types of stabilizer codes. We\\u000acompute the error correcting rate $C:=n\\/d^2$ for surface codes $C_s$
Random Thoughts on Thermal Design 2-D Thermal Energy Transfer
Groppi, Christopher
......................... 0.008 to 0.036 · Stainless Steel.................... 0.048 to 0.074 · Tin Foil (cleanRandom Thoughts on Thermal Design #12;2-D Thermal Energy Transfer 5.46x10-12 12 1+2-12 (1 4 - 2 4 of power and an external compressor. #12;Gas Conduction Mean free path = 1 2 n = molecules per unit
Toward naturalistic 2D-to-3D conversion.
Huang, Weicheng; Cao, Xun; Lu, Ke; Dai, Qionghai; Bovik, Alan Conrad
2015-02-01
Natural scene statistics (NSSs) models have been developed that make it possible to impose useful perceptually relevant priors on the luminance, colors, and depth maps of natural scenes. We show that these models can be used to develop 3D content creation algorithms that can convert monocular 2D videos into statistically natural 3D-viewable videos. First, accurate depth information on key frames is obtained via human annotation. Then, both forward and backward motion vectors are estimated and compared to decide the initial depth values, and a compensation process is applied to further improve the depth initialization. Then, the luminance/chrominance and initial depth map are decomposed by a Gabor filter bank. Each subband of depth is modeled to produce a NSS prior term. The statistical color-depth priors are combined with the spatial smoothness constraint in the depth propagation target function as a prior regularizing term. The final depth map associated with each frame of the input 2D video is optimized by minimizing the target function over all subbands. In the end, stereoscopic frames are rendered from the color frames and their associated depth maps. We evaluated the quality of the generated 3D videos using both subjective and objective quality assessment methods. The experimental results obtained on various sequences show that the presented method outperforms several state-of-the-art 2D-to-3D conversion methods. PMID:25546859
An Intercomparison of 2-D Models Within a Common Framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.; Considine, David B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A model intercomparison among the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D model, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2-D model allows us to separate differences due to model transport from those due to the model's chemical formulation. This is accomplished by constructing two hybrid models incorporating the transport parameters of the GSFC and LLNL models within the AER model framework. By comparing the results from the native models (AER and e.g. GSFC) with those from the hybrid model (e.g. AER chemistry with GSFC transport), differences due to chemistry and transport can be identified. For the analysis, we examined an inert tracer whose emission pattern is based on emission from a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet; distributions of trace species in the 2015 atmosphere; and the response of stratospheric ozone to an HSCT fleet. Differences in NO(y) in the upper stratosphere are found between models with identical transport, implying different model representations of atmospheric chemical processes. The response of O3 concentration to HSCT aircraft emissions differs in the models from both transport-dominated differences in the HSCT-induced perturbations of H2O and NO(y) as well as from differences in the model represent at ions of O3 chemical processes. The model formulations of cold polar processes are found to be the most significant factor in creating large differences in the calculated ozone perturbations
On the effective shear speed in 2D phononic crystals
A. A. Kutsenko; A. L. Shuvalov; A. N. Norris; O. Poncelet
2011-06-27
The quasistatic limit of the antiplane shear-wave speed ('effective speed') $c$ in 2D periodic lattices is studied. Two new closed-form estimates of $c$ are derived by employing two different analytical approaches. The first proceeds from a standard background of the plane wave expansion (PWE). The second is a new approach, which resides in $\\mathbf{x}$-space and centers on the monodromy matrix (MM) introduced in the 2D case as the multiplicative integral, taken in one coordinate, of a matrix with components being the operators with respect to the other coordinate. On the numerical side, an efficient PWE-based scheme for computing $c$ is proposed and implemented. The analytical and numerical findings are applied to several examples of 2D square lattices with two and three high-contrast components, for which the new PWE and MM estimates are compared with the numerical data and with some known approximations. It is demonstrated that the PWE estimate is most efficient in the case of densely packed stiff inclusions, especially when they form a symmetric lattice, while in general it is the MM estimate that provides the best overall fitting accuracy.
Elastic coupling between the layers in 2D films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yang; Zhou, Si; Kim, Suenne; Chiu, Hsian-Chih; Nélias, Daniel; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt; Sordan, Roman; Polloni, Laura; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Elisa
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and graphene oxide, are a few-atomic-layer thick films with strong in-plane bonds and much weaker inter-layer interactions. While their in-plane elasticity has been widely studied in bending experiments where a suspended film is largely deformed, very little is known about their elastic modulus perpendicular to the planes. Investigations of the out-of-plane elasticity require indenting supported 2D films less than their interlayer distance. Here, we report on sub-Å-resolution indentation measurements of the perpendicular elasticity of 2D materials. Experiments, combined with semi-analytical models and density functional theory are used to study the perpendicular elasticity of a few-layers thick graphene and graphene oxide films. Interestingly, we find that the graphene oxide perpendicular Young's modulus reaches a maximum when one complete water layer is intercalated between the graphitic planes then the perpendicular Young's modulus decreases because a second water layer starts to form in between the layers further swelling and softening the GO structure.
Observations of 2D Doppler backscattering on MAST
Thomas, D A; Freethy, S J; Huang, B K; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L
2015-01-01
The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D Doppler backscattering (DBS) experiments on MAST. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (+-40 degrees vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-35.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24 degrees FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is an entirely novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial measurements of phenomena observed on conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch an...
G. Villalobos; D. L. Linero; J. D. Munoz
2010-02-22
A 2D, hexagonal in geometry, statistical model of fracture is proposed. The model is based on the drying fracture process of the bamboo Guadua angustifolia. A network of flexible cells are joined by brittle junctures of different Young moduli that break at a fixed threshold in tensile force. The system is solved by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The distribution of avalanche breakings exhibits a power law with exponent -2.93(9), in agreement with the random fuse model.
Euclidean geometry as algorithm for construction of generalized geometries
Yuri A. Rylov
2005-11-23
It is shown that the generalized geometries may be obtained as a deformation of the proper Euclidean geometry. Algorithm of construction of any proposition S of the proper Euclidean geometry E may be described in terms of the Euclidean world function sigma_E in the form S(sigma_E). Replacing the Euclidean world function sigma_E by the world function sigma of the geometry G, one obtains the corresponding proposition S(sigma) of the generalized geometry G. Such a construction of the generalized geometries (known as T-geometries) uses well known algorithms of the proper Euclidean geometry and nothing besides. This method of the geometry construction is very simple and effective. Using T-geometry as the space-time geometry, one can construct the deterministic space-time geometries with primordially stochastic motion of free particles and geometrized particle mass. Such a space-time geometry defined properly (with quantum constant as an attribute of geometry) allows one to explain quantum effects as a result of the statistical description of the stochastic particle motion (without a use of quantum principles).
Graphene, other 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, Kostya S.
2014-03-01
Probably the most important ``property'' of graphene is that it has opened a floodgate of experiments on many other 2D atomic crystals: BN, NbSe2, TaS2, MoS2, etc. One can use similar strategies to those applied to graphene and obtain new materials by mechanical or liquid phase exfoliation of layered materials or CVD growth. An alternative strategy to create new 2D crystals is to start with an existing one (like graphene) and use it as an atomic scaffolding to modify it by chemical means (graphane and fluorographene are good examples). The resulting pool of 2D crystals is huge, and they cover a massive range of properties: from the most insulating to the most conductive, from the strongest to the softest. If 2D materials provide a large range of different properties, sandwich structures made up of 2, 3, 4 ...different layers of such materials can offer even greater scope. Since these 2D-based heterostructures can be tailored with atomic precision and individual layers of very different character can be combined together, - the properties of these structures can be tuned to study novel physical phenomena (Coulomb drag, Hostadter butterfly, metal-insulator transition, etc) or to fit an enormous range of possible applications, with the functionality of heterostructure stacks is ``embedded'' in their design (tunnelling or hot-electron transistors, photovoltaic devices). Of particular interest are the tunnelling structures. Being able to control the thickness with atomic precision and having a variety of different material in disposal allows us to modify both the height and the width of the tunnelling barrier in the wide range. The use of graphene as electrodes and utilising insulating (BN) or semiconducting (MoS2, WS2) materials as the tunnelling barrier led to the creation of tunnelling transistors and tunnelling photovoltaic devices and the observation of the resonance tunnelling associated with momentum conservation. We will also consider tunnelling in magnetic field and phonon-assisted tunnelling.
Comprehensive 2-D chromatography of random and block methacrylate copolymers.
van Hulst, Monique; van der Horst, Aschwin; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J
2010-06-01
A comprehensive 2-D separation method was developed for the characterization of methacrylate copolymers. In both dimensions conditions were employed that give a critical separation for the homopolymer of one of the monomers in the copolymer, and exclusion behaviour for the other. The 2-D separation was realized by using a normal-phase column in one dimension and a reversed phase column in the other, and by precisely tuning the compositions of the two mobile phases employed. In the normal-phase dimension mixtures of THF and n-hexane or n-heptane were used as mobile phase, and in the reversed-phase dimension mixtures of ACN and THF. Moreover, stationary phase particles had to be selected for both columns that gave an exclusion window appropriate for the molecular size of the sample polymers to be characterized. The 2-D critical chromatography principle was tested with a polystyrene (PS)-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) block copolymer and with block and random polybutylmethacrylate (PBMA)-PMMA copolymers. Ideally, the retention time for a copolymer in both dimensions of this system would depend on the size of only one of the blocks, or on the contribution of only one of the monomers to the size of a random copolymer. However, it was found that the elution of the PS-PMMA block copolymer depended on the size of both blocks, even when the corresponding homopolymer of one of the monomers showed critical elution behaviour. Therefore, the method could not be calibrated for block sizes by using homopolymer standards alone. Still, it was shown that the method can be used to determine differences between samples (PS-PMMA and PBMA-PMMA) with respect to total molecular size or block sizes separately, or to average size and chemical composition for random copolymers. Block and random PBMA-PMMA copolymers showed a distinctly different pattern in the 2-D plots obtained with 2-D critical chromatography. This difference was shown to be related to the different procedures followed in the polymerization process, and the different molecular distributions resulting from these. PMID:20309901
Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...
Priority-based task reassignments in hierarchical 2D mesh-connected systems using tableaux
Kim, Dohan
2011-01-01
Task reassignments in 2D mesh-connected systems (2D-MSs) have been researched and simulated for several decades. We propose a hierarchical 2D mesh-connected system (2D-HMS) in order to exploit the regular nature of a 2D-MS. In our approach priority-based task assignments and reassignments in a 2D-HMS are represented by tableaux and their algorithms. We provide examples of priority-based task reassignments in a 2D-HMS in which task relocations are simply reduced to a jeu de taquin slide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Case, Christine L.
1991-01-01
Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
KLIER, KATHERINE M.
PRESENTED IS A FUSED COURSE IN PLANE, SOLID, AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY. ELEMENTARY SET THEORY, LOGIC, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION PROVIDE UNIFYING THREADS THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. THE TWO CURRICULUM GUIDES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR USE WITH TWO DIFFERENT TEXTS. EITHER CURRICULUM GUIDE MAY BE USED DEPENDING UPON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHER AND THE NEEDS…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartz, Viggo
1981-01-01
Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Carberry, Emma Elizabeth, 1974-
This course involves students taking turn giving lectures on geometry topics. Subjects such as Gauss maps, minimal surfaces and manifolds and geodesics were covered in the lectures. Course materials include lecture notes as well as student projects and examples. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Terese Herrera
This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The online resources featured in Geometry in 3-D actively engage students in exploring a variety of geometric shapes, at times through lessons that involve building models or creating paper nets that fold into three-dimensional shapes; at other times, through technology that allows students to rotate and zoom in on figures, noting their attributes and complexity. Other lessons offer problems on surface area and volume, a part of every middle school curriculum. The problems, each with a different twist on the subject, challenge students to reconsider their understanding of how to measure solids. Activities for developing spatial sense, another primary objective in teaching geometry, are also featured. Finally, there are online galleries of geometric solids, included for the rare opportunity they offer to show your students the beauty in mathematics. In Background Information, you will find workshop sessions developed for teachers and other materials that may interest you as a professional. Each resource deals specifically with three-dimensional geometry topics that align with the geometry and measurement standards recommended by NCTM.
Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel
2010-01-01
We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740
COMPUTATIONAL REAL ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY
Mishra, Bud
geometry studies various algorithmic questions dealing with the real solutions of a system of equalities by the power and elegance with which it solves a broad and general class of problems arising in robotics, vision, computer aided design, geometric theorem proving, etc. The algorithmic problems that arise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita
2009-01-01
The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…
Sliding vane geometry turbines
Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R
2014-12-30
Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, John
2010-01-01
The cycloid has been called the Helen of Geometry, not only because of its beautiful properties but also because of the quarrels it provoked between famous mathematicians of the 17th century. This article surveys the history of the cycloid and its importance in the development of the calculus.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Hardaker, Chris.
This Website, sprung from a gifted-and-talented program for K-12 students in Arizona, presents the interesting world of Native American geometry, a system based on the proportional relationship between the radius and circumference of a circle. The eye-pleasing site, divided into sections that include Foundations, Education, Designs, and Anthropology, would be appealing to curious Web surfers along with mathematics students. Geometric principles of proportions and angles are presented in the context of Native American designs, joining art and science and allowing students to learn in a creative, applied fashion. Some highlights of the site include illustrated examples of how corporate logos such as those of Mitsubishi or CBS Television are based on this geometry and a page on the architectural geometries of archaeologic sites such as Chaco Canyon, NM. A brief discussion of the history of circle-based ("string and two sticks") geometry throughout the world and a list of references for teachers are also important parts of this site.
Advanced geometries and regimes
Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.
2013-07-26
We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.
Algebraic Thinking and Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grandau, Laura; Stephens, Ana C.
2006-01-01
This article describes how two middle school teachers incorporated algebraic thinking into their textbook-based geometry lessons. One teacher embedded algebraic concepts within an existing textbook lesson while the other teacher elicited algebraic thinking by extending a textbook lesson. (Contains 5 figures.)
Noncommutative geometry and reality
Alain Connes
1995-01-01
We introduce the notion of realstructure in our spectral geometry. This notion is motivated by Atiyah’s KR-theory and by Tomita’s involution J. It allows us to remove two unpleasant features of the ‘‘Connes–Lott’’ description of the standard model, namely, the use of bivector potentials and the asymmetry in the Poincare´ duality and in the unimodularity condition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fielker, David
2007-01-01
Geoff Giles died suddenly in 2005. He was a highly original thinker in the field of geometry teaching. As early as 1964, when teaching at Strathallen School in Perth, he was writing in "MT27" about constructing tessellations by modifying the sides of triangles and (irregular) quadrilaterals to produce what he called "trisides" and "quadrisides".…
A Nonrigid Kernel-Based Framework for 2D-3D Pose Estimation and 2D Image Segmentation
Sandhu, Romeil; Dambreville, Samuel; Yezzi, Anthony; Tannenbaum, Allen
2013-01-01
In this work, we present a nonrigid approach to jointly solving the tasks of 2D-3D pose estimation and 2D image segmentation. In general, most frameworks that couple both pose estimation and segmentation assume that one has exact knowledge of the 3D object. However, under nonideal conditions, this assumption may be violated if only a general class to which a given shape belongs is given (e.g., cars, boats, or planes). Thus, we propose to solve the 2D-3D pose estimation and 2D image segmentation via nonlinear manifold learning of 3D embedded shapes for a general class of objects or deformations for which one may not be able to associate a skeleton model. Thus, the novelty of our method is threefold: First, we present and derive a gradient flow for the task of nonrigid pose estimation and segmentation. Second, due to the possible nonlinear structures of one’s training set, we evolve the preimage obtained through kernel PCA for the task of shape analysis. Third, we show that the derivation for shape weights is general. This allows us to use various kernels, as well as other statistical learning methodologies, with only minimal changes needing to be made to the overall shape evolution scheme. In contrast with other techniques, we approach the nonrigid problem, which is an infinite-dimensional task, with a finite-dimensional optimization scheme. More importantly, we do not explicitly need to know the interaction between various shapes such as that needed for skeleton models as this is done implicitly through shape learning. We provide experimental results on several challenging pose estimation and segmentation scenarios. PMID:20733218
Koh, Kwi Hye; Pan, Xian; Zhang, Wei; McLachlan, Alan; Urrutia, Raul; Jeong, Hyunyoung
2014-12-01
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a major drug-metabolizing enzyme, is responsible for metabolism of approximately 25% of marketed drugs. Clinical evidence indicates that metabolism of CYP2D6 substrates is increased during pregnancy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To identify transcription factors potentially responsible for CYP2D6 induction during pregnancy, a panel of genes differentially expressed in the livers of pregnant versus nonpregnant CYP2D6-humanized (tg-CYP2D6) mice was compiled via microarray experiments followed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR) verification. As a result, seven transcription factors-activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), early growth response 1 (EGR1), forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3), JUNB, Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9), KLF10, and REV-ERB?-were found to be up-regulated in liver during pregnancy. Results from transient transfection and promoter reporter gene assays indicate that KLF9 itself is a weak transactivator of CYP2D6 promoter but significantly enhances CYP2D6 promoter transactivation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4?), a known transcriptional activator of CYP2D6 expression. The results from deletion and mutation analysis of CYP2D6 promoter activity identified a KLF9 putative binding motif at -22/-14 region to be critical in the potentiation of HNF4?-induced transactivation of CYP2D6. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a direct binding of KLF9 to the putative KLF binding motif. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed increased recruitment of KLF9 to CYP2D6 promoter in the livers of tg-CYP2D6 mice during pregnancy. Taken together, our data suggest that increased KLF9 expression is in part responsible for CYP2D6 induction during pregnancy via the potentiation of HNF4? transactivation of CYP2D6. PMID:25217496
Garaud, Pascale
2015-01-01
Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e. low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension need only contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale f...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, George C.; Nowak, Robert J.; Holden, Michael S.; Baker, N. R.
1990-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to establish some design parameters important to a supersonic film cooling system in a scramjet engine. A simple non-combusting two-dimensional flow configuration was used to isolate the film cooling phenomena. Parameters investigated include coolant delivery pressure, slot height and lip thickness, and incident shock location and strength. Design guidelines for use in engineering and trade studies are presented.
Denis Mottet; Reinoud J Bootsma
2001-01-01
We explored a two-dimensional task space variant of the classical rhythmical Fitts' task in which participants were asked to sequentially cross four targets arranged around the extreme points of the major axes of an ellipse. Fitts' law was found to adequately describe the changes in movement time with the variations in task difficulty (ID), but the 1\\/3 power-law relating curvature
Mottet, D; Bootsma, R J
2001-06-01
We explored a two-dimensional task space variant of the classical rhythmical Fitts' task in which participants were asked to sequentially cross four targets arranged around the extreme points of the major axes of an ellipse. Fitts' law was found to adequately describe the changes in movement time with the variations in task difficulty (ID), but the 1/3 power-law relating curvature and tangential velocity of the trajectory did not resist the increase in ID. Kinematic analyses showed that the behavioral adaptation to the ID resulted in an increase in the contribution of non-linear terms to the kinematics along the two axes of task space. Moreover, a limit cycle model (combining Rayleigh damping and Duffing stiffness, as in one-dimensional Fitts' task) captured such a behavior. In such a context, Fitts' law and the 1/3 power law appear as surface relations that emerge from parametric changes in a dynamical structure that captures the nature of Fitts' task. PMID:11517670
Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier
2011-05-01
We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.
A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podesta, Mark; CGG Persoon, Lucas; Verhaegen, Frank
2014-10-01
Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3?mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields in time.
Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.
2014-12-01
Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.
Computational analysis of two-fluid edge plasma stability in tokamak geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neiser, Tom; Baver, Derek; Carter, Troy; Myra, Jim; Snyder, Phil; Umansky, Maxim
2013-10-01
In H-mode, the edge pressure gradient is disrupted quasi-periodically by Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), which leads to confinement loss and places large heat loads on the divertor. This poster gives an overview of the peeling-ballooning model for ELM formation and presents recent results of 2DX, a fast eigenvalue code capable of solving equations of any fluid model. We use 2DX to solve reduced ideal MHD equations of two-fluid plasma in the R-Z plane, with toroidal mode number resolving the third dimension. Previously, 2DX has been successfully benchmarked against ELITE and BOUT + + for ballooning dominated cases in simple shifted circle geometries. We present follow-up work in simple geometry as well as similar benchmarks for full X-point geometry of DIII-D. We demonstrate 2DX's capability as computational tool that supports nonlinear codes with linear verification and as experimental tool to identify density limits, map the spatial distribution of eigenmodes and investigate marginal stability of the edge region.
Geometry independent game encapsulation for non-Euclidean geometries
de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique
is able to render the encapsulated game in both Euclidean and non- Euclidean geometries, showcasing all geometric models, controlling its geometry through the use of shaders, in the GPU. By developing a simple
2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois
Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes
2014-09-30
In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made interpretation of the Mt. Simon and Knox sections difficult. The data quality also gradually decreased moving westward across the state. To meet evolving project objectives, in 2012 the seismic data was re-processed using different techniques to enhance the signal quality thereby rendering a more coherent seismic profile for interpreters. It is believed that the seismic degradation could be caused by shallow natural gas deposits and Quaternary sediments (which include abandoned river and stream channels, former ponds, and swamps with peat deposits) that may have complicated or changed the seismic wavelet. Where previously limited by seismic coverage, the seismic profiles have provided valuable subsurface information across central Illinois. Some of the interpretations based on this survey included, but are not limited to: - Stratigraphy generally gently dips to the east from Morgan to Douglas County. - The Knox Supergroup roughly maintains its thickness. There is little evidence for faulting in the Knox. However, at least one resolvable fault penetrates the entire Knox section. - The Eau Claire Formation, the primary seal for the Mt. Simon Sandstone, appears to be continuous across the entire seismic profile. - The Mt. Simon Sandstone thins towards the western edge of the basin. As a result, the highly porous lowermost Mt. Simon section is absent in the western part of the state. - Overall basement dip is from west to east. - Basement topography shows evidence of basement highs with on-lapping patterns by Mt. Simon sediments. - There is evidence of faults within the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone and basement rock that are contemporaneous with Mt. Simon Sandstone deposition. These faults are not active and do not penetrate the Eau Claire Shale. It is believed that these faults are associated with a possible failed rifting event 750 to 560 million years ago during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia.
Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander
2014-07-01
The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.
2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli
2015-02-01
Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.
Ultrafast 2D Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Spectrally Entangled Photon Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymer, Michael
2015-03-01
We propose entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS) to probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method, inspired by results in, uses a technique from quantum optics--a separated two-photon (Franson) interferometer, which generates time-delayed packets of time-frequency-entangled photon pairs. This interferometer is incorporated into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The continuous stream of entangled photons are phase-modulated in the interferometer, and used to excite a two-photon-absorbing sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the transmitted exciting fields. In comparison to standard `classical' 2DFS techniques using coherent laser pulses and standard pulse-scanning sequences, advantages of this scheme include the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, the enhancement and narrowing of off -diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic coupling, and the possibility for enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, including spectral selectivity within an inhomogeneously broadened distribution. These effects arise from the properties of parametric down-conversion light source, which effectively creates a different interaction-scanning protocol than in standard laser-pulse scanning. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its standard classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers.
Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat optics, and flexible optoelectronics, with lasting impact in areas ranging from computing, communications, to sensing and imaging systems.
Correlations and fluctuations in the 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rønnow, H. M.; McMorrow, D. F.; Harrison, A.; Youngson, I. D.; Coldea, R.; Perring, T. G.; Aeppli, G.; Syljuåsen, O.
2001-10-01
The correlations and fluctuations in Cu(DCOO) 2·4D 2O, which is a good physical realization of the 2D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, have been measured by neutron scattering measurements. The quantum fluctuations cause a non-uniform renormalization of the spin-wave dispersion with a zone boundary dispersion of 7%, while the spin wave amplitude is reduced to 51±4% of its classical value. The temperature dependence of the correlation length, the spin-wave damping and the spin-wave softening agrees with theoretical predictions over a large temperature range.
Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors
Tsui, Daniel
2014-03-24
This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.
Babak Haghighat; Jan Manschot; Stefan Vandoren
2013-04-26
We propose a correspondence between two-dimensional (0,4) sigma models with target space the moduli spaces of r monopoles, and four-dimensional N=4, U(r) Yang-Mills theory on del Pezzo surfaces. In particular, the two- and four-dimensional BPS partition functions are argued to be equal. The correspondence relies on insights from five-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory and its geometric engineering in M-theory, hence the name "5d/2d/4d correspondence". We provide various tests of our proposal. The most stringent ones are for r=1, for which we prove the equality of partition functions.
2D Simulation and Validation of Rotary Tube Piercing Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceretti, E.; Giardini, C.; Brisotto, F.
2004-06-01
The aim of this work is to design and to improve a FEM model able to correctly define the influence of the parameters affecting the hole formation during the rotary piercing process (Mannesmann process). The software used to perform the simulations was a commercial FEM code, Deform 2D. The technological data introduced in the simulative model have been furnished by TENARIS-DALMINE S.p.A. Company, partner in this research. The results obtained in this research have been considered valid and helpful by the company.
Rotational Invariance of the 2d Spin - Spin Correlation Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinson, Haru
2012-09-01
At the critical temperature in the 2d Ising model on the square lattice, we establish the rotational invariance of the spin-spin correlation function using the asymptotics of the spin-spin correlation function along special directions (McCoy and Wu in the two dimensional Ising model. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1973) and the finite difference Hirota equation for which the spin-spin correlation function is shown to satisfy (Perk in Phys Lett A 79:3-5, 1980; Perk in Proceedings of III international symposium on selected topics in statistical mechanics, Dubna, August 22-26, 1984, JINR, vol II, pp 138-151, 1985).
Exact Results at the 2-D Percolation Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleban, P.; Ziff, R. M.
1998-03-01
We derive exact expressions for the excess number of clusters b and the excess cumulants bn of a related quantity at the 2-D percolation point. High-accuracy computer simulations verify our predictions. b is a finite-size correction to the Temperley-Lieb or Baxter-Temperley-Ashley formula for the number of clusters per site nc in the infinite system limit; the bn correct bulk cumulants. b and bn are universal, and thus depend only on the system's shape. Higher-order corrections show no apparent dependence on fractional powers of the system size. cond- mat/9709285
Conformal field theory of critical Casimir interactions in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bimonte, G.; Emig, T.; Kardar, M.
2013-10-01
Thermal fluctuations of a critical system induce long-ranged Casimir forces between objects that couple to the underlying field. For two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theories (CFT) we derive an exact result for the Casimir interaction between two objects of arbitrary shape, in terms of 1) the free energy of a circular ring whose radii are determined by the mutual capacitance of two conductors with the objects' shape; and 2) a purely geometric energy that is proportional to the conformal charge of the CFT, but otherwise super-universal in that it depends only on the shapes and is independent of boundary conditions and other details.
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Phuc Ngo; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping. PMID:26270925
Recent update of the RPLUS2D/3D codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, Y.-L. Peter
1991-01-01
The development of the RPLUS2D/3D codes is summarized. These codes utilize LU algorithms to solve chemical non-equilibrium flows in a body-fitted coordinate system. The motivation behind the development of these codes is the need to numerically predict chemical non-equilibrium flows for the National AeroSpace Plane Program. Recent improvements include vectorization method, blocking algorithms for geometric flexibility, out-of-core storage for large-size problems, and an LU-SW/UP combination for CPU-time efficiency and solution quality.
Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subbotin, A.; de Jong, J.; ten Brinke, G.
2006-05-01
Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length ? increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as ? ˜ M3. A bending instability due to redistribution of the side chains appears in the non-linear regime where bending is strong. Arguments are presented that the brush conformations consist of alternating rectilinear and bent sections corresponding to the different free-energy minima.
2D reconstruction of terahertz Gabor inline digital holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yun-Da; Li, Qi; Hu, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Yongpeng
2014-11-01
Terahertz imaging can make up the defect of imaging opaque samples in visible light domain. Digital holography is a new technology for extracting full information of the original object. In the paper, the improved angular spectrum (AS) algorithm is coulping the original AS algorithm with direct current (DC) suppression method, apodization and piecewise-nonlinear transformation. The reconstruction characteristics of the algorithm have been studied by numerical analysis and experimental researches. The experimental results validate the application value of the algorithms in improving 2D reconstructed image quality in terahertz Gabor inline digital holography.
2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.
2008-01-01
Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.
Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report
Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.
1988-06-01
This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.
The geometry of theThe geometry of the marketmarket
Vilela Mendes, Rui
market crises Redes de MercadoMarket networks Jan2008 28 Energy 73 Industrial 114 Consumer 44 Health 70 MercadoMarket networks Sep2001 28 Energy 73 Industrial 114 ConsumerThe geometry of theThe geometry of the marketmarket #12;ContentsContents 1 The Market Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2015-04-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bäck, A.
2015-01-01
Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT/VMAT QA will be discussed.
Kim, Sung-Kon; Wie, Jeong Jae; Mahmood, Qasim; Park, Ho Seok
2014-07-01
Polymer inorganic nanosheet composites hold great promise in enhancing their physical and mechanical properties by increasing the interfacial area. Herein, we demonstrate the nanoinclusion effects of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets on the mechanical properties of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer. At very small amounts of nanosheets (0.9 wt% for MoS2 and 2.0 wt% for WS2), nanocomposite films exhibit up to 65% improved mechanical properties than the neat PVA film because of strong non-covalent polymer-filler interactions by means of large contact area induced by the 2D geometry of nanosheets. As demonstrated by the decrease in the crystallinity of PVA and the increase in the glass transition temperature, 2D MoS2 is a more attractive filler than 2D WS2 in terms of reinforcing mechanical properties of PVA. These findings fit well with a modified Halpin-Tsai (H-T) model including a nanoscale interfacial layer that can support the observed reinforcements with extremely small 2D filler loadings. This study highlights the strong interplay between the polymer and inorganic nanosheets which plays an important role in greatly improving the mechanical stability of nanocomposites. PMID:24879420
Melting of Boltzmann particles in different 2D trapping potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Dyuti; Filinov, Alexei; Ghosal, Amit; Bonitz, Michael
2015-03-01
We analyze the quantum melting of two dimensional Wigner solid in several confined geometries and compare them with corresponding thermal melting in a purely classical system. Our results show that the geometry play little role in deciding the crossover quantum parameter nX, as the effects from boundary is well screened by the quantum zero point motion. The unique phase diagram in the plane of thermal and quantum fluctuations determined from independent melting criteria separates out the Wigner molecule ``phase'' from the classical and quantum ``liquids''. An intriguing signature of weakening liquidity with increasing temperature T have been found in the extreme quantum regime (n). This crossover is associated with production of defects, just like in case of thermal melting, though the role of them in determining the mechanism of the crossover appears different. Our study will help comprehending melting in a variety of experimental realization of confined system - from quantum dots to complex plasma.
Super Cooled Large Droplet Analysis of Several Geometries Using LEWICE3D Version 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bidwell, Colin S.
2011-01-01
Super Cooled Large Droplet (SLD) collection efficiency calculations were performed for several geometries using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The computations were performed using the NASA Glenn Research Center SLD splashing model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. Comparisons to experiment were made where available. The geometries included two straight wings, a swept 64A008 wing tip, two high lift geometries, and the generic commercial transport DLR-F4 wing body configuration. In general the LEWICE3D Version 3 computations compared well with the 2D LEWICE 3.2.2 results and with experimental data where available.
Grade 2 Practice Problems: Geometry
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
This page contains 20 problems in geometry from the Port Angeles School District in Washington state. Links to state GLEs and revised standards are provided. Topics covered include shape in plane and solid geometry, bilateral symmetry, and logic.
SU-D-12A-04: Investigation of a 2D Antiscatter Grid for Flat Panel Detectors
Altunbas, C; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M; Zhong, Y; Shaw, C
2014-06-01
Purpose: To improve CT number accuracy and contrast sensitivity, a novel 2D antiscatter grid (ASG) for flat panel detector (FPD) based CBCT imaging was evaluated. Experiments were performed to characterize the scatter rejection and contrast sensitivity performance of ASG. The reduction in primary transmission for various ASG geometries was also evaluated by a computational model. Methods: The 2D ASG design was based on multi-hole collimators used in Nuclear Medicine. It consisted of abutted hexagon shaped apertures with 2.5 mm pitch and 32 mm height, and separated by 0.25 mm thick lead septa. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and mean primary transmission were measured using a benchtop FPD/x-ray source system. Acrylic slabs of varying thicknesses were imaged with a contrast-detail phantom to measure CNR and SPR under different scatter conditions. Primary transmission was also measured by averaging pixel values in flood field images without the phantom. We additionally explored variation of primary transmission with pitch and septum thickness using a computational model of our ASG. Results: Our 2D ASG reduced the SPR from 3.3 to 0.12, and improved CNR by 50% in 20 cm thick slab phantom projections acquired at 120 kVp. While the measured primary transmission was 72.8%, our simulations show that primary transmission can be increased to 86% by reducing the septum thickness to 0.1 mm. Primary transmission further increases to 93% if septum thickness of 0.1 mm is used in conjunction with an increased pitch of 4 mm. Conclusion: The 2D ASG appears to be a promising scatter rejection device, offering both superior scatter rejection and improved contrast sensitivity. Though its lead footprint reduced primary transmission, our work shows that optimization of aperture pitch and septum thickness can significantly improve the primary transmission.
Failures of information geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skilling, John
2015-01-01
Information H is a unique relationship between probabilities, based on the property of independence which is central to scientific methodology. Information Geometry makes the tempting but fallacious assumption that a local metric (conventionally based on information) can be used to endow the space of probability distributions with a preferred global Riemannian metric. No such global metric can conform to H, which is "from-to" asymmetric whereas geometrical length is by definition symmetric. Accordingly, any Riemannian metric will contradict the required structure of the very distributions which are supposedly being triangulated. It follows that probabilities do not form a metric space. We give counter-examples in which alternative formulations of information, and the use of information geometry, lead to unacceptable results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellmann, Frank
2011-02-01
In this thesis I review the definition of topological quantum field theories through state sums on triangulated manifolds. I describe the construction of state sum invariants of 3-manifolds from a graphical calculus and show how to evaluate the invariants as boundary amplitudes. I review how to define such a graphical calculus through SU(2) representation theory. I then review various geometricity results for the representation theory of SU(2), Spin(4) and SL(2,C), and define coherent boundary manifolds for state sums based on these representations. I derive the asymptotic geometry of the SU(2) based Ponzano-Regge invariant in three dimensions, and the SU(2) based Ooguri models amplitude in four dimensions. As a corollary to the latter results I derive the asymptotic behaviour of various recently proposed spin foam models motivated from the Plebanski formulation of general relativity. Finally the asymptotic geometry of the SL(2,C) based model is derived.
Brane Universe: Global Geometry
Berezin, Victor
2010-06-23
The global geometries of bulk vacuum space-times in the brane-universe models are investigated and classified in terms of geometrical invariants. The corresponding Carter-Penrose diagrams and embedding diagrams are constructed. It is shown that for a given energy-momentum induced on the brane there can be different types of global geometries depending on the signs of a bulk cosmological term and surface energy density of the brane (the sign of the latter does not influence the internal cosmological evolution). It is shown that in the Randall-Sundrum scenario it is possible to have an asymmetric hierarchy splitting even with a Z{sub 2}-symmetric matching of 'our' brane to the bulk.
Cylindrical geometry hall thruster
Raitses, Yevgeny (Princeton, NJ); Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)
2002-01-01
An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.
Heng Tang; Jun Xu; Shu Lin; Khaled A. S. Abdel-ghaffar
2005-01-01
New algebraic methods for constructing codes based on hyperplanes of two different dimensions in finite geometries are presented. The new construction methods result in a class of multistep majority-logic decodable codes and three classes of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Decoding methods for the class of majority-logic decodable codes, and a class of codes that perform well with iterative decoding in
Francesco Caravelli
2012-03-02
Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cederwall, Martin; Rosabal, J. A.
2015-07-01
We investigate exceptional generalised diffeomorphisms based on E 8(8) in a geometric setting. The transformations include gauge transformations for the dual gravity field. The surprising key result, which allows for a development of a tensor formalism, is that it is possible to define field-dependent transformations containing connection, which are covariant. We solve for the spin connection and construct a curvature tensor. A geometry for the Ehlers symmetry SL( n + 1) is sketched. Some related issues are discussed.
Rodriguez, Jose
2008-01-01
This work is an introduction to modern mathematical physics. We begin with Maxwell laws and vector calculus, pass next to consider the action and the Feynman integral in quantum mechanics, next relativity and differential geometry to formulate the electromagnetic laws in intrinsic form. Next we see gravitation to study the covariant derivative. We end with the electromagnetic bundle U(1). It contains the know-how + the know-why. The text is written in Spanish. 340 pps.
Freezing in confined geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.
1992-01-01
Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.
C. A. Rogers
\\u000a The Geometry of Numbers is concerned with a study of the relationships between point lattices and sets of points. In this\\u000a course of lectures I want to give an account of some of the basic general results of the subject. I will confine my attention\\u000a to the study of what may be called homogeneous problems, and will say nothing about
2D hybrid meshes for direct simulation Monte Carlo solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengil, N.; Sengil, U.
2013-02-01
The efficiency of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method decreases considerably if gas is not rarefied. In order to extend the application range of the DSMC method towards non-rarefied gas regimes, the computational efficiency of the DSMC method should be increased further. One of the most time consuming parts of the DSMC method is to determine which DSMC molecules are in close proximity. If this information is calculated quickly, the efficiency of the DSMC method will be increased. Although some meshless methods are proposed, mostly structured or non-structured meshes are used to obtain this information. The simplest DSMC solvers are limited with the structured meshes. In these types of solvers, molecule indexing according to the positions can be handled very fast using simple arithmetic operations. But structured meshes are geometry dependent. Complicated geometries require the use of unstructured meshes. In this case, DSMC molecules are traced cell-by-cell. Different cell-by-cell tracing techniques exist. But, these techniques require complicated trigonometric operations or search algorithms. Both techniques are computationally expensive. In this study, a hybrid mesh structure is proposed. Hybrid meshes are both less dependent on the geometry like unstructured meshes and computationally efficient like structured meshes.
Matter in Toy Dynamical Geometries
Tomasz Konopka
2009-03-25
One of the objectives of theories describing quantum dynamical geometry is to compute expectation values of geometrical observables. The results of such computations can be affected by whether or not matter is taken into account. It is thus important to understand to what extent and to what effect matter can affect dynamical geometries. Using a simple model, it is shown that matter can effectively mold a geometry into an isotropic configuration. Implications for "atomistic" models of quantum geometry are briefly discussed.
Emergent complex network geometry.
Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra
2015-01-01
Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280
Integral Geometry and Holography
Bartlomiej Czech; Lampros Lamprou; Samuel McCandlish; James Sully
2015-05-20
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS$_3$ whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.
Emergent Complex Network Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra
2015-05-01
Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.
3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.
Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng
2015-02-01
We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection. PMID:25536469
A deep search for H2D+ in protoplanetary disks
Chapillon, E; Guilloteau, S; Du, F
2011-01-01
The structure in density and temperature of protoplanetary disks surrounding low-mass stars is not yet well known. The protoplanetary disks mid-planes are expected to be very cold and thus depleted in molecules in gas phase, especially CO. Recent observations of molecules at very low apparent temperature (~ 6 K) challenge this current picture of the protoplanetary disk structures. We aim at constraining the physical conditions, and in particular the gas-phase CO abundance in the mid-plane of protoplanetary disks. The light molecule H2D+,is a tracer of cold and CO-depleted environment. It is therefore a good candidate to explore the disks mid-planes. We performed a deep search for H2D+ in the two well-known disks surrounding TW Hya and DM Tau using the APEX and JCMT telescopes. The analysis of the observations are done with DISKFIT, a radiative transfer code dedicated to disks. In addition, we used a chemical model describing deuterium chemistry to infer the implications of our observations on the level of CO ...
Atmospheric Outflows from Hot Jupiters: 2D MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, A.; Matsakos, T.; Konigl, A.
2015-01-01
Recent observations of stellar hydrogen Ly-? line absorption during transits of some hot Jupiter exoplanets suggest the presence of a dense, fast wind that is blowing from planetary atmosphere tep{2003Natur.422..143V,2007ApJ...671L..61B}. Modeling efforts include 1D hydrodynamic models tep{2009ApJ...693...23M,2004Icar..170..167Y,2007P&SS...55.1426G} and 2D isothermal magnetized wind models tep{2014arXiv1404.5817T}, among others. In this work, we model the 2D structure of the irradiated upper atmosphere of a hot Jupiter planet and its interaction with the planetary magnetic field. We calculate self consistently the heating by stellar UV radiation and the cooling of the atmosphere by Ly-? emission. We solve for the ionization structure assuming a 100% hydrogen atmosphere, accounting for the radiative ionization, recombination and advection of the gas. We show the effect of stellar tides and planetary magnetic field on the planet outflow and calculate the Ly-? transmission spectra of the resulting atmosphere.