Sample records for 2-d temperature imaging

  1. Real-Time 2-D Temperature Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalong Liu

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter,

  2. 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K., E-mail: nishim11@nuclear.es.kit.ac.jp; Sanpei, A., E-mail: sanpei@kit.ac.jp; Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S. [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

  3. Temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions measured by 2D optoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2014-03-01

    A new experimental approach for measurements of temperature dependence of the Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions is proposed. Two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging is used to improve accuracy of signal amplitude measurements and spatial localization of the studied samples. We estimated OA response of optically absorbing solutions measuring median intensity of OA images within the region of interest (ROI) as a function of temperature. We showed that when normalized to its value at a particular temperature, OA image intensity becomes an accurate metric reflecting temperature changes of Grüneisen parameter regardless of local optical fluence and absorbance, assuming those remain constant with temperature. Using the proposed method we studied temperature dependence of aqueous solutions of nickel and cupric sulfate in the range from 4 to 40°C. Obtained results were compared with temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of DI-water, which we measured by using carbon ink colloid. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for nickel sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration, and is independent of coupling medium and laser excitation wavelength.In the future, the developed methodology could be adopted for important applications of in vivo optoacoustic temperature monitoring.

  4. LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich E. Meier; Dagmar Wolff-Gaßmann; Winfried Stricker

    2000-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) has been used to measure time-resolved spatial distributions of the fuel, the OH radical, and the temperature field in a jet engine model combustor segment. For temperature measurements, a two-line PLIF scheme was used: two different spectral lines of the OH radical, which served as indicator molecule, were excited successively within a short time delay using

  5. Fast Electron Spatial Temperature Distribution Studied by X-Ray 2D Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wen-Tao; Xia, Chang-Quan; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Yi; Li, Wen-Tao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Hong; Yu, Chang-Hai; Leng, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    We present the experimental and numerical results of two-dimensional x-ray imaging due to fast electron transport in a solid target. A 40-?m-thick copper film target is irradiated by a 100 mJ, 50 fs normal incident laser pulse. The full width at half maximum of the x-ray photon dose is 25 ?m, and the divergence angle of fast electrons is 25°-30°, which is detected by the pin-hole x-ray imaging technique. The target surface plasma layer is compressed by a ponderomotive force into a depth of 0.2?. The plasma wave accompanied by fast electrons transporting into the target is studied by dividing the plasma into layers in a radial direction. A narrow fast electron channel, which is approximately 8 ?m-10 ?m in width, mainly contributes to the x-ray dose.

  6. 50-kHz-rate 2D imaging of temperature and H2O concentration at the exhaust plane of a J85 engine using hyperspectral tomography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R

    2013-01-14

    This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows. PMID:23389008

  7. Tomosynthesis imaging with 2D scanning trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Kedar; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-03-01

    Tomosynthesis imaging in chest radiography provides volumetric information with the potential for improved diagnostic value when compared to the standard AP or LAT projections. In this paper we explore the image quality benefits of 2D scanning trajectories when coupled with advanced image reconstruction approaches. It is intuitively clear that 2D trajectories provide projection data that is more complete in terms of Radon space filling, when compared with conventional tomosynthesis using a linearly scanned source. Incorporating this additional information for obtaining improved image quality is, however, not a straightforward problem. The typical tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms are based on direct inversion methods e.g. Filtered Backprojection (FBP) or iterative algorithms that are variants of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART). The FBP approach is fast and provides high frequency details in the image but at the same time introduces streaking artifacts degrading the image quality. The iterative methods can reduce the image artifacts by using image priors but suffer from a slow convergence rate, thereby producing images lacking high frequency details. In this paper we propose using a fast converging optimal gradient iterative scheme that has advantages of both the FBP and iterative methods in that it produces images with high frequency details while reducing the image artifacts. We show that using favorable 2D scanning trajectories along with the proposed reconstruction method has the advantage of providing improved depth information for structures such as the spine and potentially producing images with more isotropic resolution.

  8. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  9. Adaptive stereoscopic image conversion of 2D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Jin; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2001-11-01

    In recent years, there have been many researches being done throughout the world on the 3D image conversion of 2D image. However, 3D image conversion of 2D image has many problems on obtaining the optimal stereopsis. Stereopsis is dominated to relative position of several objects and depth information within image. Accordingly, in this paper, as a new adaptive scheme for stereoscopic image conversion of 2D image is suggested. Two input images acquired by Stereo Camera have different disparity information to each other. Disparity map, based on disparity information, presents mutually different occulusion region in the left/right image. These depend on the left view & right view and front & rear view of the virtual image plane. If arbitrary threshold values are applied to disparity map, we can get segmented objects from the input image. Using the principle of horizontal parallax, segmented objects are shifted with optimal screen disparity. In this case, we can improve stereopsis by differential shifting.

  10. Microwave Imaging with Infrared 2-D Lock-in Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyo, Noritaka; Arai, Mizuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    We have developed a 3-D electromagnetic field measurement system using 2-D lock-in amplifier. This system uses an amplitude modulated electromagnetic wave source to heat a resistive screen. A very small change of temperature on a screen illuminated with the modulated electromagnetic wave is measured using an infrared thermograph camera. In this paper, we attempted to apply our system to microwave imaging. By placing conductor patches in front of the resistive screen and illuminating with microwave, the shape of each conductor was clearly observed as the temperature difference image of the screen. In this way, the conductor pattern inside the non-contact type IC card could be visualized. Moreover, we could observe the temperature difference image reflecting the shape of a Konnyaku (a gelatinous food made from devil's-tonge starch) or a dried fishbone, both as non-conducting material resembling human body. These results proved that our method is applicable to microwave see-through imaging.

  11. Combinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in applications related to 2D or 3D images (e.g., remote sensing, medical imaging). Despite the digital natureCombinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images Phuc Ngoa , Yukiko Kenmochia of digital image process- ing applications. When applied on discrete images, rigid transformations

  12. Combinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    [1], image registration [2]), and considered in applications related to 2D or 3D images (e.g., remoteCombinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images Phuc Ngoa , Yukiko Kenmochia of digital image processing applications. When applied on such discrete images, rigid transformations

  13. Topology-preserving rigid transformation of 2D digital images

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ] or tracking [4]. This concerns not only 3D (e.g., in medical imaging [5]) but also 2D data (e.g., in remote1 Topology-preserving rigid transformation of 2D digital images Phuc Ngo, Nicolas Passat, Yukiko and warping. Index Terms--Digital images, rigid transformation, digital topology, image preprocessing

  14. Combinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    registration [2]), and considered in applications related to 2D or 3D images (e.g., remote sensing, medicalCombinatorial structure of rigid transformations in 2D digital images Phuc Ngoa , Yukiko Kenmochia of digital image process- ing applications. When applied on discrete images, rigid transformations

  15. Compression of 2-D Biomedical Images 7.1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) or even spatio-temporal sequences (i.e. 3D+t) by encoding each image separately and independently of all of medical images are acquired using 2D acquisition imaging systems (e.g., vertebra and lung digital X rays, mammography). Moreover, it is possible to compress temporal sequences (i.e. 2D+t), volume sequences (i.e. 3D

  16. Hyperspectral pixels in 2D imaging FPAs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Levan; Brian P. Beecken

    2009-01-01

    Dualband infrared focal plane arrays (FPA), developed for multi-spectral imaging applications, have advantages over conventional multi-FPA sensor configurations in compactness and band-to-band pixel registration. These FPAs have also enabled hyperspectral applications that employ gratings used in two orders, allowing high efficiency hyperspectral imaging over very broad wavelength regions. As time progresses, multi-waveband FPAs are expected to provide an increase in

  17. SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart R. Degraaf

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR

  18. Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2-D CMUT Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted G. Fisher; Timothy J. Hall; Satchi Panda; Michael S. Richards; Paul E. Barbone; Jingfeng Jiang; Jeff Resnick; Steve Barnes

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as

  19. 3D Modeling From 2D Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lana Madracevic; Stjepan Sogoric

    2010-01-01

    This article will give an overview of the methods of transition from the set of images into 3D model. Direct method of creating 3D model using 3D software will be described. Creating photorealistic 3D models from a set of photographs is challenging problem in computer vision because the technology is still in its development stage while the demands for 3D

  20. 2D and 3D Elasticity Imaging Using Freehand Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    2D and 3D Elasticity Imaging Using Freehand Ultrasound Joel Edward Lindop Pembroke College March to mechanical properties (e.g., stiffness) to which conventional forms of ultrasound, X-ray and magnetic that occur between the acquisition of multiple ultrasound images. Likely applications include improved

  1. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  2. SAR Image Superresolution via 2-D Adaptive Extrapolation$

    E-print Network

    Fisher III, John

    of a nonparametric two dimensional (2-D) procedure to extrapolate a signal, an extension of the Adaptive Weighted, synthetic aperture radar, extrapolation 1. Introduction There is an increasing interest in the use of superresolution methods to form Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8

  3. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  4. Region-based Statistical Analysis of 2D PAGE Images

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Françoise; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R.

    2011-01-01

    A new comprehensive procedure for statistical analysis of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) images is proposed, including protein region quantification, normalization and statistical analysis. Protein regions are defined by the master watershed map that is obtained from the mean gel. By working with these protein regions, the approach bypasses the current bottleneck in the analysis of 2D PAGE images: it does not require spot matching. Background correction is implemented in each protein region by local segmentation. Two-dimensional locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) is proposed to remove any systematic bias after quantification of protein regions. Proteins are separated into mutually independent sets based on detected correlations, and a multivariate analysis is used on each set to detect the group effect. A strategy for multiple hypothesis testing based on this multivariate approach combined with the usual Benjamini-Hochberg FDR procedure is formulated and applied to the differential analysis of 2D PAGE images. Each step in the analytical protocol is shown by using an actual dataset. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is shown using simulated gels in comparison with the commercial software packages PDQuest and Dymension. We also introduce a new procedure for simulating gel images. PMID:21850152

  5. Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188

  6. SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods.

    PubMed

    DeGraaf, S R

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR imaging. First, it is a comprehensive comparison of 2D spectral estimation methods for SAR imaging. It provides a synopsis of the algorithms available, discusses their relative merits for SAR imaging, and illustrates their performance on simulated and collected SAR imagery. Some of the algorithms presented or their derivations are new, as are some of the insights into or analyses of the algorithms. Second, this work develops multichannel variants of four related algorithms, minimum variance method (MVM), reduced-rank MVM (RRMVM), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) and space variant apodization (SVA) to estimate both reflectivity intensity and interferometric height from polarimetric displaced-aperture interferometric data. All of these interferometric variants are new. In the interferometric contest, adaptive spectral estimation can improve the height estimates through a combination of adaptive nulling and averaging. Examples illustrate that MVM, ASR, and SVA offer significant advantages over Fourier methods for estimating both scattering intensity and interferometric height, and allow empirical comparison of the accuracies of Fourier, MVM, ASR, and SVA interferometric height estimates. PMID:18276288

  7. 2D Neutron Diffraction Imaging on an Ammonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Imaki, Tadashi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Oshita, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Naokatsu; Masuko, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Suzuya, Kentaro; Otomo, Toshiya

    2D neutron diffraction imaging of an ammonite fossil was carried out at high-intensity total diffractometer NOVA in J-PARC. Observed diffraction profiles consist of calcite, siderite and amorphous structures. Most of part in the ammonite is calcite. The calcite image shows air chambers divided by septa in the spiral shell. Siderite is observed only in the body chamber. Amorphous structure is observed in both the protoconch and the inner whorls. Based on the crystal structures, their chemical compositions are discussed.

  8. Verification of 2D building outlines using oblique airborne images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaruhuma, Adam Patrick; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Mtalo, Elifuraha Gerald

    2012-07-01

    Oblique airborne images are interesting not only for visualization but also for the acquisition and updating of geo-spatial vector data. This is because side views of vertical structures, such as buildings, are present in those images. In recent years, techniques for automatic verification of building outlines have been proposed. These techniques utilized color, texture and height from vertical images or range data while oblique images contain façade information that can also be used to identify buildings. This paper presents a methodology to verify 2D building outlines in a cadastral dataset by using oblique airborne images. The method searches for clues such as building edges, wall façade edges and texture. The 2D clues in images taken from different perspectives but expected to contain the same wall are transformed to 3D, combined and used for a verification of the particular wall. Unlike methods that use vertical images or LIDAR, walls are verified individually and then the results are combined for the building. We compare three methods for combining wall-based evidence. Experiments using almost 700 buildings show that best results are obtained using Adaptive Boosting where - with a bias for better identification of demolished buildings - 100% of demolished buildings are identified and 91% of existing buildings are confirmed. The other two methods are Random Trees and a variant of the Dempster-Shafer approach combined with fuzzy reasoning and they only show some minor differences to the Adaptive Boosting result. The research as presented in this paper demonstrates the potential of oblique images, but some further work has to be done, including the identification of modified buildings and the extension towards verification of 3D building models.

  9. Determination of convective heat transfer coefficients using 2D MRI temperature mapping and finite element modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg J. Hulbert; J. Bruce Litchfield; Shelly J. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    Finite element modeling was used in combination with 2D MRI temperature mapping to calculate fluid to particle convective heat transfer coefficients (hfp) across the surfaces of a carrot particle being heated with 80 °C water with an average velocity of 4.4 cm\\/s. Heat transfer in the region of interest (image acquired from center of sample) was essentially two-dimensional because of

  10. Non-rigid 2D-3D Medical Image Registration using Markov Random Fields

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Non-rigid 2D-3D Medical Image Registration using Markov Random Fields Enzo Ferrante and Nikos of this approach. Keywords: 2D-3D registration, medical imaging, markov random fields, dis- crete optimization. 1 Introduction 2D-3D image registration is an important problem in medical imaging and it can be applied

  11. Intensity-Based 2D-3D Spine Image Registration Incorporating One Fiducial Marker

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    x-ray computed tomography (CT) image to one or more two- dimensional (2D) x-ray projection images (e with that of the x-ray projection images and the operating room. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the 2D-based 2D- 3D registration, the reference image is an intra-operative x-ray projection (2D) image

  12. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  13. A scanning-mode 2D shear wave imaging (s2D-SWI) system for ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Li, Yongchuan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Ge; Jin, Qiaofeng; Mu, Peitian; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography is widely used for the non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a quantitative method for assessing tissue stiffness. SWI has been demonstrated to be less operator dependent than quasi-static elastography, and has the ability to acquire quantitative elasticity information in contrast with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire two dimensional (2D) quantitative images of the tissue elasticity distribution. This study proposes and evaluates a scanning-mode 2D SWI (s2D-SWI) system. The hardware and image processing algorithms are presented in detail. Programmable devices are used to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. An analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transformation based shear wave speed determination method are proposed, which can be implemented using parallel computation. Imaging of tissue mimicking phantoms, and in vitro, and in vivo imaging test are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The s2D-SWI system represents a new choice for the quantitative mapping of tissue elasticity, and has great potential for implementation in commercial ultrasound scanners. PMID:26025508

  14. Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P

    2009-11-26

    Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615

  15. Mesophases in Nearly 2D Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-print Network

    N. Manini; M. Cesaratto; M. G. Del Popolo; P. Ballone

    2009-10-27

    Computer simulations of (i) a [C12mim][Tf2N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C12mim][Tf2N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C4mim][Tf2N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants.

  16. Calibration of an acoustic system for measuring 2-D temperature distribution around hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental purposes of quantitative acoustic surveys of seafloor hydrothermal vents is to measure their 2-D temperature distributions. Knowing the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances between the underwater transducers in an acoustic tomography system is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the temperature reconstruction. However, commercial transducer sources typically do not supply the needed data. Here we present a novel calibration algorithm to automatically determine the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances. The possible system latency error and the resulting temperature error are derived and analyzed. We have also developed the experimental setup for calibration. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method, an experimental study was performed on acoustic imaging of underwater temperature fields in Lake Qiezishan, located at Longling County, Yunnan Province, China. Using the calibrated data, the reconstructed temperature distributions closely resemble the actual distributions measured with thermocouples, thus confirming the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:23375572

  17. 2D-GE IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON LEVEL-SETS E.A. Mylona a

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    of protein spots in 2D-GE images. The proposed scheme incorporates a protein spot detection stage based both software packages in terms of segmentation performance. Index Terms--2D-GE Images, Protein Spot of proteome visualization technologies. Two- dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) is the highest resolving

  18. An image-based shading pipeline for 2D animation Hedlena Bezerra1

    E-print Network

    An image-based shading pipeline for 2D animation Hedlena Bezerra1 Bruno Feij´o1 Luiz Velho2 1 PUC on images is a recent research topic in computer-assisted animation. This paper proposes an image is the only one in the literature that is genuinely an image-based method for 2D animation. Keywords: cel

  19. Normalized 3D to 2D model-based facial image synthesis for 2D model-based face recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A-Nasser Ansari; Mohammad H. Mahoor; Mohamed Abdel-Mottaleb

    2011-01-01

    In our previous research [1-3], we created a database of 3D textured face models of people using stereo images and a generic face mesh model for 3D face recognition application. Consequently, in this paper we make use of this available database and propose an algorithm for synthesizing multiple view 2D facial images of each subject, which extends the number of

  20. 2D luminescence imaging of physiological wound oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Schreml, Stephan; Meier, Robert J; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Maisch, Tim; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Landthaler, Michael; Regensburger, Johannes; Santarelli, Francesco; Klimant, Ingo; Babilas, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    In cutaneous wound healing, the role of oxygen in vivo is poorly understood. We studied wound surface pO(2) during physiological wound healing in humans. Split-thickness skin graft donor sites (n=12) served as standardized wound models. Wound surface pO(2) was measured at 1, 6 and 14days after split-skin harvesting using two-dimensional luminescence lifetime imaging (2D-LLI) of palladium(II)-meso-tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin (Pd-TPTBP) in polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile (PSAN) particles on transparent foils. In another experiment, we removed the stratum corneum (SC) on the volar forearm (n=10) by tape strippings to study the impact of the SC on the epidermal oxygen barrier. Split-skin donor site pO(2) significantly decreased during the time course of physiological healing. Regional differences in pO(2) within donor site wounds were visualized for the first time in literature. No difference was found in pO(2) before and after SC removal, showing that the SC is not a major constituent of the epidermal oxygen barrier. PMID:21443617

  1. Surface Reconstruction by Propagating 3D Stereo Data in Multiple 2D Images

    E-print Network

    Paris, Sylvain

    Surface Reconstruction by Propagating 3D Stereo Data in Multiple 2D Images Gang ZENG1 , Sylvain reconstruction from multiple images. The central idea is to explore the integration of both 3D stereo data and 2D calibrated images. This is motivated by the fact that only robust and accurate feature points that survived

  2. Non-rigid Target Tracking in 2D Ultrasound Images Using Hierarchical Grid Interpolation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Non-rigid Target Tracking in 2D Ultrasound Images Using Hierarchical Grid Interpolation Lucas Royer In this paper, we present a new non-rigid target tracking method within 2D ultrasound (US) image sequence. Due. Keywords: Target tracking, ultrasound images, deformable, non-rigid motions, hierarchical grid

  3. New 2D discrete Fourier transforms in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the concept of the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transformation (2-D DFT) is defined in the general case, when the form of relation between the spatial-points (x, y) and frequency-points (?1, ?2) is defined in the exponential kernel of the transformation by a nonlinear form L(x, y; ?1, ?2). The traditional concept of the 2-D DFT uses the Diaphanous form x?1 +y?2 and this 2-D DFT is the particular case of the Fourier transform described by the form L(x, y; ?1, ?2). Properties of the general 2-D discrete Fourier transform are described and examples are given. The special case of the N × N-point 2-D Fourier transforms, when N = 2r, r > 1, is analyzed and effective representation of these transforms is proposed. The proposed concept of nonlinear forms can be also applied for other transformations such as Hartley, Hadamard, and cosine transformations.

  4. Stability Analysis and Breast Tumor Classification from 2D ARMA Models of Ultrasound Images

    E-print Network

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal

    Stability Analysis and Breast Tumor Classification from 2D ARMA Models of Ultrasound Images A. Abdulsadda, N. Bouaynaya, and K. Iqbal Abstract-- Two-dimensional (2D) autoregressive moving av- erage (ARMA properties of these models have not been examined. In this paper, we investigate the stability of 2D ARMA

  5. Medical Image Enhancement Method Based on 2D Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xujia Qin; Shishuang Liu; Wu Zhengqiang; Jun Han

    2008-01-01

    Image Enhancement takes important part in medical image processing. In this paper, a new image enhancement method for medical images based on 2D empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed. Firstly, we decompose the image into low-frequency information and high-frequency information by 2D EMD. Then expand the high-frequency part. Finally add the expanded high-frequency information with the low-frequency information and enhanced

  6. Identification and Characterization of Protostellar Outflows in Spitzer c2d Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenthner, Katherine; Kauffmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their importance, protostellar outflow searches have rarely been conducted in an unbiased fashion. Here, we present an extensive and unbiased survey of outflows found in the molecular clouds observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Project "From Molecular Cores to Planet Forming Disks" (c2d). The survey was conducted by visually examining all the c2d IRAC images, where the 4.5 µm band was especially sensitive to detecting shocked emission associated with protostellar outflows. From this method of careful inspection, we were able to identify and characterize potential new outflows in these star forming regions. Taking advantage of Spitzer's wide wavelength range, we also used MIPS data to associate outflow properties, such as scale, orientation, and brightness, to properties of the suspected driving sources, such as bolometric luminosity and temperature.

  7. A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Turley, W.D. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Complete discrete 2-D Gabor transforms by neural networks for image analysis and compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN G. DAUGMAN

    1988-01-01

    A three-layered neural network is described for transforming two-dimensional discrete signals into generalized nonorthogonal 2-D Gabor representations for image analysis, segmentation, and compression. These transforms are conjoint spatial\\/spectral representations, which provide a complete image description in terms of locally windowed 2-D spectral coordinates embedded within global 2-D spatial coordinates. In the present neural network approach, based on interlaminar interactions involving

  9. Surface Reconstruction by Propagating 3D Stereo Data in Multiple 2D Images

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    the integration of both 3D stereo data and 2D calibrated images. This is motivated by the fact that only robustSurface Reconstruction by Propagating 3D Stereo Data in Multiple 2D Images Gang ZENG1 , Sylvain. The density insufficiency and the inevitable holes in the stereo data should be filled in by using information

  10. Reconstructing 3D Human Pose from 2D Image Landmarks

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    the configurations spanned in the corpus, ensuring anthropometric plausibility while discouraging impossible that violate anthropometric con- straints such as limb proportions, yet yield a projection in 2D that is plausible. The goal is therefore to develop an activity-independent model while ensuring anthropometric

  11. Temperature-jump 2D IR spectroscopy to study protein conformational dynamics

    E-print Network

    Jones, Kevin C. (Kevin Chapman)

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-jump (T-jump) two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) is developed, characterized, and applied to the study of protein folding and association. In solution, protein conformational changes span a wide range ...

  12. A 2-D MSGC-based imaging detector for neutrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Bateman; G. E. Derbyshire; D. M. Duxbury; A. S. Marsh; N. J. Rhodes; E. M. Schooneveld; E. J. Spill; R. Stephenson

    2005-01-01

    The development and testing of a two-dimensional (2-D) prototype detector based on a microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) is reported using a gas mixture of 2.5 bar 3He and 2.5 bar CF4. The second coordinate is obtained by utilising a plane of wires as pick up electrodes. The detector is operated with the wire plane at such a potential so as

  13. Infrared image segmentation with 2-D maximum entropy method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Du; Wenkang Shi; Liangzhou Chen; Deng Yong; Zhenfu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    The 2-D maximum entropy method not only considers the distribution of the gray information, but also takes advantage of the spatial neighbor information with using the 2-D histogram of the image. As a global threshold method, it often gets ideal segmentation results even when the image’s signal noise ratio (SNR) is low. However, its time-consuming computation is often an obstacle

  14. Facial feature detection and face recognition from 2D and 3D images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingjie Wang; Chin-seng Chua; Yeong-khing Ho

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a feature-based face recognition system based on both 3D range data as well as 2D gray-level facial images. Feature points are described by Gabor filter responses in the 2D domain and Point Signature in the 3D domain. Extracted shape features from 3D feature points and texture features from 2D feature points are first projected into their own

  15. An intensity-based registration algorithm for probabilistic images and its application for 2-D to 3-D image registration

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    -operative CT image to an intra-operative 2-D x-ray image, one typically computes simulated x-ray images from. Keywords: Probabilistic DRR, intensity-based image registration, mutual information, x-ray projection, CT by registering the CT to one or several intra-operative fluoroscopic x-ray projection images with known

  16. The selection of natural scales in 2D images using adaptive Gabor filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fdez-Valdivia; J. A. Garcia; J. Martinez-Baena; Xose R. Fdez-Vidal

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the natural scales of the shapes in 2D images can be extracted. Spatial information is analyzed by multiple units sensitive to both spatial and spatial-frequency variables. Scale estimates of the relevant shapes are constructed only from strongly responding detectors. The meaningful structures in the response of a detector (computed through 2D Gabor filtering) are, at their

  17. Phase unwrapping for 2-D blind deconvolution of ultrasound images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg V. Michailovich; Dan Adam

    2004-01-01

    In most approaches to the problem of two-dimensional homomorphic deconvolution of ultrasound images, the estimation of a corresponding point-spread function (PSF) is necessarily the first stage in the process of image restoration. This estimation is usually performed in the Fourier domain by either successive or simultaneous estimation of the amplitude and phase of the Fourier transform (FT) of the PSF.

  18. 3D reconstruction from 2D images and applications to cell cytoskeleton

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Yuan, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Approaches to achieve three dimensional (3D) reconstruction from 2D images can be grouped into two categories: computer-vision-based reconstruction and tomographic reconstruction. By exploring both the differences and ...

  19. A Comparison of Simularity Measures for use in 2D-3D Medical Image Registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme P. Penney; Jürgen Weese; John A. Little; Paul Desmedt; Derek L. G. Hill; David J. Hawkes

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of six similarity measures for use in intensity-based two-dimensional-three-dimensional (2-D-3-D) image registration is presented. The accuracy of the similarity measures are compared to a \\

  20. Hyperspectral image lossless compression using DSC and 2-D CALIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueping Yan; Jiaji Wu

    2010-01-01

    In recent few years, DSC (Distributed Source Coding) technology is catched much attentions in remote sensing image compression field,due to its excellent performance and low encoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a DSC-based practical solution for hyperspectral image lossless compression system, which applies the DSC technique using the power channel codes of Low-Density-Parity-Check Accumulated(LDPCA) codes and incorporates an efficient

  1. NONLINEAR FILTERING FOR EXTRACTING ORIENTATION AND TRACING TUBULAR STRUCTURES IN 2-D MEDICAL IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Vidal, René

    NONLINEAR FILTERING FOR EXTRACTING ORIENTATION AND TRACING TUBULAR STRUCTURES IN 2-D MEDICAL IMAGES-D medical images. We first present a nonlinear filter for detecting overlaid orientations at each tubular structures in medical images are important quantitative tools for developing precise physi

  2. Connectivity Preserving Digitization of Blurred Binary Images in 2D and 3D

    E-print Network

    Hamburg,.Universität

    Connectivity Preserving Digitization of Blurred Binary Images in 2D and 3D Peer Stelldinger the 3D results are interesting since up to now only digitization without blurring has been inves in pictures. Since the input for any image analysis algorithm is a digital image, which does not need to have

  3. Registration of 3-D CT and 2-D Flat Images of Mouse via Affine Transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Xia; Xishi Huang; Xiaobo Zhou; Youxian Sun; V. Ntziachristos; Stephen Wong

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to directly coregister the 3-D fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) image of a small tumor in a mouse whose maximal diameter is only a few millimeters with a larger CT image of the entire animal that spans about 10 cm. This paper proposes a new method to register 2-D flat and 3-D CT image first to facilitate the

  4. Microwave image reconstruction from 3-D fields coupled to 2-D parameter estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qianqian Fang; Paul M. Meaney; Shireen D. Geimer; Anatoly V. Streltsov; Keith D. Paulsen

    2004-01-01

    An efficient Gauss-Newton iterative imaging technique utilizing a three-dimensional (3-D) field solution coupled to a two-dimensional (2-D) parameter estimation scheme (3-D\\/2-D) is presented for microwave tomographic imaging in medical applications. While electromagnetic wave propagation is described fully by a 3-D vector field, a 3-D scalar model has been applied to improve the efficiency of the iterative reconstruction process with apparently

  5. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, understood as the spatial arrangement of soil pores, is one of the key factors in soil modelling processes. Geometric properties of individual and interpretation of the morphological parameters of pores can be estimated from thin sections or 3D Computed Tomography images (Tarquis et al., 2003), but there is no satisfactory method to binarized these images and quantify the complexity of their spatial arrangement (Tarquis et al., 2008, Tarquis et al., 2009; Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of this work was to apply a multifractal technique, their singularities (?) and f(?) spectra, to quantify it without applying any threshold (Gónzalez-Torres, 2014). Intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of an Argisol, formed on the Tertiary Barreiras group of formations in Pernambuco state, Brazil (Itapirema Experimental Station). The natural vegetation of the region is tropical, coastal rainforest. From each horizon, showing different porosities and spatial arrangements, three adjacent samples were taken having a set of twelve samples. The intact soil samples were imaged using an EVS (now GE Medical. London, Canada) MS-8 MicroCT scanner with 45 ?m pixel-1 resolution (256x256 pixels). Though some samples required paring to fit the 64 mm diameter imaging tubes, field orientation was maintained. References Baveye, P.C., M. Laba, W. Otten, L. Bouckaert, P. Dello, R.R. Goswami, D. Grinev, A. Houston, Yaoping Hu, Jianli Liu, S. Mooney, R. Pajor, S. Sleutel, A. Tarquis, Wei Wang, Qiao Wei, Mehmet Sezgin. Observer-dependent variability of the thresholding step in the quantitative analysis of soil images and X-ray microtomography data. Geoderma, 157, 51-63, 2010. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and application of multifractal analysis methods in images for the study of soil structure. Master thesis, UPM, 2014. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, J.B. Grau; J. Fabregat, M.E. Sanchez and J.M. Antón. Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-D Soil Images. Nonlinear Process in Geophysics, 15, 881-891, 2008. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, D. Andina, A. Alvarez and J.M. Antón. Multifractal analysis and thresholding of 3D soil images. Ecological Complexity, 6, 230-239, 2009. Tarquis, A.M.; D. Giménez, A. Saa, M.C. Díaz. and J.M. Gascó. Scaling and Multiscaling of Soil Pore Systems Determined by Image Analysis. Scaling Methods in Soil Systems. Pachepsky, Radcliffe and Selim Eds., 19-33, 2003. CRC Press, Boca Ratón, Florida. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the financial support obtained from Soil Imaging Laboratory (University of Gueplh, Canada) in 2014.

  6. Informatics and Statistics for Analyzing 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Images

    PubMed Central

    Dowsey, Andrew W.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Gutstein, Howard B.; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent progress in “shotgun” peptide separation by integrated liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS), proteome coverage and reproducibility are still limited with this approach and obtaining enough replicate runs for biomarker discovery is a challenge. For these reasons, recent research demonstrates that there is a continuing need for protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). However, with traditional 2-DE informatics, the digitized images are reduced to symbolic data through spot detection and quantification before proteins are compared for differential expression by spot matching. Recently, a more robust and automated paradigm has emerged where gels are directly aligned in the image domain before spots are detected across the whole image set as a whole. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for both approaches and discuss the pitfalls present when reasoning statistically about the differential protein expression discovered. PMID:20013375

  7. A systematic approach for 2D-image to 3D-range registration in urban environments

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    photography. A system- atic way for registering 3D range scans and 2D images is thus essential. RecentA systematic approach for 2D-image to 3D-range registration in urban environments Lingyun Liu (extracted from 2D images) with 3D directions (derived from a 3D range model). Then, a hypothesis

  8. 2D imaging by X-ray fluorescence microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionovici, A.; Chukalina, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Schroer, Ch.; Lengeler, B.; Janssens, K.; Adams, F.

    2000-05-01

    First experimental results of fluorescence microtomography in "pencil-beam" geometry with 6 ?m resolution obtained at the ESRF/1D 22 are described. Image reconstructions are based on either a simplified algebraic reconstruction method (ART) or the filtered back-projection method (FBT). Simple cylindrical test objects are accurately reconstructed.

  9. 2D optoacoustic array for high resolution imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ashkenazi; R. S. Witte; K. Kim; S.-W. Huang; Y. Hou; M. O'Donnell

    2006-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector denotes the detection of acoustic signals by optical devices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques and the availability of high power tunable laser sources have greatly accelerated the development of efficient optoacoustic detectors. The unique advantages of optoacoustic technology are of special interest in applications that require high resolution imaging. For these applications optoacoustic technology enables high frequency

  10. 2D temperature field measurement in a direct-injection engine using LIF technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Tian, Hongsen; Yang, Jianwei; Sun, Jianmin; Zhu, Aihua

    2011-12-01

    A new multi-spectral detection strategy for temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements is reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  11. 2-D image segmentation using minimum spanning trees

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for partitioning a gray-level image into connected homogeneous regions. The novelty of this algorithm lies in the fact that by constructing a minimum spanning tree representation of a gray-level image, it reduces a region partitioning problem to a minimum spanning tree partitioning problem, and hence reduces the computational complexity of the region partitioning problem. The tree-partitioning algorithm, in essence, partitions a minimum spanning tree into subtrees, representing different homogeneous regions, by minimizing the sum of variations of gray levels over all subtrees under the constraints that each subtree should have at least a specified number of nodes, and two adjacent subtrees should have significantly different average gray-levels. Two (faster) heuristic implementations are also given for large-scale region partitioning problems. Test results have shown that the segmentation results are satisfactory and insensitive to noise.

  12. 2D image fuzzy deconvolution and scattering centre detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Giubbolini; Paul Pazandak

    2010-01-01

    A new innovative technique based on fuzzy deconvolution for scattering centre detection (F-SCD) is proposed together with its implementation in FPGA for real-time deployment in UAV and automotive collision avoidance application. F-SCD emulates the human interpretation of radar images using fuzzy measurement of features of the radar Point Spread Function (PSF) differently from other classic detection techniques. The first stage

  13. Correlative confocal Raman Imaging for 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianyong; Liu, Wei; Dieing, Thomas; Fischer, Harald; Henrich, Marius; Hollricher, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    Graphene was one of the first two-dimensional materials which soon after its first mono-layer production received much attention by many researchers worldwide. Its properties vastly differ from bulk graphite and its potential for applications ranges from transistors to transparent conducting electrodes and solar cell applications. While Graphene is arguably the most prominent two-dimensional material there are to this date many more that are subject to current research such as MoS2, WS2 or MoSe2. Graphene has been already and still is extensively studied using a variety of characterization techniques. Raman spectroscopy and more importantly still, Raman imaging proved to be of great value due to the clearly different spectra obtained from single, double, triple and multi-layered Graphene. This and more information that can be extracted from Raman spectroscopy and imaging can well be complemented with other techniques such as various forms of atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy (SNOM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this contribution we illustrate the benefit of correlating said techniques with confocal Raman imaging in order to deepen the understanding of the samples in question.

  14. A new gold-standard dataset for 2D/3D image registration evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawiro, Supriyanto; Markelj, Primoz; Gendrin, Christelle; Figl, Michael; Stock, Markus; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Unger, Ewald; Nöbauer, Iris; Kainberger, Franz; Bergmeister, Helga; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of 2D/3D image registration algorithms for image guided radiotherapy. A gold standard data set was calculated using a pig head with attached fiducial markers. We used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T1, T2 and proton density (PD) sequences, and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information, and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail and image data quality. The markers of three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional (2D) images were segmented using Analyze 9.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc) and an in-house software. The projection distance errors (PDE) and the expected target registration errors (TRE) over all the image data sets were found to be less than 1.7 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively. The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  15. Pupil Mapping in 2-D for High-Contrast Imaging

    E-print Network

    R. J. Vanderbei; W. A. Traub

    2004-12-02

    Pupil-mapping is a technique whereby a uniformly-illuminated input pupil, such as from starlight, can be mapped into a non-uniformly illuminated exit pupil, such that the image formed from this pupil will have suppressed sidelobes, many orders of magnitude weaker than classical Airy ring intensities. Pupil mapping is therefore a candidate technique for coronagraphic imaging of extrasolar planets around nearby stars. The pupil mapping technique is lossless, and preserves the full angular resolution of the collecting telescope, so it could possibly give the highest signal-to-noise ratio of any proposed single-telescope system for detecting extrasolar planets. A planet fainter than $10^{-10}$ times its parent star, and as close as about $2 \\lambda/D$ should be detectable. We derive the 2-dimensional equations of pupil mapping for both 2-mirror and 2-lens systems. We give examples for both cases. We derive analytical estimates of aberration in a 2-mirror system, and show that the aberrations are essentially corrected with an added reversed set of mirrors.

  16. Robust Gradient-Based 3-D\\/2-D Registration of CT and MR to X-Ray Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Primoz Markelj; Dejan Tomazevic; Franjo Pernus; Bostjan Likar

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important technical challenges in image-guided intervention is to obtain a precise transformation between the intrainterventional patient's anatomy and corresponding preinterventional 3-D image on which the intervention was planned. This goal can be achieved by acquiring intrainterventional 2-D images and matching them to the preinterventional 3-D image via 3-D\\/2-D image registration. A novel 3-D\\/2-D registration method is

  17. 2D-1D Wavelet Reconstruction as a Tool for Source Finding in Spectroscopic Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, image denoising by thresholding of wavelet coefficients is a commonly used tool for 2D image enhancement. Since the data product of spectroscopic imaging surveys has two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension, the techniques for denoising have to be adapted to this change in dimensionality. In this paper we will review the basic method of denoising data by thresholding wavelet coefficients and implement a 2D-1D wavelet decomposition to obtain an efficient way of denoising spectroscopic data cubes. We conduct different simulations to evaluate the usefulness of the algorithm as part of a source finding pipeline.

  18. 2D-1D Wavelet Reconstruction As A Tool For Source Finding In Spectroscopic Imaging Surveys

    E-print Network

    Flöer, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Today, image denoising by thresholding of wavelet coefficients is a commonly used tool for 2D image enhancement. Since the data product of spectroscopic imaging surveys has two spatial and one spectral dimension, the techniques for denoising have to be adapted to this change in dimensionality. In this paper we will review the basic method of denoising data by thresholding wavelet coefficients and implement a 2D-1D wavelet decomposition to obtain an efficient way of denoising spectroscopic data cubes. We conduct different simulations to evaluate the usefulness of the algorithm as part of a source finding pipeline.

  19. Space and Time Bounds on Indexing 3D Models from 2D Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Clemens; David W. Jacobs

    1991-01-01

    Model-based visual recognition systems often match groups of image features to groups of model features to form initial hypotheses, which are then verified. In order to accelerate recognition considerably, the model groups can be arranged in an index space (hashed) offline such that feasible matches are found by indexing into this space. For the case of 2D images and 3D

  20. An optimal parallel algorithm for the Euclidean distance maps of 2D binary images

    E-print Network

    Fujiwara, Akihiro

    An optimal parallel algorithm for the Euclidean distance maps of 2­D binary images Akihiro Fujiwara This paper presents a PRAM algorithm for computing the n 2 n Euclidean distance map. This algorithm can. Key Words: Euclidean distance map, image processing, parallel algorithm, PRAM 1 Introduction

  1. Normal vector and winding number in 2D digital images with their application for hole detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Xia

    2003-01-01

    Differentiating hole from component is an important issue in digital topology. In a recent paper, Lee, Poston, and Rosenfeld proposed a method to distinguish external and internal boundaries in 2D and 3D images relying on the property of normal vector and winding number. The method uses a smoothing function to replace digital lattice for calculating normal vector on image boundary.

  2. Comparison of 2D and 3D Clustering on Short-Axis Magnetic Resonance Images of the Left Ventricle

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Comparison of 2D and 3D Clustering on Short-Axis Magnetic Resonance Images of the Left Ventricle M) using a 2D and 3D clustering approach. Segmentation of the endo-cardial boundary is an important process. The image is clustered using an unsupervised k- means clustering technique. The 2D algorithm joins clusters

  3. A systematic approach for 2D-image to 3D-range registration in urban environments q

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    A systematic approach for 2D-image to 3D-range registration in urban environments q Lingyun Liu Available online 17 August 2011 Keywords: 2D-to-3D Registration Photorealistic 3D modeling a b s t r a c (extracted from 2D images) with 3D directions (derived from a 3D range model). Then, a hypothesis

  4. Effective Temperature of 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids at the Discrete Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong-Wai Io; Chia-Ling Chan; Lin I

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuation-dissipation theory has been used to measure the effective temperature of non-equilibrium system. In this work, using a 2D dusty plasma liquid formed by the negatively charged fine particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges and sheared by two CW counter parallel laser beams, we measure the micro-transport at the kinetic level. The effective temperatures Teff at different time scales are

  5. Gated cardiac NMR imaging and 2D echocardiography in the detection of intracardial neoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Salcedo, E.E.; Feiglin, D.H.; Underwood, D.A.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Meaney, T.F.

    1985-05-01

    Noninvasive 2D echocardiography has replaced contrast angiography as the procedure of choice in the diagnosis of intracardiac neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intracardiac neoplasm can be detected as well by gated cardiac NMR. Four patients with known intracardiac neoplasm previously diagnosed by 2D echocardiography had gated cardiac NMR imaging using a superconductive 0.6 Tesla magnet. All patients were performed using a Tl weighted spin echo pulse sequence with a TE of 30 msec and TR of one R-R interval. Two-dimensional planar single or multiple slice techniques were used. In one patient, imaging at different times along the R-R interval were performed for cine display. The results of the present study show detection of the intracardiac neoplasm in all four cases by gated cardiac NMR imaging and the results were comparable to 2D echocardiography. The former imaging technique showed superior spatial resolution. Despite its early stage of development, gated cardiac NMR imaging appears at least equal to 2D echocardiography in the detection of intracardiac neoplasm. The availability of multislice coupled with multiframe acquisition techniques now being developed will provide a cinematic display that will be more effective in the display of the tumor in motion within the cardiac chamber involved and facilitate visualization of the relationship of the tumor to adjacent cardiac structures.

  6. 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation from 2D transversal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Eunseop; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jin, Changzhu; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Visualizing and analyzing the morphological structure of carotid bifurcations are important for understanding the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of stroke and transient ischemic attack. For delineation of vasculatures in the carotid artery, ultrasound examinations have been widely employed because of a noninvasive procedure without ionizing radiation. However, conventional 2D ultrasound imaging has technical limitations in observing the complicated 3D shapes and asymmetric vasodilation of bifurcations. This study aims to propose image-processing techniques for better 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation in a rat by using 2D cross-sectional ultrasound images. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging system with a probe centered at 40MHz was employed to obtain 2D transversal images. The lumen boundaries in each transverse ultrasound image were detected by using three different techniques; an ellipse-fitting, a correlation mapping to visualize the decorrelation of blood flow, and the ellipse-fitting on the correlation map. When the results are compared, the third technique provides relatively good boundary extraction. The incomplete boundaries of arterial lumen caused by acoustic artifacts are somewhat resolved by adopting the correlation mapping and the distortion in the boundary detection near the bifurcation apex was largely reduced by using the ellipse-fitting technique. The 3D lumen geometry of a carotid artery was obtained by volumetric rendering of several 2D slices. For the 3D vasodilatation of the carotid bifurcation, lumen geometries at the contraction and expansion states were simultaneously depicted at various view angles. The present 3D reconstruction methods would be useful for efficient extraction and construction of the 3D lumen geometries of carotid bifurcations from 2D ultrasound images. PMID:24965564

  7. Atherosclerosis imaging using 3D black blood TSE SPACE vs 2D TSE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephanie K; Mobolaji-Iawal, Motunrayo; Arama, Leron; Cambe, Joy; Biso, Sylvia; Alie, Nadia; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare 3D Black Blood turbo spin echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) vs 2D TSE in evaluating atherosclerotic plaques in multiple vascular territories. METHODS: The carotid, aortic, and femoral arterial walls of 16 patients at risk for cardiovascular or atherosclerotic disease were studied using both 3D black blood magnetic resonance imaging SPACE and conventional 2D multi-contrast TSE sequences using a consolidated imaging approach in the same imaging session. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the images. Agreement of morphometric measurements between the two imaging sequences was assessed using a two-sample t-test, calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient and by the method of linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS: No statistically significant qualitative differences were found between the 3D SPACE and 2D TSE techniques for images of the carotids and aorta. For images of the femoral arteries, however, there were statistically significant differences in all four qualitative scores between the two techniques. Using the current approach, 3D SPACE is suboptimal for femoral imaging. However, this may be due to coils not being optimized for femoral imaging. Quantitatively, in our study, higher mean total vessel area measurements for the 3D SPACE technique across all three vascular beds were observed. No significant differences in lumen area for both the right and left carotids were observed between the two techniques. Overall, a significant-correlation existed between measures obtained between the two approaches. CONCLUSION: Qualitative and quantitative measurements between 3D SPACE and 2D TSE techniques are comparable. 3D-SPACE may be a feasible approach in the evaluation of cardiovascular patients. PMID:24876923

  8. Parameterising root system growth models using 2D neutron radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Leitner, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture is a key factor for plant acquisition of water and nutrients from soil. In particular in view of a second green revolution where the below ground parts of agricultural crops are important, it is essential to characterise and quantify root architecture and its effect on plant resource acquisition. Mathematical models can help to understand the processes occurring in the soil-plant system, they can be used to quantify the effect of root and rhizosphere traits on resource acquisition and the response to environmental conditions. In order to do so, root architectural models are coupled with a model of water and solute transport in soil. However, dynamic root architectural models are difficult to parameterise. Novel imaging techniques such as x-ray computed tomography, neutron radiography and magnetic resonance imaging enable the in situ visualisation of plant root systems. Therefore, these images facilitate the parameterisation of dynamic root architecture models. These imaging techniques are capable of producing 3D or 2D images. Moreover, 2D images are also available in the form of hand drawings or from images of standard cameras. While full 3D imaging tools are still limited in resolutions, 2D techniques are a more accurate and less expensive option for observing roots in their environment. However, analysis of 2D images has additional difficulties compared to the 3D case, because of overlapping roots. We present a novel algorithm for the parameterisation of root system growth models based on 2D images of root system. The algorithm analyses dynamic image data. These are a series of 2D images of the root system at different points in time. Image data has already been adjusted for missing links and artefacts and segmentation was performed by applying a matched filter response. From this time series of binary 2D images, we parameterise the dynamic root architecture model in the following way: First, a morphological skeleton is derived from the binary images by a closing and a thinning step. Then, a weighted graph is produced from this skeleton, where root tips and branch points are the nodes of the graph. For each connecting edge, the pixel coordinates are stored in a list. Finally, a root system growth model is used to determine individual roots within the graph. In this way, the sequential appearance of each sub-branch is maintained. We demonstrate the use of this algorithm to determine parameters for the root system growth model of Leitner et al. (2010). We use 2D radiography images of Lupine plants. Parameters that are gained from the images include the length of the apical and basal zones, the internodal distances, the number of branches per root, the branching angels, the root radii, and the root growth rate. Computed parameter values are means of four replicates, i.e. the means over four root systems grown under the same conditions. The root systems were classified according to their branching order, and average parameter values were determined for each root order. Based on these parameters, the dynamics of root system growth can be recaptured and analysed.

  9. Tensor representation of color images and fast 2D quaternion discrete Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a general, efficient, split algorithm to compute the two-dimensional quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT), by using the special partitioning in the frequency domain, is introduced. The partition determines an effective transformation, or color image representation in the form of 1-D quaternion signals which allow for splitting the N × M-point 2-D QDFT into a set of 1-D QDFTs. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. In particular, a proposed method of calculating the 2r × 2r -point 2-D QDFT uses 18N2 less multiplications than the well-known column-row method and method of calculation based on the symplectic decomposition. The proposed algorithm is simple to apply and design, which makes it very practical in color image processing in the frequency domain.

  10. Effective Temperature of 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids at the Discrete Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Io, Chong-Wai; Chan, Chia-Ling; I, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Fluctuation-dissipation theory has been used to measure the effective temperature of non-equilibrium system. In this work, using a 2D dusty plasma liquid formed by the negatively charged fine particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges and sheared by two CW counter parallel laser beams, we measure the micro-transport at the kinetic level. The effective temperatures Teff at different time scales are obtained through the Stokes-Einstein relation which relates the diffusion coefficient (D) and the viscosity (?). The external energy is cascaded from the slow hopping modes to the fast caging modes through mutual coupling, which leads to the higher effective temperature of the slow hopping modes.

  11. Digital breast tomosynthesis image reconstruction using 2D and 3D total variation minimization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality which produces three-dimensional radiographic images of breast. DBT reconstructs tomographic images from a limited view angle, thus data acquired from DBT is not sufficient enough to reconstruct an exact image. It was proven that a sparse image from a highly undersampled data can be reconstructed via compressed sensing (CS) techniques. This can be done by minimizing the l1 norm of the gradient of the image which can also be defined as total variation (TV) minimization. In tomosynthesis imaging problem, this idea was utilized by minimizing total variation of image reconstructed by algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). Previous studies have largely addressed 2-dimensional (2D) TV minimization and only few of them have mentioned 3-dimensional (3D) TV minimization. However, quantitative analysis of 2D and 3D TV minimization with ART in DBT imaging has not been studied. Methods In this paper two different DBT image reconstruction algorithms with total variation minimization have been developed and a comprehensive quantitative analysis of these two methods and ART has been carried out: The first method is ART?+?TV2D where TV is applied to each slice independently. The other method is ART?+?TV3D in which TV is applied by formulating the minimization problem 3D considering all slices. Results A 3D phantom which roughly simulates a breast tomosynthesis image was designed to evaluate the performance of the methods both quantitatively and qualitatively in the sense of visual assessment, structural similarity (SSIM), root means square error (RMSE) of a specific layer of interest (LOI) and total error values. Both methods show superior results in reducing out-of-focus slice blur compared to ART. Conclusions Computer simulations show that ART + TV3D method substantially enhances the reconstructed image with fewer artifacts and smaller error rates than the other two algorithms under the same configuration and parameters and it provides faster convergence rate. PMID:24172584

  12. COMPRESSED 3D ULTRASOUND IMAGING WITH 2D ARRAYS Michael Birk*, Amir Burshtein*, Tanya Chernyakova*, Alon Eilam*, Jung Woo Choe**,

    E-print Network

    Eldar, Yonina

    COMPRESSED 3D ULTRASOUND IMAGING WITH 2D ARRAYS Michael Birk*, Amir Burshtein*, Tanya Chernyakova's Nyquist rate, which greatly increases the volume of data that must be processed. In 3D ultrasound imaging extend previous work on frequency domain beamforming for 2D ultrasound imaging to the geometry imposed

  13. Facial Muscle Parameter Decision from 2D Frontal Image Shigeo MORISHIMA*, Takahiro ISHIKAWA*, Demetri TERZOPOULOS**

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    Facial Muscle Parameter Decision from 2D Frontal Image Shigeo MORISHIMA*, Takahiro ISHIKAWA Road Toronto Ontario Canada Phone: +1-416-978-7777 E-mail: dt@vis.toronto.edu Abstract Muscle based. Facial muscle model is composed of facial tissue elements and muscles. In this model, forces

  14. Combined simulations for evaluation of 2D and 3D wholebody PET imaging protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Schmitz; P. E. Kinahan; R. L. Harrison; J. S. Karp; S. Surti; C. W. Stearns; R. D. Badawi; T. K. Lewellen

    2004-01-01

    Full characterization or optimization of 2D and 3D PET imaging protocols requires many independent but identically distributed realizations, which can be obtained from simulations of a given scanner. These rely on accurate estimations of single and coincident photon rates, particularly for the fractions of true, scattered and random coincidences recorded. To facilitate such studies, e.g. the combined effect of patient

  15. Two Dimension (2D) elasticity maps of coagulation of blood using SuperSonic Shearwave Imaging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two Dimension (2D) elasticity maps of coagulation of blood using SuperSonic Shearwave Imaging M and anticoagulated using EDTA. Coagulation was initiated using calcium ions in saline solution. SuperSonic shear wave with time from 50 Pa at coagulation to 1300 Pa at 120 minutes. Ejection of the serum from the clot showed

  16. Contour Tracking in 2D Images Using Particle Filtering Donka Angelova, Pavlina Konstantinova

    E-print Network

    Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    association filtering (PDAF) [2]. A robust particle filtering algorithm for contour following is developedContour Tracking in 2D Images Using Particle Filtering Donka Angelova, Pavlina Konstantinova 1 model Particle Filter (PF) for progressive contour growing (tracking) from a starting point is designed

  17. Investigation of fast particle driven instabilities by 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging on ASDEX Upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I G J Classen; Ph Lauber; D Curran; J E Boom; B J Tobias; C W Domier; N C Luhmann; H K Park; M Garcia Munoz; B Geiger; M Maraschek; M A Van Zeeland; S da Graça

    2011-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the 2D mode structure of Alfvén instabilities in the current ramp-up phase of neutral beam heated discharges were performed on ASDEX Upgrade, using the electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic. This paper focuses on the observation of reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and bursting modes that, with the use of the information from ECEI, have been identified

  18. Snapshot 2D tomography via coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging

    PubMed Central

    MacCabe, Kenneth P.; Holmgren, Andrew D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Brady, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a fan beam coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging system which acquires a tomographic image from each snapshot. This technique exploits cylindrical symmetry of the scattering cross section to avoid the scanning motion typically required by projection tomography. We use a coded aperture with a harmonic dependence to determine range, and a shift code to determine cross-range. Here we use a forward-scatter configuration to image 2D objects and use serial exposures to acquire tomographic video of motion within a plane. Our reconstruction algorithm also estimates the angular dependence of the scattered radiance, a step toward materials imaging and identification. PMID:23842254

  19. A comparison of similarity measures for use in 2D-3D medical image registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme P Penney; Jiirgen Weese; John A Little; Paul Desmedt; Derek LG Hill; David J Hawkes

    A comparison of six similarity measures for use in intensity based 2D-3D image registration is presented. The accuracy of\\u000a the similarity measures are compared to a “gold-standard” registration which has been accurately calculated using fiducial\\u000a markers. The similarity measures are used to register a CT scan to a fluoroscopy image of a spine phantom. The registration\\u000a is carried out within

  20. The Study of Porous Media Reconstruction Using a 2D Micro-CT Image and MPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanlong Wang; Ting Zhang; Jinhua Liu; Jin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method named multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) which originated from geoscience allows extracting the characteristics and structures from training images and anchoring them to the simulated regions. The 3D reconstruction of porous media is quite significant to the study of mechanisms of fluid flow in porous media. Therefore, a method using a real 2D micro-CT image and MPS to reconstruct

  1. EOS — a new 2D|3D, low dose musculoskeletal imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Obeid; Tamas Illes

    2009-01-01

    EOS, an ultra low dose 2D|3D digital Xray system, is a new imaging system developed by biospace med. The company was founded\\u000a in 1989 by the 1992 winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, Georges Charpak, for the invention of a high-energy physics gaseous\\u000a particle detector. Since 2000, the detector technology has had commercial applications in preclinical imaging systems used

  2. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidgunst, C.; Ritter, D.; Lang, E. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Special System Division, Allee am Roethelheimpark 2, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and University of Regensburg, Institute for Bio-Physics and Bio-Chemistry, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Group, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Special System Division, Allee am Roethelheimpark 2, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); University of Regensburg, Institute for Bio-Physics and Bio-Chemistry, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Group, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.

  3. Research on 2D representation method of wireless Micro-Ball endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Yin, Zheng; Wang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the interpretation of the images acquired by wireless endoscopy system is a tedious job for doctors. A viable solution is to construct a map, which is the 2D representation of gastrointestinal (GI) tract to reduce the redundancy of images and improve the understandability of them. The work reported in this paper addresses the problem of the 2D representation of GI tract based on a new wireless Micro-Ball endoscopy system with multiple image sensors. This paper firstly models the problem of constructing the map, and then discusses mainly on the issues of perspective distortion correction, image preprocessing and image registration, which lie in the whole problem. The perspective distortion correction algorithm is realized based on attitude angles, while the image registration is based on phase correlation method (PCM) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) combined with particular image preprocessing methods. Based on R channels of images, the algorithm can deal with 26.3% to 100% of image registration when the ratio of overlap varies from 25% to 80%. The performance and effectiveness of the algorithms are verified by experiments. PMID:23366099

  4. Image splicing detection using 2-D phase congruency and statistical moments of characteristic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

    2007-02-01

    A new approach to efficient blind image splicing detection is proposed in this paper. Image splicing is the process of making a composite picture by cutting and joining two or more photographs. The spliced image may introduce a number of sharp transitions such as lines, edges and corners. Phase congruency has been known as a sensitive measure of these sharp transitions and hence been proposed as features for splicing detection. In addition to the phase information, the magnitude information is also used for splicing detection. Specifically, statistical moments of characteristic functions of wavelet subbands have been examined to catch the difference between the authentic images and spliced images. Consequently, the proposed scheme extracts image features from moments of wavelet characteristic functions and 2-D phase congruency for image splicing detection. The experiments have demonstrated that the proposed approach can achieve a higher detection rate as compared with the state-of-the-art.

  5. A wavelet relational fuzzy C-means algorithm for 2D gel image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Shaheera; Faheem, Mohamed Talaat; Sarhan, Amany; Youssef, Bayumy A B

    2013-01-01

    One of the most famous algorithms that appeared in the area of image segmentation is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm. This algorithm has been used in many applications such as data analysis, pattern recognition, and image segmentation. It has the advantages of producing high quality segmentation compared to the other available algorithms. Many modifications have been made to the algorithm to improve its segmentation quality. The proposed segmentation algorithm in this paper is based on the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm adding the relational fuzzy notion and the wavelet transform to it so as to enhance its performance especially in the area of 2D gel images. Both proposed modifications aim to minimize the oversegmentation error incurred by previous algorithms. The experimental results of comparing both the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and the Wavelet Fuzzy C-Means (WFCM) to the proposed algorithm on real 2D gel images acquired from human leukemias, HL-60 cell lines, and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) demonstrate the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in overcoming the segmentation error. In addition, we investigate the effect of denoising on the three algorithms. This investigation proves that denoising the 2D gel image before segmentation can improve (in most of the cases) the quality of the segmentation. PMID:24174990

  6. A Wavelet Relational Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for 2D Gel Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, Shaheera; Faheem, Mohamed Talaat; Sarhan, Amany; Youssef, Bayumy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most famous algorithms that appeared in the area of image segmentation is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm. This algorithm has been used in many applications such as data analysis, pattern recognition, and image segmentation. It has the advantages of producing high quality segmentation compared to the other available algorithms. Many modifications have been made to the algorithm to improve its segmentation quality. The proposed segmentation algorithm in this paper is based on the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm adding the relational fuzzy notion and the wavelet transform to it so as to enhance its performance especially in the area of 2D gel images. Both proposed modifications aim to minimize the oversegmentation error incurred by previous algorithms. The experimental results of comparing both the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and the Wavelet Fuzzy C-Means (WFCM) to the proposed algorithm on real 2D gel images acquired from human leukemias, HL-60 cell lines, and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) demonstrate the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in overcoming the segmentation error. In addition, we investigate the effect of denoising on the three algorithms. This investigation proves that denoising the 2D gel image before segmentation can improve (in most of the cases) the quality of the segmentation. PMID:24174990

  7. Localization and tracking of aortic valve prosthesis in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, M.; Chalopin, C.; Merk, D. R.; Jacobs, S.; Walther, T.; Burgert, O.; Falk, V.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for localization and tracking of the aortic valve prosthesis (AVP) in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences to assist the surgeon to reach the safe zone of implantation during transapical aortic valve implantation. The proposed method includes four main steps: First, the fluoroscopic images are preprocessed using a morphological reconstruction and an adaptive Wiener filter to enhance the AVP edges. Second, a target window, defined by a user on the first image of the sequences which includes the AVP, is tracked in all images using a template matching algorithm. In a third step the corners of the AVP are extracted based on the AVP dimensions and orientation in the target window. Finally, the AVP model is generated in the fluoroscopic image sequences. Although the proposed method is not yet validated intraoperatively, it has been applied to different fluoroscopic image sequences with promising results.

  8. Fully automatic 2D to 3D conversion with aid of high-level image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appia, Vikram; Batur, Umit

    2014-03-01

    With the recent advent in 3D display technology, there is an increasing need for conversion of existing 2D content into rendered 3D views. We propose a fully automatic 2D to 3D conversion algorithm that assigns relative depth values to the various objects in a given 2D image/scene and generates two different views (stereo pair) using a Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) algorithm for 3D displays. The algorithm described in this paper creates a scene model for each image based on certain low-level features like texture, gradient and pixel location and estimates a pseudo depth map. Since the capture environment is unknown, using low-level features alone creates inaccuracies in the depth map. Using such flawed depth map for 3D rendering will result in various artifacts, causing an unpleasant viewing experience. The proposed algorithm also uses certain high-level image features to overcome these imperfections and generates an enhanced depth map for improved viewing experience. Finally, we show several 3D results generated with our algorithm in the results section.

  9. A NEW ESTIMATOR FOR IMAGE DENOISING USING A 2D DUAL-TREE M-BAND WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    Chaux, Caroline

    A NEW ESTIMATOR FOR IMAGE DENOISING USING A 2D DUAL-TREE M-BAND WAVELET DECOMPOSITION Caroline propose a new estimator for image denoising using a 2D dual- tree M-band wavelet transform. Our work extends existing block- based wavelet thresholding methods by exploiting simultaneously coefficients

  10. Multiview Geometry for Texture Mapping 2D Images Onto 3D Range Data Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    digital photography. A system- atic way for registering 3D range scans and 2D images is thus essentialMultiview Geometry for Texture Mapping 2D Images Onto 3D Range Data Computer Vision and Pattern presents a system that integrates multiview geometry and automated 3D registration techniques for texture

  11. Multiview Geometry for Texture Mapping 2D Images Onto 3D Range Data Lingyun Liu and Ioannis Stamos

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    technology with traditional digital photography. A system- atic way for registering 3D range scans and 2DMultiview Geometry for Texture Mapping 2D Images Onto 3D Range Data £ Lingyun Liu and Ioannis 3D registration techniques for texture mapping 2D images onto 3D range data. The 3D range scans

  12. Simultaneous Image Segmentation and Medial Structure Estimation -Application to 2D and 3D Vessel Tree Extraction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    approach to the analysis of vessels in 2D X-ray angiography and 3D X-ray rotational angiography, our approach is applied to the automatic segmentation and extraction of vessel tree structures in 2D X-ray angiography images and in 3D X-ray rotational brain vessel images. 2. METHODS 2.1 Extraction of the medial

  13. Night vision image fusion for target detection with improved 2D maximum entropy segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lian-fa; Liu, Ying-bin; Yue, Jiang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-08-01

    Infrared and LLL image are used for night vision target detection. In allusion to the characteristics of night vision imaging and lack of traditional detection algorithm for segmentation and extraction of targets, we propose a method of infrared and LLL image fusion for target detection with improved 2D maximum entropy segmentation. Firstly, two-dimensional histogram was improved by gray level and maximum gray level in weighted area, weights were selected to calculate the maximum entropy for infrared and LLL image segmentation by using the histogram. Compared with the traditional maximum entropy segmentation, the algorithm had significant effect in target detection, and the functions of background suppression and target extraction. And then, the validity of multi-dimensional characteristics AND operation on the infrared and LLL image feature level fusion for target detection is verified. Experimental results show that detection algorithm has a relatively good effect and application in target detection and multiple targets detection in complex background.

  14. Mid-IR hyperspectral imaging of laminar flames for 2-D scalar values.

    PubMed

    Rhoby, Michael R; Blunck, David L; Gross, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a new emission-based measurement which permits quantification of two-dimensional scalar distributions in laminar flames. A Michelson-based Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled to a mid-infrared camera (1.5 ?m to 5.5 ?m) obtained 256 × 128pixel hyperspectral flame images at high spectral (??? = 0.75cm(?1)) and spatial (0.52 mm) resolutions. The measurements revealed line and band emission from H2O, CO2, and CO. Measurements were collected from a well-characterized partially-premixed ethylene (C2H4) flame produced on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios, ?, of 0.8, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3. After describing the instrument and novel calibration methodology, analysis of the flames is presented. A single-layer, line-by-line radiative transfer model is used to retrieve path-averaged temperature, H2O, CO2 and CO column densities from emission spectra between 2.3 ?m to 5.1 ?m. The radiative transfer model uses line intensities from the latest HITEMP and CDSD-4000 spectroscopic databases. For the ? = 1.1 flame, the spectrally estimated temperature for a single pixel 10 mm above burner center was T = (2318 ± 19)K, and agrees favorably with recently reported laser absorption measurements, T = (2348 ± 115)K, and a NASA CEA equilibrium calculation, T = 2389K. Near the base of the flame, absolute concentrations can be estimated, and H2O, CO2, and CO concentrations of (12.5 ± 1.7) %, (10.1 ± 1.0) %, and (3.8 ± 0.3) %, respectively, compared favorably with the corresponding CEA values of 12.8%, 9.9% and 4.1%. Spectrally-estimated temperatures and concentrations at the other equivalence ratios were in similar agreement with measurements and equilibrium calculations. 2-D temperature and species column density maps underscore the ?-dependent chemical composition of the flames. The reported uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals and include both statistical fit errors and the propagation of systematic calibration errors using a Monte Carlo approach. Systematic errors could warrant a factor of two increase in reported uncertainties. This work helps to establish IFTS as a valuable combustion diagnostic tool. PMID:25321539

  15. Experimental verification of 2D UWB MIMO antenna array for near-field imaging radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Yang; A. Yarovoy; P. Aubry; X. Zhuge

    2009-01-01

    In this paper two 2D MIMO antenna arrays for near-field imaging radar operating in the frequency band from 10 GHz till 18 GHz are presented. Two MIMO topologies have been proposed to achieve the point spread function (PSF) with narrow main lobe and low side-lobe level. Stacked patch antennas are used as antenna elements. Both designs have been verified experimentally

  16. A generalized method for 3D object location from single 2D images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Daniel Sheu; Alan H. Bond

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) object position and orientation from single two-dimensional (2D) images based on a systematic hierarchy of features: primitive features, generalized features, and compound structures. A virtual viewpoint analysis shows that a feature- centered coordinate system allows us to drastically reduce the mathematical complexity of the inverse projection problem for higher order

  17. Camera based texture mapping: 3D applications for 2D images 

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Nathan Charles

    2005-08-29

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to the style and content by: _____________________________ _____________________________ Karen Hillier... Applications for 2D Images. (May 2005) Nathan Charles Bowden, B.E.D., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Prof. Karen Hillier This artist?s area of research is the appropriate use of matte paintings within the context of completely...

  18. Distinguishing Electronic and Vibronic Coherence in 2D Spectra by Their Temperature Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived oscillations in 2D spectra of chlorophylls are at the heart of an ongoing debate. Their physical origin is either a multipigment effect, such as excitonic coherence, or localized vibrations. We show how relative phase differences of diagonal- and cross-peak oscillations can distinguish between electronic and vibrational (vibronic) effects. While direct discrimination between the two scenarios is obscured when peaks overlap, their sensitivity to temperature provides a stronger argument. We show that vibrational (vibronic) oscillations change relative phase with temperature, while electronic oscillations are only weakly dependent. This highlights that studies of relative phase difference as a function of temperature provide a clear and easily accessible method to distinguish between vibrational and electronic coherences. PMID:24527180

  19. 2D velocity and temperature measurements in high speed flows based on spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of molecular Rayleigh scattering for measurements of gas velocity and temperature is evaluated. Molecular scattering avoids problems associated with the seeding required by conventional laser anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The technique considered herein is based on the measurement of the spectrum of the scattered light. Planar imaging of Rayleigh scattering using a laser light sheet is evaluated for conditions at 30 km altitude (typical hypersonic flow conditions). The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for velocity and temperature measurement uncertainties are calculated for an ideal optical spectrum analyzer and for a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static, imaging mode. With this technique, a single image of the Rayleigh scattered light from clean flows can be analyzed to obtain temperature and one component of velocity. Experimental results are presented for planar velocity measurements in a Mach 1.3 air jet.

  20. Image denoising with 2D scale-mixing complex wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Remenyi, Norbert; Nicolis, Orietta; Nason, Guy; Vidakovic, Brani

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces an image denoising procedure based on a 2D scale-mixing complex-valued wavelet transform. Both the minimal (unitary) and redundant (maximum overlap) versions of the transform are used. The covariance structure of white noise in wavelet domain is established. Estimation is performed via empirical Bayesian techniques, including versions that preserve the phase of the complex-valued wavelet coefficients and those that do not. The new procedure exhibits excellent quantitative and visual performance, which is demonstrated by simulation on standard test images. PMID:25312931

  1. Synthesizing stereo 3D views from focus cues in monoscopic 2D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre Valencia, Sergio; Rodriguez-Dagnino, Ramon M.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we propose a monoscopic 2D to stereo 3D conversion system. Our process of producing a stereo 3D system from 2D images requires to estimate a relative depth map of the objects in the image that comprises the real world 3D geometry of the scene initially captured. Subsequently, we map the estimated depth into two perspective image views, left and right, with an artificially synthesized parallax between them. We present a depth estimation method based on measuring focus cues, which consists of a local spatial frequency measurement using multiresolution wavelet analysis and a Lipschitz regularity estimation of significant edges; resulting in a pixel resolution depth map. Based on this relative depth map, the stereo 3D image is synthesized with a method that uses interpolated image row sections to artificially generate parallax in the left and right perspective views, and thus when viewed with a stereo 3D display system induce a sense of stereopsis to the observer.

  2. Fast Intensity-based 2D-3D Image Registration of Clinical Data Using Light Daniel B. Russakoff

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    @igl.stanford.edu Abstract Registration of a preoperative CT (3D) image to one or more X-ray projection (2D) images. Registration of an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image to one or more X-ray projection images (e.g. simulator or more X-ray projection images, and the floating image is a CT image. The method involves computing

  3. X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Three 2D Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Wyatt, Christopher Lee; Wang, Ge

    2008-01-01

    X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade X-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or microfocused source. In this paper, we report an extension using 2D gratings that reduces the imaging time and increases the accuracy and robustness of phase retrieval compared to current grating-based phase-contrast techniques. Feasibility is demonstrated via numerical simulation. PMID:18401460

  4. Whole-heart coronary MR angiography with 2D self-navigated image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Markus; Koken, Peter; Stehning, Christian; Razavi, Reza; Prieto, Claudia; Botnar, René M

    2012-02-01

    Several self-navigation techniques have been proposed to improve respiratory motion compensation in coronary MR angiography. In this work, we implemented a 2D self-navigation method by using the startup profiles of a whole-heart balanced Steady-state free precession sequence, which are primarily used to catalyze the magnetization towards the steady-state. To create 2D self-navigation images (2DSN), we added phase encoding gradients to the startup profiles. With this approach we calculated foot-head and left-right motion and performed retrospective translational motion correction. The 2DSN images were reconstructed from 10 startup profiles acquired at the beginning of each shot. Nine healthy subjects were scanned, and the proposed method was compared to a 1D self-navigation (1DSN) method with foot-head correction only. Foot-head correction was also performed with the diaphragmatic 1D pencil beam navigator (1Dnav) using a tracking factor of 0.6. 2DSN shows improved motion correction compared to 1DSN and 1Dnav for all coronary arteries and all subjects for the investigated diaphragmatic gating window of 10 mm. The visualized vessel length of the right coronary artery could be significantly improved with a multiple targeted 2D self-navigation approach, compared to 2DSN method. PMID:21656563

  5. 3D/2D image registration using weighted histogram of gradient directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafurian, Soheil; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Tan, Virak; Li, Kang

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) to two dimensional (2D) image registration is crucial in many medical applications such as image-guided evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders. One of the key problems is to estimate the 3D CT- reconstructed bone model positions (translation and rotation) which maximize the similarity between the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and the 2D fluoroscopic images using a registration method. This problem is computational-intensive due to a large search space and the complicated DRR generation process. Also, finding a similarity measure which converges to the global optimum instead of local optima adds to the challenge. To circumvent these issues, most existing registration methods need a manual initialization, which requires user interaction and is prone to human error. In this paper, we introduce a novel feature-based registration method using the weighted histogram of gradient directions of images. This method simplifies the computation by searching the parameter space (rotation and translation) sequentially rather than simultaneously. In our numeric simulation experiments, the proposed registration algorithm was able to achieve sub-millimeter and sub-degree accuracies. Moreover, our method is robust to the initial guess. It can tolerate up to +/-90°rotation offset from the global optimal solution, which minimizes the need for human interaction to initialize the algorithm.

  6. Room- and low-temperature magnetic properties of 2-D magnetite particle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krása, David; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn

    2011-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic observations are being used in increasingly sophisticated geological and geophysical interpretations. It is therefore important to test the theories behind palaeomagnetic recording by rocks, and this can only be achieved using samples containing precisely controlled magnetic mineralogy, grain size and interparticle spacing, the last of which controls the degree of magnetostatic interactions within the samples. Here we report the room- and low temperature magnetic behaviour of a set of samples produced by the nano-scale patterning technique electron beam lithography. The samples consist of 2-D arrays of near-identical magnetite dots of various sizes, geometries and spatial configurations, with dot sizes from ranging from near the single domain threshold of 74-333 nm. We have made a series of magnetic measurements including hysteresis, first-order-reversal curve measurements and remanence acquisition, many as a function of temperature between 20 and 300 K, to quantify the samples’ behaviour to routine palaeomagnetic measurement procedures. We have also examined the behaviour of saturation isothermal remanences (SIRM) to cooling and warming cycling of the sample below room temperature. In addition, we investigated the samples’ responses to alternating-field demagnetization of room temperature induced SIRM, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and partial ARM. ARM was used as a non-heating analogue for natural thermoremanence. Given the 2-D spatial distribution of the samples, in all the experiments we conducted both in-plane and out-of-plane measurements. Generally, the samples were found to display pseudo-single-domain hysteresis characteristics, but were found to be reliable recorders of weak-field remanences like ARM. For the closely packed samples, the samples’ magnetic response was highly dependent on measurement orientation.

  7. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrozi?ski, ?ukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an array's aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays' elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  8. Large area selective emitters/absorbers based on 2D tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature energy applications

    E-print Network

    Rinnerbauer, V.

    We report highly selective emitters based on high-aspect ratio 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on large area (2 inch diameter) polycrystalline tantalum substrates, suitable for high-temperature operation. As an ...

  9. Development of far-infrared Ge:Ga photoconductor 2D array for 3-THz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takanori; Nakagawa, Takao

    2000-12-01

    Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) extrinsic semiconductor has been used as sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of 110 micron (2.7 THz), especially in the fields of astronomy, the spectroscopy of molecules and solids, and plasma diagnostics. Developing Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take two-dimensional (2D) THz images is now an important target for research fields such as the space astronomy. We present the basic idea of a 20x3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-MOS readout integrated circuit (IC) using indium bump technology, which is an advanced structure for far-infrared detector arrays. The main issues to achieve in creating a 2D array are summarized as follows: the fabrication of a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with longitudinal configuration, development of the cryogenic readout electronics, and the development of technology for connecting the detector with the electronics. We report that the detector was cooled to 2.1 K, the best responsivity obtained was 16.2 A/W and the best NEP was 2.6x10-17W/Hz1/2 at a bias field of 1.2 V/cm. We demonstrated that p-MOS FETs can be used as the cryogenic readout electronics. And we succeeded in the far-infrared detection by using direct hybrid structure photoconductors. The results of vibration and cooling tests were conducted to confirm the strength of the direct hybrid structure. Our Ge:Ga photoconductor direct hybrid 2D array will be an excellent device for taking 3 THz images.

  10. Clinical Assessment of 2D/3D Registration Accuracy in 4 Major Anatomic Sites Using On-Board 2D Kilovoltage Images for 6D Patient Setup.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Yang, T Jonathan; Furtado, Hugo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Ballangrud, Åse; Powell, Simon N; Mechalakos, James

    2015-06-01

    To provide a comprehensive assessment of patient setup accuracy in 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs) using 2-dimensional/3-dimensional (2D/3D) image registration with on-board 2-dimensional kilovoltage (OB-2DkV) radiographic images, we evaluated cranial, head and neck (HN), and thoracic and abdominal sites under clinical conditions. A fast 2D/3D image registration method using graphics processing unit GPU was modified for registration between OB-2DkV and 3D simulation computed tomography (simCT) images, with 3D/3D registration as the gold standard for 6DOF alignment. In 2D/3D registration, body roll rotation was obtained solely by matching orthogonal OB-2DkV images with a series of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from simCT with a small rotational increment along the gantry rotation axis. The window/level adjustments for optimal visualization of the bone in OB-2DkV and DRRs were performed prior to registration. Ideal patient alignment at the isocenter was calculated and used as an initial registration position. In 3D/3D registration, cone-beam CT (CBCT) was aligned to simCT on bony structures using a bone density filter in 6DOF. Included in this retrospective study were 37 patients treated in 55 fractions with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy for cranial and paraspinal cancer. A cranial phantom was used to serve as a control. In all cases, CBCT images were acquired for patient setup with subsequent OB-2DkV verification. It was found that the accuracy of the 2D/3D registration was 0.0 ± 0.5 mm and 0.1° ± 0.4° in phantom. In patient, it is site dependent due to deformation of the anatomy: 0.2 ± 1.6 mm and -0.4° ± 1.2° on average for each dimension for the cranial site, 0.7 ± 1.6 mm and 0.3° ± 1.3° for HN, 0.7 ± 2.0 mm and -0.7° ± 1.1° for the thorax, and 1.1 ± 2.6 mm and -0.5° ± 1.9° for the abdomen. Anatomical deformation and presence of soft tissue in 2D/3D registration affect the consistency with 3D/3D registration in 6DOF: the discrepancy increases in superior to inferior direction. PMID:25223323

  11. Myocardial Infarct Segmentation and Reconstruction from 2D Late-Gadolinium Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Wu, Katherine C.; Trayanova, Natalia; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a convex optimization-based algorithm for segmenting myocardial infarct from clinical 2D late-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance (LGE-MR) images. Previously segmented left ventricular (LV) myocardium was used to define a region of interest for the infarct segmentation. The infarct segmentation problem was formulated as a continuous min-cut problem, which was solved using its dual formulation, the continuous max-flow (CMF). Bhattacharyya intensity distribution matching was used as the data term, where the prior intensity distributions were computed based on a training data set LGE-MR images from seven patients. The algorithm was parallelized and implemented in a graphics processing unit for reduced computation time. Three-dimensional (3D) volumes of the infarcts were then reconstructed using an interpolation technique we developed based on logarithm of odds. The algorithm was validated using LGE-MR images from 47 patients (309 slices) by comparing computed 2D segmentations and 3D reconstructions to manually generated ones. In addition, the developed algorithm was compared to several previously reported segmentation techniques. The CMF algorithm outperformed the previously reported methods in terms of Dice similarity coefficient. PMID:25485423

  12. Modeling ECM Fiber Formation: Structure Information Extracted by Analysis of 2D and 3D Image Sets

    E-print Network

    Hoffmann, Christoph M.

    , such as fiber diameter, length, orientation, and density, from single slices. Based on a 2-D tracing algorithm are interested in collagen fiber structure, including fiber length, orientation, and diameter. HoweverModeling ECM Fiber Formation: Structure Information Extracted by Analysis of 2D and 3D Image Sets

  13. Top orthogonal to bottom electrode (TOBE) 2-D CMUT arrays for 3-D photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Chee, Ryan; Sampaleanu, Alexander; Rishi, Deepak; Zemp, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Top orthogonal to bottom electrode (TOBE) capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) are a new transducer architecture that permits large 2-D arrays to be addressed using row-column addressing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D photoacoustic imaging using N laser pulses and N receive channels. We used a synthetic aperture approach to simulate a large 2 X 2 cm array using a smaller die. A hair phantom in an oil immersion medium was excited by a laser, and the received signal was dynamically focused to obtain high-resolution images. We found the TOBE CMUT to have a center frequency of 3.7 MHz with a bandwidth of 3.9 MHz. Lateral and axial resolutions were 866 ¿m and 296 ?m, respectively. PMID:25073146

  14. The 2D-Micro Hole & Strip Plate in CF4 atmosphere aiming neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natal da Luz, H.; Gouvêa, A. L.; Mir, J. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro Hole & Strip Plate (MHSP) achieves gains above 300 in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) at 2.6 bar, making it suitable for neutron detection. Over the past few years, the imaging capabilities of the MHSP have been developed, leading to the 2D-MHSP. In this device, the position coordinates are determined using the principle of resistive charge division. The GEM-side was specially patterned in strips interconnected by a resistive strip for one of the coordinates and, in the MS-side, the anode strips were also interconnected by another resistive strip. By applying a trivial center of mass algorithm it is possible to obtain both coordinates and the energy of each detected event. The ability to register position and energy for each event can be very useful for event validation in neutron detection. In this work, the performance of the 2D-MHSP in CF4 is investigated. The Modular Transfer Function (MTF) is presented, showing that position resolutions of 700?m in x and 1 mm in the y-direction are obtained with X-rays. It is also demonstrated that resolutions below the proton range (1 mm) are possible at 2.6 bar CF4, demonstrating that the MHSP can be a cost effective choice for neutron imaging.

  15. Groundwater exploration using 2D Resistivity Imaging in Pagoh, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Muhammad; Nawawi, M. N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is a very important component of water resources in nature. Since the demand of groundwater increases with population growth, it is necessary to explore groundwater more intensively. In Malaysia only less than 2% of the present water used is developed from groundwater. In order to determine the existence of usable groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes in Pagoh, 2D resistivity imaging technique was utilized. The 2-D resistivity imaging technique utilized the Wenner—Schlumberger electrode array configuration because this array is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical structures. Three lines were surveyed for groundwater delineation purpose The length for each survey lines are 400 meters. At Pagoh, the survey site shows the existence of groundwater. It is indicated by the resistivity values about 10-100 ohm-m. The maximum depth of investigation survey is 77 meters. In general the results show that the subsurface is made up of alluvium and clay and the high resistivity values of more than 1000 ohm-m near the surface is due laterite and the end of the depth can be interpreted as mixture of weathered material or bedrock.

  16. Temperature and layer number dependence of the G and 2D phonon energy and damping in graphene.

    PubMed

    Apostolov, A T; Apostolova, I N; Wesselinowa, J M

    2012-06-13

    We have studied the temperature and size dependence of the G and 2D phonon modes in graphene. It is shown that in a graphene monolayer the phonon energy decreases whereas the phonon damping increases with increasing temperature. The electron-phonon interaction leads to hardening whereas the fourth-order anharmonic phonon-phonon processes lead to softening of the phonon energy with increasing temperature. We have shown that the electron-phonon interaction plays an important role also by the dispersion dependence of the phonon G mode, by the observation of the Kohn anomaly. The G mode frequency decreases and damping increases, whereas the 2D phonon frequency and damping increase with increasing layer number. The temperature and size effects of the 2D mode are much stronger than those of the G mode. PMID:22569003

  17. 3D Tumor Shape Reconstruction from 2D Bioluminescence Images and Registration with CT Images

    E-print Network

    of this imaging technique include gene therapy and cell trafficking studies. Unlike fluorescence optical imag- ing, NJ, USA 2 Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ, NJ, USA Abstract-- This paper introduces a novel. The experimental results show promising performance of our reconstruction and co-registration method. I

  18. 2D Seismic Imaging of Elastic Parameters by Frequency Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Operto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Thanks to recent advances in parallel computing, full waveform inversion is today a tractable seismic imaging method to reconstruct physical parameters of the earth interior at different scales ranging from the near- surface to the deep crust. We present a massively parallel 2D frequency-domain full-waveform algorithm for imaging visco-elastic media from multi-component seismic data. The forward problem (i.e. the resolution of the frequency-domain 2D PSV elastodynamics equations) is based on low-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method (P0 and/or P1 interpolations). Thanks to triangular unstructured meshes, the DG method allows accurate modeling of both body waves and surface waves in case of complex topography for a discretization of 10 to 15 cells per shear wavelength. The frequency-domain DG system is solved efficiently for multiple sources with the parallel direct solver MUMPS. The local inversion procedure (i.e. minimization of residuals between observed and computed data) is based on the adjoint-state method which allows to efficiently compute the gradient of the objective function. Applying the inversion hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones defines a multiresolution imaging strategy which helps convergence towards the global minimum. In place of expensive Newton algorithm, the combined use of the diagonal terms of the approximate Hessian matrix and optimization algorithms based on quasi-Newton methods (Conjugate Gradient, LBFGS, ...) allows to improve the convergence of the iterative inversion. The distribution of forward problem solutions over processors driven by a mesh partitioning performed by METIS allows to apply most of the inversion in parallel. We shall present the main features of the parallel modeling/inversion algorithm, assess its scalability and illustrate its performances with realistic synthetic case studies.

  19. Multi-step 3D\\/2D Image Registration for Image-guided Spinal Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhang; Manning Wang; Zhijian Song

    2008-01-01

    We presented a set of methods for registration of preoperative CT data set to intra-operative X-ray images in minimally invasive image-guided spinal surgery. The registration procedure is composed of two steps. Firstly, a rough registration using a variant form of Iterative Closest Point algorithm is adopted to get an overlapped area. Secondly, the fine registration is performed based on gradient

  20. Elemental 2D imaging of paintings with a mobile EDXRF system.

    PubMed

    Hocquet, François-Philippe; Calvo del Castillo, Helena; Cervera Xicotencatl, Ariadna; Bourgeois, Catherine; Oger, Cécile; Marchal, André; Clar, Mathieu; Rakkaa, Saïd; Micha, Edith; Strivay, David

    2011-03-01

    Imaging techniques are now used commonly and intensively in cultural heritage object analysis. Nowadays, many different techniques in nature as well as many applications exist, where they can be applied. X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography as well as UV photography are some of the most applied techniques. The study of works of art usually requires these techniques to be non-invasive. Furthermore, they are frequently required to perform in situ analysis. A few years ago, our laboratory developed a mobile energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis-NIR coupled spectrometer, especially designed for fieldwork studies, where all three techniques can be applied strictly at the same site of analysis. Recent developments on a new positioning system have now allowed us to perform 2D elemental mappings with our equipment, which is especially well adapted to painting analysis. The system control is carried out entirely through a laptop computer running a dedicated homemade software. The positioning is achieved by means of a CCD camera embedded in the system and controlled via a Wi-Fi connection through the computer. The data acquisition system, which is made through a homemade multichannel pulse height analyzer, being also managed via the software mentioned above, goes through an Ethernet connection. We will present here the new developments of the system and an example of in situ 2D elemental mapping applied on an anonymous oil painting on wood panel. The discovery of a hidden painting under this oil painting makes it a good choice for a first example of 2D large scan with a mobile instrument. PMID:20953768

  1. A 2D to 3D ultrasound image registration algorithm for robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Pautler, Stephen E.; McKenzie, Charles A.; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) is an effective approach to resect the diseased organ, with stereoscopic views of the targeted tissue improving the dexterity of the surgeons. However, since the laparoscopic view acquires only the surface image of the tissue, the underlying distribution of the cancer within the organ is not observed, making it difficult to make informed decisions on surgical margins and sparing of neurovascular bundles. One option to address this problem is to exploit registration to integrate the laparoscopic view with images of pre-operatively acquired dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI that can demonstrate the regions of malignant tissue within the prostate. Such a view potentially allows the surgeon to visualize the location of the malignancy with respect to the surrounding neurovascular structures, permitting a tissue-sparing strategy to be formulated directly based on the observed tumour distribution. If the tumour is close to the capsule, it may be determined that the adjacent neurovascular bundle (NVB) needs to be sacrificed within the surgical margin to ensure that any erupted tumour was resected. On the other hand, if the cancer is sufficiently far from the capsule, one or both NVBs may be spared. However, in order to realize such image integration, the pre-operative image needs to be fused with the laparoscopic view of the prostate. During the initial stages of the operation, the prostate must be tracked in real time so that the pre-operative MR image remains aligned with patient coordinate system. In this study, we propose and investigate a novel 2D to 3D ultrasound image registration algorithm to track the prostate motion with an accuracy of 2.68+/-1.31mm.

  2. A fast, accurate, and automatic 2D-3D image registration for image-guided cranial radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Dongshan; Kuduvalli, Gopinath [Accuray Incorporated, 1310 Chesapeake Terrace, Sunnyvale, California 94089 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The authors developed a fast and accurate two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) image registration method to perform precise initial patient setup and frequent detection and correction for patient movement during image-guided cranial radiosurgery treatment. In this method, an approximate geometric relationship is first established to decompose a 3D rigid transformation in the 3D patient coordinate into in-plane transformations and out-of-plane rotations in two orthogonal 2D projections. Digitally reconstructed radiographs are generated offline from a preoperative computed tomography volume prior to treatment and used as the reference for patient position. A multiphase framework is designed to register the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the x-ray images periodically acquired during patient setup and treatment. The registration in each projection is performed independently; the results in the two projections are then combined and converted to a 3D rigid transformation by 2D-3D geometric backprojection. The in-plane transformation and the out-of-plane rotation are estimated using different search methods, including multiresolution matching, steepest descent minimization, and one-dimensional search. Two similarity measures, optimized pattern intensity and sum of squared difference, are applied at different registration phases to optimize accuracy and computation speed. Various experiments on an anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom showed that, using fiducial registration as a gold standard, the registration errors were 0.33{+-}0.16 mm (s.d.) in overall translation and 0.29 deg. {+-}0.11 deg. (s.d.) in overall rotation. The total targeting errors were 0.34{+-}0.16 mm (s.d.), 0.40{+-}0.2 mm (s.d.), and 0.51{+-}0.26 mm (s.d.) for the targets at the distances of 2, 6, and 10 cm from the rotation center, respectively. The computation time was less than 3 s on a computer with an Intel Pentium 3.0 GHz dual processor.

  3. Testing the limitations of 2-D companding for strain imaging using phantoms.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Insana, M F; Hall, T J

    1998-01-01

    Companding may be used as a technique for generating low-noise strain images. It involves warping radio-frequency echo fields in two dimensions and at several spatial scales to minimize decorrelation errors in correlation-based displacement estimates. For the appropriate experimental conditions, companding increases the sensitivity and dynamic range of strain images without degrading contrast or spatial resolution significantly. In this paper, we examine the conditions that limit the effectiveness of 2-D local companding through a series of experiments using phantoms with tissue-like acoustic and elasticity properties. We found that strain noise remained relatively unchanged as the applied compression increased to 5% of the phantom height, while target contrast increased in proportion to the compression. Controlling the image noise at high compressions improves target visibility over the broad range induced in elastically heterogeneous media, such as biological tissues. Compressions greater than 5% introduce large strains and complex motions that reduce the effectiveness of companding. Control of boundary conditions and ultrasonic data sampling rates is critical for a successful implementation of our algorithms. PMID:18244257

  4. Image inpainting on the basis of spectral structure from 2-D nonharmonic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaya; Kako, Takahiro; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Misawa, Tadanobu; Yoshizawa, Toshio; Inazumi, Yasuhiro

    2013-08-01

    The restoration of images by digital inpainting is an active field of research and such algorithms are, in fact, now widely used. Conventional methods generally apply textures that are most similar to the areas around the missing region or use a large image database. However, this produces discontinuous textures and thus unsatisfactory results. Here, we propose a new technique to overcome this limitation by using signal prediction based on the nonharmonic analysis (NHA) technique proposed by the authors. NHA can be used to extract accurate spectra, irrespective of the window function, and its frequency resolution is less than that of the discrete Fourier transform. The proposed method sequentially generates new textures on the basis of the spectrum obtained by NHA. Missing regions from the spectrum are repaired using an improved cost function for 2D NHA. The proposed method is evaluated using the standard images Lena, Barbara, Airplane, Pepper, and Mandrill. The results show an improvement in MSE of about 10-20 compared with the examplar-based method and good subjective quality. PMID:23549889

  5. Erosion and Dilation on 2-D and 3-D Digital Images: A New Size-Independent Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Rodríguez; Dolors Ayala

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to achieve ele- mentary neighborhood operations on both 2D and 3D binary images by using the Extreme Vertices Model (EVM), a recent orthogonal polyhedra repre- sentation applied to digital images. The operations developed here are erosion and dilation. In contrast with previous techniques, this method do not use a voxel-based approach but deal with

  6. Web-based interactive 2D/3D medical image processing and visualization software.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Seyyed Ehsan; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Rahmani, Roohollah; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrooz; Taimouri, Vahid; Sabouri, Ahmad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    There are many medical image processing software tools available for research and diagnosis purposes. However, most of these tools are available only as local applications. This limits the accessibility of the software to a specific machine, and thus the data and processing power of that application are not available to other workstations. Further, there are operating system and processing power limitations which prevent such applications from running on every type of workstation. By developing web-based tools, it is possible for users to access the medical image processing functionalities wherever the internet is available. In this paper, we introduce a pure web-based, interactive, extendable, 2D and 3D medical image processing and visualization application that requires no client installation. Our software uses a four-layered design consisting of an algorithm layer, web-user-interface layer, server communication layer, and wrapper layer. To compete with extendibility of the current local medical image processing software, each layer is highly independent of other layers. A wide range of medical image preprocessing, registration, and segmentation methods are implemented using open source libraries. Desktop-like user interaction is provided by using AJAX technology in the web-user-interface. For the visualization functionality of the software, the VRML standard is used to provide 3D features over the web. Integration of these technologies has allowed implementation of our purely web-based software with high functionality without requiring powerful computational resources in the client side. The user-interface is designed such that the users can select appropriate parameters for practical research and clinical studies. PMID:20022133

  7. Crystallographic Image Processing with Unambiguous 2D Bravais Lattice Identification on the Basis of a Geometric Akaike Information Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyeu, Taylor Thomas

    Crystallographic image processing (CIP) is a technique first used to aid in the structure determination of periodic organic complexes imaged with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). The technique has subsequently been utilized for TEM images of inorganic crystals, scanning TEM images, and even scanning probe microscope (SPM) images of two-dimensional periodic arrays. We have written software specialized for use on such SPM images. A key step in the CIP process requires that an experimental image be classified as one of only 17 possible mathematical plane symmetry groups. The current methods used for making this symmetry determination are not entirely objective, and there is no generally accepted method for measuring or quantifying deviations from ideal symmetry. Here, we discuss the crystallographic symmetries present in real images and the general techniques of CIP, with emphasis on the current methods for symmetry determination in an experimental 2D periodic image. The geometric Akaike information criterion (AIC) is introduced as a viable statistical criterion for both quantifying deviations from ideal symmetry and determining which 2D Bravais lattice best fits the experimental data from an image being processed with CIP. By objectively determining the statistically favored 2D Bravais lattice, the determination of plane symmetry in the CIP procedure can be greatly improved. As examples, we examine scanning tunneling microscope images of 2D molecular arrays of the following compounds: cobalt phthalocyanine on Au (111) substrate; nominal cobalt phthalocyanine on Ag (111); tetraphenoxyphthalocyanine on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite; hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile on Ag (111). We show that the geometric AIC procedure can unambiguously determine which 2D Bravais lattice fits the experimental data for a variety of different lattice types. In some cases, the geometric AIC procedure can be used to determine which plane symmetry group best fits the experimental data, when traditional CIP methods fail to do so.

  8. Sparse matrix beamforming and image reconstruction for 2-D HIFU monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) with in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Provost, Jean; Grondin, Julien; Wang, Shutao; Marquet, Fabrice; Bunting, Ethan; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-11-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) utilizes an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam to induce a localized focal oscillatory motion simultaneously estimated. The objective of this study is to develop and show the feasibility of a novel fast beamforming algorithm for image reconstruction using GPU-based sparse-matrix operation with real-time feedback. In this study, the algorithm was implemented onto a fully integrated, clinically relevant HMIFU system. A single divergent transmit beam was used while fast beamforming was implemented using a GPU-based delay-and-sum method and a sparse-matrix operation. Axial HMI displacements were then estimated from the RF signals using a 1-D normalized cross-correlation method and streamed to a graphic user interface with frame rates up to 15 Hz, a 100-fold increase compared to conventional CPU-based processing. The real-time feedback rate does not require interrupting the HIFU treatment. Results in phantom experiments showed reproducible HMI images and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system demonstrated reproducible displacement imaging, and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system showed a consistent average focal displacement decrease of 46.7 ±14.6% during lesion formation. Complementary focal temperature monitoring also indicated an average rate of displacement increase and decrease with focal temperature at 0.84±1.15%/(°)C, and 2.03±0.93%/(°)C , respectively. These results reinforce the HMIFU capability of estimating and monitoring stiffness related changes in real time. Current ongoing studies include clinical translation of the presented system for monitoring of HIFU treatment for breast and pancreatic tumor applications. PMID:24960528

  9. Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Jae Yeon; Park, Chan-Sik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-07-01

    We imaged a single case of oral malignant melanoma using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging at room temperature (20 °C) and below freezing (-20 °C). A malignant nodule beneath the oral tissue surface was visualized using 2-D and B-scan THz imaging techniques. The THz images were well correlated with the histological findings. The nodule was found to have lower water content than that of normal cells, and this water effect may have influenced the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient at 20 °C. The THz spectroscopic image of the frozen tissue at -20 °C showed better contrast because of the lack of liquid water; this implies that there are significant structural differences between malignant oral melanoma cells and normal mucosal cells. The better contrast in the frozen tissue images was due to the greater penetration of THz radiation into the sample. This temperature-dependent THz imaging approach demonstrated the feasibility of accurate imaging of the oral tumor tissue. PMID:25055305

  10. High-resolution GPR imaging using a nonstandard 2D EEMD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sung; Jeng*, Yih; Yu, Hung-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data are affected by a variety of factors. Linear and nonlinear data processing methods each have been widely applied to the GPR use in geophysical and engineering investigations. For complicated data such as the shallow earth image of urban area, a better result can be achieved by integrating both approaches. In this study, we introduce a nonstandard 2D EEMD approach, which integrates the natural logarithm transformed (NLT) ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method with the linear filtering technique to process GPR images. The NLT converts the data into logarithmic values; therefore, it permits a wide dynamic range for the recorded GPR data to be presented. The EEMD dyadic filter bank decomposes the data into multiple components ready for image reconstruction. Consequently, the NLT EEMD method provides a new way of nonlinear energy compensating and noise filtering with results having minimal artifacts. However, horizontal noise in the GPR time-distance section may be enhanced after NLT process in some cases. To solve the dilemma, we process the data two dimensionally. At first, the vertical background noise of each GPR trace is removed by using a standard linear method, the background noise removal algorithm, or simply by performing the sliding background removal filter. After that, the NLT is applied to the data for examining the horizontal coherent energy. Next, we employ the EEMD filter bank horizontally at each time step to remove the horizontal coherent energy. After removing the vertical background noise and horizontal coherent energy, a vertical EEMD method is then applied to generate a filter bank of the GPR time-distance section for final image reconstruction. Two buried models imitating common shallow earth targets are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. One model is a brick cistern buried in a disturbed site of poor reflection quality. The other model is a buried two-stack metallic target that the signal reflected from the lower stack is often masked by the upper one. Compared with the results obtained by using standard processing methods, the proposed approach significantly improves the target resolution. A field example is also provided to demonstrate the competence of the proposed scheme. Keywords: GPR; 2D EEMD; Logarithmic transform; Horizontal coherent energy

  11. Integration of Local Image Cues for Probabilistic 2D Pose , Dimitrios Makris1

    E-print Network

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    of recovered poses. Experi- mental results demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of this new algorithm by estimating 2-D human poses from walking sequences. 1 Introduction Human pose recovery from a monocular camera in the reconstruction of a human skeleton. In this work, we concentrate on 2D pose recov- ery. First, a sequence of 2D

  12. On the assimilation of flood extension images into 2D shallow-water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J.; Couderc, F.; Dartus, D.; Madec, R.; Vila, J.

    2012-12-01

    In river hydraulics, assimilation of water level measurements at gauging stations is well controlled, while assimilation of images (e.g. from satellite) is still delicate. In the present talk, we address the richness of satellite information to constraint a 2D shallow-water model, and present also related difficulties. A preliminary study done on Mosel river is presented in [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. On selected parts of the image, an 0th order model flow allows to obtain some reliable water levels with quantified uncertainties (C. Puech et al.). Next, variationnal sensitivities (based on a gradient computation and adjoint equations) reveal some difficulties that a model designer have to tackle (e.g. roughness parameters at open boundaries), and allow to better understand both the model and the flow. Next, a variational data assimilation algorithm (4D-var) shows that such data lead to a better calibration of the model (e.g. roughness coefficients) and potentially allows to identify the incoming and/or outgoing flow at open boundaries, [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. On the other side, the flood dynamic extension is difficult to represent accurately using a 2D SW model since the wet-dry front dynamics is difficult to compute. We compare some 2nd order finite volume solvers and obtain an accurate and stable scheme at wet-dry front. Then, we present some basic rules of compatibility between data and mesh resolution in order to be reliable enough to constraint the model with flood extension data, [CoMaMoViDa]. All the algorithms are implemented into DassFlow software (Fortran, MPI, adjoint) [Da]. [CoMaMoViDa] F. Couderc, R. Madec, J. Monnier, J.-P. Vila, D. Dartus. "Sensitivity analysis and variational data assimilation for geophysical shallow water flows". Submitted. [Da] DassFlow - Data Assimilation for Free Surface Flows. Open-source computational software http://www-gmm.insa-toulouse.fr/~monnier/DassFlow/ [HoLaMoPu] R. Hostache, X. Lai, J. Monnier, C. Puech. "Assimilation of spatial distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part II: using a remote sensing image of Mosel river". J. Hydrology (2010). [LaMo] X. Lai, J. Monnier. "Assimilation of spatial distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part I: mathematical method and test case". J. Hydrology (2009). [RoDa] Roux H., Dartus D. « Use of Parameter Optimization to Estimate a Flood Wave: Potential Applications to Remote Sensing of Rivers ». J. Hydrology (2006).

  13. Parametric phase information based 2D Cepstrum PSF estimation method for blind de-convolution of ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jooyoung; Park, Sung-Chan; Kim, Jung-ho; Song, Jongkeun

    2014-02-01

    In the ultrasound imaging system, blurring which occurs after passing through ultrasound scanner system, represents point spread function (PSF) that describes the response of the ultrasound imaging system to a point source distribution. So, de-blurring can be achieved by de-convolving the ultrasound images with an estimated of corresponding PSF. However, it is hard to attain an accurate estimation of PSF due to the unknown properties of the tissues of the human body through the ultrasound signal propagates. In this paper, we present a new method for PSF estimation in the Fourier domain (FD) based on parametric minimum phase information, and simultaneously, it performs fast 2D de-convolution in the ultrasound imaging system. Although most of complex cepstrum methods [14], are obtained using complex 2D phase unwrapping [18] [19] in order to estimate the FD-phase information of PSF, our algorithm estimates the 2D PSF using 2D FD-phase information with the parametric weighting factor ? and ?. They affect the feature of PSF shapes.This makes the computations much simpler and the estimation more accurate. Our algorithm works on the beam-formed uncompressed radio-frequency data, with pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database from actual probe used. We have tested our algorithm with vera-sonic system and commercial ultrasound scanner (Philips C4-2), in known speed of sound phantoms and unknown speeds in vivo scans.

  14. Analysis of 2-d ultrasound cardiac strain imaging using joint probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal de-correlation artifacts resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bi-modal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a 2-D multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The effect of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions and a comparison of radio frequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a 3-D finite element cardiac model and five healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrates that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal-to-noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 ? by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radio frequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250 Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate, which appears to be sufficient for radio frequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly affect the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated, with a smaller effect on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radio frequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level 2-D algorithm and kernel dimensions on the order of 1 ? by 3 A-lines or smaller are utilized. PMID:24613642

  15. Single electron tunneling observed in a 2D tunnel junction array at room temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Nejoh; Masakazu Aono

    1993-01-01

    A 2D tunnel junction array has been constructed using liquid crystal (LC) molecules. The LC molecules are aligned between PtPd islands on a substrate and these LC molecules-PtPd islands make tunnel junctions. The behavior of this junction array can be described in terms of single electron solitons. By voltage sourcing this 2D array, it shows the DC i-v curve characteristic

  16. Thermal electron quenching of N(2D) - Consequences for the ionospheric photoelectron flux and the thermal electron temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of quenching of N(2D) by thermal electrons on the ionospheric photoelectron flux and on the thermal electron heating rate. It is shown that the 2.5 eV electrons produced by electron quenching of N(2D) can account for the differences between theoretical and experimental 0-3 eV photoelectron fluxes above 200 km altitude. In addition, the heat transferred to the thermal electron gas amounts to 70 percent of the photoelectron local heating rate at 250 km altitude. The effect of the extra heating is to increase the electron temperature by approximately 200 K at 250 km.

  17. Register cardiac fiber orientations from 3D DTI volume to 2D ultrasound image of rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

  18. 2D harmonic filtering of MR phase images in multicenter clinical setting: toward a magnetic signature of cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Kaaouana, Takoua; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Samaille, Thomas; Thiery, Nathalie; Dufouil, Carole; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Chupin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have emerged as a new imaging marker of small vessel disease. Composed of hemosiderin, CMBs are paramagnetic and can be detected with MRI sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility (typically, gradient recalled echo T2* weighted images). Nevertheless, their identification remains challenging on T2* magnitude images because of confounding structures and lesions. In this context, T2* phase image may play a key role in better characterizing CMBs because of its direct relationship with local magnetic field variations due to magnetic susceptibility difference. To address this issue, susceptibility-based imaging techniques were proposed, such as Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). But these techniques have not yet been validated for 2D clinical data in multicenter settings. Here, we introduce 2DHF, a fast 2D phase processing technique embedding both unwrapping and harmonic filtering designed for data acquired in 2D, even with slice-to-slice inconsistencies. This method results in internal field maps which reveal local field details due to magnetic inhomogeneity within the region of interest only. This technique is based on the physical properties of the induced magnetic field and should yield consistent results. A synthetic phantom was created for numerical simulations. It simulates paramagnetic and diamagnetic lesions within a 'brain-like' tissue, within a background. The method was evaluated on both this synthetic phantom and multicenter 2D datasets acquired in standardized clinical setting, and compared with two state-of-the-art methods. It proved to yield consistent results on synthetic images and to be applicable and robust on patient data. As a proof-of-concept, we finally illustrate that it is possible to find a magnetic signature of CMBs and CMCs on internal field maps generated with 2DHF on 2D clinical datasets that give consistent results with CT-scans in a subsample of 10 subjects acquired with both modalities. PMID:25149849

  19. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Helium Near its Transition Temperature T(sub lambda) in a 2D Confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerebets, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We report our recent experiments on thermal conductivity measurements of superfluid He-4 near its phase transition in a two-dimensional (2D) confinement under saturated vapor pressure. A 2D confinement is created by 2-mm- and 1-mm-thick glass capillary plates, consisting of densely populated parallel microchannels with cross-sections of 5 x 50 and 1 x 10 microns, correspondingly. A heat current (2 < Q < 400 nW/sq cm) was applied along the channels long direction. High-resolution measurements were provided by DC SQUID-based high-resolution paramagnetic salt thermometers (HRTs) with a nanokelvin resolution. We might find that thermal conductivity of confined helium is finite at the bulk superfluid transition temperature. Our 2D results will be compared with those in a bulk and 1D confinement.

  20. Registration of 2D x-ray images to 3D MRI by generating pseudo-CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Gounis, M. J.; van de Kraats, E. B.; Sprinkhuizen, S. M.; Timmer, J.; Homan, R.; Bartels, L. W.

    2011-02-01

    Spatial and soft tissue information provided by magnetic resonance imaging can be very valuable during image-guided procedures, where usually only real-time two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images are available. Registration of 2D x-ray images to three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, acquired prior to the procedure, can provide optimal information to guide the procedure. However, registering x-ray images to MRI data is not a trivial task because of their fundamental difference in tissue contrast. This paper presents a technique that generates pseudo-computed tomography (CT) data from multi-spectral MRI acquisitions which is sufficiently similar to real CT data to enable registration of x-ray to MRI with comparable accuracy as registration of x-ray to CT. The method is based on a k-nearest-neighbors (kNN)-regression strategy which labels voxels of MRI data with CT Hounsfield Units. The regression method uses multi-spectral MRI intensities and intensity gradients as features to discriminate between various tissue types. The efficacy of using pseudo-CT data for registration of x-ray to MRI was tested on ex vivo animal data. 2D-3D registration experiments using CT and pseudo-CT data of multiple subjects were performed with a commonly used 2D-3D registration algorithm. On average, the median target registration error for registration of two x-ray images to MRI data was approximately 1 mm larger than for x-ray to CT registration. The authors have shown that pseudo-CT data generated from multi-spectral MRI facilitate registration of MRI to x-ray images. From the experiments it could be concluded that the accuracy achieved was comparable to that of registering x-ray images to CT data.

  1. A 2D MTF approach to evaluate and guide dynamic imaging developments

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Hoge, W. Scott; Madore, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    As the number and complexity of partially sampled dynamic imaging methods continue to increase, reliable strategies to evaluate performance may prove most useful. In the present work, an analytical framework to evaluate given reconstruction methods is presented. A perturbation algorithm allows the proposed evaluation scheme to perform robustly without requiring knowledge about the inner workings of the method being evaluated. A main output of the evaluation process consists of a 2D modulation transfer function (MTF), an easy-to-interpret visual rendering of a method’s ability to capture all combinations of spatial and temporal frequencies. Approaches to evaluate noise properties and artifact content at all spatial and temporal frequencies are also proposed. One fully sampled phantom and three fully sampled cardiac cine datasets were subsampled (R=4 and 8), and reconstructed with the different methods tested here. A hybrid method, which combines the main advantageous features observed in our assessments, was proposed and tested in a cardiac cine application, with acceleration factors of 3.5 and 6.3 (skip factor of 4 and 8, respectively). This approach combines features from methods such as k-t sensitivity-encoding (k-t SENSE), unaliasing by Fourier encoding the overlaps in the temporal dimension-SENSE (UNFOLD-SENSE), generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA), sensitivity profiles from an array of coils for encoding and reconstruction in parallel (SPACE-RIP), self, hybrid referencing with UNFOLD and GRAPPA (SHRUG) and GRAPPA-enhanced sensitivity maps for SENSE reconstructions (GEYSER). PMID:19877276

  2. Head pose estimation from a 2D face image using 3D face morphing with depth parameters.

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong G; Mbouna, Ralph Oyini

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents estimation of head pose angles from a single 2D face image using a 3D face model morphed from a reference face model. A reference model refers to a 3D face of a person of the same ethnicity and gender as the query subject. The proposed scheme minimizes the disparity between the two sets of prominent facial features on the query face image and the corresponding points on the 3D face model to estimate the head pose angles. The 3D face model used is morphed from a reference model to be more specific to the query face in terms of the depth error at the feature points. The morphing process produces a 3D face model more specific to the query image when multiple 2D face images of the query subject are available for training. The proposed morphing process is computationally efficient since the depth of a 3D face model is adjusted by a scalar depth parameter at feature points. Optimal depth parameters are found by minimizing the disparity between the 2D features of the query face image and the corresponding features on the morphed 3D model projected onto 2D space. The proposed head pose estimation technique was evaluated on two benchmarking databases: 1) the USF Human-ID database for depth estimation and 2) the Pointing'04 database for head pose estimation. Experiment results demonstrate that head pose estimation errors in nodding and shaking angles are as low as 7.93° and 4.65° on average for a single 2D input face image. PMID:25706638

  3. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C.; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-05-01

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.

  4. Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M. Wermana, L. Joskowicza

    E-print Network

    Werman, Michael

    Spectral-based 2D/3D X-ray to CT image rigid registration M. Freimana, O. Pelea, A. Hurvitza, M, Israel. ABSTRACT We present a spectral-based method for the 2D/3D rigid registration of X-ray images the CT in the expected in-plane location ranges of the fluoroscopic X-ray imaging devices. Each DRR

  5. Modeling and Measurement of 3D Deformation of Scoliotic Spine Using 2D X-ray Images

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Modeling and Measurement of 3D Deformation of Scoliotic Spine Using 2D X-ray Images Hao Li1 , Wee of the spine. To correct scoliotic deformation, the extents of 3D spinal deformation need to be measured. This paper studies the modeling and measurement of scoliotic spine based on 3D curve model. Through modeling

  6. Two Imaging Techniques: PET and MRI Figure B1: An illustration of PET and MRI in 2D.

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jim

    of PET and MRI in 2D. B­1 #12; Stimulus Baseline Difference Z_i(t) Figure B­2: Brain activity caused: Structural difference between a group of men (29) and women (23). Green blobs are the excursion set. The arrows represent the color coded (by the length of the vector) image of the structural difference between

  7. AUTOMATIC FEATURE MATCHING BETWEEN DIGITAL IMAGES AND 2D REPRESENTATIONS OF A 3D LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUD

    E-print Network

    Gumhold, Stefan

    AUTOMATIC FEATURE MATCHING BETWEEN DIGITAL IMAGES AND 2D REPRESENTATIONS OF A 3D LASER SCANNER. * Corresponding author. 1. INTRODUCTION Laser scanning is a valuable tool for the capturing of 3D object the intensity of the NIR laser as grey values. The determination of point correspondences between the 3D point

  8. Growth of Protein 2-D Crystals on Supported Planar Lipid Bilayers Imaged in Situby AFM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilya Reviakine; Wilma Bergsma-Schutter; Alain Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Theories of crystallization, both in 3-D and 2-D, are still very limited, mainly due to the scarcity of experimental approaches providing pertinent data on elementary phenomena. We present here a novel experimental approach for following, in real time andin situ, the process of 2-D crystallization of proteins on solid supports. Using annexin V as a model of a protein binding

  9. Revisiting Complex Moments for 2-D Shape Representation and Image Normalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João B. F. P. Crespo; Pedro M. Q. Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    When comparing 2-D shapes, a key issue is their nor- malization. Translation and scale are easily taken care of by re- moving the mean and normalizing the energy. However, defining and computing the orientation of a 2-D shape is not so simple. In fact, although for elongated shapes the principal axis can be used to define one of two possible

  10. Robustness and Accuracy of Feature-Based Single Image 2-D–3-D Registration Without Correspondences for Image-Guided Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Armand, Mehran; Otake, Yoshito; Yau, Wai-Pan; Cheung, Paul Y. S.; Hu, Yong; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    2-D-to-3-D registration is critical and fundamental in image-guided interventions. It could be achieved from single image using paired point correspondences between the object and the image. The common assumption that such correspondences can readily be established does not necessarily hold for image guided interventions. Intraoperative image clutter and an imperfect feature extraction method may introduce false detection and, due to the physics of X-ray imaging, the 2-D image point features may be indistinguishable from each other and/or obscured by anatomy causing false detection of the point features. These create difficulties in establishing correspondences between image features and 3-D data points. In this paper, we propose an accurate, robust, and fast method to accomplish 2-D–3-D registration using a single image without the need for establishing paired correspondences in the presence of false detection. We formulate 2-D–3-D registration as a maximum likelihood estimation problem, which is then solved by coupling expectation maximization with particle swarm optimization. The proposed method was evaluated in a phantom and a cadaver study. In the phantom study, it achieved subdegree rotation errors and submillimeter in-plane (X –Y plane) translation errors. In both studies, it outperformed the state-of-the-art methods that do not use paired correspondences and achieved the same accuracy as a state-of-the-art global optimal method that uses correct paired correspondences. PMID:23955696

  11. Fast non-blind deconvolution based on 2D point spread function database for real-time ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jooyoung; Park, Sung-Chan; Kim, Kyuhong; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    In the ultrasound medical imaging system, blurring which occurs after passing through ultrasound scanner system, represents Point Spread Function (PSF) that describes the response of the ultrasound imaging system to a point source distribution. So, de-blurring can be achieved by de-convolving the images with an estimated of PSF. However, it is hard to attain an accurate estimation of PSF due to the unknown properties of the tissues of the human body through the ultrasound signal propagates. In addition to, the complexity is very high in order to estimate point spread function and de-convolve the ultrasound image with estimated PSF for real-time implementation of ultrasound imaging. Therefore, conventional methods of ultrasound image restoration are based on a simple 1D PSF estimation [8] that axial direction only by restoring the performance improvement is not in the direction of Lateral. And, in case of 2D PSF estimation, PSF estimation and restoration of the high complexity is not being widely used. In this paper, we proposed new method for selection of the 2D PSF (estimated PSF of the average speed sound and depth) simultaneously with performing fast non-blind 2D de-convolution in the ultrasound imaging system. Our algorithm works on the beam-formed uncompressed radio-frequency data, with pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database from actual probe used. In the 2d PSF database, there are pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs that classified the each different depth (about 5 different depths) and speed of sound (about 1450 or 1540m/s). Using a minimum variance and simple Weiner filter method, we present a novel way to select the optimal 2D PSF in pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database that acquired from the actual transducer being used. For de-convolution part with the chosen PSF, we focused on the low complexity issue. So, we are using the Weiner Filter and fast de-convolution technique using hyper-Laplacian priors [11], [12] which is several orders of magnitude faster than existing techniques that use hyper-Laplacian priors. Then, in order to prevent discontinuities between the differently restored each depth image regions, we use the piecewise linear interpolation on overlapping regions. We have tested our algorithm with vera-sonic system and commercial ultrasound scanner (Philips C4-2), in known speed of sound phantoms and unknown speeds in vivo scans. We have applied a non-blind de-convolution with 2D PSFs database for ultrasound imaging system. Using the real PSF from actual transducer being used, our algorithm produces a better restoration of ultrasound image than de-convolution by simulated PSF, and has low complexity for real-time ultrasound imaging. This method is robust and easy to implement. This method may be a realistic candidate for real-time implementation.

  12. Simultaneous 2D imaging of dissolved iron and reactive phosphorus in sediment porewaters by thin-film and hyperspectral methods.

    PubMed

    Cesbron, Florian; Metzger, Edouard; Launeau, Patrick; Deflandre, Bruno; Delgard, Marie-Lise; Thibault de Chanvalon, Aubin; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Anschutz, Pierre; Jézéquel, Didier

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a new approach combining diffusive equilibrium in thin-film (DET) and spectrophotometric methods to determine the spatial variability of dissolved iron and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) with a single gel probe. Its originality is (1) to postpone up to three months the colorimetric reaction of DET by freezing and (2) to measure simultaneously dissolved iron and DRP by hyperspectral imaging at a submillimeter resolution. After a few minutes at room temperature, the thawed gel is sandwiched between two monospecific reagent DET gels, leading to magenta and blue coloration for iron and phosphate, respectively. Spatial distribution of the resulting colors is obtained using a hyperspectral camera. Reflectance spectra analysis enables deconvolution of specific colorations by the unmixing method applied to the logarithmic reflectance, leading to an accurate quantification of iron and DRP. This method was applied in the Arcachon lagoon (France) on muddy sediments colonized by eelgrass (Zostera noltei) meadows. The 2D gel probes highlighted microstructures in the spatial distribution of dissolved iron and phosphorus, which are most likely associated with the occurrence of benthic fauna burrows and seagrass roots. PMID:24502458

  13. Imaging of THz waves in 2D photonic crystal structures embedded in a slab waveguide

    E-print Network

    Peier, P.

    We present space- and time-resolved simulations and measurements of single-cycle terahertz (THz) waves propagating through two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal structures embedded in a slab waveguide. Specifically, we use ...

  14. Evaluation of an efficient GPU implementation of digitally reconstructed radiographs in 3D/2D image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Villa-Uriol, Maria-Cruz; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2010-03-01

    Intensity-based three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D/2D) X-ray image registration algorithms usually require generating digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) in every iteration during their optimization phase. Thus a large part of the computation time of such registration algorithms is spent in computing these DRRs. In a 3D-to-multiple-2D image registration framework where a sequence of DRRs is calculated, not only the computation but also the memory cost is high. We present an efficient DRR generation method to reduce both costs on a graphical processing units (GPU) implementation. The method relies on integrating a precomputation stage and a narrow-band region-of-interest calculation into the DRR generation. We have demonstrated its benefits on a previously proposed non-rigid 4D-to-multiple-2D image registration framework to estimate cerebral aneurysm wall motion. The two tested algorithms initially required several hours of highly intensive computation that involves generating a large number of DRRs in every iteration. In this paper, results on datasets of digital and physical pulsating cerebral aneurysm phantoms showed a speedup factor of around 50x in the generation of DRRs. In further image registration based wall motion estimation experiments using our implementation, we could obtain estimation results through the whole cardiac cycle within 5 minutes without degrading the overall performance.

  15. 2D grating simulation for X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging with a Talbot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon [Paul Scherrer Insitute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-04-06

    Talbot interferometry is a recently developed and an extremely powerful X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique. Besides giving access to ultra-high sensitivity differential phase contrast images, it also provides the dark field image, which is a map of the scattering power of the sample. In this paper we investigate the potentialities of an improved version of the interferometer, in which two dimensional gratings are used instead of standard line grids. This approach allows to overcome the difficulties that might be encountered in the images produced by a one dimensional interferometer. Among these limitations there are the phase wrapping and quantitative phase retrieval problems and the directionality of the differential phase and dark-field signals. The feasibility of the 2D Talbot interferometer has been studied with a numerical simulation on the performances of its optical components under different circumstances. The gratings can be obtained either by an ad hoc fabrication of the 2D structures or by a superposition of two perpendicular linear grids. Through this simulation it has been possible to find the best parameters for a practical implementation of the 2D Talbot interferometer.

  16. Use of 2D/3D data for peak cladding temperature uncertainty studies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems. The revised rule allows emergency core cooling system analysis based on best-estimate methods, provided uncertainties in the prediction of prescribed acceptance limits are quantified and reported. To support the revised rule, the NRC developed the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. Data from the 2D/3D program have been used in a demonstration of the CSAU methodology in two ways. First, the data were used to identify and quantify biases that are related to the implementation of selected correlations and models in the thermal-hydraulic systems code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 as it is used to calculate the demonstration transient, a large-break loss-of-coolant accident. Second, the data were used in a supportive role to provide insight into the accuracy of code calculations and to confirm conclusions that are drawn regarding specific CSAU studies. Examples are provided illustrating each of these two uses of 2D/3D data. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Parallel computation of optimized arrays for 2-D electrical imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Modern automatic multi-electrode survey instruments have made it possible to use non-traditional arrays to maximize the subsurface resolution from electrical imaging surveys. Previous studies have shown that one of the best methods for generating optimized arrays is to select the set of array configurations that maximizes the model resolution for a homogeneous earth model. The Sherman-Morrison Rank-1 update is used to calculate the change in the model resolution when a new array is added to a selected set of array configurations. This method had the disadvantage that it required several hours of computer time even for short 2-D survey lines. The algorithm was modified to calculate the change in the model resolution rather than the entire resolution matrix. This reduces the computer time and memory required as well as the computational round-off errors. The matrix-vector multiplications for a single add-on array were replaced with matrix-matrix multiplications for 28 add-on arrays to further reduce the computer time. The temporary variables were stored in the double-precision Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) registers within the CPU to minimize computer memory access. A further reduction in the computer time is achieved by using the computer graphics card Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) as a highly parallel mathematical coprocessor. This makes it possible to carry out the calculations for 512 add-on arrays in parallel using the GPU. The changes reduce the computer time by more than two orders of magnitude. The algorithm used to generate an optimized data set adds a specified number of new array configurations after each iteration to the existing set. The resolution of the optimized data set can be increased by adding a smaller number of new array configurations after each iteration. Although this increases the computer time required to generate an optimized data set with the same number of data points, the new fast numerical routines has made this practical on commonly available microcomputers.

  18. 2-D Precise Radiation Mapping of Sedimentary Core Using Imaging Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, M.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2006-12-01

    The imaging plate (IP) is a storage film coated with photostimulated phosphor (BaFBr: Eu2+), and the latent images produced by irradiation of the imaging plate are read by superficial scanning with stimulation light and are reconstructed as two-dimensional dot images on a computer display. It has an excellent performance for radiation detection, and its advantages include an ease of use, a high position resolution (up to 25ƒÊm), a large detection area (up to 35'43cm2), a high detection sensitivity with high signal-to- noise ratio, an extremely wide dynamic range of dose, a sensitivity to several kinds of radiation, and an erasing capability for reuse (Hareyama et al., 2000). In this study, in order to develop a nondestructive, precise and large area evaluation method of sedimentary structure, an application of autoradiography using IP is attempted to marine sediments. Imaging plate (BAS-MS2040 Fujifilm Co. Ltd., 20'~40 cm2) was cut into rectangular five pieces (4'~40 cm2). Whole round marine sedimentary cores were divided into two half for duplicate and they were covered with a plastic wrap. The rectangular IP were put along the center line of plane side of half round. The exposure in the low temperature was for 48 hours in a shield box. The latent images produced by irradiation of the IP were read out by using the BAS-2500 imaging analyzer (Fujifilm Co. Ltd.). Radiation dose of IP is output as PSL value, that is unique dose units and quantities of IP system. Position resolution was set to 50ƒÊm. Marine sedimentary cores including volcanic ash layer were measured using IP and Natural Gamma Logger (NGL), which is measuring instrument for marine sediments in practice use, to compare their measuring ability. As a result of experiment, it becomes clear that high dose distribution is found at volcanic ash layer with IP, meanwhile it can't be found with NGL. The content of radiation source in volcanic ash layer is supposed to be high compared with other layers because minerals tend to have more potassium, uranium and other radioactive elements than other layer components, for example, organic materials and biotic shells. It can be said that IP has high position resolution and detection sensitivity to figure out the dose distribution from volcanic ash layer. In order to understand relationships between dose and physical properties of marine sedimentary cores, several cores were measured using IP, Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL), and X-ray CT scanner. Density, p- wave velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility were measured by using MSCL, and density showed a good relation with PSL value. Although X-ray CT Scanner is used for visualization of cores, in order to compare the result of CT with the result of IP numerically, CT value that depends on density of materials is used. As a result of it, CT value showed a good relation with PSL value and taken into the dependence of CT value on density and the result of MSCL, it can be said that there is a strong dependence of dose on density in marine sediments.

  19. Initial Images of the Synthetic Aperture Radiometer 2D-STAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initial results obtained using a new synthetic aperture radiometer, 2D-STAR, a dual polarized, L-band radiometer that employs aperture synthesis in two dimensions are presented and analyzed. This airborne instrument is the natural evolution of a previous design that employed employs aperture synthes...

  20. 2D BUILDING CHANGE DETECTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES AND CORRELATION DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Champion

    Updating 2D databases has become a crucial issue in most mapping agencies. Such a work traditionally starts out with a change detection phase. A subsequent update phase is then carried out to register changes in the up-to-date database. The first phase is by far the most costly and plodding, as it has until now required field or visual ins pection

  1. The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sutton; J. H. Yan; V. Tiwari; H. W. Schreier; J. J. Orteu

    2008-01-01

    The effect of out-of-plane motion (including out-of-plane translation and rotation) on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation measurements is demonstrated using basic theoretical pinhole image equations and experimentally through synchronized, multi-system measurements. Full-field results obtained during rigid body, out-of-plane motion using a single-camera vision system with (a-1) a standard f55mm Nikon lens and (a-2) a single Schneider–Kreuznach Xenoplan

  2. CONTOUR-BASED HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL TO SEGMENT 2D ULTRASOUND IMAGES Xiaoning Qian1

    E-print Network

    Qian, Xiaoning

    -axis cardiac ultrasound images successfully. The method can also be used for other image modalities for the analysis of cardiac function from medical images [8]. It is a challenging task with cardiac ultrasound proposed to segment car- diac ultrasound images [2, 8]. Many of them are based on the classical Maximum

  3. Direct observation of ground-state lactam–lactim tautomerization using temperature-jump transient 2D IR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chunte Sam; Baiz, Carlos R.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We provide a systematic characterization of the nanosecond ground-state lactam–lactim tautomerization of pyridone derivatives in aqueous solution under ambient conditions using temperature-jump transient 2D IR spectroscopy. Although electronic excited-state tautomerization has been widely studied, experimental work on the ground electronic state, most relevant to chemistry and biology, is lacking. Using 2D IR spectroscopy, lactam and lactim tautomers of 6-chloro-2-pyridone and 2-chloro-4-pyridone are unambiguously identified by their unique cross-peak patterns. Monitoring the correlated exponential relaxation of these signals in response to a laser temperature jump provides a direct measurement of the nanosecond tautomerization kinetics. By studying the temperature, concentration, solvent, and pH dependence, we extract a thermodynamic and kinetic characterization and conclude that the tautomerization proceeds through a two-state concerted mechanism. We find that the intramolecular proton transfer is mediated by bridging water molecules and the reaction barrier is dictated by the release of a proton from pyridone, as would be expected for an efficient Grothuss-type proton transfer mechanism. PMID:23690588

  4. Standardization of techniques for using planar (2D) imaging for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephen; Bennett, William D; Biddiscombe, Martyn; Devadason, Sunalene G; Dolovich, Myrna B; Fleming, John; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Laube, Beth L; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn; Usmani, Omar S; Zeman, Kirby L

    2012-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D or planar) imaging with (99m)Tc radiolabels enables quantification of whole-lung and regional lung depositions for orally inhaled drug products. This article recommends standardized methodology for 2D imaging studies. Simultaneous anterior and posterior imaging with a dual-headed gamma camera is preferred, but imaging with a single-headed gamma camera is also acceptable. Correction of raw data for the effects of gamma ray attenuation is considered essential for accurate quantification, for instance, using transmission scanning with a flood-field source of (99m)Tc or (57)Co. Evidence should be provided of the accuracy of the quantification method, for instance, by determining "mass balance." Lung deposition may be expressed as a percentage of ex-valve or ex-device dose, but should also be given as mass of drug when possible. Assessment of regional lung deposition requires delineation of the lung borders, using X-ray computed tomography, radioactive gas scans ((133)Xe or (81m)Kr), or transmission scans. When quantifying regional lung deposition, the lung should be divided into outer (O) and inner (I) zones. A penetration index should be calculated, as the O/I ratio for aerosol, normalized to that for a radioactive gas or transmission scan. A variety of methods can be used to assess lung deposition and distribution. Methodology and results should be documented in detail, so that data from different centers may be compared. The use of appropriate methodology will provide greater confidence in the results of 2D imaging studies, and should allay concerns that such studies are qualitative or semiquantitative in nature. PMID:23215844

  5. 2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2013-09-03

    Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of permeability will result from images between 2 and 4 lm resolution. To reduce permeability underestimation from analyses of high-resolu- tion images, a resolution threshold between 3 and 15 lm was found to be effective, but it is not known whether this range is applicable beyond the samples studied here.

  6. Multilevel image thresholding based on 2D histogram and maximum Tsallis entropy--a differential evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    2013-12-01

    Multilevel thresholding amounts to segmenting a gray-level image into several distinct regions. This paper presents a 2D histogram based multilevel thresholding approach to improve the separation between objects. Recent studies indicate that the results obtained with 2D histogram oriented approaches are superior to those obtained with 1D histogram based techniques in the context of bi-level thresholding. Here, a method to incorporate 2D histogram related information for generalized multilevel thresholding is proposed using the maximum Tsallis entropy. Differential evolution (DE), a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm of current interest, is employed to improve the computational efficiency of the proposed method. The performance of DE is investigated extensively through comparison with other well-known nature inspired global optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony, and simulated annealing. In addition, the outcome of the proposed method is evaluated using a well known benchmark--the Berkley segmentation data set (BSDS300) with 300 distinct images. PMID:23955760

  7. Recovery of partial volume losses in cardiac mouse PET imaging using a combined 1D\\/2D and a combined 1D\\/3D model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Dumouchel; Robert A. de Kemp

    2010-01-01

    Micro-PET image resolution is on the order of the left ventricle (LV) wall thickness in a mouse heart. Mouse LV images are thus subject to partial volume (PV) losses, impeding the ability to quantify tracer activity in cardiac muscle. In this study, 2D and 3D PV correction (PVC) models are proposed for mouse imaging. ECG gated PET images are acquired

  8. Multiscale Detection of Curvilinear Structures in 2D and 3D Image Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Koller; Guido Gerig; Gábor Székely; Daniel Dettwiler

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, parameter-free techniquefor the segmentation and local description of linestructures on multiple scales, both in 2-D and 3-D.The algorithm is based on a nonlinear combinationof linear filters and searches for elongated, symmetricline structures, while suppressing the response toedges. The filtering process creates one sharp maximumacross the line-feature profile and across scalespace.The multiscale response reflects local contrastand

  9. 3D Environment Generation for the VirtualRobot Simulator based on 2D Digital Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldir Roque; Jonas Bragagnolo; Martin Mellado; Eduardo Vendrell

    The VirtualRobot(VRS)isa3Dgraphicalrobot simulator. In this simulator the construction of 3D environments are based on either a graphical editor or on a script flle using a set of primitives and their compositions, which are loaded and vi- sualizedbytheVRS.Thisprocedureistimecon- sumingandrequiresagoodacquaintancewiththe setofpredeflnedprimitivesandtheirparameters. Inthispaperwepresenttheautomaticgeneration of 3D environments composed of polyhedral ob- jects that are constructed based on the two-and- a-half-D extension of 2D digital

  10. Reconstruction and super-resolution algorithms of 2D-3D images and objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ponomaryov

    2010-01-01

    Stereoscopic displays designed to reconstruct 3D objects are still expensive in comparison with conventional ones. So, the possible solution in the 3D perception can be the conversion of 2D to 3D video using optical flow, depth map, etc. extracting needed information that permits the reconstruction of the 3D video sequence. The anaglyph technique is the simplest way to realize 3D

  11. Model-to-image based 2D-3D registration of angiographic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Mollus; Jördis Lübke; Andreas J. Walczuch; Heidrun Schumann; Jürgen Weese

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel registration method, which combines well-known vessel detection techniques with aspects of model adaptation. The proposed method is tailored to the requirements of 2D-3D-registration of interventional angiographic X-ray data such as acquired during abdominal procedures. As prerequisite, a vessel centerline is extracted out of a rotational angiography (3DRA) data set to build an individual model of the

  12. Stochastic Tracking of 3D Human Figures Using 2D Image Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedvig Sidenbladh; Michael J. Black; David J. Fleet

    2000-01-01

    A probabilistic method for tracking 3D articulated human figures in monocular image sequences is presented. Within a Bayesian framework, we define a generative model of image appearance, a robust likelihood function based on image graylevel differences, and a prior pro- bability distribution over pose and joint angles that models how humans move. The posterior probability distribution over model parameters is

  13. Cell-based graph cut for segmentation of 2D\\/3D sonographic breast images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Hung Chiang; Jie-Zhi Cheng; Pei-Kai Hung; Chun-You Liu; Cheng-Hong Chung; Chung-Ming Chen

    2010-01-01

    Boundary delineation is the fundamental basis of many sonographic image analyses. In sonographic breast lesion images, it's complicated and time consuming for physicians to delineate the lesion boundaries. When it comes to three dimensional sonographic breast lesions image, delineation of lesion boundary becomes much more complicated. Taking advantage of cell competition algorithm along with its good region structure, generated cells

  14. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  15. Segmentation of 2D fetal ultrasound images by exploiting context information using conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Sisodia, Rajendra Singh; Pallavi, V; Firtion, Celine; Ramachandran, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for segmenting fetal ultrasound images. This problem presents a variety of challenges including high noise, low contrast, and other US imaging properties such as similarity between texture and gray levels of two organs/ tissues. In this paper, we have proposed a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based framework to handle challenges in segmenting fetal ultrasound images. Clinically, it is known that fetus is surrounded by specific maternal tissues, amniotic fluid and placenta. We exploit this context information using CRFs for segmenting the fetal images accurately. The proposed CRF framework uses wavelet based texture features for representing the ultrasound image and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for initial label prediction. Initial results on a limited dataset of real world ultrasound images of fetus are promising. Results show that proposed method could handle the noise and similarity between fetus and its surroundings in ultrasound images. PMID:22256004

  16. A low-temperature insulating phase at ? for 2D holes in high-mobility ? heterostructures with Landau level degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunford, R. B.; Mitchell, E. E.; Clark, R. G.; Stadnik, V. A.; Fang, F. F.; Newbury, R.; McKenzie, R. H.; Starrett, R. P.; Wang, P. J.; Meyerson, B. S.

    1997-02-01

    Magneto-transport measurements of the 2D hole system (2DHS) in p-type Si - 0953-8984/9/7/018/img15 heterostructures identify the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) at dominantly odd-integer filling factors 0953-8984/9/7/018/img16 and two low-temperature insulating phases (IPs) at 0953-8984/9/7/018/img17 and 0953-8984/9/7/018/img18, with re-entrance to the quantum Hall effect at 0953-8984/9/7/018/img19. The temperature dependence, current - voltage characteristics, and tilted field and illumination responses of the IP at 0953-8984/9/7/018/img17 indicate that the important physics is associated with an energy degeneracy of adjacent Landau levels of opposite spin, which provides a basis for consideration of an intrinsic, many-body origin.

  17. Kinks versus fermions or the 2D sine-Gordon versus massive Thirring models, at nonzero temperature and chemical potential

    E-print Network

    Nicola, A G; Steer, D A

    1998-01-01

    We study bosonisation in the massive Thirring and sine-Gordon models at finite temperature and nonzero fermion chemical potential. Both canonical operator and path integral approaches are used to prove the equality of the partition functions of the two models at finite $T$ and zero chemical potential, as it has been recently shown. This enables the relationship between thermal normal ordering and path-integral renormalisation to be specified. Furthermore, we prove that thermal averages of zero-charge operators can also be identified. At nonzero chemical potential and temperature we show, in perturbation theory around the massless case, that the bosonised theory is the sine-Gordon model plus an additional topological term, accounting for the existence of zero charge excitations (the fermions or the kinks) in the thermal bath. This result is the 2D version of the low-energy lagrangian at finite baryon density.

  18. Known-Component 3D-2D Registration for Image Guidance and Quality Assurance in Spine Surgery Pedicle Screw Placement

    PubMed Central

    Uneri, A.; Stayman, J. W.; De Silva, T.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend the functionality of radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging systems already within standard spine surgery workflow to: 1) provide guidance of surgical device analogous to an external tracking system; and 2) provide intraoperative quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. Methods Using fast, robust 3D-2D registration in combination with 3D models of known components (surgical devices), the 3D pose determination was solved to relate known components to 2D projection images and 3D preoperative CT in near-real-time. Exact and parametric models of the components were used as input to the algorithm to evaluate the effects of model fidelity. The proposed algorithm employs the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize gradient correlation (GC) between measured projections and simulated forward projections of components. Geometric accuracy was evaluated in a spine phantom in terms of target registration error at the tool tip (TREx), and angular deviation (TRE?) from planned trajectory. Results Transpedicle surgical devices (probe tool and spine screws) were successfully guided with TREx <2 mm and TRE?<0.5° given projection views separated by at least >30° (easily accommodated on a mobile C-arm). QA of the surgical product based on 3D-2D registration demonstrated the detection of pedicle screw breach with TREx <1 mm, demonstrating a trend of improved accuracy correlated to the fidelity of the component model employed. Conclusions 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical components provides a novel method for near-real-time guidance and quality assurance using a mobile C-arm without external trackers or fiducial markers. Ongoing work includes determination of optimal views based on component shape and trajectory, improved robustness to anatomical deformation, and expanded preclinical testing in spine and intracranial surgeries.

  19. Known-component 3D-2D registration for image guidance and quality assurance in spine surgery pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Stayman, J. W.; De Silva, T.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose. To extend the functionality of radiographic / fluoroscopic imaging systems already within standard spine surgery workflow to: 1) provide guidance of surgical device analogous to an external tracking system; and 2) provide intraoperative quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. Methods. Using fast, robust 3D-2D registration in combination with 3D models of known components (surgical devices), the 3D pose determination was solved to relate known components to 2D projection images and 3D preoperative CT in near-real-time. Exact and parametric models of the components were used as input to the algorithm to evaluate the effects of model fidelity. The proposed algorithm employs the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize gradient correlation (GC) between measured projections and simulated forward projections of components. Geometric accuracy was evaluated in a spine phantom in terms of target registration error at the tool tip (TREx), and angular deviation (TRE?) from planned trajectory. Results. Transpedicle surgical devices (probe tool and spine screws) were successfully guided with TREx<2 mm and TRE? <0.5° given projection views separated by at least >30° (easily accommodated on a mobile C-arm). QA of the surgical product based on 3D-2D registration demonstrated the detection of pedicle screw breach with TREx<1 mm, demonstrating a trend of improved accuracy correlated to the fidelity of the component model employed. Conclusions. 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical components provides a novel method for near-real-time guidance and quality assurance using a mobile C-arm without external trackers or fiducial markers. Ongoing work includes determination of optimal views based on component shape and trajectory, improved robustness to anatomical deformation, and expanded preclinical testing in spine and intracranial surgeries.

  20. Low-Temperature Transport in AlGaN\\/GaN 2D Electron Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Vitusevich; A. M. Kurakin; S. V. Danylyuk; N. Klein; A. E. Belyaev

    2005-01-01

    In this work results of magnetotransport investigation in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of an undoped GaN\\/AlGaN heterostructure are reported. The measurements were performed in wide temperature (from 300 mK to 10 K), and magnetic field (up to 10 T) range. The effective mass of investigated 2DEG were estimated from Shubnikov-de-Haas oscillation measurements and found to

  1. 2-D Fused Image Reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography: a theoretical assessment using FDTD Model

    PubMed Central

    Bindu, G.; Semenov, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient two-dimensional fused image reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography (MWT). Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) models were created for a viable MWT experimental system having the transceivers modelled using thin wire approximation with resistive voltage sources. Born Iterative and Distorted Born Iterative methods have been employed for image reconstruction with the extremity imaging being done using a differential imaging technique. The forward solver in the imaging algorithm employs the FDTD method of solving the time domain Maxwell’s equations with the regularisation parameter computed using a stochastic approach. The algorithm is tested with 10% noise inclusion and successful image reconstruction has been shown implying its robustness. PMID:24058889

  2. 2D and 3D Refraction Based X-ray Imaging Suitable for Clinical and Pathological Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Bando, Hiroko; Chen, Zhihua; Chikaura, Yoshinori; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Endo, Tokiko; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Gang, Li; Hashimoto, Eiko; Hirano, Keiichi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ichihara, Shu; Jheon, SangHoon; Kim, HongTae; Kim, JongKi; Kimura, Tatsuro; Lee, ChangHyun; Maksimenko, Anton; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Park, SungHwan; Shimao, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Tang, Jintian; Ueno, Ei; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Yuasa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The first observation of micro papillary (MP) breast cancer by x-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) and the first observation of the 3D x-ray internal structure of another breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS), are reported. The specimen size for the sheet-shaped MP was 26 mm × 22 mm × 2.8 mm, and that for the rod-shaped DCIS was 3.6 mm in diameter and 4.7 mm in height. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory, KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. We achieved a high-contrast x-ray image by adopting a thickness-controlled transmission-type angular analyzer that allows only refraction components from the object for 2D imaging. This provides a high-contrast image of cancer-cell nests, cancer cells and stroma. For x-ray 3D imaging, a new algorithm due to the refraction for x-ray CT was created. The angular information was acquired by x-ray optics diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). The number of data was 900 for each reconstruction. A reconstructed CT image may include ductus lactiferi, micro calcification and the breast gland. This modality has the possibility to open up a new clinical and pathological diagnosis using x-ray, offering more precise inspection and detection of early signs of breast cancer.

  3. Fast Mixing for the Low Temperature 2D Ising Model Through Irreversible Parallel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai Pra, Paolo; Scoppola, Benedetto; Scoppola, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    We study tunneling and mixing time for a non-reversible probabilistic cellular automaton. With a suitable choice of the parameters, we first show that the stationary distribution is close in total variation to a low temperature Ising model. Then we prove that both the mixing time and the time to exit a metastable state grow polynomially in the size of the system, while this growth is exponential in reversible dynamics. In this model, non-reversibility, parallel updatings and a suitable choice of boundary conditions combine to produce an efficient dynamical stability.

  4. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3D imaging has a significant impact on many challenges in life sciences, because biology is a 3-dimensional phenomenon. Current 3D imaging-technologies (various types MRI, PET, SPECT) are labeled, i.e. they trace the localization of a specific compound in the body. In contrast, 3D MALDI mass spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a label-free method imaging the spatial distribution of molecular compounds. It complements 3D imaging labeled methods, immunohistochemistry, and genetics-based methods. However, 3D MALDI-MSI cannot tap its full potential due to the lack of statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of large and complex 3D datasets. To overcome this, we established a complete and robust 3D MALDI-MSI pipeline combined with efficient computational data analysis methods for 3D edge preserving image denoising, 3D spatial segmentation as well as finding colocalized m/z values, which will be reviewed here in detail. Furthermore, we explain, why the integration and correlation of the MALDI imaging data with other imaging modalities allows to enhance the interpretation of the molecular data and provides visualization of molecular patterns that may otherwise not be apparent. Therefore, a 3D data acquisition workflow is described generating a set of 3 different dimensional images representing the same anatomies. First, an in-vitro MRI measurement is performed which results in a three-dimensional image modality representing the 3D structure of the measured object. After sectioning the 3D object into N consecutive slices, all N slices are scanned using an optical digital scanner, enabling for performing the MS measurements. Scanning the individual sections results into low-resolution images, which define the base coordinate system for the whole pipeline. The scanned images conclude the information from the spatial (MRI) and the mass spectrometric (MALDI-MSI) dimension and are used for the spatial three-dimensional reconstruction of the object performed by image registration techniques. Different strategies for automatic serial image registration applied to MS datasets are outlined in detail. The third image modality is histology driven, i.e. a digital scan of the histological stained slices in high-resolution. After fusion of reconstructed scan images and MRI the slice-related coordinates of the mass spectra can be propagated into 3D-space. After image registration of scan images and histological stained images, the anatomical information from histology is fused with the mass spectra from MALDI-MSI. As a result of the described pipeline we have a set of 3 dimensional images representing the same anatomies, i.e. the reconstructed slice scans, the spectral images as well as corresponding clustering results, and the acquired MRI. Great emphasis is put on the fact that the co-registered MRI providing anatomical details improves the interpretation of 3D MALDI images. The ability to relate mass spectrometry derived molecular information with in vivo and in vitro imaging has potentially important implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23467008

  5. A preliminary work on pre-beamformed data acquisition system for ultrasound imaging with 2D transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Song, Junjie; Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Benpeng; Jiang, Shenglin; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2014-03-01

    This paper present a preliminary work on a pre-beamformed data acquisition ultrasound imaging system for a 3-MHz, 32×32 2-D array tranducer . The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication. This scheme provides a simple interconnection, consisting of one top and one bottom single-layer flex circuits. The designed system can acquire pre-beamformed data with 12-bit resolution at 40-MHz sampling rate. The digitized data of all channels are first fed through FPGAs to deserialize and stored in a 4GB RAM buffer. The acquired data can be transferred through a 1000 Mbps Ethernet link to a computer for off-line processing and analysis. The system design is based on high-level commercial integrated circuits to obtain the maximum flexibility and minimum system complexity. Partial beam summation have been performed to help finish the 3-D B-mode volumetric imaging. Key words: ultrasound imaging system, 2-D array transducer, row-column addressing, off-line processing

  6. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Li, Guangwei; Bai, Zhongrui

    2015-01-01

    Bolton and Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract 1D spectra from a 2D optical fiber spectral CCD image. The method could eliminate the PSF difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus cannot be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4k multi 4k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic illposed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. Compared with the results of tra...

  7. Experimental demonstration of diffusion signal enhancement in 2D DESIRE images.

    PubMed

    Jelescu, Ileana O; Boulant, Nicolas; Le Bihan, Denis; Ciobanu, Luisa

    2012-05-01

    In magnetic resonance microscopy based on conventional Fourier encoding techniques, molecular self-diffusion leads to a loss in signal to noise ratio while also limiting the spatial resolution. As opposed to standard diffusion-weighted sequences, the DESIRE (Diffusion Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) method gains signal through diffusion via a signal difference measurement, corresponding to the total number of spins saturated by a localized pulse applied for a given amount of time. The higher the diffusion coefficient at that location, the larger the number of spins effectively saturated and thus the higher the difference in signal. While the method has been previously demonstrated in 1D, the availability of higher magnetic fields and gradient strengths has recently brought its development within reach in 2D. Here we report the implementation of 2D DESIRE and the first experimental evaluation of enhancements in water and thin silicone oil. Enhancement levels obtained by saturating a 60 ?m diameter region (effectively ~140 ?m) and allowing diffusion lengths of 28 ?m or 7 ?m, respectively, are consistent with theoretical predictions. The typical enhancement values are 100% in water and 20% in silicone oil. PMID:22578554

  8. 2D label-free imaging of resonant grating biochips in ultraviolet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging", Proc. SPIE and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing," Bios. Bioelec. 11(6-7), 635­649 (1996). 10. N. Ganesh on a biochip dedicated to UV specific absorption," Bios. Bioelec. 24(6), 1585­1591 (2009). 12. J. L. Reverchon

  9. Contour segmentation in 2D ultrasound medical images with particle filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donka S. Angelova; Lyudmila Mihaylova

    2011-01-01

    Object segmentation in medical images is an actively investigated research area. Segmentation techniques are a valuable tool in medical diagnostics for cancer tumors and cysts, for planning surgery op- erations and other medical treatment. In this paper a Monte Carlo algorithm for extracting lesion contours in ultrasound medical images is proposed. An e-cient multiple model particle fllter for progressive contour

  10. 2D microwave tomographic system for extremities imaging: Initial performance assessment in animal trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Semenov; J. Kellam; T. Williams; M. Quinn; B. G. Nair

    2010-01-01

    Microwave tomography (MWT) is a novel imaging modality which might be applicable for non-invasive assessment of functional and pathological conditions of biological tissues. This work was to assess the technical performance of the system in sensing physiological signatures within measured complex signals and to obtain initial imaging results in animal experiments.

  11. Application of Kohonen network for automatic point correspondence in 2D medical images.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Vasiliki E; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Matsopoulos, George K

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a generalized application of Kohonen Network for automatic point correspondence of unimodal medical images is presented. Given a pair of two-dimensional medical images of the same anatomical region and a set of interest points in one of the images, the algorithm detects effectively the set of corresponding points in the second image, by exploiting the properties of the Kohonen self organizing maps (SOMs) and embedding them in a stochastic optimization framework. The correspondences are established by determining the parameters of local transformations that map the interest points of the first image to their corresponding points in the second image. The parameters of each transformation are computed in an iterative way, using a modification of the competitive learning, as implemented by SOMs. The proposed algorithm was tested on medical imaging data from three different modalities (CT, MR and red-free retinal images) subject to known and unknown transformations. The quantitative results in all cases exhibited sub-pixel accuracy. The algorithm also proved to work efficiently in the case of noise corrupted data. Finally, in comparison to a previously published algorithm that was also based on SOMs, as well as two widely used techniques for detection of point correspondences (template matching and iterative closest point), the proposed algorithm exhibits an improved performance in terms of accuracy and robustness. PMID:19481734

  12. Stable spins in the zero temperature spinodal decomposition of 2D Potts models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Stauffer, D.

    1996-02-01

    We present the results of zero temperature Monte Carlo simulations of the q-state Potts model on a square lattice with either four or eight neighbors, and for the triangular lattice with six neighbors. In agreement with previous works, we observe that the domain growth process gets blocked for the nearest-neighbor square lattice when q is large enough, whereas for the eight neighbor square lattice and for the triangular lattice no blocking is observed. Our simulations indicate that the number of spins which never flipped from the beginning of the simulation up to time t follows a power law as a function of the energy, even in the case of blocking. The exponent of this power law varies from less than {sol1}/{2} for the Ising case (1 q = 2) to 2 for q ? ? and seems to be universal. The effect of blocking on this exponent is invisible at least up to q = 7.

  13. A temperature dependent 2D-ACAR study of untwinned metallic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Welp, U.; Fang, Y.; Bailey, K.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bansil, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The authors have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements in the c-axis projection on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. These temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be approximated by a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. The authors discuss how the temperature dependence of the data can be exploited to obtain a {open_quote}background corrected{close_quote} experimental spectrum, which is found to be in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory based predictions, including for the first time the overall amplitude of the anisotropy in the 2D-ACAR. The corrected data also show clear signatures of the ridge Fermi surface and an indication of the pillbox surface.

  14. A general framework for face reconstruction using single still image based on 2D-to-3D transformation kernel.

    PubMed

    Fooprateepsiri, Rerkchai; Kurutach, Werasak

    2014-03-01

    Face authentication is a biometric classification method that verifies the identity of a user based on image of their face. Accuracy of the authentication is reduced when the pose, illumination and expression of the training face images are different than the testing image. The methods in this paper are designed to improve the accuracy of a features-based face recognition system when the pose between the input images and training images are different. First, an efficient 2D-to-3D integrated face reconstruction approach is introduced to reconstruct a personalized 3D face model from a single frontal face image with neutral expression and normal illumination. Second, realistic virtual faces with different poses are synthesized based on the personalized 3D face to characterize the face subspace. Finally, face recognition is conducted based on these representative virtual faces. Compared with other related works, this framework has the following advantages: (1) only one single frontal face is required for face recognition, which avoids the burdensome enrollment work; and (2) the synthesized face samples provide the capability to conduct recognition under difficult conditions like complex pose, illumination and expression. From the experimental results, we conclude that the proposed method improves the accuracy of face recognition by varying the pose, illumination and expression. PMID:24529782

  15. A 2D multiresolution image reconstruction method in X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Costin, Marius; Lazaro-Ponthus, Delphine; Legoupil, Samuel; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multiresolution X-ray imaging method designed for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE) applications which can also be used for small animal imaging studies. Two sets of projections taken at different magnifications are combined and a multiresolution image is reconstructed. A geometrical relation is introduced in order to combine properly the two sets of data and the processing using wavelet transforms is described. The accuracy of the reconstruction procedure is verified through a comparison to the standard filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm on simulated data. PMID:21606585

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 2D: Kibble-Zurek mechanism in temperature quenched colloidal monolayers

    E-print Network

    Patrick Dillmann; Georg Maret; Peter Keim

    2014-09-16

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism describes the formation of topological defects during spontaneous symmetry breaking for quite different systems. Shortly after the big bang, the isotropy of the Higgs-field is broken during the expansion and cooling of the universe. Kibble proposed the formation of monopoles, strings, and membranes in the Higgs field since the phase of the symmetry broken field can not switch globally to gain the same value everywhere in space. Zurek pointed out that the same mechanism is relevant for second order phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Every finite cooling rate induces the system to fall out of equilibrium which is due to the critical slowing down of order parameter fluctuations: the correlation time diverges and the symmetry of the system can not change globally but incorporates defects between different domains. Depending on the cooling rate the heterogeneous order parameter pattern are a fingerprint of critical fluctuations. In the present manuscript we show that a monolayer of superparamagnetic colloidal particles is ideally suited to investigate such phenomena. In thermal equilibrium the system undergos continuous phase transitions according KTHNY-theory. If cooled rapidly across the melting temperature the final state is a polycrystal. We show, that the observations can not be explained with nucleation of a supercooled fluid but is compatible with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  17. Preparation of 2D sequences of corneal images for 3D model building.

    PubMed

    Elbita, Abdulhakim; Qahwaji, Rami; Ipson, Stanley; Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Ghanchi, Faruque

    2014-04-01

    A confocal microscope provides a sequence of images, at incremental depths, of the various corneal layers and structures. From these, medical practioners can extract clinical information on the state of health of the patient's cornea. In this work we are addressing problems associated with capturing and processing these images including blurring, non-uniform illumination and noise, as well as the displacement of images laterally and in the anterior-posterior direction caused by subject movement. The latter may cause some of the captured images to be out of sequence in terms of depth. In this paper we introduce automated algorithms for classification, reordering, registration and segmentation to solve these problems. The successful implementation of these algorithms could open the door for another interesting development, which is the 3D modelling of these sequences. PMID:24612710

  18. Statistical methods for 2D-3D registration of optical and LIDAR images

    E-print Network

    Mastin, Dana Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Fusion of 3D laser radar (LIDAR) imagery and aerial optical imagery is an efficient method for constructing 3D virtual reality models. One difficult aspect of creating such models is registering the optical image with the ...

  19. A novel 2D-3D registration algorithm for aligning fluoro images with 3D pre-op CT/MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Hari; Khamene, Ali; Xu, Chenyang; Sauer, Frank; Davatzikos, Christos

    2006-03-01

    We propose a novel and fast way to perform 2D-3D registration between available intra-operative 2D images with pre-operative 3D images in order to provide better image-guidance. The current work is a feature based registration algorithm that allows the similarity to be evaluated in a very efficient and faster manner than that of intensity based approaches. The current approach is focused on solving the problem for neuro-interventional applications and therefore we use blood vessels, and specifically their centerlines as the features for registration. The blood vessels are segmented from the 3D datasets and their centerline is extracted using a sequential topological thinning algorithm. Segmentation of the 3D datasets is straightforward because of the injection of contrast agents. For the 2D image, segmentation of the blood vessel is performed by subtracting the image with no contrast (native) from the one with a contrast injection (fill). Following this we compute a modified version of the 2D distance transform. The modified distance transform is computed such that distance is zero on the centerline and increases as we move away from the centerline. This allows us a smooth metric that is minimal at the centerline and large as we move away from the vessel. This is a one time computation, and need not be reevaluated during the iterations. Also we simply sum over all the points rather than evaluating distances over all point pairs as would be done for similar Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based approaches. We estimate the three rotational and three translational parameters by minimizing this cost over all points in the 3D centerline. The speed improvement allows us to perform the registration in under a second on current workstations and therefore provides interactive registration for the interventionalist.

  20. Class-specific grasping of 3D objects from a single 2D image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Pang Chiu; Huan Liu; Leslie Pack Kaelbling; T. Lozano-Perez

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to grasp 3D objects given a single image, by using prior 3D shape models of object classes. The shape models, defined as a collection of oriented primitive shapes centered at fixed 3D positions, can be learned from a few labeled images for each class. The 3D class model can then be used to estimate the 3D shape

  1. Fast 2D model-to-image registration using vanishing points for sports video analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-bernard Hayet; Justus H. Piater; Jacques G. Verly

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the field-to-image registration for TV sports-related image processing through basic geomet- rical reasoning. We propose a robust automatic line-based method that can cope with imprecisions in the line detection stepsthroughahypothesisgeneration\\/pruningparadigmwhe- re the number of hypotheses is reduced by using the vanish- ing points. The results are satisfying and illustrated with examples from sport.

  2. The contact geometry in a 2D ?c-Si:H p-i-n imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Martins; F Sousa; M Fernandes; P Louro; A Maçarico; M Vieira

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional imager has been designed and produced based on ?c-Si:H material. The basic building block for the sensor element is a TCO\\/?c-p-i-n Si:H photodiode with two front metal contacts and a back TCO transparent one. A scan-out process obtains the image. The effect of the contact geometry on the sensor output characteristics (linearity, distortion, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio) were

  3. Recovery of 3D Pose of Bones in Single 2D X-ray Images Piyush Kanti Bhunre Wee Kheng Leow

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Recovery of 3D Pose of Bones in Single 2D X-ray Images Piyush Kanti Bhunre Wee Kheng Leow Dept procedures that involve only x-ray images, limiting the precision of the procedures. This paper proposes a method for recovering 3D pose by registering a generic 3D model of a bone to single x-ray images

  4. 2-D X-ray laser-plasma imaging using Bragg Fresnel multilayer zone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdji, H.; Soullié, G.; Idir, M.; Cauchon, G.; Mirone, A.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Dhez, P.

    1998-10-01

    Two types of Bragg Fresnel multilayer zone plates operating in the keV range have been investigated for X-ray laser-plasma imaging. Elliptical on-axis and off-axis Bragg Fresnel multilayer zone plates were characterised. With the on-axis zone plate all the reflection orders are superposed in the same plane. The image contrast is then degraded as the zone plate focus distance is not the same for all orders. The problem is avoided with an off-axis zone plate with which the different orders in the image plane are spatially separated. The Al He ? strong emission line (7.757 Å) of a laser produced aluminium plasma has been selected for the imaging tests. The first order reflected intensity has been optimized by varying the Bragg and azimuthal angles. As a result, an X-ray image of a fine gold grid backlighted by the aluminium plasma emission has been obtained with a spatial resolution very close to the theoretical limit of the imaging mounting.

  5. 2D image registration using focused mutual information for application in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, W; Nyssen, E; Bottenberg, P; Truyen, B; de Groen, P

    2009-06-01

    Spatial alignment of image data is a common task in computer vision and medical imaging. This should preferentially be done with minimal intervention of an operator. Similarity measures with origin in the information theory such as mutual information (MI) have proven to be robust registration criteria for this purpose. Intra-oral radiographs can be considered images of piecewise rigid objects. Teeth and jaws are rigid but can be displaced with respect to each other. Therefore MI criteria combined with affine deformations tend to fail, when teeth and jaws move with respect to each other between image acquisitions. In this paper, we consider a focused weighing of pixels in the reference image. The resulting criterion, focused mutual information (FMI) is an adequate tool for the registration of rigid parts of a scene. We also show that the use of FMI is more robust for the subtraction of lateral radiographs of teeth, than MI confined to a region of interest. Furthermore, the criterion allows the follow-up of small carious lesions when upper and lower jaw moved between the acquisition of test and reference image. PMID:19406393

  6. A new computational approach to cracks quantification from 2D image analysis: Application to micro-cracks description in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Alessio; Delle Piane, Claudio; Sarout, Joel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we propose a crack quantification method based on 2D image analysis. This technique is applied to a gray level Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, segmented and converted in Black and White (B/W) images using the Trainable Segmentation plugin of Fiji. Resulting images are processed using a novel Matlab script composed of three different algorithms: the separation algorithm, the filtering and quantification algorithm and the orientation one. Initially the input image is enhanced via 5 morphological processes. The resulting lattice is “cut” into single cracks using 1 pixel-wide bisector lines originated from every node. Cracks are labeled using the connected-component method, then the script computes geometrical parameters, such as width, length, area, aspect ratio and orientation. A filtering is performed using a user-defined value of aspect ratio, followed by a statistical analysis of remaining cracks. In the last part of this paper we discuss about the efficiency of this script, introducing an example of analysis of two datasets with different dimension and resolution; these analyses are performed using a notebook and a high-end professional desktop solution, in order to simulate different working environments.

  7. REAL-TIME TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING OPTIMUM MICROBUBBLE CONCENTRATION IN 2-D ULTRASONIC PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yan, Liang; Yu, Wentao; Jiang, Bo; Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Yanping; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    Many recent studies on ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV) showed that the accuracy of two-dimensional (2-D) flow velocity measured depends largely on the concentration of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) during imaging. This article presents a texture-based method for identifying the optimum microbubble concentration for Echo PIV measurements in real-time. The texture features, standard deviation of gray level, and contrast, energy and homogeneity of gray level co-occurrence matrix were extracted from ultrasound contrast images of rotational and pulsatile flow (10 MHz) in vitro and in vivo mouse common carotid arterial flow (40 MHz) with UCAs at various concentrations. The results showed that, at concentration of 0.8~2 × 103 bubbles/mL in vitro and 1~5 × 105 bubbles/mL in vivo, image texture features had a peak value or trough value, and velocity vectors with high accuracy can be obtained. Otherwise, poor quality velocity vectors were obtained. When the texture features were used as a feature set, the accuracy of K-nearest neighbor classifier can reach 86.4% in vitro and 87.5% in vivo, respectively. The texture-based method is shown to be able to quickly identify the optimum microbubble concentration and improve the accuracy for Echo PIV imaging. PMID:21684062

  8. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images.

    PubMed

    Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H; Bayford, Richard; Borsic, Andrea; Brown, Brian; Dixon, Paul; Faes, Theo J C; Frerichs, Inéz; Gagnon, Hervé; Gärber, Yvo; Grychtol, Bart?omiej; Hahn, Günter; Lionheart, William R B; Malik, Anjum; Patterson, Robert P; Stocks, Janet; Tizzard, Andrew; Weiler, Norbert; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2009-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinically monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation, because it can provide a non-invasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance which indicates the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older and proprietary algorithms; this is an obstacle to interpretation of EIT images because the reconstructed images are not well characterized. To address this issue, we develop a consensus linear reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes the unified approach to linear image reconstruction developed for GREIT. The framework for the linear reconstruction algorithm consists of (1) detailed finite element models of a representative adult and neonatal thorax, (2) consensus on the performance figures of merit for EIT image reconstruction and (3) a systematic approach to optimize a linear reconstruction matrix to desired performance measures. Consensus figures of merit, in order of importance, are (a) uniform amplitude response, (b) small and uniform position error, (c) small ringing artefacts, (d) uniform resolution, (e) limited shape deformation and (f) high resolution. Such figures of merit must be attained while maintaining small noise amplification and small sensitivity to electrode and boundary movement. This approach represents the consensus of a large and representative group of experts in EIT algorithm design and clinical applications for pulmonary monitoring. All software and data to implement and test the algorithm have been made available under an open source license which allows free research and commercial use. PMID:19491438

  9. The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Yan, J. H.; Tiwari, V.; Schreier, H. W.; Orteu, J. J.

    2008-10-01

    The effect of out-of-plane motion (including out-of-plane translation and rotation) on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation measurements is demonstrated using basic theoretical pinhole image equations and experimentally through synchronized, multi-system measurements. Full-field results obtained during rigid body, out-of-plane motion using a single-camera vision system with (a-1) a standard f55mm Nikon lens and (a-2) a single Schneider-Kreuznach Xenoplan telecentric lens are compared with data obtained using a two-camera stereovision system with standard f55mm Nikon lenses. Results confirm that the theoretical equations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Specifically, results show that (a) a single-camera, 2D imaging system is sensitive to out-of-plane motion, with in-plane strain errors (a-1) due to out-of-plane translation being proportional to ? Z/ Z, where Z is the distance from the object to the pin hole and ? Z the out-of-plane translation displacement, and (a-2) due to out-of-plane rotation are shown to be a function of both rotation angle and the image distance Z; (b) the telecentric lens has an effective object distance, Zeff, that is 50× larger than the 55 mm standard lens, with a corresponding reduction in strain errors from 1250 ?s/mm of out-of-plane motion to 25 ?s/mm; and (c) a stereovision system measures all components of displacement without introducing measurable, full-field, strain errors, even though an object may undergo appreciable out-of-plane translation and rotation.

  10. Digital imaging in radiology: Preliminary results obtained with a high spatial resolution 2D silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Alfano, B. (Inst. per lo Studio dei Tumori Fondazione Pascale and INFN, Napoli (Italy)); Bandettini, A.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Fantacci, M.E.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A. (Univ. di Pisa, (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica and INFN); Bencivelli, W. (dell'Univ. and INFN, Pisa (Italy). Inst. di Patologia Medica); Conti, M.; Larobina, M.; Russo, P. (Univ. di Napoli, (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche and INFN); Guerra, A. del; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M. (Univ. di Ferrara, (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica and INFN); Randaccio, P. (Univ. di Cagliari, (Italy). Inst. di Fisica Medica and INFN)

    1993-08-01

    Double-sided microstrip silicon crystals are being tested as detectors for X-rays in the diagnostic energy range (10-100 kcV) for digital radiography. The authors have developed an ADC and CAMAC-based acquisition system to study the imaging capabilities of a silicon [mu]strip detector with 100 and 200 [mu]m read-out pitch. They present the first images of submillimeter high contract phantoms obtained with an X-ray mammography tube operating at high flux density.

  11. Machine Learning of Hierarchical Clustering to Segment 2D and 3D Images

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Kennedy, Ryan; Parag, Toufiq; Shi, Jianbo; Chklovskii, Dmitri B.

    2013-01-01

    We aim to improve segmentation through the use of machine learning tools during region agglomeration. We propose an active learning approach for performing hierarchical agglomerative segmentation from superpixels. Our method combines multiple features at all scales of the agglomerative process, works for data with an arbitrary number of dimensions, and scales to very large datasets. We advocate the use of variation of information to measure segmentation accuracy, particularly in 3D electron microscopy (EM) images of neural tissue, and using this metric demonstrate an improvement over competing algorithms in EM and natural images. PMID:23977123

  12. 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging: blood flow quantification compared to 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly; Robinson, Joshua D.; Markl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. Objectives The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Materials and methods Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1±6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Results Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r=0.97, P<0.001) and excellent correlation with good agreement was found for regurgitant fraction (r= 0.88, P<0.001) in all vessels. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI significantly underestimated aortic (P= 0.032) and MPA (P<0.001) peak velocities compared to echo, while volumetric 4-D flow analysis resulted in higher (aortic: P=0.001) or similar (MPA: P=0.98) peak velocities relative to echo. Conclusion Excellent flow parameter agreement between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow and the improved volumetric 4-D flow velocity analysis relative to echo suggests that 4-D flow has the potential to become a clinical alternative to 2-D phase-contrast MRI. PMID:25487721

  13. On Photometric Issues in 3D Visual Recognition from a Single 2D Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Shashua

    1997-01-01

    We describe the problem of recognition under changing illumination conditions and changing viewing positions from a computational and human vision perspective. On the computational side we focus on the math- ematical problems of creating an equivalence class for images of the same 3D object undergoing certain groups of transformations—mostly those due to changing illumination, and briefly discuss those due to

  14. Retrieving Images by 2D Shape: A Comparison of Computation Methods with Human Perceptual Judgments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Scassellati; Sophoclis Alexopoulos; Myron Flickner

    1994-01-01

    In content based image retrieval, systems allow users to ask for objects similar in shape to a query object. However,there is no clear understanding of how computational shape similarity corresponds to human shape similarity. In this paperseveral shape similarity measures were evaluated on planar, connected, non-occluded binary shapes. Shape similarityusing algebraic moments, spline curve distances, cumulative turning angle, sign of

  15. Single-snapshot 2D color measurement by plenoptic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kensuke; Yamanaka, Yuji; Maruyama, Go; Nagai, Sho; Hirai, Hideaki; Meng, Lingfei; Tosic, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Plenoptic cameras enable capture of directional light ray information, thus allowing applications such as digital refocusing, depth estimation, or multiband imaging. One of the most common plenoptic camera architectures contains a microlens array at the conventional image plane and a sensor at the back focal plane of the microlens array. We leverage the multiband imaging (MBI) function of this camera and develop a single-snapshot, single-sensor high color fidelity camera. Our camera is based on a plenoptic system with XYZ filters inserted in the pupil plane of the main lens. To achieve high color measurement precision of this system, we perform an end-to-end optimization of the system model that includes light source information, object information, optical system information, plenoptic image processing and color estimation processing. Optimized system characteristics are exploited to build an XYZ plenoptic colorimetric camera prototype that achieves high color measurement precision. We describe an application of our colorimetric camera to color shading evaluation of display and show that it achieves color accuracy of ?E<0.01.

  16. Extracting Buildings from Aerial Images Using Hierarchical Aggregation in 2D and 3D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Fischer; Thomas H. Kolbe; Felicitas Lang; Armin B. Cremers; Wolfgang Förstner; Lutz Plümer; Volker Steinhage

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model-based approach to automated 3D extraction of buildings fromaerial images. We focus on a reconstruction strategy that is not restricted to a small classof buildings. Therefore, we employ a generic modeling approach which relies on the welldened combination of building part models. Building parts are classied by their roof type.

  17. North Caspian Basin: 2D elastic modeling for seismic imaging of salt and subsalt

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Zhanar Alpysbaevna

    2006-04-12

    . The two central tools for investigation of these imaging challenges were the construction of a geological model of the NCB and the use of an accurate elastic wave-propagation technique to analyze the capability of seismic to illuminate the geological...

  18. Designing and construction of a prototype of (GEM) detector for 2D medical imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Alanazi, Mohammed S.; Aldosary, Abdullah F.; Maghrabi, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the limited resolution and accuracy of several technologies that are able to get a digital X-ray image with a good performance in the very high rates, micro-pattern technology can achieve these features by using the most effective example of which is gas electron multiplier (GEM). The main objective of this project is to develop a two dimensions imaging that can be used in medical imaging purposes. The project consists of the theoretical parts of the process, including simulating the best detector dimensions, geometry, and the energy range of the applied radiation. Furthermore, constructing a large active area of triple GEM detector, and preparing the necessary setup parts for medical imaging system assumed. This paper presents the designing and construction of a prototype of triple-GEM detector (10cm x10 cm) that can achieve the goals as a first step toward attaining this project. In addition, the preliminary results from X-ray and some gamma sources as a testing of the prototype detector will be presented, added to that the discussions of outlined tasks and achievements. This paper will show the future plane of the whole project and more details about the next stages.

  19. Real time estimation and tracking of human body Center of Mass using 2D video imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amirhossein Bakhtiari; Fariba Bahrami; Babak Nadjar Araabi

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the position of the body Center of Mass (CoM) is a very important issue in human movement analysis in general, and in gait analysis as a more specified field. There are different methods to estimate this feature of gait. However, application of video imaging for analyzing human gait has increased tremendously due to its availability and non- interrupting nature.

  20. Wavelet-based 2D Multifractal Spectrum with Applications in Analysis of Digital Mammography Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pepa Ram; Brani Vidakovic

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women in the United States and at present, mammography is the only proven method that can detect minimal breast cancer. On the other hand, many medical images demonstrate a certain degree of self-similarity over a range of scales. The Multifractal spectrum (MFS) summarizes possibly variable degrees of scaling in one

  1. Ballistic 2-D Imaging Through Scattering Walls Using an Ultrafast Optical Kerr Gate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang; P. P. Ho; C. Liu; G. Zhang; R. R. Alfano

    1991-01-01

    An ultrafast optical shutter was used to image ultrasmall objects hidden behind scattering walls by a procedure that selects in time the ballistic component and rejects the scattered diffusive light. Scattering walls used in this experiment included human breast tissue, chicken breast tissue, and a water suspension of polystyrene particles with scattering coefficients up to 21.7. Submillimeter resolution was achieved

  2. Segmentation And Classification Of Textured Images Using 2-D Stochastic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotanzad, Alireza

    1988-02-01

    In this paper, methods for supervised classification and unsupervised segmentation of textured images are presented. A class of two-dimensional, stochastic, non-causal, linear models known as Simultaneous Autoregressive (SAR) random field models is used to characterize texture in a local neighborhood N. The maximum likelihood esti-mates of the model parameters denoted by fN, are selected as textural features. An efficient method for selection of a N (i.e. order of the model) which produces powerful features is presented. It relies on visual examination and comparison of images synthesized using fN. A 08% correct classification rate is obtained in supervised experiments involving nine different types of natural textures and utiliz-ing features selected by this technique. These features are also used for unsupervised texture segmentation, i.e. divid-ing an image into regions of similar texture when no apriori knowledge about the types and number of textures in the underlying image is available. Textural edges (borders between differently textured regions) are located where sud-den changes in local textural features happen. The image is scanned by a small size window and SAR features are extracted from the region encompassed by each window. Abrupt changes in the features of neighboring windows are detected and mapped back to the spatial domain to yield the sought after textural edges. A method for automatic selection of the size of the scanning window is presented. Instead of one window, two windows whose sizes differ by a few pixels are utilized and the common resulting edges are used. Parallel implementation of the segmentation algo-rithm is discussed. The goodness of the technique is demonstrated through experimental studies.

  3. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (<0.4 mm) hydrogels; containing a binding resin for the targeted analytes (e.g. trace metals, phosphate, sulphide or radionuclides). The measurement principle is passive and diffusion based. The present analytes are diffusing into the gel and are bound by the resin. Thereby, the resin acts as zero sink. After application, DGTs are retrieved, dried, and analysed using LA-ICP-MS. The data is then normalized by an internal standard (e.g. 13C), calibrated using in-house standards and chemical images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal contaminated and agricultural soils.

  4. Voxel-based 2-D\\/3-D registration of fluoroscopy images and CT scans for image-guided surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Weese; Graeme P. Penney; Paul Desmedt; Thorsten M. Buzug; Derek L. G. Hill; David J. Hawkes

    1997-01-01

    Registration of intraoperative fluoroscopy images with preoperative 3D CT images can he used for several purposes in image-guided surgery. On the one hand, it can be used to display the position of surgical instruments, which are being tracked by a localizer, in the preoperative CT scan. On the other hand, the registration result can be used to project preoperative planning

  5. Application of image processing technology to 2-D signal processing (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meckley, John R.

    1991-04-01

    The analytical and processing developments in the field of Image Understanding over the last 15 years have led to the creation of a set of processing tools for the detection, characterization (feature extraction), and classification of 2 dimensional signals. This set of tools is applicable to 2 dimensional signals other than the traditional "image" type signals. In particular, for passive sonar detection processing several 2 dimensional signal transforms are generated from the 1 dimensional sensor time series data. These transforms are selected in order to concentrate signal energy locally within the 2 dimensional transform. A classic example is the Lofargram which is a grequency versus time transform of the time series data. If the acoutic source is emitting tones (for example from machinery) then the Lofargram will contain line like structures.

  6. Label free biochemical 2D and 3D imaging using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, John S.; Vickerman, John C.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight Secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) provides a method for the detection of native and exogenous compounds in biological samples on a cellular scale. Through the development of novel ion beams the amount of molecular signal available from the sample surface has been increased. Through the introduction of polyatomic ion beams, particularly C60, ToF-SIMS can now be used to monitor molecular signals as a function of depth as the sample is eroded thus proving the ability to generate 3D molecular images. Here we describe how this new capability has led to the development of novel instrumentation for 3D molecular imaging while also highlighting the importance of sample preparation and discuss the challenges that still need to be overcome to maximise the impact of the technique. PMID:21664172

  7. On-Line Adaptation in Image Coding with a 2-D Tarp Filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Simard; David Steinkraus; Henrique S. Malvar

    2002-01-01

    On-line adaptation to nonstationary distributions is essential to good perform- ance in image coding. Fixed-size contexts (with adaptive tables) are also widely used, in conjunction with arithmetic encoders, in state-of-the-art co- decs. In contrast, we propose a simple two-dimensional filter that directly outputs the probability distribution function (PDF) estimate necessary to drive an adaptive arithmetic encoder. The filter is isotropic,

  8. 2D Ultrasound Image Processing in Identifying Responses of Urogenital Structures to Pelvic Floor Muscle Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiyu Peng; Ruth C. Jones; Christos E. Constantinou

    2006-01-01

    We present the analysis of sequences of voluntarily and reflexly generated pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions on the\\u000a urethra, vagina, and rectum. A succession of observations were taken of perineal ultrasound at a frequency of 3.5 MHz imaging\\u000a using a curved linear array probe in the sagittal plane and the videos captured and stored. An edge extraction algorithm was\\u000a used to

  9. 2D Ultrasound image processing in identifying responses of urogenital structures to pelvic floor muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiyu; Jones, Ruth C; Constantinou, Christos E

    2006-03-01

    We present the analysis of sequences of voluntarily and reflexly generated pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions on the urethra, vagina, and rectum. A succession of observations were taken of perineal ultrasound at a frequency of 3.5 MHz imaging using a curved linear array probe in the sagittal plane and the videos captured and stored. An edge extraction algorithm was used to outline the coordinates of the symphysis pubis, urethra, and rectum interfaces on a frame-by-frame basis for sequences of 10-20 s. During each PFM contraction, the trajectory of the boundary of each structure was evaluated, colour coded, and overlaid to characterize the sequential history of the ensuing movement. The resulting image analysis was focused to reveal the anatomical displacement of the urogenital structures, which enables the evaluation of their biomechanical parameters in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration at any point in time. On the basis of these observations, the biomechanical mechanisms of pelvic floor muscle responses to voluntary and reflex contractions can be identified. It is concluded that a considerable amount of new, potentially useful clinical information can be revealed from video recordings of perineal ultrasound using the image analysis approach proposed. PMID:16496082

  10. Distributed Computing Architecture for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing and 2 D FFTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce H.; Haghani, Shadan

    2006-01-01

    Image-based wavefront sensing (WFS) provides significant advantages over interferometric-based wavefi-ont sensors such as optical design simplicity and stability. However, the image-based approach is computational intensive, and therefore, specialized high-performance computing architectures are required in applications utilizing the image-based approach. The development and testing of these high-performance computing architectures are essential to such missions as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestial Planet Finder-Coronagraph (TPF-C and CorSpec), and Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT). The development of these specialized computing architectures require numerous two-dimensional Fourier Transforms, which necessitate an all-to-all communication when applied on a distributed computational architecture. Several solutions for distributed computing are presented with an emphasis on a 64 Node cluster of DSPs, multiple DSP FPGAs, and an application of low-diameter graph theory. Timing results and performance analysis will be presented. The solutions offered could be applied to other all-to-all communication and scientifically computationally complex problems.

  11. Hartree-Fock Solutions of 2d Interacting Tight-Binding Electrons: Mott Properties and Room Temperature Superconductivity Indications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A.; March, N. H.; Cabo-Bizet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Former results for a tight-binding (TB) model of CuO planes in La2CuO4 are reinterpreted here to underline their wider implications. It is noted that physical systems being appropriately described by the TB model can exhibit the main strongly correlated electron system (SCES) properties, when they are solved in the HF approximation, by also allowing crystal symmetry breaking effects and noncollinear spin orientations of the HF orbitals. It is argued how a simple 2D square lattice system of Coulomb interacting electrons can exhibit insulator gaps and pseudogap states, and quantum phase transitions as illustrated by the mentioned former works. A discussion is also presented here indicating the possibility of attaining room temperature superconductivity, by means of a surface coating with water molecules of cleaved planes of graphite, being orthogonal to its c-axis. The possibility that 2D arrays of quantum dots can give rise to the same effect is also proposed to consideration. The analysis also furnishes theoretical insight to solve the Mott-Slater debate, at least for the La2CuO4 and TMO band structures. The idea is to apply a properly noncollinear GW scheme to the electronic structure calculation of these materials. The fact is that the GW approach can be viewed as a HF procedure in which the screening polarization is also determined. This directly indicates the possibility of predicting the assumed dielectric constant in the previous works. Thus, the results seem to identify that the main correlation properties in these materials are determined by screening. Finally, the conclusions also seem to be of help for the description of the experimental observations of metal-insulator transitions and Mott properties in atoms trapped in planar photonic lattices.

  12. Ultra Low Temperature Conductance of Helical Edge States in InAs/GaSb 2D Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingxin; Mu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Pengjie; Fu, Hailong; Lin, Xi; Schreiber, Kate; Csathy, Gabor; Du, Lingjie; Sullivan, Gerard; Du, Rui-Rui

    2015-03-01

    Inverted InAs/GaSb quantum wells have been shown to be a 2D topological insulator hosting helical edge states. For mesoscopic samples, quantized conductance plateaus of 2e2/h have been observed. On the other hand, the longitudinal resistance in long samples increased linearly with device length, indicating certain scattering processes occurred in the helical edge. Moreover, edge states of InAs/GaSb system have a small Fermi velocity V_F, suggesting that interaction effects may play an important role in their electronic transport properties. We report work in progress for conductance measurements of InAs/GaSb helical edge states in ultra low temperatures. Experiments are performed in two millikelvin dilution refrigerators instrumented for fractional quantum Hall effect studies, one of them having attained 6mK electron temperature. Work at PKU is funded by NBRPC Grant No. 2012CB921301 and NSFC Grant No. 11274020 and 11322435; Work at Purdue is funded by DOE Grant No. DE-SC0006671; Work at Rice is funded by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46274.

  13. Visualization of aerocolloidal biological particles using 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Masabattula, Sree; Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Russo, Edwin P.; Klich, Maren A.

    2003-11-01

    Recent concerns over the possible use of airborne biological particles as weapons of mass destruction have significantly increased the attention that researchers are giving to this threat. The size of these particles, ranging from a fraction of a micrometer to several tens of micrometers, allows them to travel over long distances before settling out of the airstreams carrying these particles. Furthermore, the odd shapes of many of these particles along with uncertainties about their light scattering characteristics make detection and tracking quite a challenge. In the present paper, results are reported on the visualization of airborne biological particles using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). These initial results show the utility of PIV in illuminating and tracking airborne biological particles. A compressed air nebulizer is used to aerosolize the biological particles inside a Plexiglas test section. The biological particles prepared for the nebulizer are first inoculated and cultured onto agar media, gypsum board, and acoustic ceiling tile to achieve an abundant growth of spores. A colloidal suspension of biological particles is then made using sterilized, de-ionized water and a mild surfactant to de-agglomerate the biological particles in the suspension. The concentration of biological particles in the colloidal suspension is determined using a hemacytometer. In the visualization experiments, images are captured for polystyrene latex (PSL) test particles, liquid water droplets, and spores of the fungal species Aspergillus versicolor. During the PIV system operation, two successive images are captured with a time delay of 50 ?m to develop flow field velocities of the PSL test particles, liquid water droplets, and the A. versicolor spores.

  14. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  15. A Gaseous Compton Camera using a 2D-sensitive gaseous photomultiplier for Nuclear Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, C. D. R.; Pereira, F. A.; Lopes, T.; Correia, P. M. M.; Silva, A. L. M.; Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Covita, D. S.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new Compton Camera (CC) concept based on a High Pressure Scintillation Chamber coupled to a position-sensitive Gaseous PhotoMultiplier for Nuclear Medical Imaging applications is proposed. The main goal of this work is to describe the development of a ?25×12 cm3 cylindrical prototype, which will be suitable for scintimammography and for small-animal imaging applications. The possibility to scale it to an useful human size device is also in study. The idea is to develop a device capable to compete with the standard Anger Camera. Despite the large success of the Anger Camera, it still presents some limitations, such as: low position resolution and fair energy resolutions for 140 keV. The CC arises a different solution as it provides information about the incoming photon direction, avoiding the use of a collimator, which is responsible for a huge reduction (10-4) of the sensitivity. The main problem of the CC's is related with the Doppler Broadening which is responsible for the loss of angular resolution. In this work, calculations for the Doppler Broadening in Xe, Ar, Ne and their mixtures are presented. Simulations of the detector performance together with discussion about the gas choice are also included .

  16. SIMS of organics—Advances in 2D and 3D imaging and future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Ian S. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a powerful technique for the label-free analysis of organics from cells to electronic devices. The development of cluster ion sources has revolutionized the field, increasing the sensitivity for organics by two or three orders of magnitude and for large clusters, such as C{sub 60} and argon clusters, allowing depth profiling of organics. The latter has provided the capability to generate stunning three dimensional images with depth resolutions of around 5 nm, simply unavailable by other techniques. Current state-of-the-art allows molecular images with a spatial resolution of around 500 nm to be achieved and future developments are likely to progress into the sub-100 nm regime. This review is intended to bring those with some familiarity with SIMS up-to-date with the latest developments for organics, the fundamental principles that underpin this and define the future progress. State-of-the-art examples are showcased and signposts to more in-depth reviews about specific topics given for the specialist.

  17. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ricardo Maqueda; Dr. Fred M. Levinton

    2011-12-23

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  18. Robust and highly performant ring detection algorithm for 3d particle tracking using 2d microscope imaging

    E-print Network

    Eldad Afik

    2014-10-02

    Three-dimensional particle tracking is an essential tool in studying dynamics under the microscope, namely, fluid dynamics in microfluidic devices, bacteria taxis, cellular trafficking. The 3d position of a fluorescent particle can be determined using 2d imaging alone, by measuring the diffraction rings generated by an out-of-focus particle, imaged on a single camera. Here I present a ring detection algorithm exhibiting a high detection rate, which is robust to the challenges arising from particles vicinity. It is capable of real time analysis thanks to its high performance and low memory footprint. Many of the algorithmic concepts introduced can be advantageous in other cases, particularly for sparse data. The implementation is based on open-source and cross-platform software packages only, making it easy to distribute and modify. The image analysis algorithm, which is an offspring of the circle Hough transform, addresses the need to efficiently trace the trajectories of several particles concurrently, when their number in not necessarily fixed, by solving a classification problem. The current implementation is robust to ring occlusion, inclusions and overlaps, which allows resolving particles even when near to each other. It is implemented in a microfluidic experiment allowing real-time multi-particle tracking at 70Hz, achieving a detection rate which exceeds 94% and only 1% false-detection.

  19. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangwei, Li; Haotong, Zhang; Zhongrui, Bai

    2015-06-01

    Bolton & Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract one-dimensional (1D) spectra from a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber spectral CCD (charge-coupled device) image. The method could eliminate the PSF (point-spread function) difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus can not be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4 k × 4 k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic ill-posed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. We do a series of simulations to test how our method performs under more real situations with Poisson noise and extreme cross talk. Compared with the results of traditional extraction methods, i.e., the Aperture Extraction Method and the Profile Fitting Method, our method has the least residual and influence by cross talk. For the noise-added image, the computation speed does not depend very much on fiber distance, the signal-to-noise ratio converges in 2-4 iterations, and the computation times are about 3.5 hr for the extreme fiber distance and about 2 hr for nonextreme cases. A better balance between the computation time and result precision could be achieved by setting the precision threshold similar to the noise level. Finally, we apply our method to real LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope; a.k.a. Guo Shou Jing Telescope) data. We find that the 1D spectrum extracted by our method has both higher signal-to-noise ratio and resolution than the traditional methods, but there are still some suspicious weak features, possibly caused by the method around the strong emission lines. As we have demonstrated, our deconvolution method has solved the computation problem and progressed in dealing with the noise influence. Multifiber spectra extracted by our method will have higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, and thus will provide more accurate information (such as higher radial velocity and metallicity measurement accuracy in stellar physics) to astronomers than traditional methods.

  20. Large area selective emitters/absorbers based on 2D tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinnerbauer, V.; Yeng, Y. X.; Senkevich, J. J.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Solja?i?, M.; Celanovic, I.

    2013-02-01

    We report highly selective emitters based on high-aspect ratio 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on large area (2 inch diameter) polycrystalline tantalum substrates, suitable for high-temperature operation. As an example we present an optimized design for a selective emitter with a cut-off wavelength of 2?m, matched to the bandgap of an InGaAs PV cell, achieving a predicted spectral selectivity of 56.6% at 1200K. We present a fabrication route for these tantalum PhCs, based on standard microfabrication processes including deep reactive ion etch of tantalum by an SF6 based Bosch process, achieving high-aspect ratio cavities (< 8:1). Interference lithography was used to facilitate large area fabrication, maintaining both fabrication precision and uniformity, with a cavity diameter variation of less than 2% across the substrate. The fabricated tantalum PhCs exhibit strong enhancement of the emittance at wavelengths below cut-off wavelength, approaching that of blackbody, and a steep cut-off between high and low emittance spectral regions. Moreover, detailed simulations and numerical modeling show excellent agreement with experimental results. In addition, we propose a surface protective coating, which acts as a thermal barrier coating and diffusion inhibitor, and its conformal fabrication by atomic layer deposition.

  1. Normal and shear strain imaging using 2D deformation tracking on beam steered linear array datasets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Varghese, Tomy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous publications have reported on the use of one-dimensional cross-correlation analysis with beam-steered echo signals. However, this approach fails to accurately track displacements at larger depths (>4.5 cm) due to lower signal-to-noise. In this paper, the authors present the use of adaptive parallelogram shaped two-dimensional processing blocks for deformation tracking. Methods: Beam-steered datasets were acquired using a VFX 9L4 linear array transducer operated at a 6 MHz center frequency for steered angles from ?15 to 15° in increments of 1°, on both uniformly elastic and single-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantoms. Echo signals were acquired to a depth of 65 mm with the focus set at 40 mm corresponding to the center of phantom. Estimated angular displacements along and perpendicular to the beam direction are used to compute axial and lateral displacement vectors using a least-squares approach. Normal and shear strain tensor component are then estimated based on these displacement vectors. Results: Their results demonstrate that parallelogram shaped two-dimensional deformation tracking significantly improves spatial resolution (factor of 7.79 along the beam direction), signal-to-noise (5 dB improvement), and contrast-to-noise (8–14 dB improvement) associated with strain imaging using beam steering on linear array transducers. Conclusions: Parallelogram shaped two-dimensional deformation tracking is demonstrated in beam-steered radiofrequency data, enabling its use in the estimation of normal and shear strain components. PMID:23298118

  2. A Novel Assessment of Various Bio-Imaging Methods for Lung Tumor Detection and Treatment by using 4-D and 2-D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Judice A., Antony; Geetha, Dr. K. Parimala

    2013-01-01

    Lung Cancer is known as one of the most difficult cancer to cure, and the number of deaths that it causes generally increasing. A detection of the Lung Cancer in its early stage can be helpful for Medical treatment to limit the danger, but it is a challenging problem due to Cancer cell structure. Interpretation of Medical image is often difficult and time consuming, even for the experienced Physicians. The aid of image analysis Based on machine learning can make this process easier. This paper describes fully Automatic Decision Support system for Lung Cancer diagnostic from CT Lung images. Most traditional medical diagnosis systems are founded on huge quantity of training data and takes long processing time. However, on the occasion that very little volume of data is available, the traditional diagnosis systems derive defects such as larger error, Time complexity. Focused on the solution to this problem, a Medical Diagnosis System based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is presented. In this paper we describe a pre-processing stage involving some Noise removal techniques help to solve this problem, we preprocess an images (by Mean Error Square Filtering and Histogram analysis)obtained after scanning the Lung CT images. Secondly separate the lung areas from an image by a segmentation process (by Thresholding and region growing techniques). Finally we developed HMM for the classification of Cancer Nodule. Results are checked for 2D and 4D CT images. This automation process reduces the time complexity and increases the diagnosis confidence. PMID:23847454

  3. A novel approach of computer-aided detection of focal ground-glass opacity in 2D lung CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Liu, Xiabi; Yang, Ali; Pang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Chunwu; Zhao, Xinming; Zhao, Yanfeng

    2013-02-01

    Focal Ground-Glass Opacity (fGGO) plays an important role in diagnose of lung cancers. This paper proposes a novel approach for detecting fGGOs in 2D lung CT images. The approach consists of two stages: extracting regions of interests (ROIs) and labeling each ROI as fGGO or non-fGGO. In the first stage, we use the techniques of Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology to segment lung parenchyma from lung CT images and extract ROIs in lung parenchyma. In the second stage, a Bayesian classifier is constructed based on the Gaussian mixture Modeling (GMM) of the distribution of visual features of fGGOs to fulfill ROI identification. The parameters in the classifier are estimated from training data by the discriminative learning method of Max-Min posterior Pseudo-probabilities (MMP). A genetic algorithm is further developed to select compact and discriminative features for the classifier. We evaluated the proposed fGGO detection approach through 5-fold cross-validation experiments on a set of 69 lung CT scans that contain 70 fGGOs. The proposed approach achieves the detection sensitivity of 85.7% at the false positive rate of 2.5 per scan, which proves its effectiveness. We also demonstrate the usefulness of our genetic algorithm based feature selection method and MMP discriminative learning method through comparing them with without-selection strategy and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), respectively, in the experiments.

  4. Acquiring a 2D rolled equivalent fingerprint image from a non-contact 3D finger scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatehpuria, Abhishika; Lau, Daniel L.; Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2006-04-01

    The use of fingerprints as a biometric is both the oldest mode of computer aided personal identification and the most relied-upon technology in use today. But current fingerprint scanning systems have some challenging and peculiar difficulties. Often skin conditions and imperfect acquisition circumstances cause the captured fingerprint image to be far from ideal. Also some of the acquisition techniques can be slow and cumbersome to use and may not provide the complete information required for reliable feature extraction and fingerprint matching. Most of the difficulties arise due to the contact of the fingerprint surface with the sensor platen. To attain a fast-capture, non-contact, fingerprint scanning technology, we are developing a scanning system that employs structured light illumination as a means for acquiring a 3-D scan of the finger with sufficiently high resolution to record ridge-level details. In this paper, we describe the postprocessing steps used for converting the acquired 3-D scan of the subject's finger into a 2-D rolled equivalent image.

  5. Remote Temperature Estimation in Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sethuraman, Shriram; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Smalling, Richard W.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2008-01-01

    Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is based on the detection of laser-induced acoustic waves generated within the arterial tissue under pulsed laser irradiation. Generally, laser radiant energy levels are kept low (20 mJ/cm2) during photoacoustic imaging to conform to general standards for safe use of lasers on biological tissues. However, safety standards in intravascular photoacoustic imaging are not yet fully established. Consequently, monitoring spatio-temporal temperature changes associated with laser-tissue interaction is important to address thermal safety of IVPA imaging. In this study we utilize the IVUS based strain measurements to estimate the laser induced temperature increase. Temporal changes in temperature were estimated in a phantom modeling a vessel with an inclusion. A cross-correlation based time delay estimator was used to assess temperature induced strains produced by different laser radiant energies. The IVUS based remote measurements revealed temperature increases of 0.7±0.3°C, 2.9±0.2 °C and 5.0±0.2 °C, for the laser radiant energies of 30 mJ/cm2, 60 mJ/cm2 and 85 mJ/cm2 respectively. The technique was then used in imaging of ex vivo samples of a normal rabbit aorta. For arterial tissues, a temperature elevation of 1.1°C was observed for a laser fluence of 60 mJ/cm2 and lesser than 1°C for lower energy levels normally associated with IVPA imaging. Therefore, the developed ultrasound technique can be used to monitor temperature during IVPA imaging. Furthermore, the analysis based on the Arrhenius thermal damage model indicates no thermal injury in the arterial tissue; suggesting the safety of IVPA imaging PMID:17935861

  6. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    E-print Network

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. While modern Quantum cascade lasers have evolved as ideal coherent mid-IR excitation sources, simple, low noise, room temperature detectors and imaging systems still lag behind. We address this need presenting a novel, field-deployable, upconversion system for sensitive, 2-D, mid-IR spectral imaging. Measured room temperature dark noise is 0.2 photons/spatial element/second, which is a billion times below the dark noise level of cryogenically cooled InSb cameras. Single photon imaging and up to 200 x 100 spatial elements resolution is obtained reaching record high continuous wave quantum efficiency of about 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applicat...

  7. A novel parallel-field hall sensor with low offset and temperature drift based 2D integrated magnetometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. S. Roumenin; D. Nikolov; A. Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    A new silicon integrated 2D Hall sensor for high accuracy magnetic field measurements, using four-contacts two-output parallel-field Hall microdevice, is proposed and tested experimentally. An important characteristic of the 2D magnetometer is that there are two-output channels for each of the in-plane magnetic components Bx and By. The respective output voltages for each channel are equal in value and opposite

  8. Enhanced photomask quality control by 2D structures monitoring using auto image-to-layout method on advanced 28nm technology node or beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Eric; Shi, Irene; Tian, Eric; Hsiang, Chingyun; Cheng, Guojie; Ling, Li; Chen, Shijie; Chen, Ye; Zhou, Ke; Wu, Joanne; Wu, KeChih

    2013-04-01

    As device features continue to shrink, achieving acceptable yields becomes increasingly challenging. In the photolithography process, mask error is one of the most critical error sources, since any imperfections on a mask will be amplified and transferred onto a wafer due to Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) [1]. Furthermore, due to complexity of lithography optical proximity effect correction in advanced technology nodes, more and more 2D structures are applied into mask patterns. Furthermore, more 2D pattern configurations are susceptible to pattering failures due to their much high MEEF factor than 1D pattern. As a result, the conventional mask error control mechanisms for 1D [2] [3] [4] only, such as mean-to-target (MTT) and CD uniformity, are no longer adequate to deal with high MEEF 2D structures. In this paper, a novel 2D structure mask error monitoring technique is introduced to prevent fatal wafer printing errors such as CD error, line-end pull back and other pattern distortions to ensure high quality mask manufacturing and to improve wafer yield in advanced technology nodes. We will demonstrate the flow using typical 2D structure test patterns in 28nm technology node design or beyond. The SEM image would be taken and measured by this novel technique are used to monitor mask fidelity performance. This monitoring technique is based on Image-to-layout, as one of Anchor Semiconductor's pattern centric techniques, which can extract contour and convert it into pattern layouts from SEM or optical image of masks. Further pattern signature analysis can be performed on the pattern (inner /outer vertex, space distance and edge distance), so that we can quickly identify target locations for 2D pattern measurements. We monitor the severity of 2D corner rounding on selected 28nm design rule masks by Pattern Fidelity (PF) ratio and correlate them with wafer printing results. 2D pattern measurement techniques and PF ratio monitoring system from SEM image is an effective approach to ensure high quality mask making in 28nm and advanced technology nodes. This PF ratio monitoring from 2D pattern SEM images is an effective approach to ensure high quality mask making in advanced 28nm node and beyond, which can overcome the inadequacy of current 1D measurement only method, especially for the masks are generated without source mask optimization (SMO) [6].

  9. Temperature dependent equilibrium native to unfolded protein dynamics and properties observed with IR absorption and 2D IR vibrational echo experiments.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jean K; Thielges, Megan C; Bowman, Sarah E J; Bren, Kara L; Fayer, M D

    2011-05-01

    Dynamic and structural properties of carbonmonoxy (CO)-coordinated cytochrome c(552) from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus (Ht-M61A) at different temperatures under thermal equilibrium conditions were studied with infrared absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo experiments using the heme-bound CO as the vibrational probe. Depending on the temperature, the stretching mode of CO shows two distinct bands corresponding to the native and unfolded proteins. As the temperature is increased from low temperature, a new absorption band for the unfolded protein grows in and the native band decreases in amplitude. Both the temperature-dependent circular dichroism and the IR absorption area ratio R(A)(T), defined as the ratio of the area under the unfolded band to the sum of the areas of the native and unfolded bands, suggest a two-state transition from the native to the unfolded protein. However, it is found that the absorption spectrum of the unfolded protein increases its inhomogeneous line width and the center frequency shifts as the temperature is increased. The changes in line width and center frequency demonstrate that the unfolding does not follow simple two-state behavior. The temperature-dependent 2D IR vibrational echo experiments show that the fast dynamics of the native protein are virtually temperature independent. In contrast, the fast dynamics of the unfolded protein are slower than those of the native protein, and the unfolded protein fast dynamics and at least a portion of the slower dynamics of the unfolded protein change significantly, becoming faster as the temperature is raised. The temperature dependence of the absorption spectrum and the changes in dynamics measured with the 2D IR experiments confirm that the unfolded ensemble of conformers continuously changes its nature as unfolding proceeds, in contrast to the native state, which displays a temperature-independent distribution of structures. PMID:21469666

  10. Accelerated short-TE 3D proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging using 2D-SENSE with a 32-channel array coil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Otazo; Shang-Yueh Tsai; Fa-Hsuan Lin; Stefan Posse

    2007-01-01

    MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with whole brain coverage in clinically feasible acquisition times still remains a major chal- lenge. A combination of MRSI with parallel imaging has shown promise to reduce the long encoding times and 2D acceleration with a large array coil is expected to provide high acceleration capability. In this work a very high-speed method for 3D-MRSI based

  11. cMUTs and electronics for 2D and 3D imaging: monolithic integration, in-handle chip sets and system implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Daft; Paul Wagner; Brett Bymaster; Satchi Panda; Kirti Patel; Igal Ladabaum

    2005-01-01

    Capacitive microfabricated ultrasound transducers (cMUTs) have been shown to be practical for medical imaging. Breakthrough performance requires combining these MEMS transducers with electronics. This paper explores synergies between cMUTs and electronics for 2D and 3D imaging. For example, low-noise receive signal conditioning improves tissue penetration, while transmitters capable of arbitrary waveforms minimize clutter. Bias control circuitry can create simple multi-row

  12. High temperature immersion type ultrasonic imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-04-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, are operated in the pulse-echo mode. The operating temperature is up to 215 °C and there is no need for a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is attached with a piezoelectric transducer and the other end is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape that provides the focus. The operating frequency is 5 MHz. Ultrasonic images produced using mechanical raster scan and the measurements, when the probes are fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  13. MTF characterization in 2D and 3D for a high resolution, large field of view flat panel imager for cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil; Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Richmond, Michelle; Zentai, George

    2014-03-01

    The 2D and 3D modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a custom made, large 40x30cm2 area, 600- micron CsI-TFT based flat panel imager having 127-micron pixellation, along with the micro-fiber scintillator structure, were characterized in detail using various techniques. The larger area detector yields a reconstructed FOV of 25cm diameter with an 80cm SID in CT mode. The MTFs were determined with 1x1 (intrinsic) binning. The 2D MTFs were determined using a 50.8 micron tungsten wire and a solid lead edge, and the 3D MTF was measured using a custom made phantom consisting of three nearly orthogonal 50.8 micron tungsten wires suspended in an acrylic cubic frame. The 2D projection data was reconstructed using an iterative OSC algorithm using 16 subsets and 5 iterations. As additional verification of the resolution, along with scatter, the Catphan® phantom was also imaged and reconstructed with identical parameters. The measured 2D MTF was ~4% using the wire technique and ~1% using the edge technique at the 3.94 lp/mm Nyquist cut-off frequency. The average 3D MTF measured along the wires was ~8% at the Nyquist. At 50% MTF, the resolutions were 1.2 and 2.1 lp/mm in 2D and 3D, respectively. In the Catphan® phantom, the 1.7 lp/mm bars were easily observed. Lastly, the 3D MTF measured on the three wires has an observed 5.9% RMSD, indicating that the resolution of the imaging system is uniform and spatially independent. This high performance detector is integrated into a dedicated breast SPECT-CT imaging system.

  14. Temperature-dependent quenching of O 2(b 1? +g) by H 2, D 2, CO 2, HN 3, DN 3, HNCO and DNCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, J.; Müller, G.; Schönnenbeck, G.; Stuhl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of the quenching of metastable O 2(b 1? +g) molecules in collisions with H 2, D 2, CO 2, HN 3, DN 3, HNCO, DNCO was investigated in the temperature range 210-350 K. The corresponding rate constants are given. Small concentrations of O 2(b) were generated in the VUV H 2 laser photolysis of O 2 and detected by its time-resolved phosphorescence emission to the ground state.

  15. Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging in a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhang, Yong; Zou, Jiong; Hu, X P; Zhu, S N; Xiao, Min

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate the improved second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging through the quasi-phase-matching technique in a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO(3) crystal. The domain structure not only composes a nonlinear optical grating which is necessary to realize nonlinear Talbot self-imaging, but also provides reciprocal vectors to satisfy the phase-matching condition for second-harmonic generation. Our experimental results show that quasi-phase-matching can improve the intensity of the second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging by a factor of 21. PMID:23787586

  16. Textural analyses of carbon fiber materials by 2D-FFT of complex images obtained by high frequency eddy current imaging (HF-ECI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Martin H.; Heuer, Henning

    2012-04-01

    Carbon fiber based materials are used in many lightweight applications in aeronautical, automotive, machine and civil engineering application. By the increasing automation in the production process of CFRP laminates a manual optical inspection of each resin transfer molding (RTM) layer is not practicable. Due to the limitation to surface inspection, the quality parameters of multilayer 3 dimensional materials cannot be observed by optical systems. The Imaging Eddy- Current (EC) NDT is the only suitable inspection method for non-resin materials in the textile state that allows an inspection of surface and hidden layers in parallel. The HF-ECI method has the capability to measure layer displacements (misaligned angle orientations) and gap sizes in a multilayer carbon fiber structure. EC technique uses the variation of the electrical conductivity of carbon based materials to obtain material properties. Beside the determination of textural parameters like layer orientation and gap sizes between rovings, the detection of foreign polymer particles, fuzzy balls or visualization of undulations can be done by the method. For all of these typical parameters an imaging classification process chain based on a high resolving directional ECimaging device named EddyCus® MPECS and a 2D-FFT with adapted preprocessing algorithms are developed.

  17. Tuning the Growth Pattern in 2D Confinement Regime of Sm2O3 and the Emerging Room Temperature Unusual Superparamagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Guria, Amit K.; Dey, Koushik; Sarkar, Suresh; Patra, Biplab K.; Giri, Saurav; Pradhan, Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Programming the reaction chemistry for superseding the formation of Sm2O3 in a competitive process of formation and dissolution, the crystal growth patterns are varied and two different nanostructures of Sm2O3 in 2D confinement regime are designed. Among these, the regular and self-assembled square platelets nanostructures exhibit paramagnetic behavior analogous to the bulk Sm2O3. But, the other one, 2D flower like shaped nanostructure, formed by irregular crystal growth, shows superparamagnetism at room temperature which is unusual for bulk paramagnet. It has been noted that the variation in the crystal growth pattern is due to the difference in the binding ability of two organic ligands, oleylamine and oleic acid, used for the synthesis and the magnetic behavior of the nanostructures is related to the defects incorporated during the crystal growth. Herein, we inspect the formation chemistry and plausible origin of contrasting magnetism of these nanostructures of Sm2O3. PMID:25269458

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2005 1687 Affine-Permutation Invariance of 2-D Shapes

    E-print Network

    Moura, José

    -Permutation Invariance of 2-D Shapes Victor H. S. Ha, Member, IEEE, and José M. F. Moura, Fellow, IEEE Abstract.ha@samsung.com). J. M. F. Moura is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi- neering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 USA (e-mail: moura@ece.cmu.edu). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIP

  19. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  20. A Data Acquisition and 2-D Flow Measuring Technology in Agricultural Spray Field Based on High Speed Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Jun; Li Pingping

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the faults in usual measurements of droplet distribution and motion in agricultural spraying field, a new method is given for the analysis of droplets characteristics and motion with PDIA (particle \\/ droplet image analysis) and digital image processing technique. During the analysis of the size of droplet and the velocity, images of droplets in spray field

  1. Few networks offer sufficient bandwidth for the transmission of high resolution 2D and 3D medical image

    E-print Network

    Pycock, David

    for the diagnosis of a wide spectrum of illnesses. High resolution images are used and the transmission in choosing the number of resolution levels used to encode an image. Choosing a large number of resolution levels will produce an initial image that is not informative, whereas choosing a low number of resolution

  2. Image fusion of Ultrasound Computer Tomography volumes with X-ray mammograms using a biomechanical model based 2D/3D registration.

    PubMed

    Hopp, T; Duric, N; Ruiter, N V

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising breast imaging modality under development. Comparison to a standard method like mammography is essential for further development. Due to significant differences in image dimensionality and compression state of the breast, correlating USCT images and X-ray mammograms is challenging. In this paper we present a 2D/3D registration method to improve the spatial correspondence and allow direct comparison of the images. It is based on biomechanical modeling of the breast and simulation of the mammographic compression. We investigate the effect of including patient-specific material parameters estimated automatically from USCT images. The method was systematically evaluated using numerical phantoms and in-vivo data. The average registration accuracy using the automated registration was 11.9mm. Based on the registered images a method for analysis of the diagnostic value of the USCT images was developed and initially applied to analyze sound speed and attenuation images based on X-ray mammograms as ground truth. Combining sound speed and attenuation allows differentiating lesions from surrounding tissue. Overlaying this information on mammograms, combines quantitative and morphological information for multimodal diagnosis. PMID:25456144

  3. Magnetic resonance tomography using elongated transmitter and in-loop receiver arrays for time-efficient 2-D imaging of subsurface aquifer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Müller-Petke, M.; Lin, J.; Yaramanci, U.

    2015-02-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (surface-NMR) is a promising technique for exploring shallow subsurface aquifer structures. Surface-NMR can be applied in environments that are characterized as a 1-D layered Earth. The technique utilizes a single loop and is referred to as magnetic resonance sounding. The technique referred to as magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) allows complex 2-D aquifer structures to be explored. Currently, MRT requires multiple loops and a roll along measurement scheme, which causes long survey time. We propose a loop layout using an elongated transmitter and an in-loop receiver arrays (ETRA) to conduct a 2-D survey with just one measurement. We present a comprehensive comparison between the new layout and the common approaches based on sensitivity and resolution analyses and show synthetic and field data. The results show that ETRA generates subsurface images at sufficient resolution with significantly lower survey times than other loop layouts.

  4. 2D numerical modelling of the gas temperature in a high-temperature high-power strontium atom laser excited by nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in a He-SrBr2 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    Assuming axial symmetry and a uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed numerically for determination of the gas temperature in the case of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in He-SrBr2 formed in a newly-designed large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge-free zone, in order to find the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. The model determines the gas temperature of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  5. Rapid fusion of 2D X-ray fluoroscopy with 3D multislice CT for image-guided electrophysiology procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Manzke, Robert; Cury, Ricardo; Reddy, Vivek Y.; Chan, Raymond C.

    2007-03-01

    Interventional cardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures are typically performed under X-ray fluoroscopy for visualizing catheters and EP devices relative to other highly-attenuating structures such as the thoracic spine and ribs. These projections do not however contain information about soft-tissue anatomy and there is a recognized need for fusion of conventional fluoroscopy with pre-operatively acquired cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT) volumes. Rapid 2D-3D integration in this application would allow for real-time visualization of all catheters present within the thorax in relation to the cardiovascular anatomy visible in MSCT. We present a method for rapid fusion of 2D X-ray fluoroscopy with 3DMSCT that can facilitate EP mapping and interventional procedures by reducing the need for intra-operative contrast injections to visualize heart chambers and specialized systems to track catheters within the cardiovascular anatomy. We use hardware-accelerated ray-casting to compute digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the MSCT volume and iteratively optimize the rigid-body pose of the volumetric data to maximize the similarity between the MSCT-derived DRR and the intra-operative X-ray projection data.

  6. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radin Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin; Reinhard Meier; Carmen Ahari; Matti Sievert; Martin Fiebich; Ernst J. Rummeny; Peter B. Noël

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI

  7. Digital image correlation and fracture: an advanced technique for estimating stress intensity factors of 2D and 3D cracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Roux; J. Réthoré; F. Hild

    2009-01-01

    Digital image correlation is a measurement technique that allows one to retrieve displacement fields 'separating' two digital images of the same sample at different stages of loading. Because of its remarkable sensitivity, it is possible to not only detect cracks with sub-pixel opening, which would not be visible but also to provide accurate estimates of stress intensity factors. For this

  8. Novel 2D intelligent-decision genetic-algorithm based microwave imaging algorithm for breast cancer detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Bayoumi; A. B. El-Rouby

    2010-01-01

    The problem of non-invasive reconstruction of the internal structure of a dielectric cylinder had a great attention because of its usefulness in many applications such as medical computed tomography, underground targets imaging, microwave remote sensing, etc. Genetic algorithm (GA) based methodology is a candidate approach to solve the inverse portion of this microwave imaging problem. GA-based methodology is powerful and

  9. A flexible and robust approach for segmenting cell nuclei from 2D microscopy images using supervised learning and template matching

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Ozolek, John A.; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new supervised learning-based template matching approach for segmenting cell nuclei from microscopy images. The method uses examples selected by a user for building a statistical model which captures the texture and shape variations of the nuclear structures from a given dataset to be segmented. Segmentation of subsequent, unlabeled, images is then performed by finding the model instance that best matches (in the normalized cross correlation sense) local neighborhood in the input image. We demonstrate the application of our method to segmenting nuclei from a variety of imaging modalities, and quantitatively compare our results to several other methods. Quantitative results using both simulated and real image data show that, while certain methods may work well for certain imaging modalities, our software is able to obtain high accuracy across several imaging modalities studied. Results also demonstrate that, relative to several existing methods, the template-based method we propose presents increased robustness in the sense of better handling variations in illumination, variations in texture from different imaging modalities, providing more smooth and accurate segmentation borders, as well as handling better cluttered nuclei. PMID:23568787

  10. Refining the 3D surface of blood vessels from a reduced set of 2D DSA images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    high quality of 3D vascular imaging modalities, artifacts and noise still hamper the extraction is a localized blood-filled dilation of a blood vessel that may occasionally rupture, causing hemorrhage, stroke of 3D vascular imaging modalities, artifacts and noise still hamper the extraction of this surface

  11. Performance analysis of a 2-D-multipulse amplitude modulation scheme for data hiding and watermarking of still images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Hernandez; F. Perez-Gonzalez; J. M. Rodriguez; G. Nieto

    1998-01-01

    A watermarking scheme for copyright protection of still images is modeled and analyzed. In this scheme a signal following a key-dependent two-dimensional multipulse modulation is added to the image for ownership enforcement purposes. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of an analytical point of view to the estimation of performance measurements. Two topics are covered in the

  12. Combining quantitative 2D and 3D image analysis in the serial block face SEM: application to secretory organelles of pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Shomorony, A; Pfeifer, C R; Aronova, M A; Zhang, G; Cai, T; Xu, H; Notkins, A L; Leapman, R D

    2015-08-01

    A combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analyses of tissue volume ultrastructure acquired by serial block face scanning electron microscopy can greatly shorten the time required to obtain quantitative information from big data sets that contain many billions of voxels. Thus, to analyse the number of organelles of a specific type, or the total volume enclosed by a population of organelles within a cell, it is possible to estimate the number density or volume fraction of that organelle using a stereological approach to analyse randomly selected 2D block face views through the cells, and to combine such estimates with precise measurement of 3D cell volumes by delineating the plasma membrane in successive block face images. The validity of such an approach can be easily tested since the entire 3D tissue volume is available in the serial block face scanning electron microscopy data set. We have applied this hybrid 3D/2D technique to determine the number of secretory granules in the endocrine ? and ? cells of mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and have been able to estimate the total insulin content of a ? cell. PMID:26139222

  13. Sensor fusion of 2D and 3D data for the processing of images of dental imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methot, Jean-Francois; Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis; Poussart, Denis

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system for the acquisition and processing of 3-D images of wax dental imprints. The ultimate goal of the system is to measure a set of 10 orthodontic parameters that will be fed to an expert system for automatic diagnosis of occlusion problems. An approach for the acquisition of range images of both sides of the imprint is presented. Range is obtained from a shape-from-absorption technique applied to a pair of grey-level images obtained at two different wavelengths. The accuracy of the range values is improved using sensor fusion between the initial range image and a reflectance image from the pair of grey-level images. The improved range image is segmented in order to find the interstices between teeth and, following further processing, the type of each tooth on the profile. Once each tooth has been identified, its accurate location on the imprint is found using a region- growing approach and its shape is reconstructed with third degree polynomial functions. The reconstructed shape will be later used by the system to find specific features that are needed to estimate the orthodontic parameters.

  14. Intraoperative Image-based Multiview 2D/3D Registration for Image-Guided Orthopaedic Surgery: Incorporation of Fiducial-Based C-Arm Tracking and GPU-Acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Armand, Mehran; Armiger, Robert S.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Basafa, Ehsan; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative patient registration may significantly affect the outcome of image-guided surgery (IGS). Image-based registration approaches have several advantages over the currently dominant point-based direct contact methods and are used in some industry solutions in image-guided radiation therapy with fixed X-ray gantries. However, technical challenges including geometric calibration and computational cost have precluded their use with mobile C-arms for IGS. We propose a 2D/3D registration framework for intraoperative patient registration using a conventional mobile X-ray imager combining fiducial-based C-arm tracking and graphics processing unit (GPU)-acceleration. The two-stage framework 1) acquires X-ray images and estimates relative pose between the images using a custom-made in-image fiducial, and 2) estimates the patient pose using intensity-based 2D/3D registration. Experimental validations using a publicly available gold standard dataset, a plastic bone phantom and cadaveric specimens have been conducted. The mean target registration error (mTRE) was 0.34 ± 0.04 mm (success rate: 100%, registration time: 14.2 s) for the phantom with two images 90° apart, and 0.99 ± 0.41 mm (81%, 16.3 s) for the cadaveric specimen with images 58.5° apart. The experimental results showed the feasibility of the proposed registration framework as a practical alternative for IGS routines. PMID:22113773

  15. Particle trajectories in 2D granular avalanches with imposed vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Swisher; Brian Utter

    2011-01-01

    We study particle trajectories of photoelastic grains in a 2D circular rotating drum subjected to imposed vertical vibrations in order to characterize the jamming behavior of granular materials. Jamming appears in many systems (grain silos & chutes, landslides, mixing industrial materials, etc.) and vibration (granular temperature) is a primary factor in the jamming\\/unjamming transition. Images are taken and each particle's

  16. Geological Processes Affecting the Shallow Seafloor Temperature Fields: Results from 2D and 3D Seismic Reflection Data Offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, W. C.; Chen, L.; Liu, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Berndt, C.; Han, W. C.; Lin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor heat flow measurements provide fundamental geophysical information that can be used to better understand tectonic processes. Regional heat flow patterns have been successfully used to study the cooling of the oceanic lithosphere, exhumation of deep crustal materials, strength of the faults, and other geological processes. However, sometimes there are variations of heat flows within a small area, making the interpretation of the heat flows difficult. Here we study the geological processes that can cause such variations. Over the last two decades, we have collected many dense 2D and 3D seismic reflection data offshore SW Taiwan and there is a wide-spread bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) found in the seismic profiles. The BSR is interpreted as associated with the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, and can be used to infer the temperature fields at shallow oceanic crust using a hydrate phase diagram. Such a dense and wide-spread dataset provides an unprecedented opportunity to study processes that can affect temperature fields in scales less than a kilometer. Here we show evidence of bathymetry-induced temperature perturbations at shallow oceanic crust by comparing the BSR-based temperature data with the temperature derived from steady-state 3D finite element modeling. We have also documented focused fluid flow migration along faults and fissures based on elevated temperature fields near those geological features. We also found seismic evidence of abnormal high heat flows caused by rapid erosion. Our results demonstrate that sometimes it is necessary to correct those effects before the heat flow data can be used for regional studies. Our study is among the first to provide observational data to study small-scale geological processes affecting seafloor temperature fields. Such information might also be important for gas and oil reservoir studies.

  17. Digital image correlation and fracture: an advanced technique for estimating stress intensity factors of 2D and 3D cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, S.; Réthoré, J.; Hild, F.

    2009-11-01

    Digital image correlation is a measurement technique that allows one to retrieve displacement fields 'separating' two digital images of the same sample at different stages of loading. Because of its remarkable sensitivity, it is possible to not only detect cracks with sub-pixel opening, which would not be visible but also to provide accurate estimates of stress intensity factors. For this purpose suitable tools have been devised to minimize the sensitivity to noise. Working with digital images allows the experimentalist to deal with a wide range of scales from the atomistic to the geophysical one with the same tools. Various examples are shown at different scales, as well as some recent extensions to three-dimensional cracks based on x-ray Computed micro-tomographic images.

  18. Opportunities for Live Cell FT-Infrared Imaging: Macromolecule Identification with 2D and 3D Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Eric C.; Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Barabas, Marie E.; Stucky, Cheryl L.; Hirschmugl, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy, or chemical imaging, is an evolving technique that is poised to make significant contributions in the fields of biology and medicine. Recent developments in sources, detectors, measurement techniques and speciman holders have now made diffraction-limited Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging of cellular chemistry in living cells a reality. The availability of bright, broadband IR sources and large area, pixelated detectors facilitate live cell imaging, which requires rapid measurements using non-destructive probes. In this work, we review advances in the field of FTIR spectromicroscopy that have contributed to live-cell two and three-dimensional IR imaging, and discuss several key examples that highlight the utility of this technique for studying the structure and chemistry of living cells. PMID:24256815

  19. Impact of stratospheric aircraft on calculations of nitric acid trihydrate cloud surface area densities using NMC temperatures and 2D model constituent distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

    1994-01-01

    A parameterization of NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) clouds is developed for use in 2D models of the stratosphere. The parameterization uses model distributions of HNO3 and H2O to determine critical temperatures for NAT formation as a function of latitude and pressure. National Meteorological Center temperature fields are then used to determine monthly temperature frequency distributions, also as a function of latitude and pressure. The fractions of these distributions which fall below the critical temperatures for NAT formation are then used to determine the NAT cloud surface area density for each location in the model grid. By specifying heterogeneous reaction rates as functions of the surface area density, it is then possible to assess the effects of the NAT clouds on model constituent distributions. We also consider the increase in the NAT cloud formation in the presence of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft. The stratospheric aircraft NO(x) and H2O perturbations result in increased HNO3 as well as H2O. This increases the probability of NAT formation substantially, especially if it is assumed that the aircraft perturbations are confined to a corridor region.

  20. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D.; Sun, Mingui

    2013-10-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographic image of food contained on a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image-based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image.

  1. DUst Sounder and Temperature Imager Experiment (DUSTIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, M. J.; Fish, C. S.; Taylor, M. J.; Gordley, L. L.; Hervig, M. E.; Summers, M. E.; Siskind, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Dust Sounder and Temperature Imager Experiment (DUSTIE) is a proposed CubeSat mission to determine the global distribution of cosmic smoke in the atmosphere. The Earth is under continual bombardment by comets and meteoroids. Over the last 5 billion years they have brought water and the basics of life to our planet. Today they are vaporized during atmospheric entry and deposited as microscopic smoke particles in the upper atmosphere. These cosmic particles are known to be important in a host of atmospheric processes, including nucleation of ice particles, ion chemistry in the thermosphere and heterogeneous chemistry in the mesosphere. Despite this, our current understanding is based on scant observations and theory. The successful deployment of DUSTIE will offer a major advance in this important emerging area of research. DUSTIE will use a digital camera to image the Sun at 0.420 µm during spacecraft sunrise and sunset. This will provide measurements to characterize the smoke distribution over the altitude range of ~40 to 90 km. A high-inclination orbit will provide near-global coverage monthly. Simultaneous refraction measurements will yield atmospheric density profiles up to 75 km. Measured smoke extinctions will be used to derive smoke particle volume and surface area densities. DUSTIE will utilize a 3U form factor CubeSat and rely heavily upon commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and proven technologies.

  2. The Heidelberg Airborne Imaging DOAS Instrument (HAIDI) - a novel imaging DOAS device for 2-D and 3-D imaging of trace gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, S.; Pöhler, D.; Sihler, H.; Bobrowski, N.; Frieß, U.; Zielcke, J.; Horbanski, M.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Simpson, W. R.; Weber, K.; Fischer, C.; Platt, U.

    2014-10-01

    Many relevant processes in tropospheric chemistry take place on rather small scales (e.g., tens to hundreds of meters) but often influence areas of several square kilometer. Thus, measurements of the involved trace gases with high spatial resolution are of great scientific interest. In order to identify individual sources and sinks and ultimately to improve chemical transport models, we developed a new airborne instrument, which is based on the well established Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The Heidelberg Airborne Imaging DOAS Instrument (HAIDI) is a passive imaging DOAS spectrometer, which is capable of recording horizontal and vertical trace gas distributions with a resolution of better than 100 m. Observable species include NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O3, O4, SO2, IO, OClO and BrO. Here we give a technical description of the instrument including its custom-built spectrographs and CCD detectors. Also first results from measurements with the new instrument are presented. These comprise spatial resolved SO2 and BrO in volcanic plumes, mapped at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), NO2 emissions in the metropolitan area of Indianapolis (Indiana, USA) as well as BrO and NO2 distributions measured during arctic springtime in context of the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) campaign, which was performed 2012 in Barrow (Alaska, USA).

  3. The Heidelberg Airborne Imaging DOAS Instrument (HAIDI) - a novel Imaging DOAS device for 2-D and 3-D imaging of trace gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, S.; Pöhler, D.; Sihler, H.; Bobrowski, N.; Frieß, U.; Zielcke, J.; Horbanski, M.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Simpson, W. R.; Weber, K.; Fischer, C.; Platt, U.

    2014-03-01

    Many relevant processes in tropospheric chemistry take place on rather small scales (e.g. tens to hundreds of meters) but often influence areas of several square kilometer. Thus, measurements of the involved trace gases with high spatial resolution are of great scientific interest. In order to identify individual sources and sinks and ultimately to improve chemical transport models, we developed a new airborne instrument, which is based on the well established DOAS method. The Heidelberg Airborne Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer Instrument (HAIDI) is a passive imaging DOAS spectrometer, which is capable of recording horizontal and vertical trace gas distributions with a resolution of better than 100 m. Observable species include NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O3, O4, SO2, IO, OClO and BrO. Here we report a technical description of the instrument including its custom build spectrographs and CCD detectors. Also first results from measurements with the new instrument are presented. These comprise spatial resolved SO2 and BrO in volcanic plumes, mapped at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), NO2 emissions in the metropolitan area of Indianapolis (Indiana, USA) as well as BrO and NO2 distributions measured during arctic springtime in context of the BROMEX campaign, which was performed 2012 in Barrow (Alaska, USA).

  4. How isopolyanions self-assemble and condense into a 2D tungsten oxide crystal: HRTEM imaging of atomic arrangement in an intermediate new hexagonal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Chemseddine, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: chemseddine@hmi.de; Bloeck, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The structure and structural evolution of tungstic acid solutions, sols and gels are investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). Acidification of sodium tungstate solutions, through a proton exchange resin, is achieved in a way that ensures homogeneity in size and shape of intermediate polytungstic species. Gelation is shown to involve polycondensation followed by a self-assembling process of polytungstic building blocks leading to sheets with a layered hexagonal structure. Single layers of this new metastable phase are composed of three-, four- and six-membered rings of WO{sub 6} octahedra located in the same plane. This is the first time that a 2D oxide crystal is isolated and observed by direct atomic resolution. Further ageing and structural evolution leading to single sheets of 2D ReO{sub 3}-type structure is directly observed by HRTEM. Based on this atomic level imaging, a model for the formation of the oxide network structure involving a self-assembling process of tritungstic based polymeric chain is proposed. The presence of tritungstic groups and their packing in electrochromic WO{sub 3} films made by different techniques is discussed. - Graphical abstract: From the isopolyanion to the extended bulk tungsten oxide: HRTEM imaging.

  5. A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D x-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Labate, L.; Koester, P.; Levato, T.; Gizzi, L. A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    A novel x-ray diagnostic of laser-fusion plasmas is described, allowing 2D monochromatic images of hot, dense plasmas to be obtained in any x-ray photon energy range, over a large domain, on a single-shot basis. The device (named energy-encoded pinhole camera) is based upon the use of an array of many pinholes coupled to a large area CCD camera operating in the single-photon mode. The available x-ray spectral domain is only limited by the quantum efficiency of scientific-grade x-ray CCD cameras, thus extending from a few keV up to a few tens of keV. Spectral 2D images of the emitting plasma can be obtained at any x-ray photon energy provided that a sufficient number of photons had been collected at the desired energy. Results from recent inertial confinement fusion related experiments will be reported in order to detail the new diagnostic.

  6. A frequency-based approach to locate common structure for 2D-3D intensity-based registration of setup images in prostate radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Munbodh, Reshma; Chen, Zhe; Jaffray, David A.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Knisely, Jonathan P. S.; Duncan, James S.

    2009-01-01

    In many radiotherapy clinics, geometric uncertainties in the delivery of 3D conformal radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy of the prostate are reduced by aligning the patient's bony anatomy in the planning 3D CT to corresponding bony anatomy in 2D portal images acquired before every treatment fraction. In this paper, we seek to determine if there is a frequency band within the portal images and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the planning CT in which bony anatomy predominates over non-bony anatomy such that portal images and DRRs can be suitably filtered to achieve high registration accuracy in an automated 2D-3D single portal intensity-based registration framework. Two similarity measures, mutual information and the Pearson correlation coefficient were tested on carefully collected gold-standard data consisting of a kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and megavoltage portal images in the anterior-posterior (AP) view of an anthropomorphic phantom acquired under clinical conditions at known poses, and on patient data. It was found that filtering the portal images and DRRs during the registration considerably improved registration performance. Without filtering, the registration did not always converge while with filtering it always converged to an accurate solution. For the pose-determination experiments conducted on the anthropomorphic phantom with the correlation coefficient, the mean (and standard deviation) of the absolute errors in recovering each of the six transformation parameters were ?x:0.18(0.19)°, ?y:0.04(0.04)°, ?z:0.04(0.02)°, tx:0.14(0.15) mm, ty:0.09(0.05) mm, and tz: 0.49(0.40) mm. The mutual information-based registration with filtered images also resulted in similarly small errors. For the patient data, visual inspection of the superimposed registered images showed that they were correctly aligned in all instances. The results presented in this paper suggest that robust and accurate registration can be achieved with intensity-based methods by focusing on rigid bony structures in the images while diminishing the influence of artifacts with similar frequencies as soft tissue. PMID:17822009

  7. 124I-Epidepride: A PET Radiotracer for Extended Imaging of Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh; Venugopal, Archana; Kant, Ritu; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18F-fallypride (half-life of 18F = 0.076days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75?Ci/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 ?M haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results 124I-Epidepride was synthesized with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (>95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hr in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting. PMID:24602412

  8. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure changes in regional lung volume at high spatial and temporal resolution during breathing at much lower x-ray dose than would be required using computed tomography.

  9. A 2D/3D image analysis system to track fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells: application to measure spindle pole asymmetry during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is frequently used as a model for studying the cell cycle. The cells are rod-shaped and divide by medial fission. The process of cell division, or cytokinesis, is controlled by a network of signaling proteins called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN); SIN proteins associate with the SPBs during nuclear division (mitosis). Some SIN proteins associate with both SPBs early in mitosis, and then display strongly asymmetric signal intensity at the SPBs in late mitosis, just before cytokinesis. This asymmetry is thought to be important for correct regulation of SIN signaling, and coordination of cytokinesis and mitosis. In order to study the dynamics of organelles or large protein complexes such as the spindle pole body (SPB), which have been labeled with a fluorescent protein tag in living cells, a number of the image analysis problems must be solved; the cell outline must be detected automatically, and the position and signal intensity associated with the structures of interest within the cell must be determined. Results We present a new 2D and 3D image analysis system that permits versatile and robust analysis of motile, fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells. We have designed an image analysis system that we have implemented as a user-friendly software package allowing the fast and robust image-analysis of large numbers of rod-shaped cells. We have developed new robust algorithms, which we combined with existing methodologies to facilitate fast and accurate analysis. Our software permits the detection and segmentation of rod-shaped cells in either static or dynamic (i.e. time lapse) multi-channel images. It enables tracking of two structures (for example SPBs) in two different image channels. For 2D or 3D static images, the locations of the structures are identified, and then intensity values are extracted together with several quantitative parameters, such as length, width, cell orientation, background fluorescence and the distance between the structures of interest. Furthermore, two kinds of kymographs of the tracked structures can be established, one representing the migration with respect to their relative position, the other representing their individual trajectories inside the cell. This software package, called “RodCellJ”, allowed us to analyze a large number of S. pombe cells to understand the rules that govern SIN protein asymmetry. (Continued on next page) (Continued from previous page) Conclusions “RodCellJ” is freely available to the community as a package of several ImageJ plugins to simultaneously analyze the behavior of a large number of rod-shaped cells in an extensive manner. The integration of different image-processing techniques in a single package, as well as the development of novel algorithms does not only allow to speed up the analysis with respect to the usage of existing tools, but also accounts for higher accuracy. Its utility was demonstrated on both 2D and 3D static and dynamic images to study the septation initiation network of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. More generally, it can be used in any kind of biological context where fluorescent-protein labeled structures need to be analyzed in rod-shaped cells. Availability RodCellJ is freely available under http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms.html. PMID:23622681

  10. Revealing high room and low temperatures mobilities of 2D holes in a strained Ge quantum well heterostructures grown on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronov, Maksym; Morrison, Christopher; Halpin, John; Rhead, Stephen; Foronda, Jamie; Leadley, David

    2015-08-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters of any semiconductor material, determining its suitability for applications in a large variety of electronic devices including field effect transistors (FETs). Today the capabilities of modern planar Si FET devices are almost exhausted and researchers are seeking either new device architectures or new materials. Here we report an extremely high room temperature (at 293 K) 2D hole gas (2DHG) drift mobility of 4500 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier density of 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 obtained in a compressively strained Ge quantum well (QW) heterostructure, grown by an industrial type chemical vapor deposition system on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate. The low-temperature Hall mobility and carrier density of this structure, measured at 333 mK, are 777,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.9 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. These hole mobilities are the highest not only among the group-IV Si and Ge based semiconductors, but also among p-type III-V and II-VI materials. The obtained room temperature mobility is substantially higher than those reported so far in strained Ge QW heterostructures and reveals a huge potential for further applications of this material in a wide variety of electronic devices.

  11. 2-D energy-resolved imaging of gold nanoparticle distribution at concentrations relevant for in-vitro studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castoldi; C. Guazzoni; K. Pepper; A. Gibson; J. Griffiths; G. J. Royle; A. Bjeoumikhov

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution lies in the framework of a research effort aimed at identifying the most suitable imaging techniques able to map the distribution of functionalized nanoparticles acting as biological markers taken up by specific cellular receptors in healthy and pathological biological tissues and to give a map of cellular radio-sensitivity across the tumor volume, in order to guide radiation

  12. Visualizing 3D Objects From 2D Cross Sectional Images Displayed In-Situ Versus Ex-Situ

    E-print Network

    Stetten, George

    space. Participants used a hand-held tool to reveal a virtual rod as a sequence of cross to a remote screen (ex-situ). They manipulated a response stylus to match the virtual rod's pitch (verticalD anatomy from cross sectional images. Keywords: visualization, integration, spatiotemporal

  13. 2D image fuzzy deconvolution and scattering centre detection: Model and real-time FPGA implementation for automotive application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frantz Bodereau; Luigi Giubbolini; Patrice Mallejac; Antonio Pizzardi

    2010-01-01

    A new non-conventional technique based on fuzzy deconvolution for scattering centre detection (F-SCD) is proposed together with its implementation in FPGA for real-time deployment in automotive collision avoidance application. F-SCD emulates the human being interpretation of radar images using fuzzy measurement of features of the radar Point Spread Function (PSF) differently from other classic detection techniques. The first stage of

  14. On the Location Error of Curved Edges in Low-Pass Filtered 2-D and 3-D Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piet W. Verbeek; Lucas J. Van Vliet

    1994-01-01

    In our research, we study the location error of curved edges in two- and three-dimensional images after analog and digital low-pass filtering. The zero crossing of a second derivative filter is a well-known edge localization criterion. The second derivative in gradient direction (SDGD) produces a predictable bias in edge location towards the centers of curvature while the linear Laplace filter

  15. Filtering and Temperature Correction Algorithms for Smog Interference in Temperature Measurement Based on CCD Image Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqi Peng; Yuan Sun

    2009-01-01

    The visible radiation would be absorbed and scattered by the smog diffusing around the radiator and on the path of the radiation, which distorts the results of temperature measurement by two-color thermometry based on CCD image sensor. In this paper, an approach for filtering smog interference of high-temperature radiator and correcting temperature is proposed. Firstly, by the image target recognition

  16. Reconstruction of 3D lung models from 2D planning data sets for Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using combined deformable image registration and navigator channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Angela; Nguyen, Thao-Nguyen; Moseley, Joanne L.; Hodgson, David C.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Brock, Kristy K. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Late complications (cardiac toxicities, secondary lung, and breast cancer) remain a significant concern in the radiation treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). To address this issue, predictive dose-risk models could potentially be used to estimate radiotherapy-related late toxicities. This study investigates the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NCs) to reconstruct 3D lung models from 2D radiographic planning images, in order to retrospectively calculate the treatment dose exposure to HL patients treated with 2D planning, which are now experiencing late effects. Methods: Three-dimensional planning CT images of 52 current HL patients were acquired. 12 image sets were used to construct a male and a female population lung model. 23 ''Reference'' images were used to generate lung deformation adaptation templates, constructed by deforming the population model into each patient-specific lung geometry using a biomechanical-based DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. 17 ''Test'' patients were used to test the accuracy of the reconstruction technique by adapting existing templates using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs. The adaptation process included three steps. First, a Reference patient was matched to a Test patient by thorax measurements. Second, four NCs (small regions of interest) were placed on the lung boundary to calculate 1D differences in lung edges. Third, the Reference lung model was adapted to the Test patient's lung using the 1D edge differences. The Reference-adapted Test model was then compared to the 3D lung contours of the actual Test patient by computing their percentage volume overlap (POL) and Dice coefficient. Results: The average percentage overlapping volumes and Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the adapted and actual Test models were found to be 89.2{+-}3.9% (Right lung=88.8%; Left lung=89.6%) and 89.3{+-}2.7% (Right=88.5%; Left=90.2%), respectively. Paired T-tests demonstrated that the volumetric reconstruction method made a statistically significant improvement to the population lung model shape (p<0.05). The error in the results were also comparable to the volume overlap difference observed between inhale and exhale lung volumes during free-breathing respiratory motion (POL:p=0.43; Dice:p=0.20), which implies that the accuracies of the reconstruction method are within breathing constraints and would not be the confining factor in estimating normal tissue dose exposure. Conclusions: The result findings show that the DIR-NC technique can achieve a high degree of reconstruction accuracy, and could be useful in approximating 3D dosimetric representations of historical 2D treatment. In turn, this could provide a better understanding of the biophysical relationship between dose-volume exposure and late term radiotherapy effects.

  17. Infrared absorption imaging of 2D supersonic jet expansions: Free expansion, cluster formation, and shock wave patterns.

    PubMed

    Zischang, Julia; Suhm, Martin A

    2013-07-14

    N2O/He gas mixtures are expanded through a 10?×?0.5 mm(2) slit nozzle and imaged by direct absorption vibrational spectroscopy, employing a HgCdTe focal plane array detector after interferometric modulation. N2O cluster formation in the free supersonic expansion is visualized. The expansion structure behind the frontal shock is investigated as a function of background pressure. At high pressures, a sequence of stationary density peaks along a narrow directed flow channel is characterized. The potential of the technique for the elucidation of aggregation mechanisms is emphasized. PMID:23862934

  18. 2-D PSTD Simulation of the time-reversed ultrasound-encoded deep-tissue imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Snow H; Ting, Wei-Lun; Wang, Shiang-Jiu

    2014-03-01

    We present a robust simulation technique to model the time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) technique for deep-tissue imaging. The pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) algorithm is employed to rigorously model the electromagnetic wave interaction of light propagating through a macroscopic scattering medium. Based upon numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations, the amplitude and phase are accurately accounted for to analyze factors that affect the TRUE propagation of light through scattering media. More generally, we demonstrate the feasibility of modeling light propagation through a virtual tissue model of macroscopic dimensions with numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. PMID:24688821

  19. Three-dimensional spatial and temporal temperature imaging in gel phantoms using backscattered ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajay; Savéry, David; Hall, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Thermal therapies such as radio frequency, heated saline, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablations are often performed suboptimally due to the inability to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of delivered heat and the extent of tissue necrosis. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging recently was proposed as a means to measure noninvasively the deposition of heat by tracking the echo arrival time shifts in the ultrasound backscatter caused by changes in speed of sound and tissue thermal expansion. However, the clinical applicability of these techniques has been hampered by the two-dimensional (2-D) nature of traditional ultrasound imaging, and the complexity of the temperature dependence of sound speed for biological tissues. In this paper, we present methodology, results, and validation of a 3-D spatial and temporal ultrasound temperature estimation technique in an alginate-based gel phantom to track the evolution of heat deposition over a treatment volume. The technique was experimentally validated for temperature rises up to approximately 10 degrees C by comparison with measurements from thermocouples that were embedded in the gel. Good agreement (rms difference = 0.12 degrees C, maximum difference = 0.24 degrees C) was observed between the noninvasive ultrasound temperature estimates and thermocouple measurements. Based on the results obtained for the temperature range studied in this paper, the technique demonstrates potential for applicability in image guidance of thermal therapy for determining the location of the therapeutic focal spot and assessing the extent of the heated region at subablative intensities. PMID:17225797

  20. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  1. Digital autoradiography using room temperature CCD and CMOS imaging technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Cabello; Alexis Bailey; Ian Kitchen; Mark Prydderch; Andy Clark; Renato Turchetta; Kevin Wells

    2007-01-01

    CCD (charged coupled device) and CMOS imaging technologies can be applied to thin tissue autoradiography as potential imaging alternatives to using conventional film. In this work, we compare two particular devices: a CCD operating in slow scan mode and a CMOS-based active pixel sensor, operating at near video rates. Both imaging sensors have been operated at room temperature using direct

  2. Development of an integrated approach for evaluation of 2-D gel image analysis: Impact of multiple proteins in single spots on comparative proteomics in conventional 2-D gel/MALDI workflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With 2-D gel mapping, it is often observed that essentially identical proteins migrate to different positions in the gel, while some seemingly well-resolved protein spots consist of multiple proteins. These observations can undermine the validity of gel-based comparative proteomic studies. Through...

  3. Spreading and slope instability at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna, imaged by high-resolution 2D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Felix; Krastel, Sebastian; Behrmann, Jan-Hinrich; Papenberg, Cord; Geersen, Jacob; Ridente, Domenico; Latino Chiocci, Francesco; Urlaub, Morelia; Bialas, Jörg; Micallef, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe. Its volcano edifice is located on top of continental crust close to the Ionian shore in east Sicily. Instability of the eastern flank of the volcano edifice is well documented onshore. The continental margin is supposed to deform as well. Little, however, is known about the offshore extension of the eastern volcano flank and its adjacent continental margin, which is a serious shortcoming in stability models. In order to better constrain the active tectonics of the continental margin offshore the eastern flank of the volcano, we acquired and processed a new marine high-resolution seismic and hydro-acoustic dataset. The data provide new detailed insights into the heterogeneous geology and tectonics of shallow continental margin structures offshore Mt Etna. In a similiar manner as observed onshore, the submarine realm is characterized by different blocks, which are controlled by local- and regional tectonics. We image a compressional regime at the toe of the continental margin, which is bound to an asymmetric basin system confining the eastward movement of the flank. In addition, we constrain the proposed southern boundary of the moving flank, which is identified as a right lateral oblique fault movement north of Catania Canyon. From our findings, we consider a major coupled volcano edifice instability and continental margin gravitational collapse and spreading to be present at Mt Etna, as we see a clear link between on- and offshore tectonic structures across the entire eastern flank. The new findings will help to evaluate hazards and risks accompanied by Mt Etna's slope- and continental margin instability and will be used as a base for future investigations in this region.

  4. The 2009-11 SAHKE Experiment: 2D velocity imaging across the interseismically locked southern Hikurangi margin, Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrys, S. A.; Wech, A.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.; Iwasaki, T.; Stern, T. A.; Savage, M. K.; Mochizuki, K.; Kurashimo, E.; Sutherland, R.

    2012-12-01

    The passive and controlled source Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) project is designed to investigate the structure of the forearc and the physical parameters controlling locking at the Australian-Pacific subduction plate boundary beneath the southern North Island. SAHKE seismic data were acquired between November 2009 and April 2010 and again in May 2011, encompassing the full extent of the locked portion of the plate interface beneath Wellington along a central transect. 400 km of marine multichannel seismic data were acquired on two SAHKE profiles across the convergent margin and recorded by 38 IRIS/PASSCAL short period sensors along the main onshore-offshore transect. The onshore component of the survey comprised 12 in-line borehole explosive sources (500 kg) distributed approximately 8 km apart along the central transect. The energy was recorded on 835 seismic stations (277 3-component and 558 vertical sensors) deployed at 100 m spacing, except for a denser section of 50 m spacing in the centre of the spread. The 3C stations were spaced at 300 m spacing. We used a tomographic inversion of 18000 first arrivals, from the combined onshore-offshore and onshore components, to construct a Vp image of the crust that is well resolved to 20-25 km depth. The resulting velocity models shows top of Pacific plate subducting as a strong velocity gradient offshore to the east but this gradient decreases beneath the land and also coincides with a low velocity lower crust. A stacked section of the land shots also reveals the low velocity zone to be highly imbricated and consistent with subducted sedimentary channel material being underplated in the region of strongest geodetically determined plate coupling. The Wairarapa fault, a prominent upper crustal splay fault, appears to dip westward and merge with the underplated reflectivity beneath the Tararua Ranges.

  5. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting "self-calibration" was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard ("true") calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the "self" and "true" calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The proposed geometric "self" calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced "task-based" 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.

  6. Enhanced field emission from in situ synthesized 2D copper sulfide nanoflakes at low temperature by using a novel controllable solvothermal preferred edge growth route.

    PubMed

    Song, Zengcai; Lei, Hongwei; Li, Borui; Wang, Haoning; Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Fang, Guojia

    2015-05-01

    A facile one-pot solvothermal route using the reaction of sputtered copper film and sulfur powder in ethanol solution at a low temperature of 90 °C for 12 hours has been implemented to in situ synthesize 2D hexagonal copper sulfide (CuS) nanoflakes. Their field electron emission (FE) characteristics were investigated and were found to have a close relationship with the copper film's thickness. The lowest turn on electric field (Eon) was 2.05 V ?m(-1) and the largest field enhancement factor (?) was 7261 when the copper film's thickness was 160 nm. Furthermore, through a preferred edge growth route, patterned CuS nanoflakes were synthesized with the combined effect from a copper film seed layer and a passivation layer to further improve FE properties with an Eon of 1.65 V ?m(-1) and a ? of 8351. The mechanism of the patterned CuS nanoflake preferred edge growth is reported and discussed for the first time. PMID:25870126

  7. Diversity of atrial local Ca2+ signalling: evidence from 2-D confocal imaging in Ca2+-buffered rat atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sun-Hee; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Atrial myocytes, lacking t-tubules, have two functionally separate groups of ryanodine receptors (RyRs): those at the periphery colocalized with dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs), and those at the cell interior not associated with DHPRs. We have previously shown that the Ca2+ current (ICa)-gated central Ca2+ release has a fast component that is followed by a slower and delayed rising phase. The mechanisms that regulate the central Ca2+ releases remain poorly understood. The fast central release component is highly resistant to dialysed Ca2+ buffers, while the slower, delayed component is completely suppressed by such exogenous buffers. Here we used dialysis of Ca2+ buffers (EGTA) into voltage-clamped rat atrial myocytes to isolate the fast component of central Ca2+ release and examine its properties using rapid (240 Hz) two-dimensional confocal Ca2+ imaging. We found two populations of rat atrial myocytes with respect to the ratio of central to peripheral Ca2+ release (Rc/p). In one population (‘group 1’, ?60% of cells), Rc/p converged on 0.2, while in another population (‘group 2’, ?40%), Rc/p had a Gaussian distribution with a mean value of 0.625. The fast central release component of group 2 cells appeared to result from in-focus Ca2+ sparks on activation of ICa. In group 1 cells intracellular membranes associated with t-tubular structures were never seen using short exposures to membrane dyes. In most of the group 2 cells, a faint intracellular membrane staining was observed. Quantification of caffeine-releasable Ca2+ pools consistently showed larger central Ca2+ stores in group 2 and larger peripheral stores in group 1 cells. The Rc/p was larger at more positive and negative voltages in group 1 cells. In contrast, in group 2 cells, the Rc/p was constant at all voltages. In group 1 cells the gain of peripheral Ca2+ release sites (?[Ca2+]/ICa) was larger at ?30 than at +20 mV, but significantly dampened at the central sites. On the other hand, the gains of peripheral and central Ca2+ releases in group 2 cells showed no voltage dependence. Surprisingly, the voltage dependence of the fast central release component was bell-shaped and similar to that of ICa in both cell groups. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ or application of Ni2+ (5 mm) suppressed equally ICa and Ca2+ release from the central release sites at +60 mV. Depolarization to +100 mV, where ICa is absent and the Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) acts in reverse mode, did not trigger the fast central Ca2+ releases in either group, but brief reduction of [Na+]o to levels equivalent to [Na+]i facilitated fast peripheral and central Ca2+ releases in group 2 myocytes, but not in group 1 myocytes. In group 2 cells, long-lasting (> 1 min) exposures to caffeine (10 mm) or ryanodine (20 ?m) significantly suppressed ICa-triggered central and peripheral Ca2+ releases. Our data suggest significant diversity of local Ca2+ signalling in rat atrial myocytes. In one group, ICa-triggered peripheral Ca2+ release propagates into the interior triggering central Ca2+ release with significant delay. In a second group of myocytes ICa triggers a significant number of central sites as rapidly and effectively as the peripheral sites, thereby producing more synchronized Ca2+ releases throughout the myocytes. The possible presence of vestigial t-tubules and larger Ca2+ content of central sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in group 2 cells may be responsible for the rapid and strong activation of central release of Ca2+ in this subset of atrial myocytes. PMID:16020459

  8. [A new 2D and 3D imaging approach to musculoskeletal physiology and pathology with low-dose radiation and the standing position: the EOS system].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean; Charpak, Georges; Dorion, Irène; Skalli, Wafa; Lavaste, François; Deguise, Jacques; Kalifa, Gabriel; Ferey, Solène

    2005-02-01

    Close collaboration between multidisciplinary specialists (physicists, biomecanical engineers, medical radiologists and pediatric orthopedic surgeons) has led to the development of a new low-dose radiation device named EOS. EOS has three main advantages: The use of a gaseous X-ray detector, invented by Georges Charpak (Nobel Prizewinner 1992), the dose necessary to obtain a 2D image of the skeletal system has been reduced by 8 to 10 times, while that required to obtain a 3D reconstruction from CT slices has fallen by a factor of 800 to 1000. The accuracy of the 3D reconstruction obtained with EOS is as good as that obtained with CT. The patient is examined in the standing (or seated) position, and is scanned simultaneously from head to feet, both frontally and laterally. This is a major advantage over conventional CT which requires the patient to be placed horizontally. -The 3D reconstructions of each element of the osteo-articular system are as precise as those obtained by conventional CT. EOS is also rapid, taking only 15 to 30 minutes to image the entire spine. PMID:16114859

  9. An analog-digital hybrid RX beamformer chip with non-uniform sampling for ultrasound medical imaging with 2D CMUT array.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Seong-Eun; Chae, Min-Kyun; Song, Jongkeun; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seunghun; Bang, Jihoon; Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Byungsub; Sim, Jae-Yoon; Park, Hong-June

    2014-12-01

    To reduce the memory area, a two-stage RX beamformer (BF) chip with 64 channels is proposed for the ultrasound medical imaging with a 2D CMUT array. The chip retrieved successfully two B-mode phantom images with a steering angle from -45 (°) to +45 (°), the maximum delay range of 8 ?s, and the delay resolution of 6.25 ns. An analog-digital hybrid BF (HBF) is chosen for the proposed chip to utilize the easy beamforming operation in the digital domain and also to reduce chip area by minimizing the number of ADCs. The chip consists of eight analog beamformers (ABF) for the 1st-stage and a digital beamformer (DBF) for the 2nd-stage. The two-stage architecture reduces the memory area of both ABF and DBF by around four times. The DBF circuit is divided into three steps to further reduce the digital FIFO memory area by around twice. Coupled with the non-uniform sampling scheme, the proposed two-stage HBF chip reduces the total memory area by around 40 times compared to the uniform-sampling single-stage BF chip. The chip fabricated in a 0.13- ?m CMOS process occupies the area of 19.4 mm(2), and dissipates 1.14 W with the analog supply of 3.3 V and the digital supply of 1.2 V. PMID:25532209

  10. The influence of environment temperature on SEM image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Junshan

    2015-07-01

    As the structure dimension goes down to the nano-scale, it often requires a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide image magnification up to 100?000??×. However, SEM images at such a high magnification usually suffer from high resolution value and low signal-to-noise ratio, which results in low quality of the SEM image. In this paper, the quality of the SEM image is improved by optimizing the environment temperature. The experimental results indicate that at 100?000??×, the quality of the SEM image is influenced by the environment temperature, whereas at 50?000??× it is not. At 100?000??× the best SEM image quality can be achieved from the environment temperature ranging 292 from 294?K, and the SEM image quality evaluated by the double stimulus continuous quality scale method can increase from grade 1 to grade 5. It is expected that this image quality improving method can be used in routine measurements with ordinary SEMs to get high quality images by optimizing the environment temperature.

  11. Automatic 2D-3D Registration Student: Lingyun Liu

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    Automatic 2D-3D Registration Student: Lingyun Liu Advisor: Prof. Ioannis Stamos #12;Abstract: Given 3D model constructed from range images of a real-world scene and set of 2D images, we want to apply textures from those 2D images to the model automatically. We propose an approach that uses line features

  12. Real-time imaging of the spatial distribution of rf-heating in NMR samples during broadband decoupling

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    Real-time imaging of the spatial distribution of rf-heating in NMR samples during broadband. In this work we present a technique that allows measure- ment of a real-time 2D-image of the temperature or to acquire steady-state 2D- temperature distributions. The real-time 2D-temperature profiles obtained

  13. Development of a soft-X ray detector for energy resolved 2D imaging by means of a Gas Pixel Detector with highly integrated microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Pacella, D.; Pizzicaroli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-03-12

    Soft-X ray 2-D imaging on ITER is not considered yet. We propose a new approach, based on a gas detector with a gas electron multiplier (GEM) as amplifying structure and with a two-dimensional readout fully integrated with the front end electronics, through an ASIC developed on purpose. The concept has been already tested by means of a prototype, with 128 pixels, carried out in Frascati in collaboration with INFN-Pisa and tested on FTU in 2001 and NSTX in 2002-2004. Thanks to the photon counting mode, it provides 2-D imaging with high time resolution (sub millisecond), high sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Its capability of energy discrimination allows the acquisition of pictures in X-ray energy bands or to perform a spectral scan in the full energy interval. We propose the realisation of such kind a detector with a readout microchip (ASIC) equipped with 105600 hexagonal pixels arranged at 70 {mu}m pitch in a 300x352 honeycomb matrix, corresponding to an active area of 2.1x2.1 cm{sup 2}, with a pixel density of 240 pixels/ mm{sup 2}. Each pixel is connected to a charge sensitive amplifier followed by a discriminator of pulse amplitude and counter. The chip integrates more than 16.5 million transistors and it is subdivided in 64 identical clusters, to be read independently each other. An important part of the work will be also the design of the whole detector to fulfil all the constraints and requirements as plasma diagnostic in a tokamak machine. Since the detector has high and controllable intrinsic gain, it works well even at very low photon energy, ranging from 0.2 keV to 10 keV (X-VUV region). This range appears therefore particularly suitable for ITER to monitor the outer part of the plasma. In particular pedestal physics, edge modes, localization and effects of additional heating, boundary plasma control etc. The capability of this proposed detector to work in this energy range is further valuable because solid state detectors are not favorite at low energy because of the lack of intrinsic gain.

  14. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy. PMID:22635176

  15. Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh; Park, Suhyun; Aglyamov, Salavat; Larson, Timothy; Ma, Li; Sokolov, Konstantin; Johnston, Keith; Milner, Thomas; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2009-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is a noninvasive, targeted, laser-based technique for cancer treatment. During photothermal therapy, light energy is converted to heat by tumor-specific photoabsorbers. The corresponding temperature rise causes localized cancer destruction. For effective treatment, however, the presence of photoabsorbers in the tumor must be ascertained before therapy and thermal imaging must be performed during therapy. This study investigates the feasibility of guiding photothermal therapy by using photoacoustic imaging to detect photoabsorbers and to monitor temperature elevation. Photothermal therapy is carried out by utilizing a continuous wave laser and metal nanocomposites broadly absorbing in the near-infrared optical range. A linear array-based ultrasound imaging system is interfaced with a nanosecond pulsed laser to image tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex-vivo animal tissue before and during photothermal therapy. Before commencing therapy, photoacoustic imaging identifies the presence and spatial location of nanoparticles. Thermal maps are computed by monitoring temperature-induced changes in the photoacoustic signal during the therapeutic procedure and are compared with temperature estimates obtained from ultrasound imaging. The results of our study suggest that photoacoustic imaging, augmented by ultrasound imaging, is a viable candidate to guide photoabsorber-enhanced photothermal therapy. PMID:18601569

  16. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taekjun; Lee, Donghwa; Kim, Hyungjin; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach. PMID:26151203

  17. Imaging the two gaps of the high-temperature superconductor

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES Imaging the two gaps of the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CuO6+x M. C. BOYER1 , W in high-temperature superconductors are the centre of much debate. The pseudogap state, observed above

  18. Room temperature infrared imaging array fabricated using heterogeneous integration methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Pisani; Kailiang Ren; Ping Kao; Srinivas Tadigadapa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of temperature sensitive quartz resonators fabricated using heterogeneous integration methods for realizing high-density, thermal conductance fluctuation limited infrared imaging arrays operating at room temperature. High frequency (241 MHz) micromachined resonators from Y-cut quartz crystal cuts were fabricated with a temperature sensitivity of 22.16kHz\\/?C. Infrared measurements on the resonator pixel resulted in a noise

  19. Imaging the earth's magnetosphere - Effects of plasma flow and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. S.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Doppler shifting on the line centers of the magnetospheric O(+) cross section are investigated, and the resulting structure of the scattering rate as a function of bulk density is explained. Whereas the Doppler shifting frequently results in a decrease of the scattering rate, it is demonstrated that for certain drift speeds the overlap of the cross section and the solar intensity profile can lead to an increased rate, thus enhancing the relative brightness of the image above that obtained when v(p) is zero. Simulated images of the magnetosphere are obtained which are used to show quantitively how the magnetospheric image responds to variations in plasma drift speed and temperature. Changes in the brightness of the magnetospheric images also depend on the variability of the solar flux at 83.4 nm. In regions where there are plasma drifts, the brightness in the image is governed by the structure of the scattering rate, assuming a fixed temperature.

  20. Multimodal evaluation of 2-D and 3-D ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in measurements of the thyroid volume using universally applicable cross-sectional imaging software: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Wiegand, Steffen; Schierz, Jan-Henning; Winkens, Thomas; Licht, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    A precise estimate of thyroid volume is necessary for making adequate therapeutic decisions and planning, as well as for monitoring therapy response. The goal of this study was to compare the precision of different volumetry methods. Thyroid-shaped phantoms were subjected to volumetry via 2-D and 3-D ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 3-D US scans were performed using sensor navigation and mechanical sweeping methods. Volumetry calculation ensued with the conventional ellipsoid model and the manual tracing method. The study confirmed the superiority of manual tracing with CT and MRI volumetry of the thyroid, but extended this knowledge also to the superiority of the 3-D US method, regardless of whether sensor navigation or mechanical sweeping is used. A novel aspect was successful use of the same universally applicable cross-imaging software for all modalities. PMID:24768486

  1. Influence of the ironing process on the 2D deformation of plain weave fabric during relative humidity cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bhouri; E. Badel; S. Ben Nasrallah; P. Perré

    2010-01-01

    The 2D deformation of plain weave ready-to-wear clothing made of bleached cotton was measured during adsorption and desorption steps. A digital X-ray imaging system was coupled with a climatic chamber to control temperature and relative humidity during continuous cycles. A simplex method process was used to compare the acquired images and to obtain the 2D strain. The variations of the

  2. High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, B.; Covelli, J.; Davinic, N.; Hailey, J.; Jones, E.; Ortiz, V.; Racine, J.; Satterwhite, D.; Spriesterbach, T.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A low earth orbiting platform for an infrared (IR) sensor payload is examined based on the requirements of a Naval Research Laboratory statement of work. The experiment payload is a 1.5-meter square by 0.5-meter high cubic structure equipped with the imaging system, radiators, and spacecraft mounting interface. The orbit is circular at 509 km (275 nmi) altitude and 70 deg. inclination. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized with pointing accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 deg. in each axis. The experiment payload requires two 15-minute sensing periods over two contiguous orbit periods for 30 minutes of sensing time per day. The spacecraft design is presented for launch via a Delta 2 rocket. Subsystem designs include attitude control, propulsion, electric power, telemetry, tracking and command, thermal design, structure, and cost analysis.

  3. Effects of Frozen Soil on Soil Temperature, Spring Infiltration, and Runoff: Results from the PILPS 2(d) Experiment at Valdai, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifeng Luo; Alan Robock; Konstantin Y. Vinnikov; C. Adam Schlosser; Andrew G. Slater; Aaron Boone; Harald Braden; Peter Cox; Patricia de Rosnay; Robert E. Dickinson; Yongjiu Dai; Qingyun Duan; Pierre Etchevers; Ann Henderson-Sellers; Nicola Gedney; Yevgeniy M. Gusev; Florence Habets; Jinwon Kim; Eva Kowalczyk; Kenneth Mitchell; Olga N. Nasonova; Joel Noilhan; Andrew J. Pitman; John Schaake; Andrey B. Shmakin; Tatiana G. Smirnova; Peter Wetzel; Yongkang Xue; Zong-Liang Yang; Qing-Cun Zeng

    2003-01-01

    The Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes phase 2(d) experiment at Valdai, Russia, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate land surface schemes, especially snow and frozen soil parameterizations. Here, the ability of the 21 schemes that participated in the experiment to correctly simulate the thermal and hydrological properties of the soil on several different timescales was examined. Using observed

  4. A comparative study of DIGNET, average, complete, single hierarchical and k-means clustering algorithms in 2D face image recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanos, Konstantinos-Georgios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    The study in this paper belongs to a more general research of discovering facial sub-clusters in different ethnicity face databases. These new sub-clusters along with other metadata (such as race, sex, etc.) lead to a vector for each face in the database where each vector component represents the likelihood of participation of a given face to each cluster. This vector is then used as a feature vector in a human identification and tracking system based on face and other biometrics. The first stage in this system involves a clustering method which evaluates and compares the clustering results of five different clustering algorithms (average, complete, single hierarchical algorithm, k-means and DIGNET), and selects the best strategy for each data collection. In this paper we present the comparative performance of clustering results of DIGNET and four clustering algorithms (average, complete, single hierarchical and k-means) on fabricated 2D and 3D samples, and on actual face images from various databases, using four different standard metrics. These metrics are the silhouette figure, the mean silhouette coefficient, the Hubert test ? coefficient, and the classification accuracy for each clustering result. The results showed that, in general, DIGNET gives more trustworthy results than the other algorithms when the metrics values are above a specific acceptance threshold. However when the evaluation results metrics have values lower than the acceptance threshold but not too low (too low corresponds to ambiguous results or false results), then it is necessary for the clustering results to be verified by the other algorithms.

  5. Infrared Imaging of Temperature Distribution in a High Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Payzant, E.A.; Wang, H.

    1999-04-05

    High Temperature X-ray Diffraction (HTXRD) is a very powerful tool for studies of reaction kinetics, phase transformations, and lattice thermal expansion of advanced materials. Accurate temperature measurement is a critical part of the technique. Traditionally, thermocouples, thermistors, and optical pyrometers have been used for temperature control and measurement and temperature could only be measured at a single point. Infrared imaging was utilized in this study to characterize the thermal gradients resulting from various sample and furnace configurations in a commercial strip heater furnace. Furnace configurations include a metallic strip heater, with and without a secondary surround heater, or a surround heater alone. Sample configurations include low and high thermal conductivity powders and solids. The IR imaging results have been used to calibrate sample temperatures in the HTXRD furnace.

  6. Applicability and performance of an imaging plate at subzero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawabe, Atsushi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2010-10-01

    The performance of imaging plates (IPs) has not been studied at temperatures lower than 0 degrees C. In the present study, an IP was irradiated with gamma rays emitted from the mineral monazite at temperatures between -80 and 30 degrees C to determine its fundamental properties. The IP response as a function of irradiation time was found to be linear, suggesting that the IP works properly at low temperatures. Fading, an effect which should be considered at temperatures of more than 0 degrees C, was not observed at -30 and -80 degrees C. Furthermore, the fading-corrected PSL value of the IP irradiated at -80 degrees C was lower than at other temperatures (30, 5 and -30 degrees C). This can be explained by thermostimulated luminescence (TSL). Since the only intensive TSL peak in the temperature range from -80 to 30 degrees C is present at about -43 degrees C, some of the electrons trapped at F centers recombine with holes through the process of TSL before the stored radiation image is read out at room temperature. This finding suggests that the apparent sensitivity of the IP is lower at -80 degrees C although it is similar to sensitivities between -30 and 30 degrees C. This low sensitivity should be corrected to perform quantitative measurements. PMID:20385500

  7. Imaging of the surface resistance of an SRF cavity by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati, S.M. Anlage, A.V. Gurevich

    2013-06-01

    Temperature mapping of the outer surface of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity is a technique that is often used to identify lossy areas on the cavity surface. In this contribution, we present 2-D images of the superconducting state surface resistance R{sub s} of the inner surface of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity obtained by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy. This technique, which is applied for the first time to study lossy regions in an operating SRF cavity, allows identifying 'hotspots' with about one order of magnitude better spatial resolution ( ~2 mm) than by thermometry. The R{sub s}-resolution is of the order of 1 {micro}{Ohm} at 3.3 GHz. Surface resistance maps with different laser power and optical images of the cavity surface are discussed in this contribution. It is also shown that the thermal gradient on the niobium surface created by the laser beam can move some of the hotspots, which are identified as locations of trapped bundle of fluxoids. The prospects for this microscope to identify defects that limit the performance of SRF cavities will also be discussed.

  8. Deep electromagnetic imaging of the Bathurst No. 12 deposit: 3-D forward modeling, 2-D inver-sion and sensitivity tests

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    mineral targets, and of methods of optimizing data acquisition. Different condi- tions were analyzed, but at low frequencies only those responses for current flow perpendicular to the body (TM mode in 2-D- mendations for field survey design and data interpretation. Our choice of an ore body for this study required

  9. Primary and metastatic intraaxial brain tumors: prospective comparison of multivoxel 2D chemical-shift imaging (CSI) proton MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, and histopathological findings in a group of 159 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Bendini; Elisabetta Marton; Alberto Feletti; Sabrina Rossi; Stefano Curtolo; Ingrid Inches; Monica Ronzon; Pierluigi Longatti; Francesco Di Paola

    2011-01-01

    Background  This study aims to assess the diagnostic value of multivoxel 2D chemical-shift imaging (CSI) proton magnetic resonance (MR)\\u000a spectroscopy combined with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis and grading of brain tumors\\u000a by comparing neuroimaging data with histopathological findings obtained after resection or biopsy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 159 patients with a previous brain tumor diagnosis underwent multivoxel

  10. Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

  11. Monolithic low-transition-temperature superconducting magnetometers for high resolution imaging magnetic fields of room temperature samples

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Monolithic low-transition-temperature superconducting magnetometers for high resolution imaging for imaging magnetic fields of room temperature samples. The instrument has a 100 m spatial resolution and a 1 superconducting quantum interference device SQUID microscopy is a powerful technique for imaging magnetic field

  12. Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake which might last as long as two weeks. Forecasters can quantify the difference in surface temperatures between this footprint and the surrounding temperatures and use that information to better predict storm intensity. If another storm intersects with this cold water trail, it is likely to lose significant strength due to the fact that the colder water does not contain as much potential energy as warm water. TRMM Fact Sheet Predicting Hurricane Intensity Far from Land Remote Sensing Systems Image courtesy TRMM Project, Remote Sensing Systems, and Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  13. 2D and 3D characterization of a surfactant-synthesized TiO2-SiO2 mesoporous photocatalyst obtained at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Luís; Hernández-Garrido, Juan C; Calvino, Juan J; Mosquera, Maria J

    2013-02-28

    A mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposite photocatalyst has been prepared from TiO(2) nanoparticles and ethoxysilane oligomers in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant (n-octylamine). The 2D and 3D structure properties of the resulting nanomaterial are described. The use of 3D techniques, particularly HAADF-STEM electron tomography, together with 3D reconstructions and atomic force microscopy, provides insight into the fine structure of these materials. We find that n-octylamine creates a mesoporous silica structure in which titania nanoparticles are embedded, and that some of the titania is retained on the outer surface of the material. Rapid photodegradation of methylene blue dye is facilitated, due to the synergistic effect of: (1) its adsorption into the composite mesoporous structure, and (2) its photodegradation by the superficial TiO(2). PMID:23338827

  14. Three?Dimensional Echocardiography and 2D?3D Speckle?Tracking Imaging in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnostic Accuracy in Detecting Hemodynamic Signs of Right Ventricular (RV) Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vitarelli, Antonio; Mangieri, Enrico; Terzano, Claudio; Gaudio, Carlo; Salsano, Felice; Rosato, Edoardo; Capotosto, Lidia; D'Orazio, Simona; Azzano, Alessia; Truscelli, Giovanni; Cocco, Nino; Ashurov, Rasul

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to compare three?dimensional (3D) and 2D and 3D speckle?tracking (2D?STE, 3D?STE) echocardiographic parameters with conventional right ventricular (RV) indexes in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH), and investigate whether these techniques could result in better correlation with hemodynamic variables indicative of heart failure. Methods and Results Seventy?three adult patients (mean age, 53±13 years; 44% male) with chronic PH of different etiologies were studied by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization (25 precapillary PH from pulmonary arterial hypertension, 23 obstructive pulmonary heart disease, and 23 postcapillary PH from mitral regurgitation). Thirty healthy subjects (mean age, 54±15 years; 43% male) served as controls. Standard 2D measurements (RV–fractional area change–tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) and mitral and tricuspid tissue Doppler annular velocities were obtained. RV 3D volumes and global and regional ejection fraction (3D?RVEF) were determined. RV strains were calculated by 2D?STE and 3D?STE. RV 3D global?free?wall longitudinal strain (3DGFW?RVLS), 2D global?free?wall longitudinal strain (GFW?RVLS), apical?free?wall longitudinal strain, basal?free?wall longitudinal strain, and 3D?RVEF were lower in patients with precapillary PH (P<0.0001) and postcapillary PH (P<0.01) compared to controls. 3DGFW?RVLS (hazard ratio 4.6, 95% CI 2.79 to 8.38, P=0.004) and 3D?RVEF (hazard ratio 5.3, 95% CI 2.85 to 9.89, P=0.002) were independent predictors of mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the thresholds offering an adequate compromise between sensitivity and specificity for detecting hemodynamic signs of RV failure were 39% for 3D?RVEF (AUC 0.89), ?17% for 3DGFW?RVLS (AUC 0.88), ?18% for GFW?RVLS (AUC 0.88), ?16% for apical?free?wall longitudinal strain (AUC 0.85), 16 mm for tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (AUC 0.67), and 38% for RV?FAC (AUC 0.62). Conclusions In chronic PH, 3D, 2D?STE and 3D?STE parameters indicate global and regional RV dysfunction that is associated with RV failure hemodynamics better than conventional echo indices. PMID:25792128

  15. Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Park, Jae Yeon; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Chansik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of terahertz (THz) imaging at frozen temperature for the clinical application of oral cancer detection was investigated by analyzing seven oral tissues resected from four patients. The size, shape, and internal position of the oral cancers were mapped by THz radiation in the frequency range of 0.2–1.2 THz at ?20 °C and 20 °C, and compared with those identified in the histological examination. THz imaging of frozen tissue was found to offer greater sensitivity in distinguishing cancerous areas from surrounding tissue and a larger THz-frequency spectral difference between the oral cancer and normal mucosa than room-temperature THz imaging. A cancerous tumor hidden inside tissue was also detected using this method by observing the THz temporal domain waveform. The histological analysis showed that these findings resulted from cell structure deformations involving the invasion of oral tumor and neoplastic transformations of mucous cells. Therefore, a cytological approach using THz radiation at a frozen temperature might be applied to detect oral cancer. PMID:24010003

  16. Detection of small brain metastases at 3 T: comparing the diagnostic performances of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SPACE, MPRAGE, and 2D FLASH imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Hwang, Seungbae; Chung, Gyung-Ho; Song, Ji-Soo; Choi, Eun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE), magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE), and two-dimensional (2D) fast low angle shot (FLASH) for the detection of small brain metastases. Twelve patients who had brain metastases less than 10 mm in diameter were enrolled. The diagnostic performance was evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were also calculated. The mean Az and sensitivities of SPACE for all observers were significantly higher than those of MPRAGE and 2D FLASH. PMID:25770904

  17. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  18. Fast Algorithm for Detecting the Most Unusual Part of 2d and 3d Digital Images. Application to Large Medical Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KOSTADIN KOROUTCHEV; ELKA KORUTCHEVA

    s Abstract: In this paper we introduce a fast algorithm that can detect the most unusual part of a digital image. The most unusual part of a given shape is dened as a part of the image that has the maximal distance to all non intersecting shapes with the same form. The method is tested on two and three-dimensional images

  19. Three-dimensional mapping of soil chemical characteristics at micrometric scale: Statistical prediction by combining 2D SEM-EDX data and 3D X-ray computed micro-tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapca, Simona

    2015-04-01

    Many soil properties and functions emerge from interactions of physical, chemical and biological processes at microscopic scales, which can be understood only by integrating techniques that traditionally are developed within separate disciplines. While recent advances in imaging techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), offer the possibility to reconstruct the 3D physical structure at fine resolutions, for the distribution of chemicals in soil, existing methods, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDX), allow for characterization of the chemical composition only on 2D surfaces. At present, direct 3D measurement techniques are still lacking, sequential sectioning of soils, followed by 2D mapping of chemical elements and interpolation to 3D, being an alternative which is explored in this study. Specifically, we develop an integrated experimental and theoretical framework which combines 3D X-ray CT imaging technique with 2D SEM-EDX and use spatial statistics methods to map the chemical composition of soil in 3D. The procedure involves three stages 1) scanning a resin impregnated soil cube by X-ray CT, followed by precision cutting to produce parallel thin slices, the surfaces of which are scanned by SEM-EDX, 2) alignment of the 2D chemical maps within the internal 3D structure of the soil cube, and 3) development, of spatial statistics methods to predict the chemical composition of 3D soil based on the observed 2D chemical and 3D physical data. Specifically, three statistical models consisting of a regression tree, a regression tree kriging and cokriging model were used to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron and oxygen in soil, these chemical elements showing a good spatial agreement between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the corresponding 2D SEM-EDX data. Due to the spatial correlation between the physical and chemical data, the regression-tree model showed a great potential in predicting chemical composition in particular for iron, which is generally sparsely distributed in soil. For carbon, silicon and oxygen, which are more densely distributed, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction, whereas prediction based on co-kriging was less consistent across replicates, underperforming regression-tree kriging. The present study shows a great potential in integrating geo-statistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales, the framework being suitable to be further applied to other types of imaging data such as images of biological thin sections for characterization of microbial distribution. Key words: X-ray CT, SEM-EDX, segmentation techniques, spatial correlation, 3D soil images, 2D chemical maps.

  20. Imaging hydraulic fractures using temperature transients in the Belridge Diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, G.T.; Johnston, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Results of a temperature transient analysis of Shell`s Phase 1 and Phase 2 Diatomite Steamdrive Pilots are used to image hydraulic injection fracture lengths, angles, and heat injectivities into the low-permeability formation. The Phase 1 Pilot is a limited-interval injection test. In Phase 2, steam is injected into two 350 ft upper and lower zones through separate hydraulic fractures. Temperature response of both pilots is monitored with sixteen logging observation wells. A perturbation analysis of the non-linear pressure diffusion and heat transport equations indicates that at a permeability of about 0.1 md or less, heat transport in the Diatomite tends to be dominated by thermal diffusivity, and pressure diffusion is dominated by the ratio of thermal expansion to fluid compressibility. Under these conditions, the temperature observed at a logging observation well is governed by a dimensionless quantity that depends on the perpendicular distance between the observation well and the hydraulic fracture, divided by the square root of time. Using this dependence, a novel method is developed for imaging hydraulic fracture geometry and relative heat injectivity from the temperature history of the pilot.

  1. Kalman Filtered MR Temperature Imaging for Laser Induced Thermal Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, D.; Yung, J.; Hazle, J. D.; Weinberg, J. S.; Stafford, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using a stochastic form of Pennes bioheat model within a 3D finite element based Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is critically evaluated for the ability to provide temperature field estimates in the event of magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) data loss during laser induced thermal therapy (LITT). The ability to recover missing MRTI data was analyzed by systematically removing spatiotemporal information from a clinical MR-guided LITT procedure in human brain and comparing predictions in these regions to the original measurements. Performance was quantitatively evaluated in terms of a dimensionless L2 (RMS) norm of the temperature error weighted by acquisition uncertainty. During periods of no data corruption, observed error histories demonstrate that the Kalman algorithm does not alter the high quality temperature measurement provided by MR thermal imaging. The KF-MRTI implementation considered is seen to predict the bioheat transfer with RMS error < 4 for a short period of time, ?t < 10sec, until the data corruption subsides. In its present form, the KF-MRTI method currently fails to compensate for consecutive for consecutive time periods of data loss ?t > 10sec. PMID:22203706

  2. Real time thermal imaging of high temperature semiconductor melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A real time thermal imaging system with temperature resolution better than + or - 1 C and spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm was developed and applied to the analysis of melt surface thermal field distributions in both Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth configurations. The melt is viewed in near normal incidence by a high resolution charge coupled device camera to which is attached a very narrow bandpass filter. The resulting image is digitized and processed using a pipelined pixel processor operating at an effective 40 million operations per second thus permitting real time high frequency spatial and temporal filtering of the high temperature scene. A multi-pixel averaging algorithm was developed which permits localized, low noise sensing of temperature variations at any location in the hot zone as a function of time. This signial is used to implement initial elements of a feedforward growth control scheme which is aimed at reducing disturbances to the melt caused by the batch nature of the growth process. The effect of magnetic melt stabilization on radial melt temperature distributions was measured using this technique. Problems associated with residual internal reflections and non-optimized path geometry are discussed.

  3. Recognition of a 3D snake model and its 2D photographic image by captive black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    PubMed

    Emile, Nally; Barros, Marilia

    2009-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) displays of real three-dimensional (3D) objects are frequently used experimental tools in animal studies. Whether marmoset monkeys, with their highly diverse and complex anti-predation strategies, readily recognized 2D representations of potential threats has yet to be determined, as seen in other primates. Thus, the behavioral responses of adult captive black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) toward an unfamiliar motionless snake-model and its photograph were assessed. Pictorially naïve subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 12/each) and submitted to two trials. Group 1 was initially exposed to the 3D object and after 1 week to its photograph. Group 2 was first presented the picture and only tested with the real object 1 week later. All 15-min trials were divided into three consecutive 5-min intervals: pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure. In the presence of the 3D snake object, regardless of its presentation order, the frequency of direct gazes, head-cocks, tsik-tsik alarm/mobbing calls and genital displays increased significantly. The photograph induced a similar response, although only when the object had been previously presented, as significantly higher levels of these behaviors were seen in Group 1 than Group 2. Proximity to the stimulus, aerial scan, terrestrial glance, displacement activities and locomotion were not consistently influenced by the stimuli's presence and/or order of presentation. Therefore, marmosets recognized and responded appropriately to biologically and emotionally relevant 3D and 2D stimuli. Since the aversive/fearful reactions toward the photograph were only seen after the snake object had been presented, the former seems to be essentially a learned response. PMID:19449190

  4. Revisiting 2D Lattice Based Spin Flip-Flop Ising Model: Magnetic Properties of a Thin Film and Its Temperature Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of Ising's work done in 1925 for one dimensional spin chain with periodic boundary condition. Ising observed that no phase transition occurred at finite temperature in one dimension. He erroneously generalized his views in higher dimensions but that was not true. In 1941 Kramer and Wannier obtained…

  5. Visualizing Central Vessels of Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Devoid of Fat Using a 2D Multi-Breath-Hold Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruo-Kun; Zeng, Meng-Su; Qiang, Jin-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hepatic angiomyolipoma (Epi-HAML) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor with malignant potential. Most of Epi-HAML contains no or only a minimal amount of adipose tissue and poses a diagnostic challenge. Central vessels are characteristic imaging finding of Epi-HAML, which usually were displayed by dynamic contrast imaging. In this paper, we displayed the central vessels of Epi-HAML invisible on conventional MR images using a new developed abdominal susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description for the role of SWI in characterization of Epi-HAML.

  6. GCA in 2d

    E-print Network

    Bagchi, Arjun; Mandal, Ipsita; Miwa, Akitsugu

    2009-01-01

    We make a detailed study of the infinite dimensional Galilean Conformal Algebra (GCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions. Classically, this algebra is precisely obtained from a contraction of the generators of the relativistic conformal symmetry in 2d. Here we find quantum mechanical realisations of the (centrally extended) GCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d CFTs. These parent CFTs are non-unitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We therefore develop, in parallel to the usual machinery for 2d CFT, many of the tools for the analysis of the quantum mechanical GCA. These include the representation theory based on GCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and a nonrelativistic Kac table. In particular, the null vectors of the GCA lead to differential equations for the four point function. The solution to these equations in the simplest case is explicitly obtained and checked to be consistent with various requiremen...

  7. Resonant tunneling modulation in quasi-2D Cu2O/SnO2 p-n horizontal-multi-layer heterostructure for room temperature H2S sensor application

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guangliang; Zhang, Mingzhe; Zou, Guangtian

    2013-01-01

    Heterostructure material that acts as resonant tunneling system is a major scientific challenge in applied physics. Herein, we report a resonant tunneling system, quasi-2D Cu2O/SnO2 p-n heterostructure multi-layer film, prepared by electrochemical deposition in a quasi-2D ultra-thin liquid layer. By applying a special half-sine deposition potential across the electrodes, Cu2O and SnO2 selectively and periodically deposited according to their reduction potentials. The as-prepared heterostructure film displays excellent sensitivity to H2S at room temperature due to the resonant tunneling modulation. Furthermore, it is found that the laser illumination could enhance the gas response, and the mechanism with laser illumination is discussed. It is the first report on gas sensing application of resonant tunneling modulation. Hence, heterostructure material act as resonant tunneling system is believed to be an ideal candidate for further improvement of room temperature gas sensing. PMID:23409241

  8. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  9. Some advances/results in monitoring road cracks from 2D pavement images within the scope of the collaborative FP7 TRIMM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltazart, Vincent; Moliard, Jean-Marc; Amhaz, Rabih; Wright, Dean; Jethwa, Manish

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring road surface conditions is an important issue in many countries. Several projects have looked into this issue in recent years, including TRIMM 2011-2014. The objective of such projects has been to detect surface distresses, like cracking, raveling and water ponding, in order to plan effective road maintenance and to afford a better sustainability of the pavement. The monitoring of cracking conventionally focuses on open cracks on the surface of the pavement, as opposed to reflexive cracks embedded in the pavement materials. For monitoring surface condition, in situ human visual inspection has been gradually replaced by automatic image data collection at traffic speed. Off-line image processing techniques have been developed for monitoring surface condition in support of human visual control. Full automation of crack monitoring has been approached with caution, and depends on a proper manual assessment of the performance. This work firstly presents some aspects of the current state of monitoring that have been reported so far in the literature and in previous projects: imaging technology and image processing techniques. Then, the work presents the two image processing techniques that have been developed within the scope of the TRIMM project to automatically detect pavement cracking from images. The first technique is a heuristic approach (HA) based on the search for gradient within the image. It was originally developed to process pavement images from the French imaging device, Aigle-RN. The second technique, the Minimal Path Selection (MPS) method, has been developed within an ongoing PhD work at IFSTTAR. The proposed new technique provides a fine and accurate segmentation of the crack pattern along with the estimation of the crack width. HA has been assessed against the field data collection provided by Yotta and TRL with the imaging device Tempest 2. The performance assessment has been threefold: first it was performed against the reference data set including 130 km of pavement images over UK roads, second over a few selected short sections of contiguous pavement images, and finally over a few sample images as a case study. The performance of MPS has been assessed against an older image data base. Pixel-based PGT was available to provide the most sensitive performance assessment. MPS has shown its ability to provide a very accurate cracking pattern without reducing the image resolution on the segmented images. Thus, it allows measurement of the crack width; it is found to behave more robustly against the image texture and better matched for dealing with low contrast pavement images. The benchmarking of seven automatic segmentation techniques has been provided at both the pixel and the grid levels. The performance assessment includes three minimal path selection algorithms, namely MPS, Free Form Anisotropy (FFA), one geodesic contour with automatic selection of points of interests (GC-POI), HA, and two Markov-based methods. Among others, MPS approach reached the best performance at the pixel level while it is matched to the FFA approach at the grid level. Finally, the project has emphasized the need for a reliable ground truth data collection. Owing to its accuracy, MPS may serve as a reference benchmark for other methods to provide the automatic segmentation of pavement images at the pixel level and beyond. As a counterpart, MPS requires a reduction in the computing time. Keywords: cracking, automatic segmentation, image processing, pavement, surface distress, monitoring, DICE, performance

  10. High Pressure ^31P-NMR Study of the 2D Frustrated Square-Lattice Compound BaCdVO(PO4)2 at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, B.; Komaki, Y.; Nath, R.; Johnston, D. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2012-02-01

    BaCdVO(PO4)2 is a S = 1/2 frustrated square-lattice (FSL) compound with a nearest neighbor exchange coupling J1˜ - 3.36 K and a next-nearest neighbor exchange coupling J2˜ 3.53 K bearing J2/J1˜ 1.05. Based on the J2/J1 ratio, the system is known to be located close to the disordered ground state (known as `nematic state') regime of the phase diagram. We have carried out ^31P-NMR measurements under high pressure (˜ 1 GPa) and at low temperatures using dilution refrigerator to investigate the pressure effects on the magnetic properties of the system. Under ambient pressure at H = 2.67 T, we observed a sharp peak in ^31P spin lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) at TN˜ 1.05 K, which corresponds to the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. On the other hand, under a pressure of 1 GPa, the peak in 1/T1 is suppressed and 1/T1 shows a sudden decrease below ˜ 0.75 K. This indicates that TN decreases with the application of pressure. We will report the temperature dependence of the NMR spectra and of the 1/T1 under different magnetic fields and pressures.

  11. Dimensionality changes in the solid phase at room temperature: 2D ? 1D ? 3D evolution induced by ammonia sorption-desorption on zinc phosphates.

    PubMed

    Amghouz, Zakariae; Ramajo, Beatriz; Khainakov, Sergei A; da Silva, Iván; Castro, Germán R; García, José R; García-Granda, Santiago

    2014-06-28

    Two-dimensional zinc phosphate NH4Zn2(PO4)(HPO4) (), via ammonia vapor interaction at room temperature, transforms to a one-dimensional novel compound NH4Zn(NH3)PO4 (). By ammonia desorption (in air at room temperature) transforms to NH4ZnPO4 () with a well-known ABW-zeolitic topology. The crystal structure of was solved ab initio using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, P21/a, a = 16.5227(2) Å, b = 6.21780(8) Å, c = 5.24317(6) Å, ? = 91.000(2)°, Z = 4). The structures of three compounds include extra-framework ammonium cations to the 4-fold coordinated zinc (ZnO4 tetrahedra for and , and ZnO3N tetrahedra for ) and phosphorus (PO4 tetrahedra) with bi-, mono- or three-dimensional linkages, respectively for , or . To our knowledge, the process described here constitutes the first example of dimensionality change in the solid phase promoted by a solid-gas interaction at room temperature in metal phosphates. PMID:24829098

  12. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, James K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Armeson, Kent E. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address this issue.

  13. Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Lysyansky, Peter; Marwick, Tom H; Houle, Hélène; Baumann, Rolf; Pedri, Stefano; Ito, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yasuhiko; Metz, Stephen; Song, Joo Hyun; Hamilton, Jamie; Sengupta, Partho P; Kolias, Theodore J; d'Hooge, Jan; Aurigemma, Gerard P; Thomas, James D; Badano, Luigi Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Recognizing the critical need for standardization in strain imaging, in 2010, the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) invited technical representatives from all interested vendors to participate in a concerted effort to reduce intervendor variability of strain measurement. As an initial product of the work of the EACVI/ASE/Industry initiative to standardize deformation imaging, we prepared this technical document which is intended to provide definitions, names, abbreviations, formulas, and procedures for calculation of physical quantities derived from speckle tracking echocardiography and thus create a common standard. PMID:25623220

  14. Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Lysyansky, Peter; Marwick, Tom H; Houle, Helen; Baumann, Rolf; Pedri, Stefano; Ito, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yasuhiko; Metz, Stephen; Song, Joo Hyun; Hamilton, Jamie; Sengupta, Partho P; Kolias, Theodore J; d'Hooge, Jan; Aurigemma, Gerard P; Thomas, James D; Badano, Luigi Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the critical need for standardization in strain imaging, in 2010, the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) invited technical representatives from all interested vendors to participate in a concerted effort to reduce intervendor variability of strain measurement. As an initial product of the work of the EACVI/ASE/Industry initiative to standardize deformation imaging, we prepared this technical document which is intended to provide definitions, names, abbreviations, formulas, and procedures for calculation of physical quantities derived from speckle tracking echocardiography and thus create a common standard. PMID:25525063

  15. Temperature-driven disorder–order transitions in 2D copper-intercalated MoO3 revealed using dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Bryan W.; Chung, Frank R.; Wang, Mengjing; LaGrange, Thomas; Koski, Kristie J.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate two different classes of disorder–order phase transitions in two-dimensional layered nanomaterial MoO3 intercalated with ˜9–15 atomic percent zero-valent copper using conventional in situ electron diffraction and dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Heating to ˜325 °C on a time scale of minutes produces a superlattice consistent with the formation of a charge density wave stabilized by nanometer-scale ordering of the copper intercalant. Unlike conventional purely electronic charge-density-wave states which form, reform, and disappear on picosecond scales as the temperature is changed, once it forms the observed structure in Cu–MoO3 is stable indefinitely over a very large temperature range (30 °C to the decomposition temperature of 450 °C). Nanosecond-scale heating to ˜380–400 °C produced a completely different structure, replacing the disordered as-fabricated Cu–MoO3 with a much more crystallographically ordered metastable state that, according to a precession electron diffraction reconstruction, resembles the original MoO3 lattice apart from an asymmetric distortion that appears to expand parts of the van der Waals gaps to accommodate the copper intercalant. Control experiments in Cu-free material exhibited neither transformation, thus it appears the copper is a necessary part of the phase dynamics. This work shows how the combination of high-density metal atom intercalation and heat treatment over a wide range of time scales can produce nanomaterials of high crystalline quality in unique structural states that cannot be accessed through other methods.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Web-Enabled 3D Consultation Tool for Breast Augmentation Surgery Based on 3D-Image Reconstruction of 2D Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jaime; Olariu, Radu; Dindoyal, Irving; Le Huu, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Background Producing a rich, personalized Web-based consultation tool for plastic surgeons and patients is challenging. Objective (1) To develop a computer tool that allows individual reconstruction and simulation of 3-dimensional (3D) soft tissue from ordinary digital photos of breasts, (2) to implement a Web-based, worldwide-accessible preoperative surgical planning platform for plastic surgeons, and (3) to validate this tool through a quality control analysis by comparing 3D laser scans of the patients with the 3D reconstructions with this tool from original 2-dimensional (2D) pictures of the same patients. Methods The proposed system uses well-established 2D digital photos for reconstruction into a 3D torso, which is then available to the user for interactive planning. The simulation is performed on dedicated servers, accessible via Internet. It allows the surgeon, together with the patient, to previsualize the impact of the proposed breast augmentation directly during the consultation before a surgery is decided upon. We retrospectively conduced a quality control assessment of available anonymized pre- and postoperative 2D digital photographs of patients undergoing breast augmentation procedures. The method presented above was used to reconstruct 3D pictures from 2D digital pictures. We used a laser scanner capable of generating a highly accurate surface model of the patient’s anatomy to acquire ground truth data. The quality of the computed 3D reconstructions was compared with the ground truth data used to perform both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Results We evaluated the system on 11 clinical cases for surface reconstructions and 4 clinical cases of postoperative simulations, using laser surface scan technologies showing a mean reconstruction error between 2 and 4 mm and a maximum outlier error of 16 mm. Qualitative and quantitative analyses from plastic surgeons demonstrate the potential of these new emerging technologies. Conclusions We tested our tool for 3D, Web-based, patient-specific consultation in the clinical scenario of breast augmentation. This example shows that the current state of development allows for creation of responsive and effective Web-based, 3D medical tools, even with highly complex and time-consuming computation, by off-loading them to a dedicated high-performance data center. The efficient combination of advanced technologies, based on analysis and understanding of human anatomy and physiology, will allow the development of further Web-based reconstruction and predictive interfaces at different scales of the human body. The consultation tool presented herein exemplifies the potential of combining advancements in the core areas of computer science and biomedical engineering with the evolving areas of Web technologies. We are confident that future developments based on a multidisciplinary approach will further pave the way toward personalized Web-enabled medicine. PMID:22306688

  17. A comparative study of optical and radiative characteristics of X-ray-induced luminescent defects in Ag-doped glass and LiF thin films and their applications in 2-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurobori, T.; Miyamoto, Y.; Maruyama, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Sasaki, T.

    2014-05-01

    We report novel disk-type X-ray two-dimensional (2-D) imaging detectors utilising Ag-doped phosphate glass and lithium fluoride (LiF) thin films based on the radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and photoluminescence (PL) phenomena, respectively. The accumulated X-ray doses written in the form of atomic-scale Ag-related luminescent centres in Ag-doped glass and F-aggregated centres in LiF thin films were rapidly reconstructed as a dose distribution using a homemade readout system. The 2-D images reconstructed from the RPL and PL detectors are compared with that from the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detector. In addition, the optical and dosimetric characteristics of LiF thin films are investigated and evaluated. The possibilities of dose distributions with a high spatial resolution on the order of microns over large areas, a wide dynamic range covering 11 orders of magnitude and a non-destructive readout are successfully demonstrated by combining the Ag-doped glass with LiF thin films.

  18. Fluorescence-Doped Particles for Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Chrostopher J.; Verkamp, Max; Lowe, T.; Maisto, P.; Byun, G.; Simpson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene latex microspheres (PSLs) have been used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements for several decades. With advances in laser technologies, instrumentation, and data processing, the capability to collect more information about fluid flow beyond velocity is possible using new seed materials. To provide additional measurement capability, PSLs were synthesized with temperature-sensitive fluorescent dyes incorporated within the particle. These multifunctional PSLs would have the greatest impact if they could be used in large scale facilities with minimal modification to the facilities or the existing instrumentation. Consequently, several potential dyes were identified that were amenable to existing laser systems currently utilized in wind tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center as well as other wind and fluid (water) tunnels. PSLs incorporated with Rhodamine B, dichlorofluorescein (DCF, also known as fluorescein 548 or fluorescein 27) and other dyes were synthesized and characterized for morphology and spectral properties. The resulting particles were demonstrated to exhibit fluorescent emission, which would enable determination of both fluid velocity and temperature. They also would allow near-wall velocity measurements whereas laser scatter from surfaces currently prevents near-wall measurements using undoped seed materials. Preliminary results in a wind tunnel facility located at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) have verified fluorescent signal detection and temperature sensitivity of fluorophore-doped PSLs.

  19. A pixelwise inpainting-based refinement scheme for quantizing calcification in the lumbar aorta on 2D lateral x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Hansen, Lars A.; de Bruijne, Marleen; Lauze, François; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we seek to improve the standard method of assessing the degree of calcification in the lumbar aorta visualized on lateral 2-D X-rays. The semiquantitative method does not take density of calcification within the individual plaques into account and is unable to measure subtle changes in the severity of calcification over time. Both of these parameters would be desirable to assess, since they are the keys to assessing important information on the impact of risk factors and candidate drugs aiming at the prevention of atherosclerosis. As a further step for solving this task, we propose a pixelwise inpainting-based refinement scheme that seeks to optimize the individual plaque shape by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. Contrary to previous work the algorithm developped for this study uses a sorted candidate list, which omits possible bias introduced by the choice of starting pixel. The signal-to-noise optimization scheme will be discussed in different settings using TV as well as Harmonic inpainting and comparing these with a simple averaging process.

  20. Multi-resolution level sets with shape priors: a validation report for 2D segmentation of prostate gland in T2W MR images.

    PubMed

    Al-Qunaieer, Fares S; Tizhoosh, Hamid R; Rahnamayan, Shahryar

    2014-12-01

    The level set approach to segmentation of medical images has received considerable attention in recent years. Evolving an initial contour to converge to anatomical boundaries of an organ or tumor is a very appealing method, especially when it is based on a well-defined mathematical foundation. However, one drawback of such evolving method is its high computation time. It is desirable to design and implement algorithms that are not only accurate and robust but also fast in execution. Bresson et al. have proposed a variational model using both boundary and region information as well as shape priors. The latter can be a significant factor in medical image analysis. In this work, we combine the variational model of level set with a multi-resolution approach to accelerate the processing. The question is whether a multi-resolution context can make the segmentation faster without affecting the accuracy. As well, we investigate the question whether a premature convergence, which happens in a much shorter time, would reduce accuracy. We examine multiple semiautomated configurations to segment the prostate gland in T2W MR images. Comprehensive experimentation is conducted using a data set of a 100 patients (1,235 images) to verify the effectiveness of the multi-resolution level set with shape priors. The results show that the convergence speed can be increased by a factor of ??2.5 without affecting the segmentation accuracy. Furthermore, a premature convergence approach drastically increases the segmentation speed by a factor of ??17.9. PMID:24865859

  1. Comparison of 3D and 2D breast density estimation from synthetic ultrasound tomography images and digital mammograms of anthropomorphic software breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Li, Cuiping; West, Erik; Sak, Mark; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Duric, Nebojsa; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-03-01

    Breast density descriptors were estimated from ultrasound tomography (UST) and digital mammogram (DM) images of 46 anthropomorphic software breast phantoms. Each phantom simulated a 450 ml or 700 ml breast with volumetric percent density (PD) values between 10% and 50%. The UST based volumetric breast density (VBD) estimates were calculated by thresholding the reconstructed UST images. Percent density (PD) values from DM images were estimated interactively by a clinical breast radiologist using Cumulus software. Such obtained UST VBD and Cumulus PD estimates were compared with the ground truth VBD values available from phantoms. The UST VBD values showed a high correlation with the ground truth, as evidenced by the Pearson correlation coefficient of r=0.93. The Cumulus PD values also showed a high correlation with the ground truth (r=0.84), as well as with the UST VBD values (r=0.78). The consistency in measuring the UST VBD and Cumulus PD values was analyzed using the standard error of the estimation by linear regression (?E). The ?E value for Cumulus PD was 1.5 times higher compared to the UST VBD (6.54 vs. 4.21). The ?E calculated from two repeated Cumulus estimation sessions (?E=4.66) was comparable with the UST. Potential sources of the observed errors in density measurement are the use of global thresholding and (for Cumulus) the human observer variability. This preliminary study of simulated phantom UST images showed promise for non-invasive estimation of breast density.

  2. Observing temperature fluctuations in humans using infrared imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph; Scully, Christopher G.; Elster, Eric; Gorbach, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that functional infrared imaging is capable of detecting low frequency temperature fluctuations in intact human skin and revealing spatial, temporal, spectral, and time-frequency based differences among three tissue classes: microvasculature, large sub-cutaneous veins, and the remaining surrounding tissue of the forearm. We found that large veins have stronger contractility in the range of 0.005-0.06 Hz compared to the other two tissue classes. Wavelet phase coherence and power spectrum correlation analysis show that microvasculature and skin areas without vessels visible by IR have high phase coherence in the lowest three frequency ranges (0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.02 Hz, and 0.02-0.06 Hz), whereas large veins oscillate independently. PMID:23538682

  3. Design procedures for Strain Hardening Cement Composites (SHCC) and measurement of their shear properties by mechanical and 2-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Karan

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was studied and design procedures are prepared by employing yield line theory and integrating it with simplified tri-linear model developed in Arizona State University by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Intrinsic material property of moment-curvature response for SHCC was used to derive the relationship between applied load and deflection in a two-step process involving the limit state analysis and kinematically admissible displacements. For application of SHCC in structures such as shear walls, tensile and shear properties are necessary for design. Lot of research has already been done to study the tensile properties and therefore shear property study was undertaken to prepare a design guide. Shear response of textile reinforced concrete was investigated based on picture frame shear test method. The effects of orientation, volume of cement paste per layer, planar cross-section and volume fraction of textiles were investigated. Pultrusion was used for the production of textile reinforced concrete. It is an automated set-up with low equipment cost which provides uniform production and smooth final surface of the TRC. A 3-D optical non-contacting deformation measurement technique of digital image correlation (DIC) was used to conduct the image analysis on the shear samples by means of tracking the displacement field through comparison between the reference image and deformed images. DIC successfully obtained full-field strain distribution, displacement and strain versus time responses, demonstrated the bonding mechanism from perspective of strain field, and gave a relation between shear angle and shear strain.

  4. Visual Image Processing RAM: Memory Architecture With 2-D Data Location Search and Data Consistency Management for a Multicore Object Recognition Processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joo-Young Kim; Donghyun Kim; Seungjin Lee; Kwanho Kim; Hoi-Jun Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract-Visual image processing random access memory (VIP-RAM) is proposed for a real-time multicore object recognition processor. It has two key features for the overall processor: 1) single cycle local maximum location search (LMLS) for fast key-point localization in object recognition, and 2) data consistency management (DCM) for producer-consumer data transactions among the processors. To achieve single cycle LMLS operation for

  5. Negative refraction of elastic waves in 2D phononic crystals: Contribution of resonant transmissions to the construction of the image of a point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Croënne, Charles; Dubus, Bertrand; Vasseur, Jérôme; Haumesser, Lionel; Manga, Dimitri; Morvan, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Negative refraction properties of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC), made of a triangular lattice of steel rods embedded in epoxy are investigated both experimentally and numerically. First, experiments have been carried out on a prism shaped PC immersed in water. Then, for focusing purposes, a flat lens is considered and the construction of the image of a point source is analyzed in details, when indices are matched between the PC and the surrounding fluid medium, whereas acoustic impedances are mismatched. Optimal conditions for focusing longitudinal elastic waves by such PC flat lens are then discussed.

  6. High-Resolution Functional MRI at 3 T: 3D/2D Echo-Planar Imaging with Optimized Physiological Noise Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lutti, Antoine; Thomas, David L; Hutton, Chloe; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) offers unique possibilities for studying human functional neuroanatomy. Although high-resolution fMRI has proven its potential at 7 T, most fMRI studies are still performed at rather low spatial resolution at 3 T. We optimized and compared single-shot two-dimensional echo-planar imaging (EPI) and multishot three-dimensional EPI high-resolution fMRI protocols. We extended image-based physiological noise correction from two-dimensional EPI to multishot three-dimensional EPI. The functional sensitivity of both acquisition schemes was assessed in a visual fMRI experiment. The physiological noise correction increased the sensitivity significantly, can be easily applied, and requires simple recordings of pulse and respiration only. The combination of three-dimensional EPI with physiological noise correction provides exceptional sensitivity for 1.5 mm high-resolution fMRI at 3 T, increasing the temporal signal-to-noise ratio by more than 25% compared to two-dimensional EPI. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22821858

  7. In situ X-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Bø Fløystad, Jostein; Zhao, Tiejun; Esmaeili, Morteza; Diaz, Ana; Andreasen, Jens W.; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.; Rønning, Magnus; Breiby, Dag W.

    2014-06-01

    Imaging nanoparticles under relevant reaction conditions of high temperature and gas pressure is difficult because conventional imaging techniques, like transmission electron microscopy, cannot be used. Here we demonstrate that the coherent diffractive imaging technique of X-ray ptychography can be used for in situ phase contrast imaging in structure studies at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures. Lithium zirconate, a candidate CO2 capture material, was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere in air and in CO2, at temperatures exceeding 600 °C. Images with a spatial resolution better than 200 nm were retrieved, and possibilities for improving the experiment are described.

  8. Update on 2-D array transducers for medical ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Smith; Richard E. Davidsen; Charles D. Emery; Richard L. Goldberg; Edward D. Light

    1995-01-01

    l½-D and 2-D arrays offer a myriad of new imaging modalities and benefits when compared to the linear array. However, with added benefits come many problems and challenges and l½-D and 2-D arrays are no exception. The authors give possible solutions to a number of these challenges. The increase in transducer channels needed in a 1½-D and 2-D array can

  9. Optimizing the Precision for Localizing Fluorescent Proteins in Living Cells by 2D Gaussian Fitting of Digital Images: Application to COPII-Coated Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit Sites

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Peter; Gupta, Vijay; Stephens, David J.; Hudson, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    An insight into the operation of molecular motors has already been obtained under in vitro conditions from single-molecule tracking of proteins. It remains to analyze the effects of these motors on the position and secretion of specific organelles in the environment of the cell. For this purpose, we have investigated the accuracy of a standard algorithm to enable the tracking of particles in live-cell microscopy. The results have been applied to an example study into the role of the microtubule-motor kinesin on the function of COPII-coated secretory-cargo exit sites forming part of the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum. These exit sites are marked with multiple EYFP-tagged proteins to produce bright fluorescent particles, and a demonstration of the motility of vesicles, under different conditions in the cell, is described here. It is essential to use a low-level expression of fluorescent protein-tagged cellular components to ensure faithful replication for the behaviour of endogenous protein. However, this leads to a lower ratio for the signal-to-noise than is desired for the sub-pixel tracking of objects in digital images. This has driven the present effort to develop a computational model of the experiment in order to estimate the precision for localization of a fluorescent particle. Our work gives a greater insight, than has been managed in the past, into the accuracy and precision of particle tracking from live-cell imaging under a variety of different conditions, and it takes into consideration the current standards in digital technology for optical microscopy. PMID:18504570

  10. Imaging high stage river-water intrusion into a contaminated aquifer along a major river corridor using 2D time-lapse surface electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, Erin L.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Greenwood, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-03-29

    The Hanford 300 Area is located adjacent to the Columbia River in south-central Washington State, USA, and was a former site for nuclear fuel processing operations. Waste disposal practices resulted in persistent unsaturated zone and groundwater contamination, the primary contaminant of concern being uranium. Uranium behavior at the site is intimately linked with river stage driven groundwater-river water exchange such that understanding the nature of river water intrusion into the 300 Area is critical for predicting uranium desorption and transport. In this paper we use time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the inland intrusion of river during high stage conditions. We demonstrate a modified time-lapse inversion approach, whereby the transient water table elevation is explicitly modeled by removing regularization constraints across the water table boundary. This implementation was critical for producing meaningful imaging results. We inverted approximately 1200 data sets (400 per line over 3 lines) using high performance computing resources to produce a time-lapse sequence of changes in bulk conductivity caused by river water intrusion during the 2011 spring runoff cycle over approximately 125 days. The resulting time series for each mesh element was then analyzed using common time series analysis to reveal the timing and location of river water intrusion beneath each line. The results reveal non-uniform flows characterized by preferred flow zones where river water enters and exits quickly with stage increase and decrease, and low permeability zones with broader bulk conductivity ‘break through’ curves and longer river water residence times. The time-lapse ERT inversion approach removes the deleterious effects of changing water table elevation and enables remote and spatial continuous groundwater-river water exchange monitoring using surface based ERT arrays under conditions where groundwater and river water conductivity are in contrast.

  11. P.W. Verbeek and L.J. van Vliet, An estimator of edge length and surface area in digitized 2D and 3D images, in: IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition, The Hague (The Netherlands), vol. III, 1992, 1-5.

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    D images, in: proc. 11th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition, The Hague (The of edge length and surface area in digitized 2D and 3D images proc. 11th IAPR International Conference to it we can see from dimension considerations that we must multiply by a constant width and a constant

  12. Synchrotron X-ray 2D and 3D Elemental Imaging of CdSe/ZnS Quantum dot Nanoparticles in Daphnia Magna

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.; Pace, H; Lanzirotti, A; Smith, R; Ranville, J

    2009-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is of interest given that increased commercialization will inevitably lead to some instances of inadvertent environmental exposures. Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) capped with zinc sulfide are used in the semiconductor industry and in cellular imaging. Their small size (<10 nm) suggests that they may be readily assimilated by exposed organisms. We exposed Daphnia magna to both red and green QDs and used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to study the distribution of Zn and Se in the organism over a time period of 36 h. The QDs appeared to be confined to the gut, and there was no evidence of further assimilation into the organism. Zinc and Se fluorescence signals were highly correlated, suggesting that the QDs had not dissolved to any extent. There was no apparent difference between red or green QDs, i.e., there was no effect of QD size. 3D tomography confirmed that the QDs were exclusively in the gut area of the organism. It is possible that the QDs aggregated and were therefore too large to cross the gut wall.

  13. P4.37 INTER-COMPARISON OF GOES-8 IMAGER AND SOUNDER SKIN TEMPERATURE RETRIEVALS

    E-print Network

    Haines, Stephanie L.

    observed in GOES-8 and GOES-11 calibrated IR images and analyzing the averaging of ST retrievals fromP4.37 INTER-COMPARISON OF GOES-8 IMAGER AND SOUNDER SKIN TEMPERATURE RETRIEVALS Stephanie L. Haines (GOES) data at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). The GOES Imager or Sounder data are used

  14. Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-bases Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at s...

  15. 3D/2D Registration Via Skeletal Near Projective Invariance in Tubular Objects

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    3D/2D Registration Via Skeletal Near Projective Invariance in Tubular Objects Alan Liu1, Elizabeth of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Abstract. We present a method of 3D/2D image registration. The algorithm justifying these claims are included. 1 Introduction The objective of 3D/2D image registration can

  16. Determination of mean temperatures of normal whole breast and breast quadrants by infrared imaging and image analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Head; C. A. Lipari; R. L. Elliott

    2001-01-01

    In clinical testing it is standard to determine the normal ranged and then to determine if a test can differentiate normal from diseased patients. Now with the advent of uncooled staring array digital infrared imaging systems (Prism 2000; Bioyear Group, Houston, TX) and image analysis, numerical results (mean temperatures of the whole breast and quadrants of the breast) can be

  17. Dual-Luminescent Imaging for Capturing Temperature Field around a Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaue, Hirotaka; Goya, Hideki; Miyazaki, Takeshi

    2013-11-01

    Dual-luminescent imaging uses two-luminescent outputs to extract the temperature information from an acquired image. This is applied to capture the temperature field around a bubble in boiling water. A laser sheet is used as an illumination source to obtain a temperature profile of the bubble. By using a fast frame-rate camera as an image acquisition unit, the time-resolved temperature information around the bubble can be captured. In the presentation, a current status of this measurement will be presented.

  18. Implementation of 2D\\/3D Transformation for Clothing Panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinrong Hu; Yan Bai; Shuqin Cui; Zhongmin Deng

    2009-01-01

    2D\\/3D transformation for clothing panel is one of most important steps for virtual clothing. And vector mesh generation is one of the basic tasks that complete 2D\\/3D transformation of clothing panel images and virtual clothing designs. Based on the classical methods of generating meshes, an algorithm for generating vector meshes which is suitable for garment panel images was presented. The

  19. Spatio-temporal prediction of daily temperatures using time-series of MODIS LST images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomislav Hengl; Gerard B. M. Heuvelink; Melita Per?ec Tadi?; Edzer J. Pebesma

    2012-01-01

    A computational framework to generate daily temperature maps using time-series of publicly available MODIS MOD11A2 product\\u000a Land Surface Temperature (LST) images (1 km resolution; 8-day composites) is illustrated using temperature measurements from\\u000a the national network of meteorological stations (159) in Croatia. The input data set contains 57,282 ground measurements of\\u000a daily temperature for the year 2008. Temperature was modeled as a

  20. Automatic 3D to 2D Registration for the Photorealistic Rendering of Urban Lingyun Liu and Ioannis Stamos

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    Automatic 3D to 2D Registration for the Photorealistic Rendering of Urban Scenes Lingyun Liu Recognition 2005 Abstract This paper presents a novel and efficient algorithm for the 3D range to 2D image of unregistered and uncalibrated 2D im- ages of the scene. The 3D range scans and 2D images cap- ture real scenes

  1. Measurement of brain temperature using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Jehill

    2013-07-06

    The study of brain temperature is important for a number of clinical conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia and birth asphyxia (for neonates). A direct method to estimate brain temperature ...

  2. Compression of IP Images for Autostereoscopic 3D Imaging Applications N.P.Sgouros', A.G.Andreou', MSSangriotis', P.G.Papageorgas2,D.M.Maroulis', N.G.Theofanous'

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    Compression of IP Images for Autostereoscopic 3D Imaging Applications N.P.Sgouros', A, revived the interest for 3D applications. Many promising technologies evolved, ranging from polarizing glasses, mostly used at the early stages of 3D cinema, to most sophisticated techniques like eye

  3. Scenery's temperature image based on two-band uncooled focal plane array thermal images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuqing He; Weiqi Jin; Xia Wang; Zhiyun Gao; Lingxue Wang; Guangrong Liu

    2002-01-01

    Dual-band uncooled Focal Plane Array (FPA) thermal imaging system adopts an Archimedes spiral cord chopper and a matched dual-band light filter to achieve two single-band IR images in one imaging system. Traditional methods of getting two bands images need two single-band thermal imagers, this system only needs one detector and one optical imaging system, so the system's structure becomes smaller

  4. Imploded Capsule Fuel Temperature and Density Measurement by Energy-Dependent Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M J; Koch, J; Landen, O L; Haan, S W; Barrera, C A; Morse, E C

    2005-09-28

    Neutron imaging systems measure the spatial distribution of neutron emission from burning inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. These systems use a traditional pinhole geometry to project an image of the source onto a two-dimensional scintillator array, and a CCD records the resulting scintillation image. The recent history of ICF neutron images has produced images with qualities that have improved as the fusion neutron yields have increased to nearly 10{sup 14} neutrons. Anticipated future neutron yields in excess of 10{sup 16} at the National Ignition Facility and LMJ have raised the prospect of neuron imaging diagnostics which simultaneously probe several different characteristics of burning fusion targets. The new measurements rely on gated-image recording to select images corresponding to specific bands of neutron energies. Gated images of downscattered neutrons with energies from 5 to 8 MeV can emphasize regions of the target which contain DT fuel which is not burning. At the same time, gated images which select different portions of the 14-MeV spectral peak can produce spatial temperature maps of a burning target. Since the neutron production depends on the DT fuel density and temperature, simultaneous images of temperature and neutron emission can be combined to infer the an image of the source density using an Abel inversion method that is analogous to the method that has been used in x-ray imaging. Thus, with higher-yield sources, neutron imaging offers the potential to record simultaneously several critical features that characterize the performance of an ICF target: the neutron emission distribution, the temperature and density distributions, and the distribution of nonburning fuel within the target.

  5. Retrieval of Temperature and Species Distributions from Multispectral Image Data of Surface Flame Spread in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, K. D.; Conant, John A.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2001-01-01

    Weight, size, and power constraints severely limit the ability of researchers to fully characterize temperature and species distributions in microgravity combustion experiments. A powerful diagnostic technique, infrared imaging spectrometry, has the potential to address the need for temperature and species distribution measurements in microgravity experiments. An infrared spectrum imaged along a line-of-sight contains information on the temperature and species distribution in the imaged path. With multiple lines-of-sight and approximate knowledge of the geometry of the combustion flowfield, a three-dimensional distribution of temperature and species can be obtained from one hyperspectral image of a flame. While infrared imaging spectrometers exist for collecting hyperspectral imagery, the remaining challenge is retrieving the temperature and species information from this data. An initial version of an infrared analysis software package, called CAMEO (Combustion Analysis Model et Optimizer), has been developed for retrieving temperature and species distributions from hyperspectral imaging data of combustion flowfields. CAMEO has been applied to the analysis of multispectral imaging data of flame spread over a PMMA surface in microgravity that was acquired in the DARTFire program. In the next section of this paper, a description of CAMEO and its operation is presented, followed by the results of the analysis of microgravity flame spread data.

  6. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Shape-Adaptive Embedded Coding of Ocean-Temperature Imagery

    E-print Network

    Fowler, James E.

    to that of the prominent JPEG-2000 standard [10] in tasks such as the compression of hyperspectral image cubes. JPEG-2000 approach to the compres- sion of 2D images--was adapted to 3D ocean-temperature imagery with arbitrary performance is demonstrated for a variety of ocean-temperature datasets. I. INTRODUCTION The compression

  8. Galax2d: 2D isothermal Euler equations solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Galax2d computes the 2D stationary solution of the isothermal Euler equations of gas dynamics in a rotating galaxy with a weak bar. The gravitational potential represents a weak bar and controls the flow. A damped Newton method solves the second-order upwind discretization of the equations for a steady-state solution, using a consistent linearization and a direct solver. The code can be applied as a tool for generating flow models if used on not too fine meshes, up to 256 by 256 cells for half a disk in polar coordinates.

  9. Ratiometric Temperature Imaging Using Environment-Insensitive Luminescence of Mn-Doped Core/Shell Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yerok; Koo, Chiwan; Chen, Hsiang-Yun; Han, Arum; Son, Dong Hee

    2013-01-01

    We report a ratiometric temperature imaging method based on Mn luminescence from Mn-doped CdS/ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled doping location, which is designed to exhibit strong temperature dependence of the spectral lineshape while being insensitive to the surrounding chemical environment. Ratiometric thermometry on Mn luminescence spectrum was performed by using Mn-doped CdS/ZnS core/shell NCs that have a large local lattice strain on Mn site, which results in the enhanced temperature dependence of the bandwidth and peak position. Mn luminescence spectral lineshape is highly robust with respect to the change in the polarity, phase and pH of the surrounding medium and aggregation of the NCs, showing great potential in temperature imaging under chemically heterogeneous environment. The temperature sensitivity (?IR/IR = 0.5%/K at 293 K, IR = intensity ratio at two different wavelengths) is highly linear in a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to above-ambient temperatures. We demonstrate the surface temperature imaging of a cyro-cooling device showing the temperature variation of >200 K by imaging the luminescence of the NC film formed by simple spin coating, taking advantage of the environment-insensitive luminescence. PMID:23629731

  10. Phase Contrast Imaging Methods to Study Waves and Turbulence in High Temperature Tokamak Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Porkolab; N. Basse; J. Dorris; E. Edlund; L. Lin; Y. Lin; C. Rost; S. Wukitch

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) is an internal reference beam interferometric technique which has been used successfully in high temperature tokamak plasma experiments to image line integrated plasma density fluctuations. The PCI technique utilizes a 18 deep grooved \\

  11. VLSI architecture for fast 2D discrete orthonormal wavelet transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Y. H. Chuang; Ling Chen

    1995-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) provides a new method for signal\\/image analysis where high frequency components are studied with finer time resolution and low frequency components with coarser time resolution. It decomposes a signal or an image into localized contributions for multiscale analysis. In this paper, we present a parallel pipelined VLSI array architecture for 2D dyadic separable DWT. The

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Temperature Changes During Interstitial Microwave Heating: A Phantom Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Vitkina; J. A. Moriarty; R. D. Peters; Michael C Kolios; A. S. Gladman; J. C. Chen; R. S. Hinks; J. W. Hunt; B. C. Wilson; A. C. Easty; M. J. Bronskill; W. Kucharczyk; M. D. Sherar; R. M. Henkelman

    1997-01-01

    Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) signals during interstitial microwave heating are reported, and correlated with simultaneously acquired temperature readings from three fiber-optic probes implanted in a polyacrylamide gel phantom. The heating by a MR-compatible microwave antenna did not interfere with simultaneous MR image data acquisition. MR phase-difference images were obtained using a fast two-dimensional-gradient echo sequence. From these images the

  13. Research on temperature distribution of combustion flames based on high dynamic range imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhao; Huajun Feng; Zhihai Xu; Qi Li

    2007-01-01

    The imaging-based three-color method is widely used in the field of non-contact temperature measurement of combustion flames. In this paper, by analyzing the imaging process of a combustion flame in detail, we re-derivate the three-color method by adopting a theory of high dynamic range imaging. Instead of using white balanced, gamma calibrated or other algorithms applied 8-bit pixel values, we

  14. 2D-3D VASCULAR REGISTRATION BETWEEN DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHIC (DSA) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHIC

    E-print Network

    Chung, Albert C. S.

    ) images provide 3D structural information before treatments; digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) images2D-3D VASCULAR REGISTRATION BETWEEN DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHIC (DSA) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE the skeleton points to their closest boundary. To generate projected images for 2D-3D registration, instead

  15. 2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1?cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15?µm in a 170?µm displacement range. The high payload (20?mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.

  16. Tree visualization with Tree-maps: A 2-d space-filling approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shneiderman

    1991-01-01

    this paper deals with a two-dimensional (2-d) space-fillingapproach in which each node is a rectangle whose area is proportional to some attribute suchas node size.Research on relationships between 2-d images and their representation in tree structures hasfocussed on node and link representations of 2-d images. This work includes quad-trees(Samet, 1989) and their variants which are important in image processing. The

  17. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B Java 2D

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B ­ Java 2D 20 - Graphics2D: Introduction 21 - Graphics2D: Shapes 22 2D: General Path Curves 29 - Graphics 2D: Constructive Area Geometry Gary Hill December 2003 Java 2 Java initially through the Abstract Window Toolkit, which was extended to include swing, shortly

  18. 2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height.

    E-print Network

    Oakes, Terry

    2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Well separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Well separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Somewhat separated. #12;2D Gaussian distributions. Equal height. Noise-free. Overlapping. #12;2D Gaussian

  19. 3D from arbitrary 2D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideses, Ianir A.; Yaroslavsky, Leonid P.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we present methods to synthesize 3D video from arbitrary 2D video. The 2D video is analyzed by computing frame-by-frame motion maps. For this computation, several methods were tested, including optical flow, segmentation and correlation based target location. Using the computed motion maps, the video undergoes analysis and the frames are segmented to provide object-wise depth ordering. The frames are then used to synthesize stereo pairs. This is performed by resampling frames on a grid that is governed by a corresponding depth-map. In order to improve the quality of the synthetic video, as well as to enable 2D viewing where 3D visualization is not possible, several techniques for image enhancement are used. In our test case, anaglyph projection was selected as the 3D visualization method, as the method is mostly suited to standard displays. The drawback of this method is ghosting artifacts. In our implementation we minimize these unwanted artifacts by modifying the computed depth-maps using non-linear transformations. Defocusing of one anaglyph color component was also used to counter such artifacts. Our results show that the suggested methods enable synthesis of high quality 3D videos.

  20. 3D from compressed 2D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideses, Ianir A.; Yaroslavsky, Leonid P.; Fishbain, Barak; Vistuch, Roni

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method to synthesize 3D video from compressed 2D video. The 2D video is analyzed by computing frame-by-frame motion maps. For this computation, MPEG motion vectors extraction was performed. Using the extracted motion vector maps, the video undergoes analysis and the frames are segmented to provide object-wise depth ordering. The frames are then used to synthesize stereo pairs. This is performed by resampling the video frames on a grid that is governed by a corresponding depth-map. In order to improve the quality of the synthetic video, as well as to enable 2D viewing where 3D visualization is not possible, several techniques for image enhancement are used. In our test case, anaglyph projection was selected as the 3D visualization method, as the method is mostly suited to standard displays. The drawback of this method is ghosting artifacts. In our implementation we minimize these unwanted artifacts by modifying the computed depth-maps using non-linear transformations. Defocusing of one anaglyph color component was also used to counter such artifacts. Our results show that the suggested methods enable synthesis of high quality 3D videos in real-time.

  1. A downscaling framework for brightness temperature and near surface soil moisture images derived from ESTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, L. M.; Liang, X.

    2002-12-01

    Brightness temperature images derived from electronically scanned thin array radiometer (ESTAR) may be used for validation of or assimilation into radiation transfer models, and for derivation of near-surface soil moisture images. Near-surface soil moisture may in turn be assimilated into land-surface models to improve their predictive capabilities. Thus, the availability of such images is crucial for a better understanding and characterization of atmosphere-surface dynamics and for improving weather forecasts. It is expected that brightness temperature images taken from space may eventually be available at a resolution of 10-km by 10-km. Various researchers have reported that the derived near surface soil moisture images posses scaling properties over scales ranging from 200-m to 90-km. These findings suggest that it may be possible to statistically characterize the effects of sub-grid variability of soil moisture. This study presents a new downscaling framework for brightness temperature and soil moisture images derived from ESTAR. The simple mathematical model used for this purpose is clearly defined. Validation is performed with the brightness temperature images taken during the Southern Great Plains Hydrology Experiment of 1997 (SGP97). The results obtained show that the proposed downscaling scheme is capable of accurately capturing the first and second order statistics of the observed brightness temperature images. The work presented here constitutes a first attempt to understand the spatial structure of brightness temperature and soil moisture images when viewed at different resolutions so that we may eventually be able to evaluate the effects of sub-grid variations of these variables in our land-surface representations and weather forecasts.

  2. Intracellular temperature mapping with a fluorescent polymeric thermometer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Kohki; Inada, Noriko; Gota, Chie; Harada, Yoshie; Funatsu, Takashi; Uchiyama, Seiichi

    2012-01-01

    Cellular functions are fundamentally regulated by intracellular temperature, which influences biochemical reactions inside a cell. Despite the important contributions to biological and medical applications that it would offer, intracellular temperature mapping has not been achieved. Here we demonstrate the first intracellular temperature mapping based on a fluorescent polymeric thermometer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The spatial and temperature resolutions of our thermometry were at the diffraction limited level (200 nm) and 0.18–0.58 °C. The intracellular temperature distribution we observed indicated that the nucleus and centrosome of a COS7 cell, both showed a significantly higher temperature than the cytoplasm and that the temperature gap between the nucleus and the cytoplasm differed depending on the cell cycle. The heat production from mitochondria was also observed as a proximal local temperature increase. These results showed that our new intracellular thermometry could determine an intrinsic relationship between the temperature and organelle function. PMID:22426226

  3. Temperature dependent operation of PSAPD-based compact gamma camera for SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtaek; McClish, Mickel; Alhassen, Fares; Seo, Youngho; Shah, Kanai S.; Gould, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of image quality on the temperature of a position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD)-based small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) gamma camera with a CsI:Tl scintillator. Currently, nitrogen gas cooling is preferred to operate PSAPDs in order to minimize the dark current shot noise. Being able to operate a PSAPD at a relatively high temperature (e.g., 5 °C) would allow a more compact and simple cooling system for the PSAPD. In our investigation, the temperature of the PSAPD was controlled by varying the flow of cold nitrogen gas through the PSAPD module and varied from ?40 °C to 20 °C. Three experiments were performed to demonstrate the performance variation over this temperature range. The point spread function (PSF) of the gamma camera was measured at various temperatures, showing variation of full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the PSF. In addition, a 99mTc-pertechnetate (140 keV) flood source was imaged and the visibility of the scintillator segmentation (16×16 array, 8 mm × 8 mm area, 400 ?m pixel size) at different temperatures was evaluated. Comparison of image quality was made at ?25 °C and 5 °C using a mouse heart phantom filled with an aqueous solution of 99mTc-pertechnetate and imaged using a 0.5 mm pinhole collimator made of tungsten. The reconstructed image quality of the mouse heart phantom at 5 °C degraded in comparision to the reconstructed image quality at ?25 °C. However, the defect and structure of the mouse heart phantom were clearly observed, showing the feasibility of operating PSAPDs for SPECT imaging at 5 °C, a temperature that would not need the nitrogen cooling. All PSAPD evaluations were conducted with an applied bias voltage that allowed the highest gain at a given temperature. PMID:24465051

  4. A vision-based 2D-3D registration system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan Wang; Suya You

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic system for robust alignment of 2D optical images with 3D LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data. Focusing on applications such as data fusion and rapid updating for GIS (geographic information systems) from diverse sources when accurate georeference is not available, our goal is a vision-based approach to recover the 2D to 3D transformation

  5. IR Temperatures of Mauna Loa Caldera Obtained with Multispectral Thermal Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2001-07-18

    A survey of surface temperatures of the Mauna Loa caldera during 7/14/00 and 7/15/00 was made by SRTC in conjunction with a MTI satellite image collection. The general variation of surface temperature appears quite predictable responding to solar heating. The analysis of detailed times series of temperature indicates systematic variations in temperature of 5 C corresponding to time scales of 3-5 minutes and space scales of 10-20 m. The average temperature patterns are consistent with those predicted by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS).

  6. Monitoring tissue temperature for photothermal cancer therapy based on photoacoustic imaging: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Liu, Yubing; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.; Chen, Haiyu; Wang, Huan

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we proposed photoacoustic imaging to monitor the temperature increase during photothermal therapy, which was carried out by utilizing a continuous wave laser and photoabsorber-enhanced black ink with a absorption peak in the near-infrared optical range. A focusing photoacoustic imaging is interfaced with a nanosecond pulsed laser to image tissue-mimicking phantoms before and after laser irradiation. The results demonstrated that changes in the photoacoustic signal could reflect temperature changes in tissue. More importantly, photoacoustic signal could be used to determine the temperature at the boundary of photoabsorber-enhance tissue during photothermal irradiation. Thus, the photoacoustic imaging could potentially become an effective tool to guide photoabsorber-enhanced photothermal therapy.

  7. Fast approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data: Born approximation and empirical approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data: Born approximation and empirical approach surveying provides data sections with a sufficient coverage to perform 2D imaging of electrical conductivity within the ground. Full 2D inversion using numerical modeling with finite differences or finite elements

  8. Automatic 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Techniques for 3DTV

    E-print Network

    Po, Lai-Man

    Automatic 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Techniques for 3DTV Dr. Lai-Man Po Email: eelmpoD Video Conversion? Overview of 2D-to-3D Video Conversion System Techniques to automatically convert 2D video to 3D: Depth Map Estimation Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) Demo Conclusions #12

  9. Earth Observatory Data and Images - Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors can use sea surface temperature data to build animations that show seasonal and yearly fluctuations, and compare them to data from other selected months and years. The animations can be constructed in map or globe formats and may be viewed on the website or downloaded.

  10. Temperature Imaging using Quadriwave Shearing Interferometry. Applications in Thermoplasmonics.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    nanoparticles as ideal nanosources of heat is the basis of numerous research activities and applications of the metal nanoparticles is not an easy task. In this context, we recently developed a novel optical microscopy technique, named TIQSI, aimed at mapping the temperature around plasmonic nanoparticles [2

  11. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  12. Fluorescence imaging technique applied to high-temperature catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundson, Frederik; Behrendt, F.; Rosen, Arne

    1995-09-01

    We have used the planar laser induced fluorescence, PLIF, technique to study the OH concentration distributions outside a catalytic surface at different pressures and gas compositions. In the experiments a flow of hydrogen and oxygen at a total pressure of 0.2 - 1 Torr is directed towards a platinum foil, which is resistively heated to 1300 K. OH radicals are formed on the catalyst surface as an intermediate in the 2H2 + O2 yields 2H2O reaction. A small fraction of the OH radicals desorb to the gas phase, instead of reacting with adsorbed H atoms to form H2O. These desorbed radicals are detected with the PLIF technique in a region 1 - 6 mm from the surface, i.e., spatial distribution patterns are obtained. The recorded fluorescence patterns are corrected for laser beam intensity variations. The corrected patterns are used to determine the relative OH concentration distributions outside the surface at different pressures and gas compositions. The recorded fluorescence patterns from different transitions are used to determine rotational temperature distributions. The measurements are compared with results from a computer model that simulates the laminar stagnation point flow of hydrogen and oxygen on the catalyst. The model includes both gas phase reactions and surface reactions. The relative amount of OH radicals as function of the distance from the platinum foil and gas temperatures with the simulated temperature profiles we found that the gas phase temperature can not be calculated assuming continuity in the temperature over the gas-surface boundary.

  13. Component temperatures inversion using airborne multi-band thermal infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Honglan; Liu, Chengyu; Xie, Feng; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-11-01

    Most of the pixels in thermal infrared remote sensing images are three-dimensional non-isothermal pixel, especially for the pixels with the size of meters, tens of meters or hundreds of meters which have received widespread attention in geoscience and remote sensing. Even though the sizes of some pixels reach centimeters, the three-dimensional non-isothermal phenomenon may still arise. So, it is very important to accurately determine the component temperatures in one pixel for the related researches in geoscience. The remote sensing data used to carry out the related inversion experiments in this paper was the airborne remote sensing data obtained by WSIS (Wide Spectrum Imaging Spectrometer) the imaging wave bands of which include VNIR (visible light and near infrared), SWIR (short wave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared). Firstly, the components of all the pixels in the image were determined through the VNIR images using linear mixing spectral model. Secondly, the emissivity of each component in every pixel in the image was determined according to a prior knowledge base of emissivity of many surface features. Thirdly, the so called average temperature of every pixel was retrieved using the TES (temperature and emissivity separation) algorithm. The retrieved temperature was regarded as initial value. The multi-band equations were established after the linearization of Planck function, and the component temperatures of every pixel in the image were inversed. The results show that the accuracy of the component temperatures inversion in one pixel can be improved obviously, with the combination of the VNIR, SWIR and TIR images.

  14. Development of ultra-high temperature material characterization capabilities using digital image correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Julia Elaine

    2011-12-01

    Ultra-high temperature deformation measurements are required to characterize the thermo-mechanical response of material systems for thermal protection systems for aerospace applications. The use of conventional surface-contacting strain measurement techniques is not practical in elevated temperature conditions. Technological advancements in digital imaging provide impetus to measure full-field displacement and determine strain fields with sub-pixel accuracy by image processing. In this work, an Instron electromechanical axial testing machine with a custom-designed high temperature gripping mechanism is used to apply quasi-static tensile loads to graphite specimens heated to 2000°F (1093°C). Specimen heating via Joule effect is achieved and maintained with a custom-designed temperature control system. Images are captured at monotonically increasing load levels throughout the test duration using an 18 megapixel Canon EOS Rebel T2i digital camera with a modified Schneider Kreutznach telecentric lens and a combination of blue light illumination and narrow band-pass filter system. Images are processed using an open-source Matlab-based digital image correlation (DIC) code. Validation of source code is performed using Mathematica generated images with specified known displacement fields in order to gain confidence in accurate software tracking capabilities. Room temperature results are compared with extensometer readings. Ultra-high temperature strain measurements for graphite are obtained at low load levels, demonstrating the potential for non-contacting digital image correlation techniques to accurately determine full-field strain measurements at ultra-high temperature. Recommendations are given to improve the experimental set-up to achieve displacement field measurements accurate to 1/10 pixel and strain field accuracy of less than 2%.

  15. Temperature imaging of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) by MRI: evaluation of different sequences in phantom.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Babak; Hübner, Frank; Farshid, Parviz; Hammerstingl, Renate; Paul, Jijo; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner; Vogl, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging of the laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) comparing the proton resonance frequency (PRF) and T 1 thermometry methods. LITT was applied to a liver-mimicking acrylamide gel phantom. Temperature rise up to 70 °C was measured using a MR-compatible fiber-optic thermometer. MR imaging was performed by a 1.5-T scanner utilizing fast gradient echo sequences including a segmented echo planar imaging (seg-EPI) sequence for PRF and the following sequences for T 1 method: fast low-angle shot (FLASH), inversion recovery turbo flash (IRTF), saturation recovery turbo flash (SRTF), and true fast imaging (TRUFI). Temperature-induced change of the pixel values in circular regions of interest, selected on images under the temperature probe tip, was recorded. For each sequence, a calibration constant could be determined to be -0.0088 ± 0.0002 ppm °C(-1) (EPI), -1.15 ± 0.03 °C(-1) (FLASH), -1.49 ± 0.03 °C(-1) (IRTF), -1.21 ± 0.03 °C(-1) (SRTF), and -2.52 ± 0.12 °C(-1) (TRUFI). These constants were evaluated in further LITT experiments in phantom comparing the calculated temperatures with the fiber optic-measured ones; temperature precisions of 0.60 °C (EPI), 0.81 °C (FLASH), 1.85 °C (IRTF), 1.95 °C (SRTF), and 3.36 °C (TRUFI) were obtained. Furthermore, performing the Bland-Altman analysis, temperature accuracy was determined to be 0.23 °C (EPI), 0.31 °C (FLASH), 1.66 °C (IRTF), 1.19 °C (SRTF), and 3.20 °C (TRUFI). In conclusion, the seg-EPI sequence was found to be more convenient for MR temperature imaging of LITT due to its relatively high precision and accuracy. Among the T 1 method sequences, FLASH showed the highest accuracy and robustness. PMID:23535892

  16. High-speed color imaging and ratio temperature radiometer by multispectral optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ohno, Yoshio; Mitsui, Kenji

    2003-07-01

    In order to analyze mechanism of melting and deformation of metal while it is being rapidly heating, or a combusion process, it is important not only to measure the time displacement of a sample and its acceleration, but to measure the change in the temperature distribution of the sample over time. For this purpose, we have developed a new Multi-Spectral Optics. By mounting combining a high-speed camera with our Multi-Spectral Optics system, we have successfully acquired a temperature distribution map and its color image simultaneously. In our system, a color image is composed with three spectrum images from wavelengths, 450 nm, 550 nm and 750 nm. A temperature distribution map can be created from two images in the near infra-red wavelengths, 750 nm and 850 nm, which were obtained by applying the ratio temperature pyrometry method. However, in order to observe and analyze rapid deformation of a sample, it is important to capture vivid images in color. This task requires additional external light. Since a high intensity of emitted light will cause an error in temperature, it is very difficult correctly to measure temperature and deformation of the sample at the same time. Temperature measured with near infra-red lights is not be influenced by the external surrounding light. In particular, for taking photos of welding phenomena, it is possible to capture clear images with excessive lighting without affecting temperature measurement. Moreover, in combustion phenomenon, it is possible to avoid the influence of chemiluminescence caused by radicals such as C2 in flame.

  17. 2D packing using the Myriad framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatburn, Luke T.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    2004-02-01

    Myriad is a framework for building networked and distributed vision systems and is described in a companion paper in this conference. Myriad allows the components of a multi-camera, multi-user vision system (web-cameras, image processing engines, intelligent device controllers, databases and the user interface terminals) to be interconnected and operated together, even if they are physically separated by many hundreds, or thousands, of kilometres. This is achieved by operating them as Internet services. The principal objective in this article is to illustrate the simplicity of harmonising visual control with an existing system using Myriad. However, packing of 2-dimensional blob-like objects is of considerable commercial importance in some industries and involves robotic handling and/or cutting. The shapes to be packed may be cut from sheet metal, glass, cloth, leather, wood, card, paper, composite board, or flat food materials. In addition, many 3D packing applications can realistically be tackled only by regarding them as multi-layer 2D applications. Using Myriad to perform 2D packing, a set of blob-like input objects ("shapes") can be digitised using a standard camera (e.g. a "webcam"). The resulting digital images are then analysed, using a separate processing engine, perhaps located on a different continent. The packing is planned by another processing system, perhaps on a third continent. Finally, the assembly is performed using a robot, usually but not necessarily, located close to the camera.

  18. Stabilization and extraction of 2D barcodes for camera phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Hua Chu; De-Nian Yang; Ya-Lan Pan; Ming-Syan Chen

    2011-01-01

    With the ubiquity of cellular phones, mobile applications with 2D barcodes have drawn a lot of attentions in recent years.\\u000a When a user takes a barcode image with the camera in a mobile device, the captured image tends to be blurred due to camera\\u000a shaking when the user presses the shutter. In addition, the captured image includes part of the

  19. Extended Kalman filtering for continuous volumetric MR-temperature imaging.

    PubMed

    Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Roujol, Sébastien; Hey, Silke; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Real time magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry has evolved into the method of choice for the guidance of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) interventions. For this role, MR-thermometry should preferably have a high temporal and spatial resolution and allow observing the temperature over the entire targeted area and its vicinity with a high accuracy. In addition, the precision of real time MR-thermometry for therapy guidance is generally limited by the available signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the influence of physiological noise. MR-guided HIFU would benefit of the large coverage volumetric temperature maps, including characterization of volumetric heating trajectories as well as near- and far-field heating. In this paper, continuous volumetric MR-temperature monitoring was obtained as follows. The targeted area was continuously scanned during the heating process by a multi-slice sequence. Measured data and a priori knowledge of 3-D data derived from a forecast based on a physical model were combined using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed reconstruction improved the temperature measurement resolution and precision while maintaining guaranteed output accuracy. The method was evaluated experimentally ex vivo on a phantom, and in vivo on a porcine kidney, using HIFU heating. On the in vivo experiment, it allowed the reconstruction from a spatio-temporally under-sampled data set (with an update rate for each voxel of 1.143 s) to a 3-D dataset covering a field of view of 142.5×285×54 mm(3) with a voxel size of 3×3×6 mm(3) and a temporal resolution of 0.127 s. The method also provided noise reduction, while having a minimal impact on accuracy and latency. PMID:23268383

  20. Regional Stream Temperature Estimation Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Images From Terra - ASTER And Ground Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Kay, J. E.; Handcock, R. N.; Gillespie, A.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is a significant water quality concern in the Pacific Northwest, where warm water can be lethal for indigenous fish species and cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened and endangered salmon. This necessitates regional-scale assessments of water temperature for compliance monitoring. These assessments have, however, been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time using submerged temperature-recording sensors. In the Puget Sound region, for example, the State of Washington relied on periodic data collected at 76 stations to assess water quality conditions for 12,721 km of streams and rivers (i.e., one station for 167 km of stream). We are evaluating the utility of remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) and visible images of streams and stream corridors for increasing the data coverage for stream temperature analysis and assessment. If stream temperatures can be estimated from images with known and acceptable levels of confidence, then regional temperature assessments will be less sensitive to the uncertainty associated with sampling temperature at a relatively small number of ground stations. Stream temperatures, energy and water fluxes are monitored to evaluate their significance to the stream energy balance using a ground-based network of temperature data loggers, stream gauging stations, and meteorological observations. Radiant ("skin") temperatures of streams and rivers are recorded with point measurements to evaluate the relationship between the kinetic and the "skin" temperature of the water in various conditions. TIR images from Terra - ASTER of parts of the Green River basin, Washington State, are processed and analyzed to obtain spatially extensive "skin" water temperature, and to identify the types of stream that are amenable to satellite thermal infrared remote temperature monitoring.

  1. Improving Image Quality by Accounting for Changes in Water Temperature during a Photoacoustic Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Van de Sompel, Dominique; Sasportas, Laura Sarah; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Bohndiek, Sarah; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of photoacoustic tomography is rapidly evolving with many new system designs and reconstruction algorithms being published. Many systems use water as a coupling medium between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Prior to a scan, the water is heated to body temperature to enable small animal imaging. During the scan, the water heating system of some systems is switched off to minimize the risk of bubble formation, which leads to a gradual decrease in water temperature and hence the speed of sound. In this work, we use a commercially available scanner that follows this procedure, and show that a failure to model intra-scan temperature decreases as small as 1.5°C leads to image artifacts that may be difficult to distinguish from true structures, particularly in complex scenes. We then improve image quality by continuously monitoring the water temperature during the scan and applying variable speed of sound corrections in the image reconstruction algorithm. While upgrading to an air bubble-free heating pump and keeping it running during the scan could also solve the changing temperature problem, we show that a software correction for the temperature changes provides a cost-effective alternative to a hardware upgrade. The efficacy of the software corrections was shown to be consistent across objects of widely varying appearances, namely physical phantoms, ex vivo tissue, and in vivo mouse imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of modeling temporal variations in the speed of sound during photoacoustic scans, as opposed to spatial variations as focused on by previous studies. Since air bubbles pose a common problem in ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging systems, our results will be useful to future small animal imaging studies that use scanners with similarly limited heating units. PMID:23071512

  2. Research on temperature distribution of combustion flames based on high dynamic range imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi

    2007-10-01

    The imaging-based three-color method is widely used in the field of non-contact temperature measurement of combustion flames. In this paper, by analyzing the imaging process of a combustion flame in detail, we re-derivate the three-color method by adopting a theory of high dynamic range imaging. Instead of using white balanced, gamma calibrated or other algorithms applied 8-bit pixel values, we use irradiance values on the image plane; these values are obtained by combining two differently exposed raw images into one high dynamic range irradiance map with the help of the imaging system's response function. An instrumentation system is presented and a series of experiments have been carried out, the results of which are satisfactory.

  3. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 ?m. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  4. Numerical reconstruction of 2D potential fields from discrete measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Irša; A. N. Galybin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider reconstructions of potential 2D fields from discrete measurements. Two potential processes are addressed, steady flow and heat conduction. In the first case, the flow speed and streamlines are determined from the discrete data on flow directions, in the second case, the temperature and flux are recovered from temperature measurements at

  5. Raman characterization of high temperature materials using an imaging detector

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, G.M.; Veirs, D.K.

    1989-03-01

    The characterization of materials by Raman spectroscopy has been advanced by recent technological developments in light detectors. Imaging photomultiplier-tube detectors are now available that impart position information in two dimensions while retaining photon-counting sensitivity, effectively greatly reducing noise. The combination of sensitivity and reduced noise allows smaller amounts of material to be analyzed. The ability to observe small amount of material when coupled with position information makes possible Raman characterization in which many spatial elements are analyzed simultaneously. Raman spectroscopy making use of these capabilities has been used, for instance, to analyze the phases present in carbon films and fibers and to map phase-transformed zones accompanying crack propagation in toughened zirconia ceramics. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Using optoacoustic imaging for measuring the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena; Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Grüneisen parameter is a key temperature-dependent physical characteristic responsible for thermoelastic efficiency of materials. We propose a new methodology for accurate measurements of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions. We use two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging to improve accuracy of measurements. Our approach eliminates contribution of local optical fluence and absorbance. To validate the proposed methodology, we studied temperature dependence of aqueous cupric sulfate solutions in the range from 22 to 4°C. Our results for the most diluted salt perfectly matched known temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of water. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for cupric sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration. In addition to accurate measurements of Grüneisen changes with temperature, the developed technique provides a basis for future high precision OA temperature monitoring in live tissues. PMID:24150350

  7. Using optoacoustic imaging for measuring the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Elena; Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2013-10-21

    Grüneisen parameter is a key temperature-dependent physical characteristic responsible for thermoelastic efficiency of materials. We propose a new methodology for accurate measurements of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions. We use two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging to improve accuracy of measurements. Our approach eliminates contribution of local optical fluence and absorbance. To validate the proposed methodology, we studied temperature dependence of aqueous cupric sulfate solutions in the range from 22 to 4 °C. Our results for the most diluted salt perfectly matched known temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of water. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for cupric sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration. In addition to accurate measurements of Grüneisen changes with temperature, the developed technique provides a basis for future high precision OA temperature monitoring in live tissues. PMID:24150350

  8. A 2D Luttinger model

    E-print Network

    Edwin Langmann

    2010-04-14

    A detailed derivation of a two dimensional (2D) low energy effective model for spinless fermions on a square lattice with local interactions is given. This derivation utilizes a particular continuum limit that is justified by physical arguments. It is shown that the effective model thus obtained can be treated by exact bosonization methods. It is also discussed how this effective model can be used to obtain physical information about the corresponding lattice fermion system.

  9. Current profile reconstruction using electron temperature imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.; Sabbagh, S. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Plasma Spectroscopy Group, Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione, ENEA, Frascati (Italy); Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Flux surface shape information can be used to constrain the current profile for reconstruction of the plasma equilibrium. One method of inferring flux surface shape relies on plasma x-ray emission; however, deviations from the flux surfaces due to impurity and density asymmetries complicate the interpretation. Electron isotherm surfaces should correspond well to the plasma flux surfaces, and equilibrium constraint modeling using this isotherm information constrains the current profile. The KFIT code is used to assess the profile uncertainty and to optimize the number, location and SNR required for the Te detectors. As Te imaging detectors we consider tangentially viewing, vertically spaced, linear gas electron multiplier arrays operated in pulse height analysis (PHA) mode and multifoil soft x-ray arrays. Isoflux coordinate sets provided by T{sub e} measurements offer a strong constraint on the equilibrium reconstruction in both a stacked horizontal array configuration and a crossed horizontal and vertical beam system, with q{sub 0} determined to within {+-}4%. The required SNR can be provided with either PHA or multicolor diagnostic techniques, though the multicolor system requires {approx}x4 better statistics for comparable final errors.

  10. From weakly to strongly interacting 2D Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Paul; Fenech, Kristian; Lingham, Marcus; Peppler, Tyson; Hoinka, Sascha; Vale, Chris

    2014-05-01

    We study ultracold 2D Fermi gases of 6Li formed in a highly oblate trapping potential. The potential is generated by a cylindrically focused, blue detuned TEM01 mode laser beam. Weak magnetic field curvature provides highly harmonic confinement in the radial direction and we can readily produce single clouds with an aspect ratio of 230. Our experiments investigate the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D for a two component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein Condensate to Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer crossover. Observation of an elbow in measurements of the cloud width vs. atom number is consistent with populating only the lowest transverse harmonic oscillator state for weak attractive interactions. This measurement is extended to the strongly interacting region using the broad Feshbach resonance at 832 G. We also report our progress towards measurement of the 2D equation of state for an interacting 2D Fermi gas via in-situ absorption imaging.

  11. Methods for providing probe position and temperature information on MR images during interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Patel, K C; Duerk, J L; Zhang, Q; Chung, Y C; Williams, M; Kaczynski, K; Wendt, M; Lewin, J S

    1998-10-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be defined as the use of MR images for guiding and monitoring interventional procedures (e.g., biopsy, drainage) or minimally invasive therapy (e.g., thermal ablation). This work describes the development of a prototype graphical user interface and the appropriate software methods to accurately overlay a representation of a rigid interventional device [e.g., biopsy needle, radio-frequency (RF) probe] onto an MR image given only the probe's spatial position and orientation as determined from a three-dimensional (3-D) localizer used for interactive scan plane definition. This permits 1) "virtual tip tracking," where the probe tip location is displayed on the image without the use of separate receiver coils or a "road map" image data set, and, 2) "extending" the probe to predict its path if it were directly moved forward toward the target tissue. Further, this paper describes the design and implementation of a method to facilitate the monitoring of thermal ablation procedures by displaying and overlaying temperature maps from temperature sensitive MR acquisitions. These methods provide rapid graphical updates of probe position and temperature changes to aid the physician during the actual interventional MRI procedures without altering the usual operation of the MR imager. PMID:9874304

  12. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  13. Gradient coil design using Bi2223 high temperature superconducting tape for magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Yuan; G. X. Shen

    2007-01-01

    Bi-2223 tape is a low-cost, long-length high temperature superconducting material. The new application of Bi-2223 tape for gradient coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is studied in this paper. Because Bi-2223 tape has a much higher critical current density and a much lower power loss than copper, a Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) gradient coil shows great advantages in high

  14. Effect of detector nonlinearity and image persistence on CARS derived temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Snelling; G. J. Smallwood; T. Parameswaran

    1989-01-01

    The image persistence of self-scanning photodiode arrays (IPDA) incorporating P-20 phosphor-based intensifiers is shown to make them unsuitable for single-pulse CARS temperature measurements in turbulent combustion. Correcting CARS flame spectra for the nonlinear response of the IPDA detectors increases CARS-derived temperatures by about 3-6 percent. This error is partially offset by correcting for the perturbations in the N2 vibrational population

  15. Effect of detector nonlinearity and image persistence on CARS derived temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Snelling; G. J. Smallwood; T. Parameswaran

    1989-01-01

    The image persistence of self-scanning photodiode arrays (IPDA) incorporating P-20 phosphor-based intensifiers is shown to make them unsuitable for single-plus CARS temperature measurements in turbulent combustion. Correcting CARS flame spectra for the nonlinear response of the IPDA detectors increases CARS derived temperatures \\/approx\\/3--6%. This error is partially offset by correcting for the perturbations in the Nâ vibrational population resulting from

  16. Temperature, Pressure, and Infrared Image Survey of an Axisymmetric Heated Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the three-dimensional field variable domain to a two-dimensional infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This report describes an experiment in which the above-mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Results from this experiment, namely tables of measured temperature and pressure data, as well as measured infrared images, are given. The inverse Monte Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, experimentally obtained infrared images are directly compared to infrared images predicted from the measured field variables.

  17. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  18. In situ X-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO{sub 2} acceptor particle agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Bø Fløystad, Jostein; Esmaeili, Morteza; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.; Breiby, Dag W., E-mail: dag.breiby@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Zhao, Tiejun; Rønning, Magnus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Sælands vei 4, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Diaz, Ana [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Andreasen, Jens W. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-06-16

    Imaging nanoparticles under relevant reaction conditions of high temperature and gas pressure is difficult because conventional imaging techniques, like transmission electron microscopy, cannot be used. Here we demonstrate that the coherent diffractive imaging technique of X-ray ptychography can be used for in situ phase contrast imaging in structure studies at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures. Lithium zirconate, a candidate CO{sub 2} capture material, was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere in air and in CO{sub 2}, at temperatures exceeding 600?°C. Images with a spatial resolution better than 200?nm were retrieved, and possibilities for improving the experiment are described.

  19. 2D Gauge Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Andrey V. Koshelkin; Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2012-07-27

    We show from the action integral that under the assumption of longitudinal dominance and transverse confinement, QCD4 in (3+1) dimensional space-time can be approximately compactified into QCD2 in (1+1) dimensional space-time. In such a process, we find the relation between the coupling constant g(2D) in QCD2 and the coupling constant $g(4D)$ in QCD4. We also show that quarks and gluons in QCD2 acquire masses as a result of the compactification.

  20. 2D Gauge Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelkin, Andrey V. [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia] [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We show from the action integral that under the assumption of longitudinal dominance and transverse confinement, QCD4 in (3+1) dimensional space-time can be approximately compactified into QCD2 in (1+1) dimensional space-time. In such a process, we find the relation between the coupling constant $g(2D)$ in QCD2 and the coupling constant $g(4D)$ in QCD4. We also show that quarks and gluons in QCD2 acquire masses as a result of the compactification.

  1. Evaluation of a vat wall-mounted image capture system using image processing techniques to monitor curd moisture during syneresis with temperature treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María José Mateo; Donal J. O’Callaghan; Aoife A. Gowen; Colm P. O’Donnell

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a vat wall-mounted image capture system with a range of image processing techniques (threshold, first order and second order grey level statistics and fractal dimension) to monitor curd moisture content during syneresis with a range of temperature treatments. Milk was renneted using three temperature treatments (32°C throughout, a cooking step from 32

  2. Quenching of O+/2D/ by electrons in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite measurements of relevant ionospheric parameters were used to determine the rate coefficient for quenching of O+(2D) by electrons as a function of temperature. The results agree with the theoretically determined rate coefficient to within statistical uncertainties. The study provides confirmation of the absolute magnitude of the rate coefficient given by theoretical calculation at these temperatures, but it also indicates a somewhat steeper dependence on electron temperature than that predicted by theory.

  3. Toluene laser-induced fluorescence for in-cylinder temperature imaging in internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Luong; R. Zhang; C. Schulz; V. Sick

    2008-01-01

    A single-laser single-camera imaging technique was demonstrated for in-cylinder temperature distribution measurements in a\\u000a direct-injection internal combustion engine. The single excitation wavelength two-color detection technique is based on toluene\\u000a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Toluene-LIF emission spectra show a red-shift with increasing temperature. Temperature can\\u000a thus be determined from the ratio of the signal measured in two separate wavelength ranges independent of

  4. Real-time microwave imaging of differential temperature for thermal therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Mark; Stang, John; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2014-06-01

    A microwave imaging system for real-time 3-D imaging of differential temperature has been developed for the monitoring and feedback of thermal therapy systems. Design parameters are constrained by features of a prototype-focused microwave thermal therapy system for the breast, operating at 915 MHz. Real-time imaging is accomplished with a precomputed linear inverse scattering solution combined with continuous vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements of a 36-antenna, HFSS-modeled, cylindrical cavity. Volumetric images of differential change of dielectric constant due to temperature are formed with a refresh rate as fast as 1 frame/s and 1 (°)C resolution. Procedures for data segmentation and postprocessed S-parameter error-correction are developed. Antenna pair VNA calibration is accelerated by using the cavity as the unknown thru standard. The device is tested on water targets and a simple breast phantom. Differentially heated targets are successfully imaged in cluttered environments. The rate of change of scattering contrast magnitude correlates 1:1 with target temperature. PMID:24845289

  5. High resolution low-temperature superconductivity superconducting quantum interference device microscope for imaging magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    microscope for imaging magnetic fields of samples at room temperatures F. Baudenbacher,a) N. T. Peters, and J 37235 Received 28 August 2001; accepted for publication 5 December 2001 We have developed a microscope are easily interchangeable, allowing us to adapt the SQUID microscope to a variety of different measurements

  6. Face Recognition Using 2D and 3D Facial Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyong I. Chang; Kevin W. Bowyer; Patrick J. Flynn

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented for the largest experimental study to date that investigates the comparison and combination of 2D and 3D face recognition. To our knowledge, this is also the only such study to incorporate signicant time lapse be- tween gallery and probe image acquisition, and to look at the effect of depth resolution. Recognition results are ob- tained in (1)

  7. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  8. Temperature measurements in an axisymmetric methane-air flame using Talbot images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramtsov, P. P.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Shatan, I. N.

    2015-02-01

    The paper discusses the principles of optical testing of transparent objects using the Talbot images method and its applicability to diagnostic of flames. The experimental study was performed for premixed methane -air flame formed by an axisymmetric nozzle. The local deflection angles of the probe radiation were determined from measurements of the relative displacements of intensity maxima of the Talbot image which is caused by passing of light through the flame. The Abel integral equation was solved to reconstruct the refractive index distribution in the flame. Calculation of the temperature field from the refractive index data was based on neglecting the spatial variation of the component composition. Inaccuracy of the calculations was evaluated by comparing the results with the thermocouple measurements. The results demonstrate that the Talbot images method can be used to measure the temperature distribution in axisymmetric reacting gas flows with high spatial resolution.

  9. Method of Images for the Fast Calculation of Temperature Distributions in Packaged VLSI Chips

    E-print Network

    Virginia Martín Hériz; J. -H. Park; T. Kemper; S. -M. Kang; A. Shakouri

    2008-01-07

    Thermal aware routing and placement algorithms are important in industry. Currently, there are reasonably fast Green's function based algorithms that calculate the temperature distribution in a chip made from a stack of different materials. However, the layers are all assumed to have the same size, thus neglecting the important fact that the thermal mounts which are placed underneath the chip can be significantly larger than the chip itself. In an earlier publication, we showed that the image blurring technique can be used to calculate quickly temperature distribution in realistic packages. For this method to be effective, temperature distribution for several point heat sources at the center and at the corner and edges of the chip should be calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) or measured. In addition, more accurate results require correction by a weighting function that will need several FEA simulations. In this paper, we introduce the method of images that take the symmetry of the thermal boundary conditions into account. Thus with only "two" finite element simulations, the steady-state temperature distribution for an arbitrary complex power dissipation profile in a packaged chip can be calculated. Several simulation results are presented. It is shown that the power blurring technique together with the method of images can reproduce the temperature profile with an error less than 0.5%.

  10. A new MEMS-based system for ultra-high-resolution imaging at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Allard, Lawrence F; Bigelow, Wilbur C; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Nackashi, David P; Damiano, John; Mick, Stephen E

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of laboratories have been applying in situ heating (and ultimately, gas reaction) techniques in electron microscopy studies of catalysts and other nanophase materials. With the advent of aberration-corrected electron microscopes that provide sub-Angström image resolution, it is of great interest to study the behavior of materials at elevated temperatures while maintaining the resolution capabilities of the microscope. In collaboration with Protochips Inc., our laboratory is developing an advanced capability for in situ heating experiments that overcomes a number of performance problems with standard heating stage technologies. The new heater device allows, for example, temperature cycling from room temperature to greater than 1000 degrees C in 1 ms (a heating rate of 1 million Centigrade degrees per second) and cooling at nearly the same rate. It also exhibits a return to stable operation (drift controlled by the microscope stage, not the heater) in a few seconds after large temperature excursions. With Protochips technology, we were able to demonstrate single atom imaging and the behavior of nanocrystals at high temperatures, using high-angle annular dark-field imaging in an aberration-corrected (S)TEM. The new capability has direct applicability for remote operation and (ultimately) for gas reaction experiments using a specially designed environmental cell. PMID:19165742

  11. In situ SEM imaging at temperatures as high as 1450 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Giuliano; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Siegelin, Frank; Ziegler, Günter

    2002-01-01

    Modifications to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a commercially available heating stage permits in situ imaging at temperatures as high as 1450 degrees C. Here we report on the technical modifications necessary to allow such high-temperature in situ imaging. In addition, in order to underline the potential of this technique in the field of materials science, three heating-stage experiments are presented, which reveal microstructural changes occurring at high temperature. The respective in situ experiments are: (i) surface crystallization of a cordierite glass at 1050 degrees C; (ii) thermal recovery of asbestos (chrysotile) fibers at 1250 degrees C; and (iii) residual pore-structure evolution of tricalcium phosphate during sintering at 1450 degrees C. PMID:12630777

  12. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  13. Unparticle Example in 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  14. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  15. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  16. Intraluminal ultrasound applicator compatible with magnetic resonance imaging "real-time" temperature mapping for the treatment of oesophageal tumours: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Melodelima, D; Salomir, R; Mougenot, C; Prat, F; Theillère, Y; Moonen, C; Cathignol, D

    2004-02-01

    High intensity ultrasound has shown considerable ability to produce precise and deep thermal coagulation necrosis. Focused, cylindrical, spherical or plane transducers have been used to induce high temperatures in tissues to coagulate proteins and kill cells. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used, with extracorporeal or intracavitary focused transducers and cylindrical interstitial applicators, to monitor temperature distribution and provide feedback during heating procedures. If intraluminal applicators are used, the active part is in contact with the region of interest and it is essential to provide an accurate view of heat deposition and the extent of coagulation necrosis close to the transducer. The purpose of this study was to develop a 10 mm diameter intraluminal ultrasound applicator, designed to treat oesophageal cancers and compatible with MRI "real-time" temperature mapping. The active part of the ultrasound applicator, covered by a latex balloon, is a 15 X 8 mm2 plane transducer, which is in contact with the tumours during treatment. Each ultrasound exposure generates coagulation necrosis, in an area with the approximate shape of a rectangular parallelepiped up to 10 mm deep. When the exposures were repeated by rotating the applicator on its axis, sector-based or cylindrical volumes of necrosis could be produced, matching the shape of oesophageal cancers. Ex vivo trials were performed to demonstrate the applicator's compatibility with a clinical MRI scanner (1.5 T). MRI signals were acquired without any magnetic susceptibility distortion, even close to the applicator. Fast (0.72 images per second) 2D temperature mapping was performed during ultrasound exposure, using temperature-related proton resonance frequency shift at a resolution of 0.5 degrees C. Coagulation necrosis viewed with inversion recovery sequences, were in good agreement with the qualitative macroscopic observations made for the few cases tested in this study. PMID:15000609

  17. Downscaling of Aircraft-, Landsat-, and MODIS-based Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, W.; Gowda, P. H.; Oommen, T.; Howell, T. A.; Hernandez, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at several spectral bandwidths including visible, near-infrared (NIR), shortwave-infrared, and thermal-infrared (TIR). The TIR images usually have coarser spatial resolutions than those from non-thermal infrared bands. Due to this technical constraint of the satellite sensors on these platforms, image downscaling has been proposed in the field of ET remote sensing. This paper explores the potential of the Support Vector Machines (SVM) to perform downscaling of LST images derived from aircraft (4 m spatial resolution), TM (120 m), and MODIS (1000 m) using normalized difference vegetation index images derived from simultaneously acquired high resolution visible and NIR data (1 m for aircraft, 30 m for TM, and 250 m for MODIS). The SVM is a new generation machine learning algorithm that has found a wide application in the field of pattern recognition and time series analysis. The SVM would be ideally suited for downscaling problems due to its generalization ability in capturing non-linear regression relationship between the predictand and the multiple predictors. Remote sensing data acquired over the Texas High Plains during the 2008 summer growing season will be used in this study. Accuracy assessment of the downscaled 1, 30, and 250 m LST images will be made by comparing them with LST data measured with infrared thermometers at a small spatial scale, upscaled 30 m aircraft-based LST images, and upscaled 250 m TM-based LST images, respectively.

  18. Room temperature infrared imaging sensors based on highly purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Nan; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Dehui; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2015-04-01

    High performance infrared (IR) imaging systems usually require expensive cooling systems, which are highly undesirable. Here we report the fabrication and performance characteristics of room temperature carbon nanotube (CNT) IR imaging sensors. The CNT IR imaging sensor is based on aligned semiconducting CNT films with 99% purity, and each pixel or device of the imaging sensor consists of aligned strips of CNT asymmetrically contacted by Sc and Pd. We found that the performance of the device is dependent on the CNT channel length. While short channel devices provide a large photocurrent and a rapid response of about 110 ?s, long channel length devices exhibit a low dark current and a high signal-to-noise ratio which are critical for obtaining high detectivity. In total, 36 CNT IR imagers are constructed on a single chip, each consists of 3 × 3 pixel arrays. The demonstrated advantages of constructing a high performance IR system using purified semiconducting CNT aligned films include, among other things, fast response, excellent stability and uniformity, ideal linear photocurrent response, high imaging polarization sensitivity and low power consumption.High performance infrared (IR) imaging systems usually require expensive cooling systems, which are highly undesirable. Here we report the fabrication and performance characteristics of room temperature carbon nanotube (CNT) IR imaging sensors. The CNT IR imaging sensor is based on aligned semiconducting CNT films with 99% purity, and each pixel or device of the imaging sensor consists of aligned strips of CNT asymmetrically contacted by Sc and Pd. We found that the performance of the device is dependent on the CNT channel length. While short channel devices provide a large photocurrent and a rapid response of about 110 ?s, long channel length devices exhibit a low dark current and a high signal-to-noise ratio which are critical for obtaining high detectivity. In total, 36 CNT IR imagers are constructed on a single chip, each consists of 3 × 3 pixel arrays. The demonstrated advantages of constructing a high performance IR system using purified semiconducting CNT aligned films include, among other things, fast response, excellent stability and uniformity, ideal linear photocurrent response, high imaging polarization sensitivity and low power consumption. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07650h

  19. Urban heat island diagnosis using ASTER satellite images and ‘in situ’ air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet E.; Fung, Wing Yee; Lam, Ka-se; Wong, Man Sing

    2009-10-01

    This study demonstrates that thermal satellite images combined with 'in situ' ground data can be used to examine models of heat island genesis and thus identify the main causes of urban heat islands (UHIs). The models, although proposed over 30 years ago, have not been thoroughly evaluated due to a combination of inadequate ground data and the low resolution of thermal satellite data. Also there has been limited understanding of the relevance of satellite-derived surface temperatures to local and regional scale air temperatures. A cloud-free ASTER thermal image of urban and rural areas of Hong Kong was obtained on a winter night with a well-developed heat island, accompanied by a 148 km vehicle traverse of air temperatures. Over the whole traverse a high R2 of 0.80 was observed between surface and air temperatures, with the two datasets showing a similar amplitude and general trend, but with the surface exhibiting much higher local variability than air temperature. Gradients in both surface and air temperature could be related to differences in land cover, with little evidence of large scale advection, thus supporting the population/physical structure model of UHI causation, rather than the advection model. However, the much higher surface and air temperatures observed over the largest urban area, Kowloon, than over any smaller urban centre with similar physical structure in the New Territories, would seem more indicative of the advection model. The image and ground data suggest that Kowloon's urban canopy layer climate is mainly influenced by local city structure, but it is also modified by a strongly developed, regional scale urban boundary layer which has developed over the largest urban centre of Kowloon, and reinforces heating from both above and below.

  20. Experimental and theoretical kinetics for the H2O+ + H2/D2 ? H3O+/H2DO+ + H/D reactions: observation of the rotational effect in the temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun G; Li, Anyang; Martinez, Oscar; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-11

    Thermal rate coefficients for the title reactions computed using a quasi-classical trajectory method on an accurate global potential energy surface fitted to ?81,000 high-level ab initio points are compared with experimental values measured between 100 and 600 K using a variable temperature selected ion flow tube instrument. Excellent agreement is found across the entire temperature range, showing a subtle, but unusual temperature dependence of the rate coefficients. For both reactions the temperature dependence has a maximum around 350 K, which is a result of H2O(+) rotations increasing the reactivity, while kinetic energy is decreasing the reactivity. A strong isotope effect is found, although the calculations slightly overestimate the kinetic isotope effect. The good experiment-theory agreement not only validates the accuracy of the potential energy surface but also provides more accurate kinetic data over a large temperature range. PMID:25398042

  1. Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy JUNRONG ZHENG, KYUNGWON KWAK, AND M. D. FAYER The experimental technique and applications of ultrafast two- dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo systems. The form and time evolution of the 2D IR spectrum permits examination of processes that cannot

  2. 2010 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference, and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested or actively working in the fields of nuclear science, radiation instrumentation, software and their applications, to meet and discuss with colleagues from around the world. The program emphasizes the latest developments in technology and instrumentation and their implementation in experiments for space sciences, accelerators, other radiation environments, and homeland security. The Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) is the foremost international scientific meeting on the physics, engineering and mathematical aspects of nuclear medicine based imaging. As the field develops, multi-modality approaches are becoming more and more important. The content of the MIC reflects this, with a growing emphasis on the methodologies of X-ray, optical and MR imaging as they relate to nuclear imaging techniques. In addition, specialized topics will be addressed in the Short Courses and Workshops programs. The Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors (RTSD) represents the largest forum of scientists and engineers developing new semiconductor radiation detectors and imaging arrays. Room-temperature solid-state radiation detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron radiation are finding increasing applications in such diverse fields as medicine, homeland security, astrophysics and environmental remediation. The objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the state of the art of material development for semiconductor, scintillator, and organic materials for detection, materials characterization, device fabrication and technology, electronics and applications.

  3. Low temperature a-Si :H photodiodes and flexible image sensor arrays patterned by digital lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Lujan, Rene A.; Sambandan, Sanjiv; Street, Robert A.; Limb, Scott; Wong, William S.

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based image sensor arrays were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate substrates, with photodiodes optimized for process temperatures of 150°C. An optimal i-layer thickness was determined to minimize carrier recombination and to maintain sufficient light absorption and acceptable leakage current. Patterning of the thin-film transistor backplane was accomplished using ink-jet printed etch masks. A flexible image sensor is demonstrated with 75dots/in. resolution over 180×180pixels and with sensitivity of 1.2pW/cm2.

  4. Implementation of 2-D DCT based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zeng; Niu, Li; Liu, Zhi-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) plays an important role in the image and video compression, and it has been widely used in JPEG, MPEG, H.26x. DCT being implemented by hardware is crucial to improve the speed of image compression. This paper presents a method that 2-D DCT is implemented by FPGA, which is based on the algorithm of row-column decomposition, and the parallel structure is used to achieve high throughput. The design is achieved by top-down design methodology and described with Verilog HDL in RTL level. The hardware of 2-D DCT is implemented by the FPGA EP2C35F672C8 made by ALTERA. The experiment results show that the delay time is as low as 15 ns, and the clock frequency as high as 138.35 MHz, which can satisfy the requirements of the real-time video image compression.

  5. USING HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W., E-mail: mike.s.marsh@gmail.co [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-20

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the temperature profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform temperature profile with a mean temperature of 0.89 +- 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the temperature determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.

  6. Estimating more reliable measures of forest canopy temperatures using thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Still, C. J.; Aubrecht, D. M.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf temperature is critical to plant function, and it can be used to examine forest responses to droughts, heat waves, and storm events. The recent development of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging techniques has offered indirect measurement of forest canopy skin temperature, and it allows for extensive temporal and spatial sampling compared to direct thermocouple-based measurements. However, the accuracy of TIR indirect canopy temperature is not well understood, as few studies have evaluated how TIR-derived temperatures compare to other approaches. The objectives of this study are: (1) to monitor canopy temperatures of a coniferous forest canopy using a TIR camera and in situ sensors; (2) to evaluate the reliability of TIR canopy temperatures by comparing against leaf temperatures measured by thermocouples; (3) to develop and examine methods for improving TIR measures based on corrections of camera's default parameters ("Recalculation") and records of sensitivity by parameter changes ("Data-training"). This study showed the canopy temperatures varied from -5 and 30°C, and the patterns of changes between the TIR and thermocouple measures corresponded well. Overall, TIR canopy temperatures were underestimated against the direct thermocouple measurements with mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.83-1.38°C and root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.11-1.53°C for the study period. The modified TIR temperatures from the "Recalculation" method exhibited MAE of 0.56-0.95°C and RMSE of 0.83-1.15°C, and those by the "Data-training" method resulted in MAE of 0.32-0.50°C and RMSE of 0.53-0.83°C. Our results demonstrate that the TIR technique includes small errors for canopy temperature measurements; however, the range of errors is smaller when correction methods are applied.

  7. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  8. IR Thermal Imaging Device using Photo-Patternable Temperature Sensitive Paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, T.; Wang, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports an infrared-to-visible transducer array made of temperature sensitive paint (TSP) for low-cost thermal imaging application. A novel fabrication process using a photo-patternable temperature sensitive paint (PTSP) combined with an SU-8 transfer method was developed. The developped process is simpler than before, and prevents the TSP structure from plasma-induced damage and sticking across a sacrificially-etched gap. The selfsuspended structure as small as 100 pm was successfully fabricated with a large gap of 40 ?m from the substrate. The heated object of 300°C was detected with a resolution of about 0.4 mm.

  9. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank’s radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  10. Constraining spatial extent and temperature of dust around galaxies from far-infrared image stacking analysis

    E-print Network

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method to constrain the spatial extent of dust around galaxies through the measurement of dust temperature. Our method combines the dust emission of galaxies from far-infrared (FIR) image stacking analysis and the quasar reddening due to the dust absorption around galaxies. As a specific application of our method, we use the stacked FIR emission profiles of SDSS photometric galaxies over the IRAS 100$\\mu$m map, and the recent measurement of the SDSS galaxy-quasar cross-correlation. If we adopt a single-temperature dust model, the resulting temperature is around 18K, which is consistent with a typical dust temperature for a central part of galaxies. If we assume an additional dust component with much lower temperature, the current data imply the temperature of the galactic dust needs to be higher, 20K to 30K. Since the model of the density and temperature distribution of dust adopted in the current paper is very simple, we cannot draw any strong conclusion at this point. Nevertheless our nov...

  11. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank's radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  12. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-04-21

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 degrees C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg(-1), which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 degrees C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 degrees C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 degrees C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min. PMID:20360633

  13. PARCEQ2D heat transfer grid sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladino, Anthony J.; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Collins, Frank G.

    1991-01-01

    The material presented in this paper is an extension of two-dimensional Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) results shown previously. This study has focused on the heating rate calculations to the AFE obtained from an equilibrium real gas code, with attention placed on the sensitivity of grid dependence and wall temperature. Heat transfer results calculated by the PARCEQ2D code compare well with those computed by other researchers. Temperature convergence in the case of kinetic transport has been accomplished by increasing the wall temperature gradually from 300 K to the wall temperature of 1700 K.

  14. Analysis and calibration of absorptive images of Bose-Einstein condensate at nonzero temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepkowski, J. [Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy, Arciszewskiego 22b, 76-200 Slupsk (Poland); Gartman, R.; Zawada, M. [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, GrudziaPdzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Witkowski, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Opole, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland); Tracewski, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maksa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Gawlik, W. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    We describe the method allowing quantitative interpretation of absorptive images of mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensate and thermal atoms which reduces possible systematic errors associated with evaluation of the contribution of each fraction and eliminates arbitrariness of most of the previous approaches. By using known temperature dependence of the BEC fraction, the analysis allows precise calibration of the fitting results. The developed method is verified in two different measurements and compares well with theoretical calculations and with measurements performed by another group.

  15. Predicting 2D Target Velocity Cannot Help 2D Motion Integration for Smooth Pursuit Initiation

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    Report Predicting 2D Target Velocity Cannot Help 2D Motion Integration for Smooth Pursuit August 2006 Montagnini, Anna, Miriam Spering, and Guillaume S. Masson. Predicting 2D target velocity cannot help 2D motion integration for smooth pursuit initiation. J Neurophysiol 96: 3545­3550, 2006

  16. Breaking of Rotational Symmetry in Cylindrically Bounded 2D Electron Plasmas and 2D Fluids

    E-print Network

    Marcus, Philip S.

    Breaking of Rotational Symmetry in Cylindrically Bounded 2D Electron Plasmas and 2D Fluids Eli 24 April 2003; published 17 November 2004) Off-axis final states of cylindrically bounded 2D fluids can develop from initially unstable, but cylindrically symmetric, 2D vorticity distributions

  17. Sub-optical resolution of single spins using magnetic resonance imaging at room temperature in diamond

    E-print Network

    Chang Shin; Changdong Kim; Roman Kolesov; Gopalakrishnan Balasubramanian; Fedor Jelezko; Jörg Wrachtrup; Philip R. Hemmer

    2010-03-29

    There has been much recent interest in extending the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) down to the level of single spins with sub-optical wavelength resolution. However, the signal to noise ratio for images of individual spins is usually low and this necessitates long acquisition times and low temperatures to achieve high resolution. An exception to this is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond whose spin state can be detected optically at room temperature. Here we apply MRI to magnetically equivalent NV spins in order to resolve them with resolution well below the optical wavelength of the readout light. In addition, using a microwave version of MRI we achieved a resolution that is 1/270 size of the coplanar striplines, which define the effective wavelength of the microwaves that were used to excite the transition. This technique can eventually be extended to imaging of large numbers of NVs in a confocal spot and possibly to image nearby dark spins via their mutual magnetic interaction with the NV spin.

  18. On 2D impurity radiation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, A. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    1997-11-01

    In [1] a strongly radiated impurity radiation front in magnetized plasma was investigated with simple 2D reaction-diffusion equation where perpendicular and parallel heat conduction coefficients were assumed to be the functions of temperature, K_allel=K_allel (T)>> K_?= K_?(T). It was shown that when the ratio K_allel (T)/K_? (T) increases with increasing T, a strongly radiated V-shaped radiation front (spread along the magnetic field lines) can be formed and perpendicular transport plays a key role in the magnitude of the radiation loss in spite of the inequality K_allel >> K_?. Here we generalize the results of Ref. 1 to the case when K_? depends on both temperature and radial derivative of T, which model anomalous perpendicular heat transport in magnetized plasmas. We present a criterion of V-shaped front formation and consider structural stability of such front. [1] S.I. Krasheninnikov, A.A. Batishcheva, D.J. Sigmar, EPS-97. *Also at Kurchatov Institute, Russia

  19. Direct comparison of 2D PIV and stereoscopic PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2002-10-01

    A stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system based on the translation configuration was developed and applied to the flow behind a forward-swept axial-fan with five blades in a water tank. The 3D calibration procedure was employed to compensate the distortion and refraction of particle images. The perspective error caused by the out-of-plane motion was estimated by direct comparison of the 2D PIV and stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) results. The SPIV and 2D PIV comparison was carried out for the particle images captured simultaneously. The difference of mean velocity data measured by 2D PIV and SPIV techniques is nearly proportional to the mean out-of-plane velocity component. The difference appears to be relatively large in the region near the fan blade having higher out-of-plane motion. The perspective error estimated from the calibration data and mean out-of-plane velocity data agrees with the mean velocity difference between the 2D PIV and SPIV results. The turbulence intensity measured by the 2D PIV method is overestimated in comparison to that of the SPIV method due to the projected velocity fluctuations of the out-of-plane velocity component. The turbulent fluctuations caused by the out-of-plane velocity component were estimated by multiplication of the incident angle obtained in the calibration procedure and out-of-plane velocity fluctuations. The estimated perspective fluctuation of the out-of-plane velocity component was compared with the difference measured by the two methods. In SPIV measurements of turbulent statistics, therefore, the ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane RMS error determined from the system set-up should be considered in order to obtain reliable results.

  20. Scaling Analysis of Ocean Surface Turbulent Heterogeneities from Satellite Remote Sensing: Use of 2D Structure Functions

    PubMed Central

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, Francois G.; Loisel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing observations allow the ocean surface to be sampled synoptically over large spatio-temporal scales. The images provided from visible and thermal infrared satellite observations are widely used in physical, biological, and ecological oceanography. The present work proposes a method to understand the multi-scaling properties of satellite products such as the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), rarely studied. The specific objectives of this study are to show how the small scale heterogeneities of satellite images can be characterised using tools borrowed from the fields of turbulence. For that purpose, we show how the structure function, which is classically used in the frame of scaling time series analysis, can be used also in 2D. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied to process images which have missing data. Based on both simulated and real images, we demonstrate that coarse-graining (CG) of a gradient modulus transform of the original image does not provide correct scaling exponents. We show, using a fractional Brownian simulation in 2D, that the structure function (SF) can be used with randomly sampled couple of points, and verify that 1 million of couple of points provides enough statistics. PMID:26017551