Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.
1997-01-01
Papers included address the following topics: (1) Turbulent premixed flame propagation in microgravity; (2) The effect of gravity on turbulent premixed flame propagation - a preliminary cold flow study; and (3) Characteristics of a subgrid model for turbulent premixed combustion.
Statistics of premixed flame cells
Noever, D.A. )
1991-07-15
The statistics of random cellular patterns in premixed flames are analyzed. Agreement is found with a variety of topological relations previously found for other networks, namely, Lewis's law and Aboav's law. Despite the diverse underlying physics, flame cells are shown to share a broad class of geometric properties with other random networks---metal grains, soap foams, bioconvection, and Langmuir monolayers.
Statistics of premixed flame cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noever, David A.
1991-01-01
The statistics of random cellular patterns in premixed flames are analyzed. Agreement is found with a variety of topological relations previously found for other networks, namely, Lewis's law and Aboav's law. Despite the diverse underlying physics, flame cells are shown to share a broad class of geometric properties with other random networks-metal grains, soap foams, bioconvection, and Langmuir monolayers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Wu, Qi; Huang, Qunxing; Zhang, Haidan; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa
2015-07-01
An innovative tomographic method using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) is presented in this paper for detecting two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a premixed flame. The collimated laser beam emitted from a low cost diode laser module was delicately split into 24 sub-beams passing through the flame from different angles and the acquired laser absorption signals were used to retrieve flame temperature and H2O concentration simultaneously. The efficiency of the proposed reconstruction system and the effect of measurement noise were numerically evaluated. The temperature and H2O concentration in flat methane/air premixed flames under three different equivalence ratios were experimentally measured and reconstruction results were compared with model calculations. Numerical assessments indicate that the TDLAS tomographic system is capable for temperature and H2O concentration profiles detecting even the noise strength reaches 3% of absorption signal. Experimental results under different combustion conditions are well demonstrated along the vertical direction and the distribution profiles are in good agreement with model calculation. The proposed method exhibits great potential for 2-D or 3-D combustion diagnostics including non-uniform flames.
Flame front configuration of turbulent premixed flames
Furukawa, Junichi; Maruta, Kaoru; Hirano, Toshisuke
1998-02-01
The present study is performed to explore dependence of the wrinkle scale of propane-air turbulent premixed flames on the characteristics of turbulence in the nonreacting flow, burner size, and mixture ratio. The wrinkle scales are examined and expressed in the frequency distribution of the radii of flame front curvatures. The average wrinkle scale depends not only on the characteristics of turbulence in the nonreacting flow but also on burner diameter and mixture ratio. The average wrinkle scale of a lean propane-air flame is larger than those of the near stoichiometric and rich flames. The smallest wrinkle scale of turbulent premixed flame is in the range of 0.75--1.0 mm, which is much larger than the Kolmogorov scale of turbulence in the nonreacting flow.
Turbulent flame propagation in partially premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T.; Veynante, D.; Trouve, A.; Ruetsch, G.
1996-01-01
Turbulent premixed flame propagation is essential in many practical devices. In the past, fundamental and modeling studies of propagating flames have generally focused on turbulent flame propagation in mixtures of homogeneous composition, i.e. a mixture where the fuel-oxidizer mass ratio, or equivalence ratio, is uniform. This situation corresponds to the ideal case of perfect premixing between fuel and oxidizer. In practical situations, however, deviations from this ideal case occur frequently. In stratified reciprocating engines, fuel injection and large-scale flow motions are fine-tuned to create a mean gradient of equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber which provides additional control on combustion performance. In aircraft engines, combustion occurs with fuel and secondary air injected at various locations resulting in a nonuniform equivalence ratio. In both examples, mean values of the equivalence ratio can exhibit strong spatial and temporal variations. These variations in mixture composition are particularly significant in engines that use direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. In this case, the liquid fuel does not always completely vaporize and mix before combustion occurs, resulting in persistent rich and lean pockets into which the turbulent flame propagates. From a practical point of view, there are several basic and important issues regarding partially premixed combustion that need to be resolved. Two such issues are how reactant composition inhomogeneities affect the laminar and turbulent flame speeds, and how the burnt gas temperature varies as a function of these inhomogeneities. Knowledge of the flame speed is critical in optimizing combustion performance, and the minimization of pollutant emissions relies heavily on the temperature in the burnt gases. Another application of partially premixed combustion is found in the field of active control of turbulent combustion. One possible technique of active control consists of pulsating
Flame front geometry in premixed turbulent flames
Shepherd, I.G.; Ashurst, W.T.
1991-12-01
Experimental and numerical determinations of flame front curvature and orientation in premixed turbulent flames are presented. The experimental data is obtained from planar, cross sectional images of stagnation point flames at high Damkoehler number. A direct numerical simulation of a constant energy flow is combined with a zero-thickness, constant density flame model to provide the numerical results. The computational domain is a 32{sup 3} cube with periodic boundary conditions. The two-dimensional curvature distributions of the experiments and numerical simulations compare well at similar q{prime}/S{sub L} values with means close to zero and marked negative skewness. At higher turbulence levels the simulations show that the distributions become symmetric about zero. These features are also found in the three dimensional distributions of curvature. The simulations support assumptions which make it possible to determine the mean direction cosines from the experimental data. This leads to a reduction of 12% in the estimated flame surface area density in the middle of the flame brush. 18 refs.
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abid, M.; Aung, K.; Ronney, P. D.; Sharif, J. A.; Wu, M.-S.
1999-01-01
Several topics relating to combustion limits in premixed flames at reduced gravity have been studied. These topics include: (1) flame balls; (2) numerical simulation of flame ball and planar flame structure and stability; (3) experimental simulation of buoyancy effects in premixed flames using aqueous autocatalytic reactions; and (4) premixed flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells.
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Krishnan, S. S.; Faeth, G. M.
1999-01-01
Soot processes within hydrocarbon-fueled flames affect emissions of pollutant soot, thermal loads on combustors, hazards of unwanted fires and capabilities for computational combustion. In view of these observations, the present study is considering processes of soot formation in both burner-stabilized and freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. These flames are being studied in order to simplify the interpretation of measurements and to enhance computational tractability compared to the diffusion flame environments of greatest interest for soot processes. In addition, earlier studies of soot formation in laminar premixed flames used approximations of soot optical and structure properties that have not been effective during recent evaluations, as well as questionable estimates of flow residence times). The objective of present work was to exploit methods of avoiding these difficulties developed for laminar diffusion flames to study soot growth in laminar premixed flames. The following description of these studies is brief.
Premixed turbulent flame propagation in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, S.; Jagoda, J.; Sujith, R.
1995-01-01
To reduce pollutant formation there is, at present, an increased interest in employing premixed fuel/air mixture in combustion devices. It is well known that greater control over local temperature can be achieved with premixed flames and with lean premixed mixtures, significant reduction of pollutants such as NO(x) can be achieved. However, an issue that is still unresolved is the predictability of the flame propagation speed in turbulent premixed mixtures, especially in lean mixtures. Although substantial progress has been made in recent years, there is still no direct verification that flame speeds in turbulent premixed flows are highly predictable in complex flow fields found in realistic combustors. One of the problems associated with experimental verification is the difficulty in obtaining access to all scales of motion in typical high Reynolds number flows, since, such flows contain scales of motion that range from the size of the device to the smallest Kolmogorov scale. The overall objective of this study is to characterize the behavior of turbulent premixed flames at reasonable high Reynolds number, Re(sub L). Of particular interest here is the thin flame limit where the laminar flame thickness is much smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Thin flames occur in many practical combustion devices and will be numerically studied using a recently developed new formulation that is briefly described.
Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday
2004-01-01
Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.
Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations
Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2007-07-01
The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.
Flame propagation in partially premixed conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruetsch, G.; Poinsot, T.; Veynante, D.; Trouvé, A.
1996-11-01
Turbulent flame propagation is studied under inhomogenously premixed conditions via data from direct numerical simulations. Departures from the premixed case are studied using four different configurations, ranging from one dimensional unsteady flames to turbulent three-dimensional simulations. Simulations are performed in these cases with various values of the mean equivalence ratio, fluctuations about the mean equivlalence ratio, correlation length scales, and probability denisty functions of the mixture composition. Propagation characteristics are described in terms of the flamelet approach, where the the main contribution of partial premixing on flame propagation is due to flame wrinkling relative to modification of the mean flamelet structure. This behavior is consistent over a broad range of conditions, with the exception being extreme departures from stoichiometric conditions where flamability limits are exceeded and flame quenching is observed.
NON-PREMIXED TURBULENT JET FLAMES
The paper, part of a general investigation of mixing and chemical reaction in turbulent jets, concerns the length of non-premixed turbulent jet flames in a stationary environment. Experimental results for the turbulent flame length of chemically reacting jets in water show both i...
Turbulent Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
1996-01-01
The experimental cold-flow facility is now full operational and is currently being used to obtain baseline turbulence data in a Couette flow. The baseline turbulence data is necessary to confirm the capability of the chosen device to generate and maintain the required turbulence intensity. Subsequent reacting flow studies will assume that a similar turbulent flow field exists ahead of the premixed flame. Some modifications and refinements had to be made to enable accurate measurements. It consists of two rollers, one (driven by a motor) which drives a continuous belt and four smaller rollers used to set the belt spacing and tension to minimize belt flutter. The entire assemble is enclosed in a structure that has the dimensions to enable future drop tower experiments of the hot facility. All critical dimensions are the same as the original plans except for the pulley ratio which has been changed to enable a wider operating regime in terms of the Reynolds number. With the current setup, Reynolds numbers as low as 100 and as high as 14,000 can be achieved. This is because the in-between belt spacing can be varied from 1 cm to 7.6 cm, and the belt speed can be accurately varied from .15 m/sec to 3.1 m/sec.
Imaging of premixed flames in microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostiuk, L. W.; Cheng, R. K.
1994-12-01
A laser schlieren system which uses video recording and digital images analysis has been developed and applied successfully to microgravity combustion experiments performed in a drop-tower. The optical system and the experiment are installed within a small package which is subjected to free-fall. The images are recorded on video tape and are digitized and analyzed by a computer-controlled image processor. The experimental results include laminar and turbulent premixed conical flames in microgravity, normal positive gravity (upward), and reverse gravity (downward). The procedures to extract frequency information from the digitized images are described. Many gross features of the effects of gravity on premixed conical flames are found. Flames that ignite easily in normal gravity fail to ignite in microgravity. Buoyancy driven instabilities associated with an interface formed between the hot products and the cold surrounding air is the mechanism through which gravity influences premixed laminar and turbulent flames. In normal gravity, this causes the flame to flicker. In reverse gravity, - g, and microgravity, μg, the interface is stable and flame flickering ceases. The flickering frequencies of + g flames vary with changing upstream boundary conditions. The absence of flame flickering in μg suggest that μg flames would be less sensitive to these changes.
NO formation in counterflow partially premixed flames
Mungekar, Hemant; Atreya, Arvind
2007-02-15
An experimental and computational study of NO formation in low-strain-rate partially premixed methane counterflow flames is reported. For progressive fuel-side partial premixing the peak NO concentration increased and the NO distribution along the stagnation streamline broadened. New temperature-dependent emissivity data for a SiO{sub 2}-coated Pt thermocouple was used to estimate the radiation correction for the thermocouple, thus improving the accuracy of the reported flame temperature. Flame structure computations with GRIMech 3.00 showed good agreement between measured and computed concentration distributions of NO and OH radical. With progressive partial premixing the contribution of the thermal NO pathway to NO formation increases. The emission index of NO (EINO) first increased and then decreased, reaching its peak value for the level of partial premixing that corresponds to location of the nonpremixed reaction zone at the stagnation plane. The observation of a maximum in EINO at a level of partial premixing corresponding to the nonpremixed reaction zone at the stagnation plane seems to be a consistent feature of low (<20 s{sup -1})-strain-rate counterflow flames. (author)
Dynamics and structure of turbulent premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilger, R. W.; Swaminathan, N.; Ruetsch, G. R.; Smith, N. S. A.
1995-01-01
In earlier work (Mantel & Bilger, 1994) the structure of the turbulent premixed flame was investigated using statistics based on conditional averaging with the reaction progress variable as the conditioning variable. The DNS data base of Trouve and Poinsot (1994) was used in this investigation. Attention was focused on the conditional dissipation and conditional axial velocity in the flame with a view to modeling these quantities for use in the conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to analysis of kinetics in premixed flames (Bilger, 1993). Two remarkable findings were made: there was almost no acceleration of the axial velocity in the flame front itself; and the conditional scalar dissipation remained as high, or higher, than that found in laminar premixed flames. The first finding was surprising since in laminar flames all the fluid acceleration occurs through the flame front, and this could be expected also for turbulent premixed flames at the flamelet limit. The finding gave hope of inventing a new approach to the dynamics of turbulent premixed flames through use of rapid distortion theory or an unsteady Bernoulli equation. This could lead to a new second order closure for turbulent premixed flames. The second finding was contrary to our measurements with laser diagnostics in lean hydrocarbon flames where it is found that conditional scalar dissipation drops dramatically below that for laminar flamelets when the turbulence intensity becomes high. Such behavior was not explainable with a one-step kinetic model, even at non-unity Lewis number. It could be due to depletion of H2 from the reaction zone by preferential diffusion. The capacity of the flame to generate radicals is critically dependent on the levels of H2 present (Bilger, et al., 1991). It seemed that a DNS computation with a multistep reduced mechanism would be worthwhile if a way could be found to make this feasible. Truly innovative approaches to complex problems often come only when there is the
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, O. C.; Abid, M.; Porres, J.; Liu, J. B.; Ronney, P. D.; Struk, P. M.; Weiland, K. J.
2003-01-01
Several topics relating to premixed flame behavior at reduced gravity have been studied. These topics include: (1) flame balls; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) experimental simulation of buoyancy effects in premixed flames using aqueous autocatalytic reactions; and (4) premixed flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells. Because of space limitations, only topic (1) is discussed here, emphasizing results from experiments on the recent STS-107 Space Shuttle mission, along with numerical modeling efforts.
Confined superadiabatic premixed flame-flow interaction
Najm, H.N.
1995-12-31
Laminar premixed unity-Lewis number flames are studied numerically, to examine flow-flame interaction in a two-dimensional closed domain. Two opposed planar flame fronts are perturbed sinusoidally and allowed to develop by consuming premixed reactants. Combustion heat release leads to global pressure and temperature rise in the domain, due to confinement. A superadiabatic condition, with products temperature rising with distance behind the flame front, is observed due to stagnation pressure rise. Variations in tangential strain rate behind the perturbed flame fronts, due to flame curvature and heat release, result in a modified local superadiabatic temperature gradient in the products. These variations in temperature gradients are shown to determine the net local confinement-heating rate in the products, leading to corresponding deviations in products temperature, and the local reaction rate along the flame front. These observations, which are not consistent with one-dimensional superadiabatic stagnation flame behavior, are a direct result of the unrestrained unsteady nature of two-dimensional flame-flow interaction.
Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
1999-01-01
A combined numerical-experimental study has been carried out to investigate the structure and propagation characteristics of turbulent premixed flames with and without the influence of buoyancy. Experimentally, the premixed flame characteristics are studied in the wrinkled regime using a Couette flow facility and an isotropic flow facility in order to resolve the scale of flame wrinkling. Both facilities were chosen for their ability to achieve sustained turbulence at low Reynolds number. This implies that conventional diagnostics can be employed to resolve the smallest scales of wrinkling. The Couette facility was also built keeping in mind the constraints imposed by the drop tower requirements. Results showed that the flow in this Couette flow facility achieves full-developed turbulence at low Re and all turbulence statistics are in good agreement with past measurements on large-scale facilities. Premixed flame propagation studies were then carried out both using the isotropic box and the Couette facility. Flame imaging showed that fine scales of wrinkling occurs during flame propagation. Both cases in Ig showed significant buoyancy effect. To demonstrate that micro-g can remove this buoyancy effect, a small drop tower was built and drop experiments were conducted using the isotropic box. Results using the Couette facility confirmed the ability to carry out these unique reacting flow experiments at least in 1g. Drop experiments at NASA GRC were planned but were not completed due to termination of this project.
Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, Kirill A.
2016-04-01
Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.
Active control for turbulent premixed flame simulations
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2004-03-26
Many turbulent premixed flames of practical interest are statistically stationary. They occur in combustors that have anchoring mechanisms to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. As a result, typical detailed simulations are performed in simplified model configurations such as decaying isotropic turbulence or inflowing turbulence. In these configurations, the turbulence seen by the flame either decays or, in the latter case, increases as the flame accelerates toward the turbulent inflow. This limits the duration of the eddy evolutions experienced by the flame at a given level of turbulent intensity, so that statistically valid observations cannot be made. In this paper, we apply a feedback control to computationally stabilize an otherwise unstable turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. For the simulations, we specify turbulent in flow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm. We use the simulations to study the propagation and the local chemical variability of turbulent flame chemistry.
Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday
2003-01-01
Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.
Premixed flames in closed cylindrical tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzener, Philippe; Matalon, Moshe
2001-09-01
We consider the propagation of a premixed flame, as a two-dimensional sheet separating unburned gas from burned products, in a closed cylindrical tube. A nonlinear evolution equation, that describes the motion of the flame front as a function of its mean position, is derived. The equation contains a destabilizing term that results from the gas motion induced by thermal expansion and has a memory term associated with vorticity generation. Numerical solutions of this equation indicate that, when diffusion is stabilizing, the flame evolves into a non-planar form whose shape, and its associated symmetry properties, are determined by the Markstein parameter, and by the initial data. In particular, we observe the development of convex axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric flames, tulip flames and cellular flames.
Nongradient diffusion in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Libby, Paul A.
1988-01-01
Recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating the interaction between force fields and density inhomogeneities as they arise in premixed turbulent flames are discussed. In such flames, the density fluctuates between two levels, the high density in reactants rho sub r and the low density in products rho sub p, with the ratio rho sub r/rho sub p on the order of five to ten in flows of applied interest. The force fields in such flames arise from the mean pressure drop across the flame or from the Reynolds shear stresses in tangential flames with constrained streamlines. The consequence of the interaction is nongradient turbulent transport, countergradient in the direction normal to the flame and nongradient in the tangential direction. The theoretical basis for these results, the presently available experimental support therefore and the implications for other variable density turbulent flows are discussed.
Particle clustering in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, Battista; F, Picano; G, Troiani; M, Casciola C.
2011-12-01
Transport of inertial particles in turbulent reacting flows is frequent in a number of engineering and natural systems. Aim of this work is to illustrate the effect of the fluctuating instantaneous flame front on the particle spatial distribution. To this purpose a Direct Numerical Simulation of a Bunsen premixed flame seeded with small inertial particles is performed. The flamelet Stokes number Stfl, defined as the ratio between the particle relaxation time and the flame front time scale, is found to be the proper parameter to characterize the particle dynamics in a premixed flame. Clustering of inertial particles is apparent, especially beyond the flame front. The amount of particle segregation is here quantified by the clustering index and two distinct contributions are found to interplay. The first is independent of the particle inertia and affects also tracers. Actually it is associated to the abrupt variation of the particle concentration induced by the fluid expansion across the flame front. The second effect is mainly due to the time lag associated to the particle inertia that, in proximity of the front, affects both the mean and the fluctuation of the particle number in a fixed volume. The global effect results in an intense clustering of the inertial particles in the flame brush region with a maximum for particles with flamelet Stokes number: Stfl = Script O(1).
Can we characterize turbulence in premixed flames?
Lipatnikov, A.N.
2009-06-15
Modeling of premixed turbulent combustion involves averaging reaction rates in turbulent flows. The focus of most approaches to resolving this problem has been placed on determining the dependence of the mean rate w of product creation on the laminar flame speed S{sub L}, the rms turbulence velocity u', etc. The goal of the present work is to draw attention to another issue: May the input quantity u{sup '} for a model of w= w(u'/S{sub L},..) be considered to be known? The point is that heat release substantially affects turbulence and, hence, turbulence characteristics in premixed flames should be modeled. However, standard moment methods for numerically simulating turbulent flows do not allow us to evaluate the true turbulence characteristics in a flame. For instance, the Reynolds stresses in premixed flames are affected not only by turbulence itself, but also by velocity jump across flamelets. A common way to resolving this problem consists of considering the Reynolds stresses conditioned on unburned (or burned) mixture to be the true turbulence characteristics. In the present paper, this widely accepted but never proved hypothesis is put into question, first, by considering simple model constant-density problems (flame motion in an oscillating one-dimensional laminar flow; flame stabilized in a periodic shear, one-dimensional, laminar flow; turbulent mixing). In all the cases, the magnitude of velocity fluctuations, calculated using the conditioned Reynolds stresses, is affected by the intermittency of reactants and products and, hence, is not the true rms velocity. Second, the above claim is further supported by comparing balance equations for the mean and conditioned Reynolds stresses. The conditioned Reynolds stresses do not characterize the true turbulence in flames, because conditional averaging cuts off flow regions characterized by either high or low velocities. (author)
Counter-gradient in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libby, P. A.; Bray, K. N. C.
1980-01-01
A new theory for premixed turbulent flames normal to the oncoming reactants is developed on the basis of the Bray-Moss-Libby model of premixed combustion and second-order closure. Gradient transport assumptions are carefully avoided. The final formulation focuses on the intensity of the fluctuations of the velocity component normal to the flame and on the mean flux of product. At low rates of heat release corresponding to small intensities of the density fluctuations the new theory is in agreement with our earlier theory based on gradient transport. However, as the heat release increases toward values of practical interest, counter-gradient diffusion, i.e., mean flux in the direction of increasing mean concentration, arises and is attributable to the differential effect of mean pressure gradient on cold reactants and hot products. The implications of these results are discussed.
Dynamics of premixed confined swirling flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palies, P.; Durox, D.; Schuller, T.; Morenton, P.; Candel, S.
2009-06-01
Considerable effort is currently being extended to examine the fundamental mechanisms of combustion instabilities and develop methods allowing predictions of these phenomena. One central aspect of this problem is the dynamical response of the flame to incoming perturbations. This question is examined in the present article, which specifically considers the response of premixed swirling flames to perturbations imposed on the upstream side of the flame in the feeding manifold. The flame response is characterized by measuring the unsteady heat release induced by imposed velocity perturbations. A flame describing function is defined by taking the ratio of the relative heat release rate fluctuation to the relative velocity fluctuation. This quantity is determined for a range of frequencies and for different levels of incoming velocity perturbations. The flame dynamics is also documented by calculating conditional phase averages of the light emission from the flame and taking the Abel transform of these average images to obtain the flame geometry at various instants during the cycle of oscillation. These data can be useful to the determination of possible regimes of instability. To cite this article: P. Palies et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1993-01-01
The work of the Principal Investigator (PI) has encompassed four topics related to the experimental and theoretical study of combustion limits in premixed flames at microgravity, as discussed in the following sections. These topics include: (1) radiation effects on premixed gas flames; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) flame propagation and extinction is cylindrical tubes; and (4) experimental simulation of combustion processes using autocatalytic chemical reactions.
The structure of particle cloud premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, K.; Berlad, A. L.
1992-01-01
The structure of premixed flames propagating in combustible systems containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles in an oxidizing gas mixture is analyzed. This analysis is motivated by experiments conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center on the structure of flames propagating in combustible mixtures of lycopodium particles and air. Several interesting modes of flame propagation were observed in these experiments depending on the number density and the initial size of the fuel particle. The experimental results show that steady flame propagation occurs even if the initial equivalence ratio of the combustible mixture based on the gaseous fuel available in the particles, phi sub u, is substantially larger than unity. A model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In the model, it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield a gaseous fuel of known chemical composition which then reacts with oxygen in a one-step overall process. The activation energy of the chemical reaction is presumed to be large. The activation energy characterizing the kinetics of vaporization is also presumed to be large. The equations governing the structure of the flame were integrated numerically. It is shown that the interplay of vaporization kinetics and oxidation process can result in steady flame propagation in combustible mixtures where the value of phi sub u is substantially larger than unity. This prediction is in agreement with experimental observations.
NOx Formation in a Premixed Syngas Flame
Yilmaz, S.L.; Givi, P.; Strakey, P.; Casleton, K.
2006-11-01
Reduction of NOx is a subject of significant current interest in stationary gas turbines. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of turbulence on non-thermal NOx formation in a syngas flame. This is archived by a detailed parametric study via PDF simulations of a partially stirred reactor and a dumped axisymmetric premixed flame. Several different detailed and reduced kinetics schemes are considered. The simulated results demonstrate the strong dependence of combustion process on turbulence. It is shown that the amount of NOx formation is significantly influenced by the inlet conditions. That is, the turbulence intensity can be tweaked to attain optimal ultra-low NOx emissions at a given temperature.
Swirl effects on combustion characteristics of premixed flames
Daurer, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.
1998-07-01
The effects of swirl direction on the structure of two different premixed flames are investigated in a double concentric premixed swirl burner. The flames were stabilized with two annular jets and a central pipe. Mean and fluctuating temperatures, thermal integral and micro time scales and direct flame photographs were taken to receive information about global flame structures, flame stability and the distribution of the thermal field in these flames. Direct flame photographs, compensated temperature data as well as thermal micro-time scales of temperature data are presented to give a complete insight in the thermal distribution in these flames. It was found that the swirl direction of the stabilizing annular jets seems to take great influence on flame symmetry. The flame with the counter-swirling jets showed a very unsymmetrical behavior which was confirmed in flame photographs, temperature maps and time scales.
Time resolved density measurements in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.
1982-01-01
Premixed, turbulent flames are important in connection with investigations of fundamental, turbulent-reacting-flow processes and the study of practical combustion devices, such as spark ignition engines and premixed, prevaporized gas turbine combustors which burn premixed reactants. The considered investigation is concerned with the application of laser induced Rayleigh scattering to measure the gas density in premixed, methane-air flames. A description is provided of the results of density and velocity measurements in an open, lean, premixed methane-air flame stabilized in grid turbulence of low Reynolds number. It is found that where applicable, Rayleigh scattering can be used to good advantage to measure molecular number density. Mean and rms density results show that the mean flame thickens with axial distance but that the maximum in rms does not change appreciably.
A Method to Measure Flame Index in Turbulent Partially-Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, David Ari
This dissertation describes the development of a diagnostic technique and data processing routine to measure the flame index in partially-premixed flames, called the Flame Index Measurement Method. Many modern combustion applications involve conditions in which the fuel and oxidizer are only partially mixed prior to entering the flame. These partially-premixed flames contain some regions of premixed and some regions of non-premixed flamelets. New computational approaches use the flame index concept: premixed regions are identified and a premixed model is applied; non-premixed regions are also identified and a non-premixed model is applied. The flame index is defined as the normalized dot product of the gradients of the fuel and oxidizer mass fractions; it is +1 in premixed flamelets and is -1 in non-premixed flamelets. Previously there had been no experimentally measured values of flame index available to assess the modeling approaches. A new method has been developed to measure the flame index using planar laser-induced fluorescence tracers to indicate the sign and direction of the fuel and oxygen gradients. Through the modeling of premixed and non-premixed flamelets, acetone was selected as a fuel tracer and nitrogen dioxide was selected as an oxygen tracer. The fluorescence properties of both acetone and nitrogen dioxide were studied. With acetone seeded into the fuel, and nitrogen dioxide seeded into the air, the Flame Index Measurement Method was evaluated in laminar premixed and non-premixed methane/acetone/air flames, as well as in a well-defined turbulent partially-premixed burner, the Gas Turbine Model Combustor (GTMC). The flame index was measured in the GTMC with methane, propane, and syngas flames. Statistics (mean, variance, and probability mass functions) of the flame index are reported for the highly-turbulent partially-premixed GTMC flames. Two new statistical quantities were developed that describe the probability for the occurrence of premixed
Studies of premixed laminar and turbulent flames at microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1993-01-01
A two and one-half year experimental and theoretical research program on the properties of laminar and turbulent premixed gas flames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.
Soot Formation in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, K.-C.; Hassan, M. I.; Faeth, G. M.
1997-01-01
Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science. Thus, the present study is considering soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames, exploiting the microgravity environment to simplify measurements at the high-pressure conditions of interest for many practical applications. The findings of the investigation are relevant to reducing emissions of soot and continuum radiation from combustion processes, to improving terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety, and to developing methods of computational combustion, among others. Laminar premixed flames are attractive for studying soot formation because they are simple one-dimensional flows that are computationally tractable for detailed numerical simulations. Nevertheless, studying soot-containing burner-stabilized laminar premixed flames is problematical: spatial resolution and residence times are limited at the pressures of interest for practical applications, flame structure is sensitive to minor burner construction details so that experimental reproducibility is not very good, consistent burner behavior over the lengthy test programs needed to measure soot formation properties is hard to achieve, and burners have poor durability. Fortunately, many of these problems are mitigated for soot-containing, freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. The present investigation seeks to extend work in this laboratory for various soot processes in flames by observing soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. Measurements are being made at both Normal Gravity (NG) and MicroGravity (MG), using a short-drop free-fall facility to provide MG conditions.
Gravitational effects on the structure and propagation of premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamins, A.; Heitor, M.; Libby, P. A.
The influence of gravity on the propagation velocity and shape of premixed laminar flames is studied experimentally over the entire flammability range of methane-air mixtures. In the experiments reported here a vertical tube 10 cm dia, closed on both ends and open in the middle is filled with reactants and ignited in its central plane so that flames propagate in both the upward and downward directions. Additional experiments are made in a vertical tube 5 cm dia with flames propagating from an open towards a closed end. Steady flame propagation is achieved over the entire range of equivalence ratios by locating a series of holes along the length of the tubes covered with a thin film which is vaporized by the passage of the flame. Measurements in the larger tube indicate that gravity affects both rich and lean laminar flames in that upward propagating flames are faster than downward. The shape of the flames is complex with the former roughly hemispherical, the latter flat but with a cellular structure. In near stoichiometric mixtures the flames are oscillatory, are unaffected by gravity and correspond to weakly turbulent flames. The results in the smaller tube indicate that upward moving flames propagate faster than downward moving flames over the entire range of equivalence ratios studied and that the flame shape is always hemispherical. The preliminary results for turbulent premixed flames propagating upward and downward are discussed.
The transient response of strained laminar-premixed flames
Petrov, C.A.; Ghoniem, A.F.
1995-08-01
Modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion in premixed gases, for relatively large-scale and low-intensity turbulence, have traditionally been based on the assumption that the flame response to strain is instantaneous. In this paper, the authors revisit the validity of this assumption by examining the time-dependent response of a premixed laminar flame when subjected to a sudden change in strain and a periodic strain. They find that at unity Lewis number and for a stepwise increase in strain, the settling time of the flame varies between the chemical time, the flame time and the flow time as the Karlovitz number changes from low to intermediate to high values, respectively, over the entire range of flame temperatures. At nonunity Lewis numbers, the settling time changes from the flame time to the flow time as the strain jump increases from intermediate to high Karlovitz numbers and over the entire range of flame temperatures. For given Lewis and Karlovitz numbers, the settling time decreases as these flame temperature increases. Thus, in a flamelet or thin flame modeling, and over the entire range of Lewis number, the response of a premixed flame can be considered instantaneous only for high flame temperatures. The same is found to be true for intermediate flame temperatures when the Lewis number is unity. Otherwise, for low and intermediate flame tempera tues, and nonunity Lewis number, corrections reflecting the lag between the flow an the flame should be considered. The response of the flame to oscillating strain whose maximum value is below unity Karlovitz number is also investigated for two values of the flame temperatures.
Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence
Bedat, B.; Cheng, R.K.
1994-04-01
A methodology for investigating premixed turbulent flames propagating in intense isotropic turbulence has been developed. The burner uses a turbulence generator developed by Videto and Santavicca and the flame is stabilized by weak-swirl generated by air injectors. This set-up produces stable premixed turbulent flames under a wide range of mixture conditions and turbulence intensities. The experiments are designed to investigate systematically the changes in flame structures for conditions which can be classified as wrinkled laminar flames, corrugated flames and flames with distributed reaction zones. Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering techniques are used to determine the turbulence and scalar statistics. In the intense turbulence, the flames are found to produce very little changes in the mean and rams velocities. Their flame speed increase linearly with turbulence intensity as for wrinkled laminar flames. The Rayleigh scattering pdfs for flames within the distributed reaction zone regime are distinctly bimodal. The probabilities of the reacting states (i.e. contributions from within the reaction zone) is not higher than those of wrinkled laminar flame. These results show that there is no drastic changes in flame structures at Karlovitz number close to unity. This suggest that the Klimov-Williams criterion under-predicts the resilience of wrinkled flamelets to intense turbulence.
On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eng, James A.; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
1995-01-01
An experimental and theoretical program on cylindrical and spherical premixed flames in microgravity has been initiated. We are especially interested in: (1) assessing heat loss versus flow divergence as the dominant stabilization mechanism; (2) understanding the effects of flame curvature on the burning intensity; and (3) determining the laminar burning velocity by using this configuration. In the present study we have performed analytical, computational, and mu g-experimental investigations of the cylindrical flame. The results are presented.
Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Greenberg, P. S.; Wernet, M. P.
2003-01-01
The study of field effects of buoyancy on premixed turbulent flames is directed towards the advancement of turbulent combustion theory and the development of cleaner combustion technologies. Turbulent combustion is considered the most important unsolved problem in combustion science and laboratory studies of turbulence flame processes are vital to theoretical development. Although buoyancy is dominant in laboratory flames, most combustion models are not yet capable to consider buoyancy effects. This inconsistency has impeded the validation of theories and numerical simulations with experiments. Conversely, the understanding of buoyancy effects is far too limited to help develop buoyant flame models. Our research is also relevant to combustion technology because lean premixed combustion is a proven method to reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In industrial lean premixed combustion systems, their operating conditions make them susceptible to buoyancy thus affecting heat distribution, emissions, stability, flashback and blowoff. But little knowledge is available to guide combustion engineers as to how to avoid or overcome these problems. Our hypothesis is that through its influence on the mean pressure field, buoyancy has direct and indirect effects on local flame/turbulence interactions. Although buoyancy acts on the hot products in the farfield the effect is also felt in the nearfield region upstream of the flame. These changes also influence the generation and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy inside the flame brush and throughout the flowfield. Moreover, the plume of an open flame is unstable and the periodic fluctuations make additional contributions to flame front dynamics in the farfield. Therefore, processes such as flame wrinkling, flow acceleration due to heat release and flame- generated vorticity are all affected. Other global flame properties (e.g. flame stabilization limits and flame speed) may all be coupled to buoyancy. This
Vorticity transformation in high Karlovitz number premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobbitt, Brock; Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume
2016-01-01
To better understand the two-way coupling between turbulence and chemistry, the changes in turbulence characteristics through a premixed flame are investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on vorticity, ω, which is characteristic of the smallest length and time scales of turbulence, analyzing its behavior within and across high Karlovitz number (Ka) premixed flames. This is accomplished through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of premixed n-heptane/air flames, modeled with a 35-species finite-rate chemical mechanism, whose conditions span a wide range of unburnt Karlovitz numbers and flame density ratios. The behavior of the terms in the enstrophy, ω2 = ω ṡ ω, transport equation is analyzed, and a scaling is proposed for each term. The resulting normalized enstrophy transport equation involves only a small set of parameters. Specifically, the theoretical analysis and DNS results support that, at high Karlovitz number, enstrophy transport obtains a balance of the viscous dissipation and production/vortex stretching terms. It is shown that, as a result, vorticity scales in the same manner as in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence within and across the flame, namely, scaling with the inverse of the Kolmogorov time scale, τη. As τη is a function only of the viscosity and dissipation rate, this work supports the validity of Kolmogorov's first similarity hypothesis in premixed turbulent flames for sufficiently high Ka numbers. Results are unaffected by the transport model, chemical model, turbulent Reynolds number, and finally the physical configuration.
Premixing quality and flame stability: A theoretical and experimental study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radhakrishnan, K.; Heywood, J. B.; Tabaczynski, R. J.
1979-01-01
Models for predicting flame ignition and blowout in a combustor primary zone are presented. A correlation for the blowoff velocity of premixed turbulent flames is developed using the basic quantities of turbulent flow, and the laminar flame speed. A statistical model employing a Monte Carlo calculation procedure is developed to account for nonuniformities in a combustor primary zone. An overall kinetic rate equation is used to describe the fuel oxidation process. The model is used to predict the lean ignition and blow out limits of premixed turbulent flames; the effects of mixture nonuniformity on the lean ignition limit are explored using an assumed distribution of fuel-air ratios. Data on the effects of variations in inlet temperature, reference velocity and mixture uniformity on the lean ignition and blowout limits of gaseous propane-air flames are presented.
Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M.
2010-04-15
This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.
2001-01-01
This project is concerned with the characteristics of turbulent hydrocarbon (primarily propane) gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity. A microgravity environment provides the opportunity to study the structure of turbulent diffusion flames under momentum-dominated conditions (large Froude number) at moderate Reynolds number which is a combination not achievable in normal gravity. This paper summarizes progress made since the last workshop. Primarily, the features of flame radiation from microgravity turbulent jet diffusion flames in a reduced gravity environment are described. Tests were conducted for non-premixed, nitrogen diluted propane flames burning in quiescent air in the NASA Glenn 5.18 Second Zero Gravity Facility. Measured flame radiation from wedge-shaped, axial slices of the flame are compared for microgravity and normal gravity flames. Results from numerical computations of the flame using a k-e model for the turbulence are also presented to show the effects of flame radiation on the thermal field. Flame radiation is an important quantity that is impacted by buoyancy as has been shown in previous studies by the authors and also by Urban et al. It was found that jet diffusion flames burning under microgravity conditions have significantly higher radiative loss (about five to seven times higher) compared to their normal gravity counterparts because of larger flame size in microgravity and larger convective heat loss fraction from the flame in normal gravity. These studies, however, were confined to laminar flames. For the case of turbulent flames, the flame radiation is a function of time and both the time-averaged and time-dependent components are of interest. In this paper, attention is focused primarily on the time-averaged level of the radiation but the turbulent structure of the flame is also assessed from considerations of the radiation power spectra.
PREMIXED ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLAME (PROF) CODE USER'S MANUAL
The report is a user's manual that describes the problems that can be treated by the Premixed One-dimensional Flame (PROF) code. It also describes the mathematical models and solution procedures applied to these problems. Complete input instructions and a description of output ar...
Partially premixed flames in stagnating turbulence: The merging of planar triple flames
Bray, Ken; Champion, Michel; Libby, Paul A.
2008-07-15
The aim of this work, which takes a RANS perspective, is to consider the prospect of establishing a planar turbulent triple flame whose mean consists of two parallel premixed flame brushes separated by a nonpremixed flame brush. Experiments involving a counterflow between fuel-rich and fuel-lean turbulent streams are considered. A correlation of published experimental data is used to estimate premixed turbulent flame brush locations and brush thicknesses. Previously validated model calculations then allow an estimate to be made of the thickness of a central nonpremixed flame or mixing layer, a thickness which is shown to be strongly influenced by flame-turbulence interactions in the premixed flames. This thickness turns out to be orders-of-magnitude greater than the width of the hot burned gas region between the two premixed flames strongly suggesting that the three reacting flow regions will merge with each other. It is concluded that unlike the corresponding laminar counterflow planar turbulent triple flames will be difficult to establish in laboratory scale experiments. (author)
Temperature and velocity measurements in premixed turbulent flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.
1981-01-01
Turbulent flame speed data for premixed flames of methane-air, propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures stabilized in grid turbulence are reported and discussed. It is shown that turbulence effects on flame speed cannot be fully correlated by the turbulence length scale and r.m.s. velocity in the cold flow. Rather there appear to be significant flame-flow-turbulence interactions affecting both turbulence level in the reaction zone and measured flame speeds. Results of detailed velocity measurements, including autocorrelations, by laser velocimetry are used to elucidate the nature of these interactions. It is concluded that flame speed experiments must be designed and conducted to provide sufficient information (e.g., boundary conditions) to allow for reconstruction of the flow field and these interactions by modelers if the data are to be of value in turbulent combustion model development and evaluation.
Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels
Pizza, Gianmarco; Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Mantzaras, John; Tomboulides, Ananias G.
2008-10-15
Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)
On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity
Eng, J.A.; Law, C.K.; Zhu, D.L.
1994-12-31
The structure and response of the curved but unstretched cylindrically symmetric one-dimensional premixed flame generated by a cylindrical porous burner has been studied using (1) activation energy asymptotics with one-step reaction and constant properties, (2) numerical computation with detailed chemistry and transport, and (3) drop-tower microgravity experimentation. The study emphasizes the relative importance of heat loss (to the burner surface) vs flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization, the possibility of establishing a one-dimensional, adiabatic, unstretched, premixed flame in microgravity, the influence of curvature on the upstream and downstream burning rates of the flame, and the relation of these burning rates to those of the inherently nonadiabatic flat-burner flame as well as the freely propagating adiabatic planar flame. Results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence, hence demonstrating the feasibility of establishing a freely standing, adiabatic, one-dimensional, unstretched flame. It is further shown that, in this adiabatic, divergence-stabilized regime in which the burner discharge flux exceeds that of the adiabatic planar flame, the downstream burning flux is equal to the (constant) burning flux of the adiabatic planar flame while the upstream burning flux exceeds it, and the upstream burning velocity exhibits a maximum with increasing discharge rate. Based on the property of the downstream burning flux, it is also proposed that the laminar burning velocity of a combustible can be readily determined from the experimental values of the burner discharge rate and flame radius. Microgravity results on the flame radius compare favorably with the computed values, while the corresponding laminar burning velocity also agrees well with that obtained from independent numerical computation.
Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl
Chan, C.K.; Lau, K.S.; Chin, W.K.; Cheng, R.K.
1991-12-01
A novel means has been developed for using weak swirl to stabilize freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames (swirl numbers between 0.05 to 0.3). By injecting a small amount of air tangentially into the co-flow of a concentric burner, stationary flames can be maintained above the burner exit for a large range of mixture, turbulence and flow conditions. The absence of physical surfaces in the vicinity of the flame provides free access to laser diagnostics. Laser Doppler anemometry and laser Mie scattering measurements of four flames with and without incident turbulence show that their features are typical of wrinkled laminar flames. The most distinct characteristics is that flame stabilization does not rely on flow recirculation. Centrifugal force induced by swirl causes flow divergence, and the flame is maintained at where the local mass flux balances the burning rate. The flame speeds can be estimated based on the centerline velocity vector, which is locally normal to the flame brush. This flame geometry is the closest approximation to the 1-D planar flame for determining fundamental properties to advance turbulent combustion theories. 18 refs.
Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, premixed flames: the transition to turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hicks, Elizabeth; Rosner, Robert
2010-11-01
A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We present two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this vortex shedding process and its effect on the flame front for various values of the gravitational force. The flame and its shed vortices go through the following stages as gravity is increased: no vorticity and a flat flame front; long vortices attached to a cusped flame front; instability of the attached vortices and vortex shedding (Hopf bifurcation); disruption of the flame front by the shed vortices, causing the flame to pulsate; loss of left/right symmetry (period doubling); dominance of Rayleigh-Taylor instability over burning (torus bifurcation); and, finally, complex interactions between the flame front and the vortices. We measure the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and also measure mixing behind the flame front by computing the finite-time Lyapunov exponents.
Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday
2004-01-01
Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.
Extinction conditions of a premixed flame in a channel
Alliche, Mounir; Haldenwang, Pierre; Chikh, Salah
2010-06-15
A local refinement method is used to numerically predict the propagation and extinction conditions of a premixed flame in a channel considering a thermodiffusive model. A local refinement method is employed because of the numerous length scales that characterize this phenomenon. The time integration is self adaptive and the solution is based on a multigrid method using a zonal mesh refinement in the flame reaction zone. The objective is to determine the conditions of extinction which are characterized by the flame structure and its properties. We are interested in the following properties: the curvature of the flame, its maximum temperature, its speed of propagation and the distance separating the flame from the wall. We analyze the influence of heat losses at the wall through the thermal conductivity of the wall and the nature of the fuel characterized by the Lewis number of the mixture. This investigation allows us to identify three propagation regimes according to heat losses at the wall and to the channel radius. The results show that there is an intermediate value of the radius for which the flame can bend and propagate provided that its curvature does not exceed a certain limit value. Indeed, small values of the radius will choke the flame and extinguish it. The extinction occurs if the flame curvature becomes too small. Furthermore, this study allows us to predict the limiting values of the heat loss coefficient at extinction as well as the critical value of the channel radius above which the premixed flame may propagate without extinction. A dead zone of length 2-4 times the flame thickness appears between the flame and the wall for a Lewis number (Le) between 0.8 and 2. For small values of Le, local extinctions are observed. (author)
Behaviour of a Premixed Flame Subjected to Acoustic Oscillations
Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.; Prosser, Robert
2013-01-01
In this paper, a one dimensional premixed laminar methane flame is subjected to acoustic oscillations and studied. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effects of acoustic perturbations on the reaction rates of different species, with a view to their respective contribution to thermoacoustic instabilities. Acoustically transparent non reflecting boundary conditions are employed. The flame response has been studied with acoustic waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The integral values of the reaction rates, the burning velocities and the heat release of the acoustically perturbed flame are compared with the unperturbed case. We found that the flame's sensitivity to acoustic perturbations is greatest when the wavelength is comparable to the flame thickness. Even in this case, the perturbations are stable with time. We conclude that acoustic fields acting on the chemistry do not contribute significantly to the emergence of large amplitude pressure oscillations. PMID:24376501
Density fluctuations in premixed turbulent flames
Namazian, M.; Talbot, L.; Robben, F.
1984-03-01
The simultaneous two-point density fluctuations in a V-shaped turbulent flame are measured using a two-point Rayleigh scattering method. A wrinkle laminar flame model with finite instantaneous flame thickness is developed for the flames studied. The reaction front probability density function (pdf) is both measured directly and also calculated from the measured mean density. An analytical expression for this pdf is given which is derived based on a thin flame model. The mean, rms and correlation coefficients are calculated using the finite reaction front thickness model and the results are compared with the experimental data. The pdf of the intermediate states are shown to be due to the reaction front thickness.
Stabilization of premixed flames on rotating Bunsen burners
Cha, J.M.; Sohrab, S.H.
1996-09-01
The effect of rotation on stabilization of methane-air premixed Bunsen flame sis experimentally investigated. Both the flame blowoff and flashback contours are determined in the fuel mole fraction versus Reynolds number plane (X{sub F}-Re) with the rotational Reynolds number Re{sub 4} as a parameter. It is found that rotation of the gas increases the flame stabilization area A{sub s} = A{sub B} {minus} A{sub F} defined as the difference between the flame blowoff A{sub B} and flashback A{sub F} areas in the (X{sub F}-Re) plane. The flame stabilization efficiency is defined as {eta}{sub s} = 1 {minus} A{sub F}/A{sub B} that approaches unity in either A{sub B} {yields} {infinity} or A{sub F} {yields} 0 limit. The experimental results suggest that rotation decreases the flame stabilization efficiency. However, rotation is found to substantially increase the flame stabilization coefficient defined as {beta}{sub s} = A{sub s}/A{sub st}, where A{sub st} is the stabilization area of the standard nonrotating burner. The parameters {eta}{sub s} and {beta}{sub s} may be useful in combustion technology for quantitative evaluation of the stabilization performance of different types of flame holders. In addition, the local hydrodynamics near the center of rotating Bunsen burner is simulated by investigating stabilization of planar laminar premixed flames on rotating porous disks with uniform surface velocity. Physical concepts concerning mechanisms of flame stabilization are discussed in terms of three important parameters namely the translational Reynolds number Re, the rotation Reynolds number Re{sub r}, and the fuel mole fraction X{sub F}. The results of the experimental findings are shown to be in accordance with prior theoretical investigation.
Premixed Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driscoll, J. F.; Sichel, M.; Sinibaldi, J. O.
1997-01-01
A unique experiment makes it now possible to obtain detailed images in microgravity showing how an individual vortex causes the wrinkling, stretching, area increase, and eventual extinction of a premixed flame. The repeatable, controllable flame-vortex interaction represents the fundamental building block of turbulent combustion concepts. New information is provided that is central to turbulent flame models, including measurements of all components of flame stretch, strain, and vorticity. Simultaneous measurements of all components of these quantities are not possible in fully turbulent flames but are possible in the present axisymmetric, repeatable experiment. Advanced PIV diagnostics have been used at one-g and have been developed for microgravity. Numerical simulations of the interaction are being performed at NRL. It is found that microgravity conditions greatly augment the flame wrinkling process. Flame area and the amplitude of wrinkles at zero-g are typically twice that observed at one-g. It is inferred that turbulent flames in microgravity could have larger surface area and thus propagate significantly faster than those in one-g, which is a potential safety hazard. A new mechanism is identified by PIV images that shows how buoyancy retards flame wrinkling at one-g; buoyancy produces new vorticity (due to baroclinic torques) that oppose the wrinkling and the stretch imposed by the original vortex. Microgravity conditions remove this stabilizing mechanism and the amplitude of flame wrinkling typically is found to double. Microgravity also increases the flame speed by a factor of 1.8 to 2.2. Both methane and propane-air flames were studied at the NASA Lewis drop tower. Results indicate that it is important to add buoyancy to models of turbulent flames to simulate the correct flame wrinkling, stretch and burning velocity.
Ibarreta, Alfonso F; Sung, Chih-Jen
2005-06-10
Rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) provides a simple and nonintrusive way of determining the temperature field of axisymmetric flames. This technique is specially suited for the detection of large temperature gradients, such as those near the flame location. We explore the feasibility and accuracy of using RSD to obtain the flame location and thermal structure of premixed Bunsen flames for varying fuel types, equivalence ratios, and soot loadings. Uncertainty analysis is also carried out to provide various ways to reduce RSD experimental error. The RSD technique is demonstrated to give useful data even for moderately and heavily sooting flames. PMID:16007857
Response mechanisms of attached premixed flames subjected to harmonic forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shreekrishna
The persistent thrust for a cleaner, greener environment has prompted air pollution regulations to be enforced with increased stringency by environmental protection bodies all over the world. This has prompted gas turbine manufacturers to move from nonpremixed combustion to lean, premixed combustion. These lean premixed combustors operate quite fuel-lean compared to the stochiometric, in order to minimize CO and NOx productions, and are very susceptible to oscillations in any of the upstream flow variables. These oscillations cause the heat release rate of the flame to oscillate, which can engage one or more acoustic modes of the combustor or gas turbine components, and under certain conditions, lead to limit cycle oscillations. This phenomenon, called thermoacoustic instabilities, is characterized by very high pressure oscillations and increased heat fluxes at system walls, and can cause significant problems in the routine operability of these combustors, not to mention the occasional hardware damages that could occur, all of which cumulatively cost several millions of dollars. In a bid towards understanding this flow-flame interaction, this research works studies the heat release response of premixed flames to oscillations in reactant equivalence ratio, reactant velocity and pressure, under conditions where the flame preheat zone is convectively compact to these disturbances, using the G-equation. The heat release response is quantified by means of the flame transfer function and together with combustor acoustics, forms a critical component of the analytical models that can predict combustor dynamics. To this end, low excitation amplitude (linear) and high excitation amplitude (nonlinear) responses of the flame are studied in this work. The linear heat release response of lean, premixed flames are seen to be dominated by responses to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations at low frequencies, and to pressure fluctuations at high frequencies which are in the
Numerical calculations of strained premixed laminar flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabiha, N.; Candel, S.; Marble, F. E.
The structure of a strained laminar flame in the vicinity of a stagnation point is examined numerically. The stagnation point is established by the counterflow of fresh mixture and hot products. This situation is described by standard reactive boundary layer equations. The numerical scheme used to solve the similar boundary layer equations put in F-V form (block-implicit) is an adaptation of the schemes proposed by Blottner (1979). The calculations are performed first on an uniform grid and then confirmed with an adaptive grid method due to Smooke (1982). Numerical calculations allow an exact description of the flame structure in physical and also reduced coordinates. Predictions of Libby and Williams (1982) for high and intermediate values of the strain rate based on activation energy asymptotics are confirmed. For low strain rates (ordinary unstrained laminar flame) the mass rate of reaction per unit flame area differs from that obtained by activation energy asymptotics.
The propagation of premixed flames in closed tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matalon, Moshe; Metzener, Philippe
1997-04-01
A nonlinear evolution equation that describes the propagation of a premixed flame in a closed tube has been derived from the general conservation equations. What distinguishes it from other similar equations is a memory term whose origin is in the vorticity production at the flame front. The two important parameters in this equation are the tube's aspect ratio and the Markstein parameter. A linear stability analysis indicates that when the Markstein parameter [alpha] is above a critical value [alpha]c the planar flame is the stable equilibrium solution. For [alpha] below [alpha]c the planar flame is no longer stable and there is a band of growing modes. Numerical solutions of the full nonlinear equation confirm this conclusion. Starting with random initial conditions the results indicate that, after a short transient, a at flame develops when [alpha]>[alpha]c and it remains flat until it reaches the end of the tube. When [alpha]<[alpha]c, on the other hand, stable curved flames may develop down the tube. Depending on the initial conditions the flame assumes either a cellular structure, characterized by a finite number of cells convex towards the unburned gas, or a tulip shape characterized by a sharp indentation at the centre of the tube pointing toward the burned gases. In particular, if the initial conditions are chosen so as to simulate the elongated finger-like flame that evolves from an ignition source, a tulip flame evolves downstream. In accord with experimental observations the tulip shape forms only after the flame has travelled a certain distance down the tube, it does not form in short tubes and its formation depends on the mixture composition. While the initial deformation of the flame front is a direct result of the hydrodynamic instability, the actual formation of the tulip flame results from the vortical motion created in the burned gas which is a consequence of the vorticity produced at the flame front.
Unusual pulsating states in hydrocarbon-oxygen premixed flames.
Gorman, M; Perrollier, S
2006-12-01
An unusual type of pulsating state has been observed using a new ignition protocol for heavy hydrocarbon-oxygen premixed flames on a circular porous plug burner. The shape and motion of these states are quasicircular, luminous, pulsating regions of M (M=1, 2, 3, or 4) lobes that increase in size as the flame propagates outward. As the lobes expand, they break apart near their midpoints and form counterpropagating spiral-like arms. These spiral arms rotate, "collide" with arms generated by adjacent lobes, and are extinguished. We will describe the unusual characteristics of the dynamics of these states. PMID:17199402
Premixed silane-oxygen-nitrogen flames
Tokuhashi, K.; Horiguchi, S.; Uranco, Y.; Iwasaka, M.; Ohtani, H.; Kondo, S. )
1990-10-01
The burning velocities of lean premised silane-oxygen-nitrogen flames were measured in the silane and oxygen concentration ranges from 1.6% to 2.9% and from 4% to 24%, respectively. Combustion product analyses and flame temperature measurements were also carried out. The burning velocity of a silane-air flame is around 55 cm/ at a silane concentration of 2%. For lean mixtures, when the oxygen concentration is reduced, dependence of burning velocity upon silane concentration decreases but does not significantly affect the flame temperature. For extremely lean flames, the degree of hydrogen production increase with decreasing silane, although silane is consumed almost completely. On the other hand, if the silane concentration exceeds stoichiometric, the burning velocity increases gradually with increasing silane concentration. In that case, silane as well as oxygen are consumed completely and, at the same time, hydrogen rather than water production becomes dominant. The mechanism of silane combustion is discussed, based on numerical calculations, where the mechanism used in the calculation is assembled by analogy of silane to methane combustion.
A tomographic study of premixed turbulent stagnation point flames
Shepherd, I.G.; Cheng, R.K.; Goix, P.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1989-10-01
The high speed tomographic technique has been used to study premixed flame propagation in stagnation flow stabilized flames. Studies are performed on CH4/Air and C2H4/Air flames with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.75 to 1.0. The gas velocity at the nozzle exit is 5 m/s, the turbulence intensity is varied from 5% to 7% and the turbulence Reynolds number is 70. The light source is a copper vapor laser which produces 20ns, 5 mJ pulses at a 4KHz repetition rate. Cylindrical lenses transform the 38 mm circular laser beam to a sheet 50 mm high and 0.6 mm thick. A high speed Fastax camera is used to record the tomographic images. The films are digitized and the flame front extracted from the images by a thresholding technique. A fractal analysis was performed on the flame boundaries in order to characterize the flame geometry and provide an estimate of the flame surface area. The flame area increase was found to give a reasonable estimate of the burning rate when compared with other methods if the effects of flow tube divergence were considered. Characteristic wrinkle sizes were found to be much larger than the length scales of the turbulence in the reactant stream. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Stationary premixed flames in spherical and cylindrical geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, P. D.; Whaling, K. N.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Gatto, J. L.; Pisowiscz, V. L.
1994-01-01
Stationary source-free spherical flames ('flame balls') in premixed combustible gases were studied by employing low-gravity (micro-g) environments in a drop tower and an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories to diminish the impact of buoyancy-induced convective flow. Flame balls were found in all mixture families tested when: (1) the Lewis number Le of the deficient reactant was sufficiently low; and (2) the compositions were sufficiently close to the flammability limits. Probably as a consequence of the reduction in buoyant convection, the flammability limits at micro-g were significantly more dilute than those at Earth gravity; for example, 3.35% H2 vs 4.0% H2 in lean H2-air mixtures. By comparison with analytical and computational models, it is inferred that the phenomenon is probably related to diffusive-thermal effects in low-Le mixtures in conjunction with flame-front curvature and radiative heat losses from the combustion products. The chemical reaction mechanism appears to play no qualitative role. In the aircraft experiments, the gravity levels (approximately equal 10(exp -2)g(sub 0)) were found to cause noticeable motion of flame balls due to buoyancy, which in turn influenced the behavior of flame balls. At these g levels, a new type of transient, nearly cylindrical flame structure, termed 'flame strings,' was observed.
Periodic and Chaotic Modes in Premixed Laminar Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Hamdi, Mohamed Abbes
1991-06-01
In this thesis, we report the discoveries of many periodic and chaotic modes of laminar premixed flames on porous plug burners. This report is the first confirmation of predictions of a number of recent theoretical studies on the dynamics of premixed flames. The experimental innovations and techniques presented in section 3.6 are at the heart of the discoveries of these dynamical modes. In our experiments, a flame front is stabilized on a porous plug burner enclosed within a pyrex chamber. By varying the total flow rate, the stoichiometry of the combustible mixture, and the chamber pressure, we discovered many periodic and chaotic modes. We show that different fuels and/or oxidizers as well as the symmetries of the system can affect the dynamics of the flame front. Experimental evidence is presented that shows that laminar premixed flames exhibit low-dimensional, deterministic chaos. The largest Liapunov exponent and the pointwise dimension calculations are used to confirm that chaos exists in certain regions of parameter space. We also describe a power spectrum technique that can be used to identify deterministic dynamics in real time. With the help of a spectrum analyzer, an experimentalist can map the dynamics (simple and complex) of the system under investigation in a relatively short time. As far as we know, this is the first time that nonlinear dynamics techniques are used to analyze experimental data from combustion. All the nonperiodic modes that we have discovered exhibit low-dimensional deterministic chaos and we believe that this result is a general one for propagating fronts. The implication of our work is that such nonperiodic states can be described by a tractable set of ordinary differential equations.
Non-premixed acoustically perturbed swirling flame dynamics
Idahosa, Uyi; Saha, Abhishek; Xu, Chengying; Basu, Saptarshi
2010-09-15
An investigation into the response of non-premixed swirling flames to acoustic perturbations at various frequencies (f{sub p}=0-315 Hz) and swirl intensities (S=0.09 and 0.34) is carried out. Perturbations are generated using a loudspeaker at the base of an atmospheric co-flow burner with resulting velocity oscillation amplitudes vertical stroke u'/U{sub avg} vertical stroke in the 0.03-0.30 range. The dependence of flame dynamics on the relative richness of the flame is investigated by studying various constant fuel flow rate flame configurations. Flame heat release rate is quantitatively measured using a photomultiplier with a 430 nm bandpass filter for observing CH* chemiluminescence which is simultaneously imaged with a phase-locked CCD camera. The flame response is observed to exhibit a low-pass filter characteristic with minimal flame response beyond pulsing frequencies of 200 Hz. Flames at lower fuel flow rates are observed to remain attached to the central fuel pipe at all acoustic pulsing frequencies. PIV imaging of the associated isothermal fields show the amplification in flame aspect ratio is caused by the narrowing of the inner recirculation zone (IRZ). Good correlation is observed between the estimated flame surface area and the heat release rate signature at higher swirl intensity flame configurations. A flame response index analogous to the Rayleigh criterion in non-forced flames is used to assess the potential for a strong flame response at specific perturbation configurations and is found to be a good predictor of highly responsive modes. Phase conditioned analysis of the flame dynamics yield additional criteria in highly responsive modes to include the effective amplitude of velocity oscillations induced by the acoustic pulsing. In addition, highly responsive modes were characterized by velocity to heat release rate phase differences in the {+-}{pi}/2 range. A final observed characteristic in highly responsive flames is a Strouhal number between
Flame Oscillations In Non-Premixed Systems Diffusion Flames and Edge-Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matalon, Moshe
2003-01-01
Diffusive-thermal instabilities are well known features of premixed and diffusion flames. In one of its form the instability appears as spontaneous oscillations. In premixed systems oscillations are predicted to occur when the effective Lewis number, defined as the ratio of the thermal diffusivity of the mixture to the mass diffusivity of the deficient component, is sufficiently larger than one. Oscillations would therefore occur in mixtures that are deficient in the less mobile reactant, namely in lean hydrocarbon-air or rich hydrogen-air mixtures. The theoretical predictions summarized above are in general agreement with experimental results; see for example [5] where a jet configuration was used and experiments were conducted for various inert-diluted propane and methane flames burning in inert-diluted oxygen. Nitrogen, argon and SF6 were used as inert in order to produce conditions of substantially different Lewis numbers and mixture strength. In accord with the predicted trend, it was found that oscillations arise at near extinction conditions, that for oscillations to occur it suffices that one of the two Lewis numbers be sufficiently large, and that oscillations are more likely to be observed when is relatively large.
Inhibition of premixed methane-air flames by fluoromethanes
Linteris, G.T.; Truett, L.
1996-04-01
This paper presents the first calculations and measurements of the burning velocity of premixed hydrocarbon flames inhibited by the three one-carbon fluorinated species CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}H, and CF{sub 4}. Studying their behavior in methane flames provides an important first step towards understanding the suppression mechanism of hydrocarbon fires by fluorinated compounds. The burning velocity of premixed methane-air flames is determined using the total area method from a schlieren image of the flame. The inhibitors are tested over a range of concentration and fuel-air equivalence ratio, {phi}. The measured burning velocity reduction caused by addition of the inhibitor is compared with that predicted by numerical solution of the species and energy conservation equations employing a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism recently developed at NIST. Even in this first test of the kinetic mechanism on inhibited hydrocarbon flames, the numerically predicted burning velocity reductions for methane-air flames with values of {phi} of 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 and inhibitor mole fractions in the unburned gases up to 0.08, are in excellent agreement for CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} and within 35% for CF{sub 3}H. The numerical results indicate that the agents CF{sub 3}H and CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} are totally consumed in the flame and the burning velocity is reduced primarily by a reduction in the H-atom concentration through reactions leading to HF formation. In contrast, only about 10% of the CF{sub 4} is consumed and it reduces the burning velocity primarily by lowering the final temperature of the burned gases.
Direct simulations of premixed turbulent flames with nonunity Lewis numbers
Rutland, C.J.; Trouve, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA . Center for Turbulence Research)
1993-07-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet regime is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For nonunity Lewis numbers, Le [ne] 1, the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional isotropic turbulence with constant density, single-step Arrhenius kinetics chemistry. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. At the local level, curvature effects dominated changes to the flame structure while strain effects were insignificant. A strong Lewis-number-dependent correlation was found between surface curvature and the local flame speed. The correlation was positive for Le < 1 and negative for Le > 1. At the global level, strain-related effects were more significant than curvature effects. The turbulent flame speed changed significantly with Lewis number, increasing as Le decreased. This was found to be due to strain effect that have a nonzero mean over the flame surface, rather than to curvature effects that have a nearly zero mean. The mean product temperature was also found to vary with Lewis number, being higher for Le > 1 and lower for Le < 1.
Direct simulations of premixed turbulent flames with nonunity Lewis numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.
1993-01-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet regime is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For nonunity Lewis numbers, Le is not equal to 1, the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of 3D isotropic turbulence with constant density, single-step Arrhenius kinetics chemistry. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. At the local level, curvature effects dominated changes to the flame structure while strain effects were insignificant. A strong Lewis-number-dependent correlation was found between surface curvature and the local flame speed. The correlation was positive for Le less than 1 and negative for Le greater than 1. At the global level, strain-related effects were more significant than curvature effects. The turbulent flame speed changed significantly with Lewis number, increasing as Le decreased. This was found to be due to strain effects that have a nonzero mean over the flame surface, rather than to curvature effects that have a nearly zero mean. The mean product temperature was also found to vary with Lewis number, being higher for Le greater than 1 and lower for Le less than 1.
A ring stabilizer for lean premixed turbulent flames
Johnson, M.R.; Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K.
1998-08-01
In previous experiments on conical flame behavior in microgravity, which were conducted in drop-towers and in airplanes, the use of a pilot flame was not an option. To permit combustion of stable lean premixed conical flames without a pilot, a ring stabilizer was developed. Although similar types of bluff-body stabilization have been used in the past, the ring stabilizer is somewhat unique. It is designed to fit inside the burner exit port and has demonstrated to be highly effective in stabilizing flames over a very wide range of conditions (including ultra-lean flames at high flow-rates) without adversely affecting flame emissions. Unlike a simple rod stabilizer or a stagnation flame system, the benefit of having the stabilizer conform to the burner port is that there is very little leakage of the unburned fuel. The purpose of this brief communication is to offer this simple and highly useful device to the combustion research community. Presented are highlights of a parametric study that measured the stabilization limits and pollutant emissions of several different rings, and demonstrated their potential for use in practical systems.
Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues
Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.
1995-10-01
This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.
Finite amplitude wave interaction with premixed laminar flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslani, Mohamad; Regele, Jonathan D.
2014-11-01
The physics underlying combustion instability is an active area of research because of its detrimental impact in many combustion devices, such as turbines, jet engines, and liquid rocket engines. Pressure waves, ranging from acoustic waves to strong shocks, are potential sources of these disturbances. Literature on flame-disturbance interactions are primarily focused on either acoustics or strong shock wave interactions, with little information about the wide spectrum of behaviors that may exist between these two extremes. For example, the interaction between a flame and a finite amplitude compression wave is not well characterized. This phenomenon is difficult to study numerically due to the wide range of scales that need to be captured, requiring powerful and efficient numerical techniques. In this work, the interaction of a perturbed laminar premixed flame with a finite amplitude compression wave is investigated using the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM). This method optimally solves the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential scales. The results show that depending on the amplitude and duration of a finite amplitude disturbance, the interaction between these waves and premixed flames can produce a broad range of responses.
Temperature response of turbulent premixed flames to inlet velocity oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayoola, B.; Hartung, G.; Armitage, C. A.; Hult, J.; Cant, R. S.; Kaminski, C. F.
2009-01-01
Flame-turbulence interactions are at the heart of modern combustion research as they have a major influence on efficiency, stability of operation and pollutant emissions. The problem remains a formidable challenge, and predictive modelling and the implementation of active control measures both rely on further fundamental measurements. Model burners with simple geometry offer an opportunity for the isolation and detailed study of phenomena that take place in real-world combustors, in an environment conducive to the application of advanced laser diagnostic tools. Lean premixed combustion conditions are currently of greatest interest since these are able to provide low NO x and improved increased fuel economy, which in turn leads to lower CO2 emissions. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the response of a bluff-body-stabilised flame to periodic inlet fluctuations under lean premixed turbulent conditions. Inlet velocity fluctuations were imposed acoustically using loudspeakers. Spatially resolved heat release rate imaging measurements, using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH2O, have been performed to explore the periodic heat release rate response to various acoustic forcing amplitudes and frequencies. For the first time we use this method to evaluate flame transfer functions and we compare these results with chemiluminescence measurements. Qualitative thermometry based on two-line OH PLIF was also used to compare the periodic temperature distribution around the flame with the periodic fluctuation of local heat release rate during acoustic forcing cycles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rana, Subhas Chandra; Sujith, Raman
2015-09-01
The influence of system parameters such as the flame location, Peclet number and Damköhler number on the bifurcation characteristics and flame dynamics of a ducted non-premixed flame with finite rate chemistry is presented in this paper. In the bifurcation plot with flame location as the bifurcation parameter, subcritical Hopf bifurcation is found for lower values of flame location and supercritical Hopf bifurcation for higher values of flame location, for all the Damköhler numbers used in this study. The flame shapes are captured at eight different phases of a cycle of time series data of acoustic velocity at both the fold and Hopf points for bifurcation with flame location as the parameter. We find that the range of flame height variations at the Hopf point is more than the range of flame height variations obtained at the fold point. We also find that the flame oscillates in the same phase as pressure fluctuation but in a phase different from both velocity and heat release rate fluctuations in the region of hysteresis for bifurcation with flame location. The non-dimensional hysteresis width is plotted as a function of Damköhler number for variation of flame location in the subcritical region. An inverse power law relation is found between the non-dimensional hysteresis width and the Damköhler number. The bifurcation plot with Peclet number as parameter shows a subcritical Hopf bifurcation.
An experimental investigation of an acoustically excited laminar premixed flame
Kartheekeyan, S.; Chakravarthy, S.R.
2006-08-15
A two-dimensional laminar premixed flame is stabilized over a burner in a confined duct and is subjected to external acoustic forcing from the downstream end. The equivalence ratio of the flame is 0.7. The flame is stabilized in the central slot of a three-slotted burner. The strength of the shear layer of the cold reactive mixture through the central slot is controlled by the flow rate of cold nitrogen gas through the side slots. The frequency range of acoustic excitation is 400-1200 Hz, and the amplitude levels are such that the acoustic velocity is less than the mean flow velocity of the reactants. Time-averaged chemiluminescence images of the perturbed flame front display time-mean changes as compared to the unperturbed flame shape at certain excitation frequencies. Prominent changes to the flame front are in the form of stretching or shrinkage, asymmetric development of its shape, increased/preferential lift-off of one or both of the stabilization points of the flame, and nearly random three-dimensional fluctuations over large time scales under some conditions. The oscillations of the shear layer and the response of the confined jet of the hot products to the acoustic forcing, such as asymmetric flow development and jet spreading, are found to be responsible for the observed mean changes in the flame shape. A distinct low-frequency component ({approx}60-90 Hz) relative to the excitation frequency is observed in the fluctuations of the chemiluminescent intensity in the flame under most conditions. It is observed that fluctuations in the flame area predominantly contribute to the origin of the low-frequency component. This is primarily due to the rollup of vortices and the generation of enthalpy waves at the burner lip. Both of these processes are excited at the externally imposed acoustic time scale, but convect/propagate downstream at the flow time scale, which is much larger. (author)
Effects of pressure gradients on turbulent premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veynante, D.; Poinsot, T.
1995-01-01
The influence of a constant acceleration on a turbulent premixed flame is studied by direct numerical simulation. This acceleration induces a mean pressure gradient across the flame brush, leading to a modification of the turbulent flame structure due to differential buoyancy mechanisms between heavy cold fresh and light hot burnt gases. Such a pressure gradient may be encountered in practical applications in ducted flames. A favorable pressure gradient, i.e. the pressure decreases from unburnt to burnt gases, is found to decrease the flame wrinkling, the flame brush thickness, and the turbulent flame speed. A favorable pressure gradient also promotes counter-gradient turbulent transport. On the other hand, adverse pressure gradients tend to increase the flame brush thickness and turbulent flame speed, and promote classical gradient turbulent transport. The balance equation for the turbulent flux of the Favre averaged progress variable is also analyzed. The first results show that the fluctuating pressure term, cannot be neglected as generally assumed in models. Simple models assuming that a high mean pressure gradient may only be balanced by the cross-dissipation term seem too approximate. This analysis has to be continued to compare simulation data and closure schemes proposed for the transport equation. The analysis developed by Veynante et al.(1995) has been extended to imposed acceleration and mean pressure gradients. A simple model for the turbulent flux is proposed and validated from simulation data. Then, a modified criterion is derived to delineate between counter-gradient and gradient turbulent diffusion. In fact, counter-gradient diffusion may occur in most practical applications, especially for ducted flames.
Premixed flame propagation in combustible particle cloud mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, K.; Yang, B.
1993-01-01
The structures of premixed flames propagating in combustible systems, containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles, in an oxidizing gas mixtures is analyzed. The experimental results show that steady flame propagation occurs even if the initial equivalence ratio of the combustible mixture based on the gaseous fuel available in the particles, phi(u) is substantially larger than unity. A model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In the model it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield a gaseous fuel of known chemical composition which then reacts with oxygen in a one-step overall process. It is shown that the interplay of vaporization kinetics and oxidation process, can result in steady flame propagation in combustible mixtures where the value of phi(u) is substantially larger than unity. This prediction is in agreement with experimental observations.
Premixed-Gas Flame Propagation in Hele-Shaw Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharif, J.; Abid, M.; Ronney, P. D.
1999-01-01
It is well known that buoyancy and thermal expansion affect the propagation ra and shapes of premixed gas flames. The understanding of such effects is complicated by the large density ratio between the reactants and products, which induces a baroclinic production of vorticity due to misalignment of density and pressure gradients at the front, which in turn leads to a complicated multi-dimensional flame/flow interaction. The Hele-Shaw cell, i.e., the region between closely-spaced flat parallel plates, is probably the simplest system in which multi-dimensional convection is presents consequently, the behavior of fluids in this system has been studied extensively (Homsy, 1987). Probably the most important characteristic of Hele-Shaw flows is that when the Reynolds number based on gap width is sufficiently small, the Navier-Stokes equations averaged over the gap reduce to a linear relation, namely a Laplace equation for pressure (Darcy's law). In this work, flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells is studied to obtain a better understanding of buoyancy and thermal expansion effects on premixed flames. This work is also relevant to the study of unburned hydrocarbon emissions produced by internal combustion engines since these emissions are largely a result of the partial burning or complete flame quenching in the narrow, annular gap called the "crevice volume" between the piston and cylinder walls (Heywood, 1988). A better understanding of how flames propagate in these volumes through experiments using Hele-Shaw cells could lead to identification of means to reduce these emissions.
Transport of inertial particles in a turbulent premixed jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Troiani, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2011-12-01
The heat release, occurring in reacting flows, induces a sudden fluid acceleration which particles follow with a certain lag, due to their finite inertia. Actually, the coupling between particle inertia and the flame front expansion strongly biases the spatial distribution of the particles, by inducing the formation of localized clouds with different dimensions downstream the thin flame front. A possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called Clustering Index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle distribution from the Poissonian, which would correspond to a purely random spatial arrangement. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, which is spanned by the fluctuating instantaneous flame front. The effect is significant also for very light particles. In this case a simple model based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect is found to increases and persist well within the region of burned gases. The effect is maximum when the particle relaxation time is of the order of the flame front time scale. The evidence of this peculiar source of clustering is here provided by data from a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent premixed jet flame and confirmed by experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, I. M.
1978-01-01
A premixed flat-flame burner was designed and tested with methane-air mixtures at pressures from 1.1 to 20 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.7 to 1.1. Reactant velocity in the burner mixing chamber was used to characterize the range of stable flames at each pressure-equivalence-ratio condition. Color photographs of the flames were used to determine flame zone thickness and flame height. The results show that this burner can be used for chemical process studies in premixed high pressure methane-air flames up to 20 atm.
Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K.
2006-10-15
In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)
Flame-Generated Vorticity Production in Premixed Flame-Vortex Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.
2003-01-01
In this study, we use detailed time-dependent, multi-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the relative importance of the processes leading to FGV in flame-vortex interactions in normal gravity and microgravity and to determine if the production of vorticity in flames in gravity is the same as that in zero gravity except for the contribution of the gravity term. The numerical simulations will be performed using the computational model developed at NRL, FLAME3D. FLAME3D is a parallel, multi-dimensional (either two- or three-dimensional) flame model based on FLIC2D, which has been used extensively to study the structure and stability of premixed hydrogen and methane flames.
The structure of partially premixed methane flames in high-intensity turbulent flows
Yaldizli, Murat; Mehravaran, Kian; Mohammad, Hyderuddin; Jaberi, Farhad A.
2008-09-15
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to study the structure of partially premixed and non-premixed methane flames in high-intensity two-dimensional isotropic turbulent flows. The results obtained via ''flame normal analysis'' show local extinction and reignition for both non-premixed and partially premixed flames. Dynamical analysis of the flame with a Lagrangian method indicates that the time integrated strain rate characterizes the finite-rate chemistry effects and the flame extinction better than the strain rate. It is observed that the flame behavior is affected by the ''pressure-dilatation'' and ''viscous-dissipation'' in addition to strain rate. Consistent with previous studies, high vorticity values are detected close to the reaction zone, where the vorticity generation by the ''baroclinic torque'' was found to be significant. The influences of (initial) Reynolds and Damkoehler numbers, and various air-fuel premixing levels on flame and turbulence variables are also studied. It is observed that the flame extinction occurs similarly in flames with different fuel-air premixing. Our simulations also indicate that the CO emission increases as the partial premixing of the fuel with air increases. Higher values of the temperature, the OH mass fraction and the CO mass fraction are observed within the flame zone at higher Reynolds numbers. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mantel, Thierry
1994-01-01
The goal of the present study is to assess numerically the ability of single-step and two-step chemical models to describe the main features encountered during the interaction between a two-dimensional vortex pair and a premixed laminar flame. In the two-step mechanism, the reaction kinetics are represented by a first chain branching reaction A + X yields 2X and a second chain termination reaction X + X yields P. This paper presents the fundamental mechanisms occurring during vortex-flame interactions and the relative impact of the major parameters encountered in turbulent premixed flames and suspected of playing a role in quenching mechanism: (1) Influence of stretch is investigated by analyzing the contribution of curvature and tangential strain on the local structure of the flame. The effect of Lewis number on the flame response to a strained field is analyzed. (2) Radiative heat losses which are suspected to be partially or totally responsible for quenching are also investigated. (3) The effect of the diffusion of the radicals is studied using a two-step mechanism in which an intermediate species is present. The parameters of the two-step mechanism are entirely determined from physical arguments. (4) Precise quantitative comparisons between the DNS and the experimental results of Samaniego et al are performed. These comparisons concern the evolution of the minimum heat release rate found along the flame front during the interaction and the distribution of the heat release rate along the flame front.
Numerical simulation of premixed flame propagation in a closed tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzuu, Kazuto; Ishii, Katsuya; Kuwahara, Kunio
1996-08-01
Premixed flame propagation of methane-air mixture in a closed tube is estimated through a direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations coupled with chemical reaction. In order to deal with a combusting flow, an extended version of the MAC method, which can be applied to a compressible flow with strong density variation, is employed as a numerical method. The chemical reaction is assumed to be an irreversible single step reaction between methane and oxygen. The chemical species are CH 4, O 2, N 2, CO 2, and H 2O. In this simulation, we reproduce a formation of a tulip flame in a closed tube during the flame propagation. Furthermore we estimate not only a two-dimensional shape but also a three-dimensional structure of the flame and flame-induced vortices, which cannot be observed in the experiments. The agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data is satisfactory, and we compare the phenomenon near the side wall with the one in the corner of the tube.
Lean premixed flames for low NO{sub x} combustors
Sojka, P.; Tseng, L.; Bryyjak, J.
1995-12-31
The overall objectives of the research at Purdue are to: obtain a reduced mechanism description of high pressure NO formation chemistry using experiments and calculations for laminar lean premixed methane air flames, develop a statistical model of turbulence NO chemistry interactions using a Bunsen type jet flame, and utilize the high pressure chemistry and turbulence models in a commercial design code, then evaluate its predictions using data from an analog gas turbine combustor. Work to date has resulted in the following achievements: spatially resolved measurements of NO in high-pressure high-temperature flat flames, plus evaluation of the influence of flame radiation on the measured temperature profile; measurements of temperature and velocity PDFs for a turbulent methane/air flame were obtained for the first time, under operating conditions which allow their study in the distributed regimes, and the increase in EINO{sub x} with equivalence ratio predicted using a chemical kinetics model; and simulation of non-reacting combustor flow fields from ambient to elevated pressure and temperature conditions and comparison of those results with experimental velocity profiles.
Rayleigh scattering for density measurements in premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouldin, F. C.; Halthore, R. N.
1986-09-01
Rayleigh scattering measurements for molecular number density in turbulent, premixed CH4-air flames are discussed, and data for both flamelet passage time distributions and power spectral density functions are reported and compared to the recent predictions of Bray, Libby and Moss (1984). Measurement problems associated with variations in mixture-averaged Rayleigh scattering cross section, index of refraction fluctuations, finite spatial and temporal resolution and with scattering from particles are discussed. It is concluded that these effects are relatively minor in the reported experiments. Correction procedures are suggested for the effects of cross section variation and of finite resolution. Passage time and spectral data support the Bray, Libby and Moss hypothesis for the passage time distribution function. Furthermore, model predictions for the variation across the flame brush of mean passage times for both reactant and product eddies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Finally, the data suggest that these mean times scale in part with Ū and λ in the reactant flow.
Lewis number effects on turbulent premixed flame structure
Goix, P.J. , 230 - Mont-Saint-Aignan . URA CORIA); Shepherd, I.G. )
1992-09-01
The influence of the Lewis number on turbulent flame front geometry is investigated in a premixed turbulent stagnation point flame. A laser tomography technique is used to obtain the flame shape, a fractal analysis of the multiscale flame edges is performed and the distribution of local flame front curvature is determined. Lean H[sub 2]/Air and C[sub 3]H[sub 8]/Air mixtures with similar burning rates were investigated with Lewis numbers of 0.33 and 1.85 respectively. At the conditions studied the laminar H[sub 2]/Air mixture is unstable and a cellular structure is observed. Turbulence in the reactant is generated by a perforated plate and the turbulent length scale (3mm) and intensity (7%) at the nozzle exit are fixed. The equivalence ratio is set so that the burning velocity is the same for all the cases. Results show clearly that the turbulent flame surface area is dependent on the Lewis number. For a Lewis number less than unity surface area production is observed. The shape of the flame front curvature distribution is not found to be very sensitive to the Lewis number. For the H[sub 2]/Air mixture the distribution is skewed toward the positive values indicating the presence of cusps while for the C[sub 3]H[sub 8]/Air mixture the distribution is more symmetrical. In both cases the average curvature is found to be zero, and if the local burning speed varies linearly with curvature, the local positive and negative burning velocity variations due to curvature will balance.
Lewis number effects on turbulent premixed flame structure
Goix, P.J.; Shepherd, I.G.
1992-09-01
The influence of the Lewis number on turbulent flame front geometry is investigated in a premixed turbulent stagnation point flame. A laser tomography technique is used to obtain the flame shape, a fractal analysis of the multiscale flame edges is performed and the distribution of local flame front curvature is determined. Lean H{sub 2}/Air and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/Air mixtures with similar burning rates were investigated with Lewis numbers of 0.33 and 1.85 respectively. At the conditions studied the laminar H{sub 2}/Air mixture is unstable and a cellular structure is observed. Turbulence in the reactant is generated by a perforated plate and the turbulent length scale (3mm) and intensity (7%) at the nozzle exit are fixed. The equivalence ratio is set so that the burning velocity is the same for all the cases. Results show clearly that the turbulent flame surface area is dependent on the Lewis number. For a Lewis number less than unity surface area production is observed. The shape of the flame front curvature distribution is not found to be very sensitive to the Lewis number. For the H{sub 2}/Air mixture the distribution is skewed toward the positive values indicating the presence of cusps while for the C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/Air mixture the distribution is more symmetrical. In both cases the average curvature is found to be zero, and if the local burning speed varies linearly with curvature, the local positive and negative burning velocity variations due to curvature will balance.
Accelerating confined premixed flames using a transverse slot jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Joseph P.
2011-12-01
An experimental study of the transient interaction of a premixed laminar methane-air flame propagating into a transverse fluidic obstacle is considered. The de agration-to-detonation transition (DDT) mechanism for use in pulse detonation engines (PDE) is the main but not only motivation for this study. When DDT is initiated through the use of solid obstacles, the system incurs a drag penalty and subsequent total pressure losses due to the physical obstacle impeding on the flow. This study utilizes a fluidic obstacle to generate flame acceleration without the subsequent penalties associated with form drag of a solid obstacle. The experimental setup was designed specifically for non-intrusive optical measurement techniques such as schlieren, CH* chemiluminescence and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The channel utilizes a length to width aspect ratio of L/W = 6, and was chosen along with the fuel (CH4) to guarantee the impossibility of excessive overpressures associated with unanticipated detonations. The mixture is ignited in the center of the closed end of the channel, and the flame propagates towards the obstacle located at 3.1H. The medium emitted from the slot-jet orifice is the same methane-air mixture used to fill the channel and is released post ignition to allow an interaction with the laminar propagating flame. A comparison of this transverse fluidic slot jet obstacle is made to four different solid obstacle geometries at various blockage ratios (BR) and at stoichiometric and lean (φ = 0:88) equivalence ratios. The results of this study show that a transverse slot jet is capable of increasing heat release, flame surface area and subsequently flame speed compared to that of any tested solid obstacle with similar maximum flame deflection over an obstacle.
Time-dependent Computational Studies of Premixed Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, Gopal; Oran, Elaine S.
1993-01-01
This report describes the research performed at the Center for Reactive Flow and Dynamical Systems in the Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, at the Naval Research Laboratory, in support of NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program. The primary focus of this research is on investigating fundamental questions concerning the propagation and extinction of premixed flames in earth gravity and in microgravity environments. Our approach is to use detailed time-dependent, multispecies, numerical models as tools to simulate flames in different gravity environments. The models include a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism consisting of elementary reactions among the eight reactive species involved in hydrogen combustion, coupled to algorithms for convection, thermal conduction, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusion, and external forces. The external force, gravity, can be put in any direction relative to flame propagation and can have a range of values. Recently more advanced wall boundary conditions such as isothermal and no-slip have been added to the model. This enables the simulation of flames propagating in more practical systems than before. We have used the numerical simulations to investigate the effects of heat losses and buoyancy forces on the structure and stability of flames, to help resolve fundamental questions on the existence of flammability limits when there are no external losses or buoyancy forces in the system, to understand the interaction between the various processes leading to flame instabilities and extinguishment, and to study the dynamics of cell formation and splitting. Our studies have been able to bring out the differences between upward- and downward-propagating flames and predict the zero-gravity behavior of these flames. The simulations have also highlighted the dominant role of wall heat losses in the case of downward-propagating flames. The simulations have been able to qualitatively predict the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dongliang; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Sining; Liu, Yi; Chu, Guanquan
2007-01-01
In order to explore the flame propagation characteristics and tulip flame formation mechanism of premixed methane/air mixture in horizontal rectangular ducts, the techniques of Schlieren and high-speed video camera are used to study the flame behaviors of the premixed gases in a closed duct and opened one respectively, and the propagation characteristics in both cases and the formation mechanism of the tulip flame are analyzed. The results show that, the propagation flame in a closed duct is prior to form a tulip flame structure than that in an opened duct, and the tulip flame structure formation in a closed duct is related to the flame propagation velocity decrease. The sharp decrease of the flame propagation velocity is one of the reasons to the tulip flame formation, and the decrease of the flame propagation velocity is due to the decrease of the burned product flow velocity mainly.
Multiple mapping conditioning for flames with partial premixing
Kronenburg, A.; Cleary, M.J.
2008-10-15
Fully closed multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) is used to model partially premixed flames in homogeneous, isotropic decaying turbulence where the partial premixing is caused by local extinction and reignition phenomena. Two reference variables that represent mixing and reaction progress, such as mixture fraction and sensible enthalpy, are used to emulate turbulent scalar fluctuations. Local extinction is achieved by a priori coupling between scalar dissipation and temperature fluctuations via a correlation function that is based on the conditionally averaged sensible enthalpy at stoichiometric composition. The proposed model provides closures for the joint PDF of mixture fraction and sensible enthalpy, for the conditional variance equation of a reactive scalar, and for the doubly conditioned dissipation terms. Model results are compared with DNS in three flame cases with varying levels of local extinction, up to global extinction. The joint PDF predicted by MMC is in fair agreement with DNS. It constitutes, however, a clear improvement over conventional models using preassumed distribution functions for the PDFs. The doubly conditioned dissipation terms are modeled well and the results for all major chemical species are in good agreement with DNS. Predictions for intermediate species are also satisfactory. (author)
Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in non-premixed reacting flames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen
2015-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at a perturbed interface between fluids of different densities when a light fluid pushes a heavier fluid. The mixing driven by RTI affects several physical phenomena, such as Inertial Confinement Fusion, Supernovae detonation, centrifugal combustors and liquid rocket engines. The RTI in such flows is often coupled with chemical/nuclear reactions that may form complex density stratifications in the form of flames or ablative layers. We investigate such a non-premixed fuel-air interface subject to a constant acceleration and developing under the influence of chemical reactions using high-resolution, Navier-Stokes simulations. The H2 fuel is diluted with N2 to vary the density difference across the interface in thermal equilibrium (at 1000K). The intervening layer between fuel and air is subject to exothermic combustion reactions to form a flame. Following combustion, initially unstable fuel-air interfaces at an Atwood number (At) <0.5, transform into stable (fuel-flame) and unstable (flame-air) interfaces. We report on interfaces (At = 0.2 and 0.6) with single wavelength, sinusoidal perturbations and a broadband spectrum of multimode perturbations.
Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames
Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.
2006-01-01
Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.
Partially-Premixed Flames in Internal Combustion Engines
Robert W. Pitz; Michael C. Drake; Todd D. Fansler; Volker Sick
2003-11-05
This was a joint university-industry research program funded by the Partnerships for the Academic-Industrial Research Program (PAIR). The research examined partially premixed flames in laboratory and internal combustion engine environments at Vanderbilt University, University of Michigan, and General Motors Research and Development. At Vanderbilt University, stretched and curved ''tubular'' premixed flames were measured in a unique optically accessible burner with laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering. Comparisons of optically measured temperature and species concentration profiles to detailed transport, complex chemistry simulations showed good correspondence at low-stretch conditions in the tubular flame. However, there were significant discrepancies at high-stretch conditions near flame extinction. The tubular flame predictions were found to be very sensitive to the specific hydrogen-air chemical kinetic mechanism and four different mechanisms were compared. In addition, the thermo-diffusive properties of the deficient reactant, H2, strongly affected the tubular flame structure. The poor prediction near extinction is most likely due to deficiencies in the chemical kinetic mechanisms near extinction. At the University of Michigan, an optical direct-injected engine was built up for laser-induced fluorescence imaging experiments on mixing and combustion under stratified charge combustion conditions with the assistance of General Motors. Laser attenuation effects were characterized both experimentally and numerically to improve laser imaging during the initial phase of the gasoline-air mixture development. Toluene was added to the isooctane fuel to image the fuel-air equivalence ratio in an optically accessible direct-injected gasoline engine. Temperature effects on the toluene imaging of fuel-air equivalence ratio were characterized. For the first time, oxygen imaging was accomplished in an internal combustion engine by combination of two fluorescence trackers
Kopp-Vaughan, Kristin M.; Tuttle, Steven G.; Renfro, Michael W.; King, Galen B.
2009-10-15
An open-open organ pipe burner (Rijke tube) with a bluff-body ring was used to create a self-excited, acoustically-driven, premixed methane-air conical flame, with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.05. The feed tube velocities corresponded to Re = 1780-4450. Coupled oscillations in pressure, velocity, and heat release from the flame are naturally encouraged at resonant frequencies in the Rijke tube combustor. This coupling creates sustainable self-excited oscillations in flame front area and shape. The period of the oscillations occur at the resonant frequency of the combustion chamber when the flame is placed {proportional_to}1/4 of the distance from the bottom of the tube. In this investigation, the shape of these acoustically-driven flames is measured by employing both OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and chemiluminescence imaging and the images are correlated to simultaneously measured pressure in the combustor. Past research on acoustically perturbed flames has focused on qualitative flame area and heat release relationships under imposed velocity perturbations at imposed frequencies. This study reports quantitative empirical fits with respect to pressure or phase angle in a self-generated pressure oscillation. The OH-PLIF images were single temporal shots and the chemiluminescence images were phase averaged on chip, such that 15 exposures were used to create one image. Thus, both measurements were time resolved during the flame oscillation. Phase-resolved area and heat release variations throughout the pressure oscillation were computed. A relation between flame area and the phase angle before the pressure maximum was derived for all flames in order to quantitatively show that the Rayleigh criterion was satisfied in the combustor. Qualitative trends in oscillating flame area were found with respect to feed tube flow rates. A logarithmic relation was found between the RMS pressure and both the normalized average area and heat release rate
Soot Formation in Purely-Curved Premixed Flames and Laminar Flame Speeds of Soot-Forming Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchanan, Thomas; Wang, Hai
2005-01-01
The research addressed here is a collaborative project between University of Delaware and Case Western Reserve University. There are two basic and related scientific objectives. First, we wish to demonstrate the suitability of spherical/cylindrical, laminar, premixed flames in the fundamental study of the chemical and physical processes of soot formation. Our reasoning is that the flame standoff distance in spherical/cylindrical flames under microgravity can be substantially larger than that in a flat burner-stabilized flame. Therefore the spherical/cylindrical flame is expected to give better spatial resolution to probe the soot inception and growth chemistry than flat flames. Second, we wish to examine the feasibility of determining the laminar flame speed of soot forming flames. Our basic assumption is that under the adiabatic condition (in the absence of conductive heat loss), the amount and dynamics of soot formed in the flame is unique for a given fuel/air mixture. The laminar flame speed can be rigorously defined as long as the radiative heat loss can be determined. This laminar flame speed characterizes the flame soot formation and dynamics in addition to the heat release rate. The research involves two integral parts: experiments of spherical and cylindrical sooting flames in microgravity (CWRU), and the computational counterpart (UD) that aims to simulate sooting laminar flames, and the sooting limits of near adiabatic flames. The computations work is described in this report, followed by a summary of the accomplishments achieved to date. Details of the microgra+ experiments will be discussed in a separate, final report prepared by the co-PI, Professor C-J. Sung of CWRU. Here only a brief discussion of these experiments will be given.
Numerical computations and optical diagnostics of unsteady partially premixed methane/air flames
Nogenmyr, K.J.; Bai, X.S.; Kiefer, J.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M.
2010-05-15
The structures and dynamics of unsteady laminar partially premixed methane/air Bunsen flames are studied by means of numerical simulations, OH and CH PLIF imaging, and high speed chemiluminescence imaging employing a high framing speed intensified charge coupled device camera. The Bunsen burner has a diameter of 22 mm. Rich methane/air mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 1.5 are injected from the burner into atmosphere at different flow speeds ranging from 0.77 to 1.7 m/s, with Reynolds numbers based on the nozzle flow ranging from 1100 to 2500. The numerical simulations are based on a two-scalar flamelet manifold tabulation approach. Detailed chemistry is used to generate the flamelet manifold tabulation which relates the species concentrations, reaction rates, temperature and density to a distance function G and mixture fraction Z. Two distinct reaction zones are identified using CH and OH PLIF imaging and numerical simulations; one inner reaction zone corresponds to premixed flames on the rich side of the mixture and one outer reaction zone corresponds to mixing controlled diffusion flames on the lean side of the mixture. Under normal gravity conditions both the inner premixed flames and the outer diffusion flames are unsteady. The outer diffusion flames oscillate with a flickering frequency of about 15 Hz, which slightly increases with the burner exit velocity. The inner premixed flames are more random with much more small-scale wrinkling structures. Under zero gravity conditions the outer diffusion flames are stable whereas the inner premixed flames are unstable and highly wrinkled. It appears that the outer diffusion flames are governed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability whereas the inner premixed flames are dictated by Landau-Darrieus instability. The two-scalar flamelet approach is shown to capture the basic structures and dynamics of the investigated unsteady partially premixed flames. (author)
The Behavior of Methane-Air Partially Premixed Flames Under Normal- and Zero-G Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Choi, Chun Wai; Hegde, Uday
2001-01-01
Partially premixed flames (PPFs) represent a class of hybrid flames containing multiple reaction zones. These flames are established when less than stoichiometric quantity of oxidizer is molecularly mixed with the fuel stream before entering the reaction zone where additional oxidizer is available for complete combustion. This mode of combustion can be used to exploit the advantages of both nonpremixed and premixed flames regarding operational safety, lower pollutant emissions and flame stabilization. A double flame containing a fuel-rich premixed reaction zone, which is anchored by a nonpremixed reaction zone, is one example of a partially premixed flame. A triple flame is also a PPF that contains three reaction zones, namely, a fuel-rich premixed zone, a fuel-lean premixed zone, and a nonpremixed reaction zone. Herein we focus on two aspects of our investigation, one involving the development of optical diagnostics that can be used on a microgravity rig, which has been recently fabricated, and the other on the numerically predicted differences between normal- and zero-gravity PPFs. Both the measurements and simulations examine the detailed structure of methane-air PPFs stabilized on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner.
Effect of dilatation on scalar dissipation in turbulent premixed flames
Swaminathan, N.; Bray, K.N.C.
2005-12-01
The scalar dissipation rate signifies the local mixing rate and thus plays a vital role in the modeling of reaction rate in turbulent flames. The local mixing rate is influenced by the turbulence, the chemical, and the molecular diffusion processes which are strongly coupled in turbulent premixed flames. Thus, a model for the mean scalar dissipation rate, and hence the mean reaction rate, should include the contributions of these processes. Earlier models for the scalar dissipation rate include only a turbulence time scale. In this study, we derive exact transport equations for the instantaneous and the mean scalar dissipation rates. Using these equations, a simple algebraic model for the mean scalar dissipation rate is obtained. This model includes a chemical as well as a turbulence time scale and its prediction compares well with direct numerical simulation results. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations of a test flame using the model obtained here show that the contribution of dilatation to local turbulent mixing rate is important to predict the propagation phenomenon.
PREMIXED FLAME PROPAGATION AND MORPHOLOGY IN A CONSTANT VOLUME COMBUSTION CHAMBER
Hariharan, A; Wichman, IS
2014-06-04
This work presents an experimental and numerical investigation of premixed flame propagation in a constant volume rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of six (6) that serves as a combustion chamber. Ignition is followed by an accelerating cusped finger-shaped flame-front. A deceleration of the flame is followed by the formation of a "tulip"-shaped flame-front. Eventually, the flame is extinguished when it collides with the cold wall on the opposite channel end. Numerical computations are performed to understand the influence of pressure waves, instabilities, and flow field effects causing changes to the flame structure and morphology. The transient 2D numerical simulation results are compared with transient 3D experimental results. Issues discussed are the appearance of oscillatory motions along the flame front and the influences of gravity on flame structure. An explanation is provided for the formation of the "tulip" shape of the premixed flame front.
Response of partially premixed flames to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations
Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.
2010-09-15
This article describes an experimental investigation of the forced response of a swirl-stabilized partially premixed flame when it is subjected to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations. The flame's response is analyzed using phase-resolved CH{sup *} chemiluminescence images and flame transfer function (FTF) measurements, and compared with the response of a perfectly premixed flame under acoustic perturbations. The nonlinear response of the partially premixed flame is manifested by a partial extinction of the reaction zone, leading to rapid reduction of flame surface area. This nonlinearity, however, is observed only when the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and the equivalence ratio at the combustor inlet is close to zero. The condition, {delta}{phi}{sub {phi}}'-V'{approx}0 , indicates that reactant mixtures with high equivalence ratio impinge on the flame front with high velocity, inducing large fluctuations of the rate of heat release. It is found that the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio nonuniformities is a key parameter governing the linear/nonlinear response of a partially premixed flame, and it is a function of modulation frequency, inlet velocity, fuel injection location, and fuel injector impedance. The results presented in this article will provide insight into the response of a partially premixed flame, which has not been well explored to date. (author)
Intermittent features of inertial particle distributions in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Troiani, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2011-12-01
Clustering is widely observed in many turbulent flows, where it results from the inability of finite inertia particles to comply with the different time scales, which characterize a turbulent field. Depending on their inertia, particles are found to be instantaneously organized in clusters, whose size depends on the Kolmogorov-Stokes number and which presumably form as a consequence of particle ejection from persistent vortical structures. In reacting flows, the abrupt acceleration of the fluid across the thin flame front due to combustion adds new and unexpected features. The particles follow such acceleration with a certain time lag which, coupled with the flame front fluctuations, gives rise to an entirely different mechanism of cluster formation. As suggested in previous studies, a possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called clustering index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle arrangement from the Poissonian distribution. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, where it cannot be explained by the standard arguments used in cold flows. Actually, the effect is significant also for very light particles, where the simple model we propose, based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism, is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect becomes larger and it is found to persist well within the region of the burned gases. The observed clustering is confirmed by a more precise analysis in terms of a generalization of the radial distribution function to inhomogeneous, anisotropic flows. The results taken from a direct numerical simulation with single step kinetics favorably compare with experiments on a premixed Bunsen turbulent flame. The present findings are expected to be of some relevance for the plenty of applications dealing with particles in presence of combustion, e.g., liquid droplet swarms for combustion temperature control, soot dynamics, or
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin
2015-11-01
Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.
On the Structure and Stabilization Mechanisms of Planar and Cylindrical Premixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eng, James A.; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
1993-01-01
The configurational simplicity of the stationary one-dimensional flames renders them intrinsically attractive for fundamental flame structure studies. The possibility and fidelity of studies of such flames on earth, however, have been severely restricted by the unidirectional nature of the gravity vector. To demonstrate these complications, let us first consider the premixed flame. Here a stationary, one-dimensional flame can be established by using the flat-flame burner. We next consider nonpremixed flames. First it may be noted that in an unbounded gravity-free environment, the only stationary one-dimensional flame is the spherical flame. Indeed, this is a major motivation for the study of microgravity droplet combustion, in which the gas-phase processes can be approximated to be quasi-steady because of the significant disparity between the gas and liquid densities for subcritical combustion. In view of the above considerations, an experimental and theoretical program on cylindrical and spherical premixed and nonpremixed flames in microgravity has been initiated. For premixed flames, we are interested in: (1) assessing the heat loss versus flow divergence as the dominant stabilization mechanism; (2) determining the laminar flame speed by using this configuration; and (3) understanding the development of flamefront instability and the effects of the flame curvature on the burning intensity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed
2015-11-01
We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.
Gradient, counter-gradient transport and their transition in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimont, Vladimir L.; Biagioli, Fernando
2002-03-01
We theoretically and numerically analyse the phenomenon of counter-gradient transport in turbulent premixed flames with pressure distribution across the flame brush mainly controlled by heat release. The focus is on the transition from counter-gradient to gradient transport obtained when increasing the turbulence intensity/laminar flame speed ratio, a phenomenon recently found in open laboratory flame experiments by Frank et al (1999 Combust. Flame 116 220). The analysis is based on the turbulent flame closure combustion model for the simulation of turbulent premixed flames at strong turbulence (u' >> sL). In this case, earlier work suggests that turbulent premixed flames have non-equilibrium increasing flame brush width controlled in the model only by turbulence and independent from the counter-gradient transport phenomenon which has gasdynamic nature, and equilibrium turbulent flame speed which quickly adapts to the local turbulence. Flames of this type have been called intermediate steady propagation flames. According to the present analysis, transport in turbulent premixed flames is composed of two contributions: real physical gradient turbulent diffusion, which is responsible for the growth of flame brush thickness, and counter-gradient pressure-driven convective transport related to the different acceleration of burnt and unburnt gases subject to the average pressure variation across the turbulent flame. The original gasdynamics model for the pressure-driven transport which is developed here shows that the overall transport may be of gradient or counter-gradient nature according to which of these two contributions is dominant, and that along the flame a transformation from gradient to counter-gradient transport takes place. Reasonable agreement with the mentioned laboratory experimental data strongly support the validity of the present modelling ideas. Finally, we explain why this phenomenon is also highly probable in large-scale industrial burners at much
Tabulated Combustion Model Development For Non-Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Prithwish
Turbulent non-premixed flames play a very important role in the field of engineering ranging from power generation to propulsion. The coupling of fluid mechanics and complicated combustion chemistry of fuels pose a challenge for the numerical modeling of these type of problems. Combustion modeling in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most important tools used for predictive modeling of complex systems and to understand the basic fundamentals of combustion. Traditional combustion models solve a transport equation of each species with a source term. In order to resolve the complex chemistry accurately it is important to include a large number of species. However, the computational cost is generally proportional to the cube of number of species. The presence of a large number of species in a flame makes the use of CFD computationally expensive and beyond reach for some applications or inaccurate when solved with simplified chemistry. For highly turbulent flows, it also becomes important to incorporate the effects of turbulence chemistry interaction (TCI). The aim of this work is to develop high fidelity combustion models based on the flamelet concept and to significantly advance the existing capabilities. A thorough investigation of existing models (Finite-rate chemistry and Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF)) and comparative study of combustion models was done initially on a constant volume combustion chamber with diesel fuel injection. The CFD modeling was validated with experimental results and was also successfully applied to a single cylinder diesel engine. The effect of number of flamelets on the RIF model and flamelet initialization strategies were studied. The RIF model with multiple flamelets is computationally expensive and a model was proposed on the frame work of RIF. The new model was based on tabulated chemistry and incorporated TCI effects. A multidimensional tabulated chemistry database generation code was developed based on the 1
Marley, S.K.; Danby, S.J.; Roberts, W.L.; Drake, M.C.; Fansler, T.D.
2008-07-15
Relative flame speeds of time-dependent highly curved premixed methane-air flames (spark-ignited flame kernels) interacting with a laminar vortex have been quantified using high-speed chemiluminescence imaging, particle image velocimetry, and piezoelectric pressure measurements. The goals of this study are to improve fundamental understanding of transient stretch effects on highly curved premixed flames, to provide practical insight into the turbulent growth of spark-ignited flame kernels in internal combustion (IC) engines burning light hydrocarbon fuels, and to provide data for IC engine ignition and combustion model development. Lean and rich CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} flames were tested ({phi}=0.64, 0.90, and 1.13, with nitrogen dilution to equalize the flame speeds (S{sub b}) in the absence of vortex interaction). Transient stretch rates were varied using three different vortex strengths, and the size of the flame kernel at the start of the vortex interaction controlled by time delay between ignition and vortex generation. Vortex interactions with small ({proportional_to}5 mm radius) flame kernels were found to increase burning rates for lean ({phi}=0.64) flame kernels substantially. Burning rates for rich ({phi}=1.13) flames were decreased, with total flame kernel extinction occurring in extreme cases. These small flame kernel-vortex interactions are dominated by transient stretch effects and thermodiffusive stability, in agreement with premixed flame theory. However, vortex interactions with larger methane-air flame kernels ({proportional_to}30 mm radius) led to slight flame speed enhancements for both lean and rich flame kernels, with the flame-vortex process dominated by increased flamefront area generated by vortex-induced flame wrinkling. (author)
Xiao, X; Puri, I K
2001-02-20
Partially premixed flames (PPF's) represent a class of hybrid flames that contain multiple reaction zones. A detailed understanding of the temperature distribution in PPF's is important from both practical and scientific considerations. Path-integrated or line-of-sight measurement techniques, such as holographic interferometry (HI), that are based on the change in the optical phase of a light beam can be used to reconstruct the refractive index n in flames and thereafter to infer the temperature distribution. Therefore to describe the flame structure in the context of these measurements requires that a systematic approach be developed that relates the density, the temperature, and the composition to the refractive index. We demonstrate that a conserved scalar xi that transforms the flame structure from a spatial to a generic distribution can be inferred from the refractive-index distribution. Thereafter measurements of the density, the temperature, and the composition in two-dimensional PPF's become feasible. We report the first application, to our knowledge, of this method to HI. Specifically, we used HI to measure the refractive-index distributions in methane-air PPF's. One PPF is a double flame that has two reaction zones, and the other is a triple flame that contains three reaction zones. We have applied the procedure to infer the distribution of the modified mixture fraction and thereafter the local temperature and the local mass fractions. We find the local temperature differences, DT(x, y) = |T[n(x, y)] - T?[xi(x, y)]|, to be relatively small. We conclude that it is possible to use HI to infer the mixture-fraction distribution and thereafter the flame structures by the application of state relations in the case of PPF's. PMID:18357052
Extinction and near-extinction instability of non-premixed tubular flames
Hu, Shengteng; Pitz, Robert W.; Yu, Wang
2009-01-15
Tubular non-premixed flames are formed by an opposed tubular burner, a new tool to study the effects of curvature on extinction and flame instability of non-premixed flames. Extinction of the opposed tubular flames generated by burning diluted H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} or C{sub 3}H{sub 8} with air is investigated for both concave and convex curvature. To examine the effects of curvature on extinction, the critical fuel dilution ratios at extinction are measured at various stretch rates, initial mixture strengths and flame curvature for fuels diluted in N{sub 2}, He, Ar or CO{sub 2}. In addition, the onset conditions of the cellular instability are mapped as a function of stretch rates, initial mixture strengths, and flame curvature. For fuel mixtures with Lewis numbers much less than unity, such as H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, concave flame curvature towards the fuel suppresses cellular instabilities. (author)
Correlation of flame speed with stretch in turbulent premixed methane/air flames
Chen, J.H.; Im, H.G.
1998-03-01
Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsteady premixed methane/air flames are performed to determine the correlation of flame speed with stretch over a wide range of curvatures and strain rates generated by intense two-dimensional turbulence. Lean and stoichiometric premixtures are considered with a detailed C{sub 1}-mechanism for methane oxidation. The computed correlation shows the existence of two distinct stable branches. It further shows that exceedingly large negative values of stretch can be obtained solely through curvature effects which give rise to an overall nonlinear correlation of the flame speed with stretch. Over a narrower stretch range, {minus}1 {le} Ka {le} 1, which includes 90% of the sample, the correlation is approximately linear, and hence, the asymptotic theory for stretch is practically applicable. Overall, one-third of the sample has negative stretch. In this linear range, the Markstein number associated with the positive branch is determined and is consistent with values obtained from comparable steady counterflow computations. In addition to this conventional positive branch, a negative branch is identified. This negative branch occurs when a flame cusp, with a center of curvature in the burnt gases, is subjected to intense compressive strain, resulting in a negative displacement speed. Negative flame speeds are also encountered for extensive tangential strain rates exceeding a Karlovitz number of unity, a value consistent with steady counterflow computations.
Surface properties of turbulent premixed propane/air flames at various Lewis numbers
Lee, T.W.; North, G.L.; Santavicca, D.A. )
1993-06-01
Surface properties of turbulent premixed flames including the wrinkled flame perimeter, fraction of the flame pocket perimeter, flame curvature, and orientation distributions have been measured for propane-air flames at Lewis numbers ranging from 0.98 to 1.86 and u[prime]/S[sub L] = 1.42-5.71. The wrinkled flame perimeter is found to be greater for the thermodiffusively unstable Lewis number (Le < 1) by up to 30% in comparison to the most stable condition (Le = 1.86) tested, while the fraction of the flame pocket perimeter shows a similar tendency to be greater for Le < 1. The flame curvature probability density functions are nearly symmetric with respect to the zero mean at all Lewis numbers throughout the range of u[prime]/S[sub L] tested, and show a much stronger dependence on the turbulence condition than on the Lewis number. Similarly, the flame orientation distributions show a trend from anisotropy toward a more uniform distribution with increasing u[prime]/S[sub L] at a similar rate for all Lewis numbers. Thus, for turbulent premixed propane/air flames for a practical range of Lewis number from 0.98 to 1.86, the effect of Lewis number is primarily to affect the flame structures and thereby flame surface areas and flame pocket areas, while the flame curvature and orientation statistics are essentially determined by the turbulence properties.
Lean premixed flames for low NO{sub x} combustors
Sojka, P.; Tseng, L.; Bryjak, J.
1995-10-01
Gas turbines are being used throughout the world to generate electricity. Due to increasing fuel costs and environmental concerns, gas turbines must meet stringent performance requirements, demonstrating high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. In order for U.S. manufactured gas turbines to stay competitive, their NO{sub x} levels must be below 10 ppm and their thermal efficiencies should approach 60%. Current technology is being stretched to achieve these goals. The twin goals of high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions require extending the operating range of current gas turbines. Higher efficiency requires operation at higher pressures and temperatures. Lower NO{sub x} emissions requires lower flame temperatures. Lower flame temperatures can be achieved through partially to fully pre-mixed combustion. However, increased performance and lower emissions result in a set of competing goals. In order to achieve a successful compromise between high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions, advanced design tools must be developed. One key design tool is a computationally efficient, high pressure, turbulent flow, combustion model capable of predicting pollutant formation in an actual gas turbine. Its development is the goal of this program. Achieving this goal requires completion of three tasks. The first task is to develop a reduced chemical kinetics model describing N{sub O}x formation in natural gas-air systems. The second task is to develop a computationally efficient model that describes turbulence-chemistry interactions. The third task is to incorporate the reduced chemical kinetics and turbulence-chemistry interaction models into a commercially available flow solver and compare its predictions with experimental data obtained under carefully controlled conditions so that the accuracy of model predictions can be evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunno, A. Cody; Mueller, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Radiation effects are examined in turbulent premixed flames using a detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The approach combines a tabulated premixed flamelet model (Flamelet Generated Manifolds) with an optically thin radiation model. Radiation heat loss is tracked using an enthalpy deficit coordinate. Heat loss in the flamelets is calculated by varying a coefficient on the radiation source term, ranging from zero (adiabatic) to unity (full optically thin heat loss). NOx emissions are modeled with an additional transport equation that is able to capture unsteady effects resulting from slow kinetics. The model is compared against experimental measurements of methane-air piloted turbulent premixed planar jet flames with increasing levels of water dilution that maintain a constant adiabatic flame temperature. The effects of water dilution on global flame structure and NO emissions resulting directly and indirectly from radiation are examined in detail.
Field Effects of Buoyancy on a Premixed Turbulent Flame Studied by Particle Image Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Robert K.
2003-01-01
Typical laboratory flames for the scientific investigation of flame/turbulence interactions are prone to buoyancy effects. Buoyancy acts on these open flame systems and provides upstream feedbacks that control the global flame properties as well as local turbulence/flame interactions. Consequently the flame structures, stabilization limits, and turbulent reaction rates are directly or indirectly coupled with buoyancy. The objective of this study is to characterize the differences between premixed turbulent flames pointing upwards (1g), pointing downwards (-1g), and in microgravity (mg). The configuration is an inverted conical flame stabilized by a small cone-shaped bluff body that we call CLEAN Flames (Cone-Stabilized Lean Flames). We use two laser diagnostics to capture the velocity and scalar fields. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measures the mean and root mean square velocities and planar imaging by the flame fronts method outlines the flame wrinkle topology. The results were obtained under typical conditions of small domestic heating systems such as water heaters, ovens, and furnaces. Significant differences between the 1g and -1g flames point to the need for including buoyancy contributions in theoretical and numerical calculations. In Earth gravity, there is a complex coupling of buoyancy with the turbulent flow and heat release in the flame. An investigation of buoyancy-free flames in microgravity will provide the key to discern gravity contributions. Data obtained in microgravity flames will provide the benchmark for interpreting and analyzing 1g and -1g flame results.
How ''flat'' is the rich premixed flame produced by your McKenna burner?
Migliorini, F.; De Iuliis, S.; Cignoli, F.; Zizak, G.
2008-05-15
McKenna burners are widely used in the combustion community for producing ''flat'' premixed flames. These flames are considered as standards for the development and calibration of optical techniques. Rich premixed flames produced by McKenna burners are frequently investigated in order to understand soot formation processes both by optical and by sampling techniques. Measurements are normally performed along the axis of the flames, with a uniform distribution of temperature and species concentration assumed in the radial direction. In this work it is shown that the soot radial profiles of rich premixed ethylene-air flames produced by a McKenna burner with a stainless steel porous plug may be far from being ''flat.'' Soot is mainly distributed in an annular region and nonsoot fluorescing species are present in the core of the flames. This surprising result was verified under several working conditions. Furthermore, flames cannot be considered axial-symmetric but present a skewed soot distribution. Another McKenna burner with a bronze porous disk was used to produce flames of the same equivalence ratio and flows. These flames show a completely different soot radial profile, closer to the claimed flat distribution. These results cast doubts about the conclusions drawn in several studies on soot formation performed with a stainless steel McKenna burner. (author)
Yan, B.; Liu, C.; Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M.; Baudoin, E.; Bai, X.S.; Chen, G.; Mansour, M.S.
2010-04-15
Experiments are carried out on partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized in a conical burner. The investigated gaseous fuels are methane, methane diluted with nitrogen, and mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, simulating typical products from gasification of biomass, and co-firing of gasification gas with methane. The fuel and air are partially premixed in concentric tubes. Flame stabilization behavior is investigated and significantly different stabilization characteristics are observed in flames with and without the cone. Planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of a fuel-tracer species, acetone, and OH radicals is carried out to characterize the flame structures. Large eddy simulations of the conical flames are carried out to gain further understanding of the flame/flow interaction in the cone. The data show that the flames with the cone are more stable than those without the cone. Without the cone (i.e. jet burner) the critical jet velocities for blowoff and liftoff of biomass derived gases are higher than that for methane/nitrogen mixture with the same heating values, indicating the enhanced flame stabilization by hydrogen in the mixture. With the cone the stability of flames is not sensitive to the compositions of the fuels, owing to the different flame stabilization mechanism in the conical flames than that in the jet flames. From the PLIF images it is shown that in the conical burner, the flame is stabilized by the cone at nearly the same position for different fuels. From large eddy simulations, the flames are shown to be controlled by the recirculation flows inside cone, which depends on the cone angle, but less sensitive to the fuel compositions and flow speed. The flames tend to be hold in the recirculation zones even at very high flow speed. Flame blowoff occurs when significant local extinction in the main body of the flame appears at high turbulence intensities. (author)
Effects of Buoyancy on Laminar and Turbulent Premixed V-Flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit
1997-01-01
Turbulent combustion occurs naturally in almost all combustion systems and involves complex dynamic coupling of chemical and fluid mechanical processes. It is considered as one of the most challenging combustion research problems today. Though buoyancy has little effect on power generating systems operating under high pressures (e.g., IC engines and turbines), flames in atmospheric burners and the operation of small to medium furnaces and boilers are profoundly affected by buoyancy. Changes in burner orientation impacts on their blow-off, flash-back and extinction limits, and their range of operation, burning rate, heat transfer, and emissions. Theoretically, buoyancy is often neglected in turbulent combustion models. Yet the modeling results are routinely compared with experiments of open laboratory flames that are obviously affected by buoyancy. This inconsistency is an obstacle to reconciling experiments and theories. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of the coupling between turbulent flames and buoyancy is significant to both turbulent combustion science and applications. The overall effect of buoyancy relates to the dynamic interaction between the flame and its surrounding, i.e., the so-called elliptical problem. The overall flame shape, its flowfield, stability, and mean and local burning rates are dictated by both upstream and downstream boundary conditions. In steady propagating premixed flames, buoyancy affects the products region downstream of the flame zone. These effects are manifested upstream through the mean and fluctuating pressure fields to influence flame stretch and flame wrinkling. Intuitively, the effects buoyancy should diminish with increasing flow momentum. This is the justification for excluding buoyancy in turbulent combustion models that treats high Reynolds number flows. The objectives of our experimental research program is to elucidate flame-buoyancy coupling processes in laminar and turbulent premixed flames, and to
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Won, Sang Hee; Reuter, Christopher; Windom, Bret; Ju, Yiguang
2015-11-01
Turbulent premixed flames of n-heptane/air and toluene/air mixtures affected by ignition have been experimentally investigated by using a reactor-assisted turbulent slot (RATS) burner at two burner temperatures, 450 K and 700 K. Turbulent burning velocities (ST) and flame structures have been measured by the simultaneous OH and CH2O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging at various equivalence ratios and turbulent Reynolds numbers. Three distinct turbulent premixed flame regimes are identified for n-heptane/air mixture; chemical frozen (CF) regime at low temperature, low temperature ignition (LTI) regime, and high temperature ignition (HTI) regime for respectively lean and rich conditions at 700 K. For CF regime, the measured turbulent burning velocities of n-heptane and toluene at 450 K follow a conventional correlation of turbulent intensity (defined as u'/SL). In LTI regime, substantial changes in chemical composition alter the laminar flame speed and transport property, leading to rapid increase of turbulent burning velocity. In HTI regime, it is found that the turbulent premixed flame structure is significantly modified by the appearance of volumetric ignition kernel structures associated with the transition from LTI to HTI. The turbulent premixed flame regime in HTI is no longer represented by the thin reaction zone regime. The measured turbulent burning velocities in HTI regime increase substantially as increasing ignition Damkőhler number over those in LTI regime.
On the Interaction of a Premixed Flame with an Acoustic Disturbance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hood, Caroline; Frendi, Abdelkader
2005-01-01
The main objective of this research is to analyze the effect of acoustic disturbances on a premixed flame and determine their role in the onset of combustion instabilities. Computations for the one-dimensional, unsteady combustion of a lean premixed methane-air mixture are performed. An acoustic excitation is introduced in the chamber and interacts with the flame front. Our results indicate that as the amplitude of the acoustic excitation is increased, the flame front position fluctuates rapidly. This phenomenon is even more intense when the frequency of the acoustic disturbance matches the fundamental frequency of the chamber. Our results suggest that the interactions between the flame and the acoustic excitation may result in flame extinguishment. In addition various passive control devices are tested and we found that the Helmholtz resonator with rounded inlet corners is the most efficient.
Analysis of the flamelet concept in the numerical simulation of laminar partially premixed flames
Consul, R.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Carbonell, D.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2008-04-15
The aim of this work is to analyze the application of flamelet models based on the mixture fraction variable and its dissipation rate to the numerical simulation of partially premixed flames. Although the main application of these models is the computation of turbulent flames, this work focuses on the performance of flamelet concept in laminar flame simulations removing, in this way, turbulence closure interactions. A well-known coflow methane/air laminar flame is selected. Five levels of premixing are taken into account from an equivalence ratio {phi}={infinity} (nonpremixed) to {phi}=2.464. Results obtained using the flamelet approaches are compared to data obtained from the detailed solution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Numerical simulations of a counterflow flame are also presented to support the discussion of the results. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the scalar dissipation rate modeling. (author)
Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin
2009-12-15
This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)
Premixed and nonpremixed generated manifolds in large-eddy simulation of Sandia flame D and F
Vreman, A.W.; Albrecht, B.A.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.
2008-05-15
Premixed and nonpremixed flamelet-generated manifolds have been constructed and applied to large-eddy simulation of the piloted partially premixed turbulent flames Sandia Flame D and F. In both manifolds the chemistry is parameterized as a function of the mixture fraction and a progress variable. Compared to standard nonpremixed flamelets, premixed flamelets cover a much larger part of the reaction domain. Comparison of the results for the two manifolds with experimental data of flame D show that both manifolds yield predictions of comparable accuracy for the mean temperature, mixture fraction, and a number of chemical species, such as CO{sub 2}. However, the nonpremixed manifold outperforms the premixed manifold for other chemical species, the most notable being CO and H{sub 2}. If the mixture is rich, CO and H{sub 2} in a premixed flamelet are larger than in a nonpremixed flamelet, for a given value of the progress variable. Simulations have been performed for two different grids to address the effect of the large-eddy filter width. The inclusion of modeled subgrid variances of mixture fraction and progress variable as additional entries to the manifold have only small effects on the simulation of either flame. An exception is the prediction of NO, which (through an extra transport equation) was found to be much closer to experimental results when modeled subgrid variances were included. The results obtained for flame D are satisfactory, but despite the unsteadiness of the LES, the extinction measured in flame F is not properly captured. The latter finding suggests that the extinction in flame F mainly occurs on scales smaller than those resolved by the simulation. With the presumed {beta}-pdf approach, significant extinction does not occur, unless the scalar subgrid variances are overestimated. A thickened flame model, which maps unresolved small-scale dynamics upon resolved scales, is able to predict the experimentally observed extinction to some extent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chin Yik; Li, Larry Kin Bong; Juniper, Matthew P.; Cant, Robert Stewart
2016-01-01
Turbulent premixed flames often experience thermoacoustic instabilities when the combustion heat release rate is in phase with acoustic pressure fluctuations. Linear methods often assume a priori that oscillations are periodic and occur at a dominant frequency with a fixed amplitude. Such assumptions are not made when using nonlinear analysis. When an oscillation is fully saturated, nonlinear analysis can serve as a useful avenue to reveal flame behaviour far more elaborate than period-one limit cycles, including quasi-periodicity and chaos in hydrodynamically or thermoacoustically self-excited system. In this paper, the behaviour of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed propane/air flame in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is found to be appropriate. Combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic closure for the flame surface density. The results are validated by comparison with existing experimental data and with large eddy simulation, and the observed self-excited oscillations in pressure and heat release are studied using methods derived from dynamical systems theory. A systematic analysis is carried out by increasing the equivalence ratio of the reactant stream supplied to the premixed flame. A strong variation in the global flame structure is observed. The flame exhibits a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillation at low equivalence ratios, becomes steady as the equivalence ratio is increased to intermediate values, and again exhibits a self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation at higher equivalence ratios. Rich nonlinear behaviour is observed and the investigation demonstrates that turbulent premixed flames can exhibit complex dynamical behaviour including quasiperiodicity, limit cycles and period-two limit cycles due to the interactions of various
Bluff-body stabilized flame dynamics of lean premixed syngas combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Hong G.; Kim, Yu Jeong; Lee, Bok Jik; Kaust Team
2015-11-01
Recently, syngas combustion has been actively investigated for the potential application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While lean premixed combustion is attractive for both reduced emission and enhanced efficiency, flame instability becomes often an issue. Bluff-bodies have been adopted as effective flame holders for practical application of premixed flames. In the present study, high-fidelity direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized on a bluff-body, in particular at the near blow-off regime of the flame. A two-dimensional domain of 4 mm height and 20 mm length with a flame holder of a 1 mm-by-1 mm square geometry is used. For a syngas mixture with the equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the CO:H2 ratio of 1, several distinct flame modes are identified as the inflow velocity approaches to the blowoff limit. The sequences of extinction pathway and combustion characteristics are discussed.
Interaction of a vortex ring propelled non-premixed flame with an inert wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bharadwaj, Nidheesh; Madnia, Cyrus K.
2004-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of nonpremixed flame-wall interactions are performed. A laminar vortex ring is generated by a finite duration axisymmetric methane jet that is injected into a quiescent oxidizer. The elevated temperature of the ambient leads to an auto-ignition of the fuel-oxidizer interface surrounding the vortex ring. The methane combustion was modelled using a 12-step augmented reduced mechanism. The flame intensity is controlled by adjusting the initial fuel and oxidizer concentrations. The vortex ring propelled non-premixed flame is then made to interact with an inert wall. The interaction starts from the front flame and extends to the back flame. A constant temperature and a constant heat flux boundary condition is considered for the wall. The characteristics of the nonpremixed flame-wall interaction, e.g. flame structure near the wall, strain rates, maximum heat flux through the wall and quenching time are examined.
Effects of Buoyancy on the Flowfields of Lean Premixed Turbulent V-Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D. T.; Greenberg, P.
1999-01-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundamental flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in open flames, buoyancy effects are usually not considered in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with the mean and the fluctuating pressure fields. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, and flame geometry.
Stratification effects on laminar premixed-flame response to mixture perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casey, Tiernan; Chen, Jyh-Yuan
2015-11-01
While complete mixing on the molecular level is desirable for ensuring that combustion processes are limited by chemical kinetics rather than mass transport, it is often the case that practical devices operate with some degree of unmixedness. As such, phenomena such as ignition or flame propagation will inevitably occur in regions that exhibit mixture or thermal non-uniformity. Here we present unsteady simulations of laminar premixed flames in the low-Mach limit subject to mixture perturbations of varying wavelength and amplitude, and qualify their effect on the flame behavior. When flames experience variations in mixture the transport processes in the flame zone vary with time and the flame behavior can depend on the burned gas history. Also, the possibility of extending flames beyond their flammability limits so as to maximize the overall mass of fuel burned is explored by exploiting these unsteady effects.
The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, Arnaud
1993-01-01
The mean reaction rate in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion depends on two basic quantities: a mean chemical rate, called the flamelet speed, and the flame surface density. Our previous work had been primarily focused on the problem of the structure and topology of turbulent premixed flames, and it was then determined that the flamelet speed, when space-averaged, is only weakly sensitive to the turbulent flow field. Consequently, the flame surface density is the key quantity that conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release. In flamelet models, this quantity is obtained via a modeled transport equation called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact but unclosed formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In the exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the turbulent flame stretch as well as the flame surface density is not available from experiments, and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the alternative approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. In the present work, three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, our objective is to extract the turbulent flame stretch from the DNS data base and then perform extensive comparisons with flamelet models. Thanks to the detailed information produced by the DNS-based analysis, it is expected that this type of comparison will not only
Kim, Jong-Ryul; Choi, Gyung-Min; Kim, Duck-Jool
2011-01-15
The influence of varying combustor pressure on flame oscillation and emission characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame were investigated. In order to investigate combustion characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame, the combustor pressure was controlled in the range of -30 to 30 kPa for each equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.8-1.2). The r.m.s. of the pressure fluctuations increased with decreasing combustor pressure for the lean condition. The combustor pressure had a sizeable influence on combustion oscillation, whose dominant frequency varied with the combustor pressure. Combustion instabilities could be controlled by increasing the turbulent intensity of the unburned mixture under the lean condition. An unstable flame was caused by incomplete combustion; hence, EICO greatly increased. Furthermore, EINO{sub x} simply reduced with decreasing combustor pressure at a rate of 0.035 g/10 kPa. The possibility of combustion control on the combusting mode and exhaust gas emission was demonstrated. (author)
Study of Turbulent Premixed Flame Propagation using a Laminar Flamelet Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Im, H. G.
1995-01-01
The laminar flamelet concept in turbulent reacting flows is considered applicable to many practical combustion systems (Linan & Williams 1993). For turbulent premixed combustion, the laminar flamelet regime is valid when turbulent Karlovitz number is less than unity, which is equivalent to stating that the characteristic thickness of the flame is less than that of a Kolmogorov eddy; this is known as the Klimov-Williams criterion (Williams 1985). In such a case, the flame maintains its laminar structure, and the effect of turbulent flow is merely to wrinkle and strain the flame front. The propagating wrinkled premixed flame can then be described as an infinitesimally thin surface dividing the unburnt fresh mixture and the burnt product.
Mechanisms of combustion limits in premixed gas flames at microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, Paul D.
1991-01-01
A three-year experimental and theoretical research program on the mechanisms of combustion limits of premixed gasflames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.
Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation Through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Marchese, Anthony; Hovermann, Fred
2003-01-01
Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized recently and in previous Microgravity Workshop papers, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our recent findings on gravitational effects on layered combustion along a floor, in which the fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. In an effort to understand the mechanism by which the flames spread faster in microgravity (and much faster, in laboratory coordinates, than the laminar burning velocity for uniform mixtures), we have begun making pressure measurements across the spreading flame front that are described here. Earlier researchers, testing in 1g, claimed that hydrostatic pressure differences could account for the rapid spread rates. Additionally, we present the development of a new apparatus to study flame spread in free (i.e., far from walls), non-homogeneous fuel layers formed in a flow tunnel behind an airfoil that has been tested in normal gravity.
Detection of temperature and equivalence ratio in turbulent premixed flames using chemiluminescence
Roby, R.J.; Reaney, J.E.; Johnsson, E.L.
1998-07-01
A non-intrusive, fast-response method for the determination of temperature and equivalence ratio has been developed for laminar and turbulent premixed methane/air flames. This method utilizes chemiluminescent flame emissions to make correlations with flame temperature and equivalence ratio. Emissions from two radical groups were used for the correlations: an OH system at 309 nm and a CH system at 431 nm. the experimental apparatus consisted of a laminar or turbulent premixed burner, an optical system (lenses, monochromator, and photomultiplier tube), and a data collection system (digital oscilloscope and computer). An optical system using fiber optics and band pass interference filters was also investigated. The spectra of laminar and turbulent, premixed methane flames of known stoichiometry were recorded and a high temperature Pt-Pt10%Rh thermocouple was used to establish flame temperature. The ratio of signal width to signal height of the OH spectra was used to correlate flame temperature. The ratio of OH to CH signal heights was used to correlate equivalence ratio. Similar correlations were found for both temperature and equivalence ratio when the turbulent and laminar correlations were compared. The effect of increasing turbulence was investigated and found to have little or not effect on the correlations over the Reynolds number range of 3,000 to 7,000.
Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Ross, Howard D.; Marchese, Anthony; Perry, David; Kulis, Michael
2001-01-01
Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized previously, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our progress on furthering the knowledge of layered combustion, in which a fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. We present experimental and numerical results for flame spread through propanol-air layers formed near the flash point temperature (25 C) or near the stoichiometric temperature (33 C). Both the model and experimental results show that the removal of gravity results in a faster spreading flame, by as much as 80% depending on conditions. This is exactly the opposite effect as that predicted by an earlier model reported. We also found that having a gallery lid results in faster flame spread, an effect more pronounced at normal gravity, demonstrating the importance of enclosure geometry. Also reported here is the beginning of our spectroscopic measurements of fuel vapor.
Position, thickness and transport properties of turbulent premixed flames in stagnating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biagioli, Fernando
2004-09-01
The stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in stagnation flows is analysed in the framework of a turbulent burning rate closure. It is shown that the mean flame brush thickness depends in this kind of flame on the balance between turbulent dispersion of the flame brush and the adverse gradient of the mean axial mass flux at the combustor axis. The flame position is determined in terms of the characteristic turbulent burning rate, the axial velocity distribution and the radial curvature of the flame at the combustor axis, the last pushing a flame curved toward the stream of reactants closer to the stagnation point. The flame curvature at the axis is related by simple mass conservation considerations to the radial curvature of the axial velocity which in turn is related to the shape of the stagnation body. The transport properties of turbulent premixed flames in stagnation flows are also analysed. In particular, a model developed by Zimont and Biagioli (2002 Combust. Theory Modelling 6 79) to account for the pressure-driven, typically counter-gradient, component of \\overline{\\rho u'' c''} in one-dimensional freely propagating flames and extended by Biagioli and Zimont (2003 29th Int. Symp. Combustion p 2087) to the case of stagnation-type flames is further reconsidered here to account for the effect of pressure-driven transport in radial direction and for buoyancy. This model, whose key element is the conservation of reactants total pressure, gives the pressure-driven part of \\overline{\\rho \\\\bit u'' c''} in algebraic closed form. The model is successfully applied to recent experimental data for stagnation-type flames showing that scalar transport can have a gradient or counter-gradient nature depending on the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The idea of flame thickness is also successfully validated with these experiments.
A simulation of a bluff-body stabilized turbulent premixed flame using LES-PDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeonglae; Pope, Stephen
2013-11-01
A turbulent premixed flame stabilized by a triangular cylinder as a flame-holder is simulated. The computational condition matches the Volvo experiments (Sjunnesson et al. 1992). Propane is premixed at a fuel lean condition of ϕ = 0 . 65 . For this reactive simulation, LES-PDF formulation is used, similar to Yang et al. (2012). The evolution of Lagrangian particles is simulated by solving stochastic differential equations modeling transport of the composition PDF. Mixing is modeled by the modified IEM model (Viswanathan et al. 2011). Chemical reactions are calculated by ISAT and for the good load balancing, PURAN distribution of ISAT tables is applied (Hiremath et al. 2012). To calculate resolved density, the two-way coupling (Popov & Pope 2013) is applied, solving a transport equation of resolved specific volume to reduce statistical noise. A baseline calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental measurements in turbulence statistics, temperature, and minor species mass fractions. Chemical reaction does not significantly contribute to the overall computational cost, in contrast to non-premixed flame simulations (Hiremath et al. 2013), presumably due to the restricted manifold of the purely premixed flame in the composition space.
Kinetic mechanisms for premixed, laminar, steady state hydrogen/nitrous oxide flames
Coffee, T.P.
1986-07-01
A model has been developed for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional hydrogen/nitrous oxide flames. Results have been compared with a range of experimental data. The present model roughly reproduces the data, but inaccuracies still exist. Sensitivity and screening analyses have been used to indicate the additional experimental data needed to improve the model.
Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of OH distribution in lean premixed swirling flames
Birouk, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.
1998-07-01
The spatial distribution of OH specie in lean premixed methane-air swirling flames at atmospheric pressure conditions has been investigated using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Tests were conducted in a burner with a central nozzle surrounded by two concentric annuli, through which the methane-air mixture could be injected with variable equivalence ratio, swirl and momentum. The geometry was chosen to simulate a single burner in a typical gas turbine combustor. Experiments were carried out across a range of three independently-varied parameters: the swirl distribution in the outer annulus, the axial momentum in the inner annulus, and the premixed equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.75, 0.68, and 0.61). Instantaneous and ensemble-averaged OH images were obtained at vertical cross-sections of the flame (referenced through the centerline) under different flame conditions. These images provide information on the flame reaction zone which is of interest for understanding the complex structure and dynamics of a swirling premixed combustion system. These images also assist in understanding why lean premixed gas turbine combustion systems may experience combustion instability, particularly under leaner conditions.
El-Rabii, Hazem; Kazakov, Kirill A
2015-12-01
Premixed flames propagating in horizontal tubes are observed to take on a convex shape towards the fresh mixture, which is commonly explained as a buoyancy effect. A recent rigorous analysis has shown, on the contrary, that this process is driven by the balance of vorticity generated by a curved flame front with the baroclinic vorticity, and predicted existence of a regime in which the leading edge of the flame front is concave. We report experimental realization of this regime. Our experiments on ethane and n-butane mixtures with air show that flames with an inflection point on the front are regularly produced in lean mixtures, provided that a sufficiently weak ignition is used. The observed flame shape perfectly agrees with that theoretically predicted. PMID:26764801
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Rabii, Hazem; Kazakov, Kirill A.
2015-12-01
Premixed flames propagating in horizontal tubes are observed to take on a convex shape towards the fresh mixture, which is commonly explained as a buoyancy effect. A recent rigorous analysis has shown, on the contrary, that this process is driven by the balance of vorticity generated by a curved flame front with the baroclinic vorticity, and predicted existence of a regime in which the leading edge of the flame front is concave. We report experimental realization of this regime. Our experiments on ethane and n -butane mixtures with air show that flames with an inflection point on the front are regularly produced in lean mixtures, provided that a sufficiently weak ignition is used. The observed flame shape perfectly agrees with that theoretically predicted.
Effects of Buoyancy on the Flowfields of Lean Premixed Turbulent V-Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Greenberg, P.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D. T.
1999-01-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundament flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in these open flames, the effects of buoyancy are usually not included in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with mean and fluctuating pressure fields. Changes in flow pattern alter the mean aerodynamic stretch and in turn affect turbulence fluctuation intensities both upstream and downstream of the flame zone. Consequently, flame stabilization, reaction rates, and turbulent flame processes are all affected. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, flame geometry, means of flame stabilization, flame shape, enclosure size, mixture conditions, and flow conditions.
Effects of buoyancy on the flowfields of lean premixed turbulentv-flames
Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D.T.; Greenberg, P.
2001-03-01
Open laboratory turbulent flames used for investigating fundament flame turbulence interactions are greatly affected by buoyancy. Though much of our current knowledge is based on observations made in these open flames, the effects of buoyancy are usually not included in data interpretation, numerical analysis or theories. This inconsistency remains an obstacle to merging experimental observations and theoretical predictions. To better understanding the effects of buoyancy, our research focuses on steady lean premixed flames propagating in fully developed turbulence. We hypothesize that the most significant role of buoyancy forces on these flames is to influence their flowfields through a coupling with mean and fluctuating pressure fields. Changes in flow pattern alter the mean aerodynamic stretch and in turn affect turbulence fluctuation intensities both upstream and downstream of the flame zone. Consequently, flame stabilization, reaction rates, and turbulent flame processes are all affected. This coupling relates to the elliptical problem that emphasizes the importance of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions in determining all aspects of flame propagation. Therefore, buoyancy has the same significance as other parameters such as flow configuration, flame geometry, means of flame stabilization, flame shape, enclosure size, mixture conditions, and flow conditions.
Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.
Wang, Hai; Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.
2010-10-01
This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation model
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent non-premixed methane-air flames
Chen, J.H.; Card, J.M.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1995-07-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. A global one- step mechanism is used to describe the chemical kinetics, and molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. The flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and a 25:1 increase in kinematic viscosity across the flame. Reignition followed by partially-premixed burning is observed in the present results. Local curvature effects are found to be important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame, and hence, the location of the peak reaction rate relative to the stoichiometric surface. The results presented in this study demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating global-step kinetics for the oxidation of methane into direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to study the flame structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namer, I.
1980-12-01
The interaction of a premixed C2H4-air flame with a Karman vortex street was studied. Laser Doppler anemometry was used for velocity measurements and Rayleigh scattering was used to measure total gas density. A reference hot wire was used to enable phase-locked ensemble averaging to be performed on the data. The velocity measurements for vortex shedding cylinder Reynolds numbers indicated that the vortex street and, hence, the flow field upstream of the flame is deflected by the flame. This is due to the pressure drop across the flame which is necessary to accelerate the flow behind the flame. The vortices were not observed behind the flame. The combination of dilation and increased dissipation consumed the vortices. Density statistics obtained from Rayleigh scattering measurements were compared with predictions by the Bray-Moss-Libby (B-M-L) model which neglects intermediate states. Density fluctuations were overpredicted by the B-M-L model by a small amount.
An experimental and numerical study on the stability and propagation of laminar premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagelopoulos, Christina Maria
The laminar flame speed is a very important property of laminar premixed flames, especially for the validation of chemical kinetics and modeling of turbulent combustion. The counterflow technique is one of the best approaches for the experimental determination of this property because it allows for the establishment of planar, nearly adiabatic, steady, quasi-one dimensional flames that are subjected to well-defined aerodynamic strain rate. However non-linear effects as the strain rate goes to zero lead to overprediction of the laminar flame speed. In the present study these non-linear effects were investigated experimentally and numerically and significant overprediction was verified, particularly for weakly-burning hydrogen/air flames. Subsequently effort was made to establish and study flame properties at a very-low strain rate regime and qualitative and quantitative conclusions were drawn for the stability of the flame surface subjected to very low aerodynamic strain rate, coupled with the effect of gravity and preferential diffusion. A new experimental technique was developed, based on the observation that if a laminar premixed flame undergoes a transition from planar to Bunsen the strain rate changes from positive to negative values and a near-zero strain-rate regime is established. Flame speed measurements were conducted by using LDV for this regime; the flame speed measured is the true laminar flame speed and this is the first time that this property is directly and experimentally measured. Particle Streak velocimetry was developed to evaluate the strain-rates for near-zero strain-rate regime. The laminar flame speed was measured for atmospheric methane/air, ethane/air and propane/air mixtures for the whole range of equivalence ratios; the new data are lower when compared to previous ones and the overprediction is at the order of 15%.
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames at Atmospheric Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.
1998-01-01
Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed mc1hane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt: the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames. for reasons that still must be explained.
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix H
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed methanefoxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt; the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogenabstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames, for reasons that still must be explained.
Use of laser-induced ionization to detect soot inception in premixed flames
Manzello, Samuel L.; Lee, Eui Ju; Mulholland, George W
2005-08-20
Experimental measurements of laser-induced ionization were performed for ethene-air premixed flames operated near the soot inception point. Soot was ionized with a pulsed laser operated at 532 nm. The ionization signal was collected with a tungsten electrode located in the postflame region. Ionization signals were collected by use of both single-electrode and dual-electrode configurations. Earlier laser-induced- ionization studies focused on the use of a single biased electrode to generate the electric field, with the burner head serving as the path to ground. In many practical combustion systems, a path to ground is not readily available. To apply the laser-induced- ionization diagnostic to these geometries, a dual-electrode geometry must be employed. The influence of electrode configuration, flame equivalence ratio, and flame height on ionization signal detection was determined. The efficacy of the laser-induced-ionization diagnostic in detecting soot inception in the postflame region of a premixed flame by use of a dual-electrode configuration was investigated. Of the dual-electrode configurations tested, the dual-electrode geometry oriented parallel to the laser beam was observed to be most sensitive for detecting the soot inception point in a premixed flame.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramachandran, Aravind; Mothe, Anirudh Reddy; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran
2015-11-01
Turbulent combustion of a non-premixed methane jet issuing into a vitiated coflow is being studied in our lab. Flame luminosity studies demonstrated three dominant characteristic flame motions - a stable flame base (Mode A), complete blowout (Mode B), and partial blowout followed by re-anchoring of the flame by autoignition kernels (Mode C). The experiments presented in this work focused on Mode A, and were carried out over a range of oxidizer temperatures, oxygen molefractions, and fuel jet Reynolds numbers. Measurements of 2-D velocity fields near the base of the lifted jet flame were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with the objective to delineate the dominant mechanisms involved in the flame stabilization. Statistical analysis of these instantaneous velocity fields will be presented, which shows non-trivial contributions from autoignition kernels as well as edge flame propagation towards flame stabilization. The effect of vortices and high local strain rates was observed to produce local extinctions and destabilize the flame, indicating their role as precursors to (unstable) Mode B and Mode C motions. NSF Grant CBET-1511216.
The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas
1999-01-01
A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.
1999-01-01
The momentum of the fuel (and/or air) jet is important in classifying gas-jet diffusion flame behavior. Normal-gravity data on gas-jet flames show that the flame height (non-dimensionalized with respect to an effective diameter) can be correlated to a density weighted Froude number in the buoyancy-dominated limit. In the momentum-dominated limit this non-dimensional flame height asymptotes to a constant value. The momentum-dominated limit under normal gravity conditions is usually obtained for very high injection velocities which in turn results in high values of the injection Reynolds number. This results in a complicated flame structure because of the large number of turbulence scales involved. In order to gain better insight into the structure of these flames it would be useful to reduce the injection Reynolds number while still maintaining turbulent conditions. This can be done in microgravity where momentum-dominated turbulent flames are obtained at much smaller velocities than in normal gravity. In this paper, experimental results on the effects of nozzle diameter and fuel dilution on flame height are discussed. The experimental values are compared with predictions from a numerical procedure utilizing the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Flame height scaling with nozzle size and dilution is established. Differences between model predictions and measurements are presented. In order to explain these differences, evolutions of turbulent spectra and Taylor microscale along the flame axis are considered.
Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, Uday; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Stocker, Dennis; Bahadori, M. Yousef
1997-01-01
The overall objectives of this research are: (1) to obtain and analyze experimental data on flame images, and the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature, radiation, velocity and gas-phase species in microgravity turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames; and (2) to utilize these data to validate and refine the existing predictive capabilities. Work on this project commenced in June 1996. The first investigations on turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity were initiated by Bahadori and co-workers in 1991. These studies have shown that significant differences exist in the transition processes in normal-gravity and microgravity flames, and that the turbulent flames in microgravity behave very differently as compared to their buoyancy-dominated normal-gravity counterparts. For example, in the transition regime while the visible flame height, for given fuel and nozzle size, in normal gravity decreases, the height of the microgravity flame increases. In the fully developed turbulent regime, the normal-gravity flame height is independent of injection velocity, whereas the microgravity flame height continues to increase, although at a lower rate than in the laminar and transitional regimes. Other differences between the normal-gravity and microgravity flames arise in the jet shear-layer instability characteristics, extent of the transitional regime and blow-off limit characteristics.
Interaction of a vortex ring with a non-premixed methane flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safta, Cosmin
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the non-equilibrium characteristics of non-premixed methane flames in an unsteady strain rate field generated by a vortex ring. Two canonical flame-vortex ring configurations are used. In the first configuration the vortex ring interacts with an initially unstrained non-premixed flame. Two stages of interaction are identified. The first stage corresponds to the head-on collision between the flame and the vortex ring, and lasts until the flame is quenched near the centerline. The unsteady effects are dominant and result in local flame extinction. The second stage of the interaction corresponds to the passage of the ring through the flame and its interaction with the flame from the oxidizer side. During this stage, the vortex ring losses its strength and, in addition to the unsteady effects, curvature effects can also become important. In the second configuration, the ambient contains only oxidizer. The high oxidizer temperature leads to the auto-ignition of the flame surrounding the vortex ring. Three flame regions, front, top, and wake are identified. Detailed (GRI-Mech) and augmented reduced (11-step, 12-step) kinetic mechanisms are used to model the methane combustion. The methane flame ignition characteristics and combustion regimes are examined in this configuration. For the range of parameters accessible, unsteady, curvature and thickening effects on the flame structure are observed. The contributions of time varying straining, fuel temperature and concentration to the unsteady effects on the flame structure are separated through comparisons with unsteady counterflow diffusion flame simulations. The capability of the current augmented reduced kinetic models to capture the ignition and flame structure is assessed through comparisons with detailed kinetic model results. The quasi steady state assumption for O in the 12-step reduced kinetic model leads to shorter ignition delay times. The 11-step model predicts
Paul, Bireswar; Datta, Amitava; Datta, Aparna; Saha, Abhijit
2009-12-15
An experimental study has been performed to detect the occurrence of nanosized carbon particulates below the soot laden zone of a co-flowing partially premixed flame. Samples have been extracted from different points across the flame and passed through DI water. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies have been performed with the collected water suspensions. The occurrence of carbon nanoparticles is evident across the inner flame front. In addition, evidence of naphthalene has also been found inside the inner rich premixed flame. The concentration of naphthalene decreases while that of the carbon nanoparticles increases as the inner flame front is reached. The stability of the nanoparticles in the sample has been ensured by observing that the change in fluorescence quantum yield from the sample over a long duration is small. The band gap energy has been evaluated using the absorption data to characterize the likely structures of the particles in the collected suspension. Two kinds of particles having different zones of band gap energy are found in the flame. Dynamic light scattering measurements show that the particle size grows with the increase in height in the lower part of the flame. While, at 3 and 6 mm elevations the particles are observed to be below 2.5 nm in diameter, the particles at 10 mm elevation are found in the size range of 2.5-5.5 nm. (author)
Marques, Carla S.T.; Barreta, Luiz G.; Sbampato, Maria E.; dos Santos, Alberto M.
2010-11-15
In this study, nitric oxide laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements were acquired from premixed ethanol flames at atmospheric pressure in a burner. NO-LSF experimental profiles for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames ({phi} = 1.34 and {phi} = 1.66) were determined through the excitation/detection scheme of the Q{sub 2}(26.5) rotational line in the A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi} (0,0) vibronic band and {gamma}(0,1) emission band. A calibration procedure by NO doping into the flame was applied to establish the NO concentration profiles in these flames. Chemiluminescent emission measurements in the (0, 0) vibronic emission bands of the OH{sup *} (A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi}) and CH{sup *}(A{sup 2}{delta} - X{sup 2}{pi}) radicals were also obtained with high spatial and spectral resolution for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames to correlate them with NO concentrations. Experimental chemiluminescence profiles and the ratios of the integrated areas under emission spectra (A{sub CH*}/A{sub CH*}(max.) and A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) were determined. The relationships between chemiluminescence and NO concentrations were established along the premixed ethanol flames. There was a strong connection between CH{sup *} radical chemiluminescence and NO formation and the prompt-NO was identified as the governing mechanism for NO production. The results suggest the optimum ratio of the chemiluminescence of two radicals (A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) for NO diagnostic purposes. (author)
Armitage, C.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S.; Balachandran, R.
2006-08-15
Acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated using turbulent combustion CFD. The calculations simulate aspects of the experimental investigation by Balachandran et al. [R. Balachandran, B. Ayoola, C. Kaminski, A. Dowling, E. Mastorakos, Combust. Flame 143 (2005) 37-55] and focus on the amplitude dependence of the flame response. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is appropriate. The combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic representation of the flame surface density. The predictions are compared with flame surface density (FSD) and OH* chemiluminescence measurements. In the experiments the response of the flame has been quantified by means of a number of single-frequency, amplitude-dependent transfer functions. The predicted flame shape and position are in good agreement with the experiment. The dynamic response of the flame to inlet velocity forcing is also well captured by the calculations. At moderate frequencies nonlinear behavior of the transfer functions is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased. In the experiments this nonlinearity was attributed in part to the rollup of the reacting shear layer into vortices and in part to the collision of the inner and outer flame sheets. This transition to nonlinearity is also observed in the transfer functions obtained from the predictions. Furthermore, the vortex shedding and flame-sheet collapse may be seen in snapshots of the predicted flow field taken throughout the forcing cycle. The URANS methodology successfully predicts the behavior of the forced premixed turbulent flames and captures the effects of saturation in the transfer function of the response of the heat release to velocity fluctuations. (author)
Measurements and Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Counterflow, Premixed CH4/O2/N2 Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomsen, D. Douglas; Laurendeau, Normand M.
2000-01-01
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of NO concentration in a variety of CH4/O2/N2 flames are used to evaluate the chemical kinetics of NO formation. The analysis begins with previous measurements in flat, laminar, premixed CH4/O2/N2 flames stabilized on a water-cooled McKenna burner at pressures ranging from 1 to 14.6 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.6, and volumetric nitrogen/oxygen dilution ratios of 2.2, 3.1 and 3.76. These measured results are compared to predictions to determine the capabilities and limitations of the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), version 2.11. The model is shown to predict well the qualitative trends of NO formation in lean-premixed flames, while quantitatively underpredicting NO concentration by 30-50%. For rich flames, the model is unable to even qualitatively match the experimental results. These flames were found to be limited by low temperatures and an inability to separate the flame from the burner surface. In response to these limitations, a counterflow burner was designed for use in opposed premixed flame studies. A new LIF calibration technique was developed and applied to obtain quantitative measurements of NO concentration in laminar, counterflow premixed, CH4/O2/N2 flames at pressures ranging from 1 to 5.1 atm, equivalence ratios of 0.6 to 1.5, and an N2/O2 dilution ratio of 3.76. The counterflow premixed flame measurements are combined with measurements in burner-stabilized premixed flames and counterflow diffusion flames to build a comprehensive database for analysis of the GRI kinetic mechanism. Pathways, quantitative reaction path and sensitivity analyses are applied to the GRI mechanism for these flame conditions. The prompt NO mechanism is found to severely underpredict the amount of NO formed in rich premixed and nitrogen-diluted diffusion flames. This underprediction is traced to uncertainties in the CH kinetics as well as in the nitrogen oxidation chemistry
Lewis number effects on premixed flames interacting with turbulent Karman vortex streets
Lee, J.G.; Lee, T.W.; Nye, D.A.; Santavicca, D.A. )
1995-01-01
The effects of Lewis number on the global and local structure of premixed flames interacting with turbulent Karman vortex streets are experimentally investigated using OH planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The OH PLIF results show that over the range of Lewis numbers studied, i.e., Le = 0.21, 0.94 and 1.79, the flame area increases and the flame front is oriented more randomly as Lewis number decreases, while the flame curvature pdfs are unchanged. The relationship between the local flame structure and the local flame curvature is found to be consistent with the results of stretched laminar flame theory. the correlation between the local maximum OH fluorescence intensity and the local curvature tends to level off for large positive curvature as U/S ratio increases, indicating that the response of the flame to large flame stretch may be non-linear at high U/S ratio. The pdfs of peak OH LIF intensity suggest that the mean burning rate of the H[sub 2]/He/air flame at U/S ratios = 3.3 is increased approximately by 10% in comparison to the undisturbed laminar flame. The present results imply that even though the local fame curvature may strongly influence the local structure and burning rate of nonunity Lewis number flames through the effect of flame stretch on the local burning rate, these variations tend to cancel in the mean due to the linear relationship between local burning rate and curvature for the most probable values of curvature and due to the symmetry and zero mean of the curvature distribution. Therefore, the main effect of turbulence and Lewis number is to wrinkle the flame and produce flame area, while increasing the mean burning rate per unit surface area by relatively small amount through flow strain effects.
Local curvature measurements of a lean, partially premixed swirl-stabilised flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayley, Alan E.; Hardalupas, Yannis; Taylor, Alex M. K. P.
2012-04-01
A swirl-stabilised, lean, partially premixed combustor operating at atmospheric conditions has been used to investigate the local curvature distributions in lifted, stable and thermoacoustically oscillating CH4-air partially premixed flames for bulk cold-flow Reynolds numbers of 15,000 and 23,000. Single-shot OH planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to capture instantaneous images of these three different flame types. Use of binary thresholding to identify the reactant and product regions in the OH planar laser-induced fluorescence images, in order to extract accurate flame-front locations, is shown to be unsatisfactory for the examined flames. The Canny-Deriche edge detection filter has also been examined and is seen to still leave an unacceptable quantity of artificial flame-fronts. A novel approach has been developed for image analysis where a combination of a non-linear diffusion filter, Sobel gradient and threshold-based curve elimination routines have been used to extract traces of the flame-front to obtain local curvature distributions. A visual comparison of the effectiveness of flame-front identification is made between the novel approach, the threshold binarisation filter and the Canny-Deriche filter. The novel approach appears to most accurately identify the flame-fronts. Example histograms of the curvature for six flame conditions and of the total image area are presented and are found to have a broader range of local flame curvatures for increasing bulk Reynolds numbers. Significantly positive values of mean curvature and marginally positive values of skewness of the histogram have been measured for one lifted flame case, but this is generally accounted for by the effect of flame brush curvature. The mean local flame-front curvature reduces with increasing axial distance from the burner exit plane for all flame types. These changes are more pronounced in the lifted flames but are marginal for the thermoacoustically oscillating flames. It is
Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature
Kurdyumov, Vadim N.; Pizza, Gianmarco; Frouzakis, Christos E.; Mantzaras, John
2009-11-15
The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)
An experimental study of the structure of laminar premixed flames of ethanol/methane/oxygen/argon
Tran, L.S.; Glaude, P.A.; Battin-Leclerc, F.
2013-01-01
The structures of three laminar premixed stoichiometric flames at low pressure (6.7 kPa): a pure methane flame, a pure ethanol flame and a methane flame doped by 30% of ethanol, have been investigated and compared. The results consist of concentration profiles of methane, ethanol, O2, Ar, CO, CO2, H2O, H2, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, C3H8, C3H6, p-C3H4, a-C3H4, CH2O, CH3HCO, measured as a function of the height above the burner by probe sampling followed by on-line gas chromatography analyses. Flame temperature profiles have been also obtained using a PtRh (6%)-PtRh (30%) type B thermocouple. The similarities and differences between the three flames were analyzed. The results show that, in these three flames, the concentration of the C2 intermediates is much larger than that of the C3 species. In general, mole fraction of all intermediate species in the pure ethanol flame is the largest, followed by the doped flame, and finally the pure methane flame. PMID:24092946
Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.
2010-09-15
The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)
Analysis of a strong mass-based flame stretch model for turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastiaans, R. J. M.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.
2009-01-01
In the present paper a theory describing effects of strong flame stretch on turbulent flame propagation [L. P. H. de Goey and J. H. M. ten Thije Boonkkamp, "A flamelet description of premixed laminar flames and the relation with flame stretch," Combust. Flame 119, 253 (1999)] is extended to volume averaged quantities and validated with direct numerical simulation (DNS). The extended theory describes the fuel consumption rate in terms of subgrid scale contributions connected to propagation effects including strong flame stretch. In case there is no preferential diffusion present, it is predicted that the total consumption rate is not affected by local stretch at all. Then the total consumption is described by the unstretched mass burning rate multiplied with the flame surface density. DNSs of turbulent flame kernels have been carried out in order to support the results from the theory. The chemistry is described by application of the flamelet generated manifold technique. The strong stretch theory is shown to be valid up to realizations in the thin reaction zone regime by three independent methods. The local effects of stretch are described, evaluated, and interpreted. Locally the mass burning rate changes by fuel leakage tangential to the flame, but this has no integral effect. The method can be used for subgrid scale modeling of turbulent flame propagation.
Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, R. K.; Dimalanta, R.; Wernet, M. P.; Greenberg, P. S.
2001-01-01
Buoyancy affects the entire flowfield of steady turbulent flames and this aspect of flame buoyancy coupling is largely unexplored by experiments or by theory. Open flames and flames within large confinements are free to expand and interact with the surrounding environment. In addition to fluid and combustion conditions, their aerodynamic flowfields are determined by the flame brush orientation and geometry, wake of the stabilizer, enclosure size, and of course, the gravitational field. Because the flowfield consists mainly of cold reactants (mostly in the nearfield) and hot products (mostly in the farfield), buoyancy effects are manifested in the farfield region. In upward pointing flames, an obvious effect is a favorable axial pressure gradient that accelerates the products thereby increasing the axial aerodynamic stretch rate. Intrinsic to turbulent flows, changes in mean aerodynamic stretch also couple to the fluctuating pressure field. Consequently, buoyancy can influence the turbulence intensities upstream and downstream of the flame. Flame wrinkling process, and heat release rate are also directly affected. This backward coupling mechanism is the so-called elliptic problem. To resolve the field effects of buoyancy would require the solution of three-dimensional non-linear Navier Stokes equations with full specification of the upstream, wall and downstream boundary conditions.
The effect of temperature on soot properties in premixed methane flames
Alfe, M.; Apicella, B.; Tregrossi, A.; Ciajolo, A.; Rouzaud, J.-N.
2010-10-15
The effect of flame temperature on soot properties was studied in premixed methane/oxygen flames burning at a constant mixture composition (C/O = 0.60, {phi} = 2.4) and different cold-gas flow velocities (4 and 5 cm s{sup -1}). Temperature and concentration profiles of stable gases and condensed phases combustion products were measured along the flame axis. It was found that the high flame temperature conditions cause a larger decomposition of methane into hydrogen and C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, thereby reducing the formation of benzene and condensed phases including condensed species and soot. Soot properties were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and H/C elemental analysis. A description of soot nanostructural organization was also performed by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Different properties and nanostructures were found to develop in the soot, depending on the temperature and on soot aging associated. Soot dehydrogenation occurred to a larger extent in the high flame temperature conditions. As soot dehydrogenates the mass absorption coefficients of soot exhibited an increasing trend along the flame axis. However, mature soot retained a relatively high H/C ratio and low absorption coefficients with respect to other less hydrogenated fuels even in high temperature conditions. This indicates that the aromatization/dehydrogenation of soot in premixed flames is more dependent on the fuel characteristics rather than on the flame temperature. Generally, it was assessed that mature soot produced from diverse hydrocarbon fuels with similar flame temperatures and flame types possess a different chemical composition and structure. To this regard the H/C atomic ratio and mass absorption coefficients appeared to be signatures of soot properties and structural evolution. (author)
The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, A.; Poinsot, T.
1992-01-01
One central ingredient in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion is the flame surface density. This quantity conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release and is obtained via a modeled transport equation, called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact, but unclosed, formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In this exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the flame surface density and the turbulent flame stretch are not available from experiments and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the obvious, complementary approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. Three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, the effects of the Lewis number on the rate of production of flame surface area are described in great detail and meaningful comparisons with flamelet models can be performed. The analysis reveals in particular the tendency of the models to overpredict flame surface dissipation as well as their inability to reproduce variations due to thermo-diffusive phenomena. Thanks to the detailed information produced by a DNS-based analysis, this type of comparison not only underscores the shortcomings of current models but also suggests ways to improve them.
Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames
Wisman, D.L.; Marcum, S.D.; Ganguly, B.N.
2007-12-15
This work focuses upon the effects of DC electric fields on the stability of downward propagating atmospheric pressure premixed propane-air flames under experimental conditions that provide close coupling of the electric field to the flame. With the appropriate electrode geometry, modest applied voltages are shown to drive a stable conical flame first into a wrinkled-laminar flamelet geometry, and then further toward either a highly unstable distributed flamelet regime or a collective oscillation of the flame front. Applied potentials up through +5kV over a 40-mm gap encompassing the flame front have been used to force the above transition sequence in flames with equivalence ratios between 0.8 and 1.3 and flow velocities up to 1.7 m/s. Experiments are reported that characterize the field-induced changes in the geometry of the reaction zone and the structure of the resulting unstable flame. The former is quantified by combustion intensity enhancement estimates derived from high-speed two-dimensional direct and spectroscopic imaging of chemiluminescence signals. The flame fluid mechanical response to the applied field, brought about by forcing positive flame ions counter to the flow, drives the effective flame Lewis number to values suitable for the onset of the thermodiffusive instability, even near stoichiometric conditions. Possible field-driven flame ion recombination chemistry that would produce light reactants near the burner head and precipitate the onset of the thermodiffusive instability is proposed. Electrical measurements are also reported that establish that minimal electrical power input is required to produce the observed flame instabilities. Current continuity-based calculations allow estimates of the level of deficient light reactant necessary to cause the flame to become unstable. This applied-electric-field-induced modification of the thermodiffusive effect could serve as a potentially attractive means of controlling flame fluid
NCO quantitative measurement in premixed low pressure flames by combining LIF and CRDS techniques.
Lamoureux, Nathalie; Mercier, Xavier; Pauwels, Jean-François; Desgroux, Pascale
2011-06-01
NCO is a short-lived species involved in NO(x) formation. It has never been quantitatively measured in flame conditions. In the present study, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) were combined to measure NCO radical concentrations in premixed low-pressure flames (p = 5.3 kPa). NCO LIF excitation spectrum and absorption spectrum (using CRDS) measured in a stoichiometric CH(4)/O(2)/N(2)O/N(2) flame were found in good agreement with a simulated spectrum using PGOPHER program that was used to calculate the high-temperature absorption cross section of NCO in the A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π transition around 440.479 nm. The relative NCO-LIF profiles were measured in stoichiometric CH(4)/O(2)/N(2)O/N(2) flames where the ratio N(2)O/O(2) was progressively decreased from 0.50 to 0.01 and in rich CH(4)/O(2)/N(2) premixed flames. Then, the LIF profiles were converted into NCO mole fraction profiles from the absorption measurements using CRDS in a N(2)O-doped flame. PMID:21548555
EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES OF ETHANOL AND METHANE
Tran, Luc-Sy; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique
2013-01-01
To better understand the chemistry of the combustion of ethanol, the structure of five low pressure laminar premixed flames has been investigated: a pure methane flame (φ=1), three pure ethanol flames (φ=0.7, 1.0, and 1.3), and an ethanol/methane mixture flames (φ=1). The flames have been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 64.3 cm/s at 333 K. The results consist of mole fraction profiles of 20 species measured as a function of the height above the burner by probe sampling followed by online gas chromatography analyses. A mechanism for the oxidation of ethanol was proposed. The reactions of ethanol and acetaldehyde were updated and include recent theoretical calculations while that of ethenol, dimethyl ether, acetone, and propanal were added in the mechanism. This mechanism was also tested against experimental results available in the literature for laminar burning velocities and laminar premixed flame where ethenol was detected. The main reaction pathways of consumption of ethanol are analyzed. The effect of the branching ratios of reaction C2H5OH+OH→Products+H2O is also discussed. PMID:23712124
DNS and modeling of the interaction between turbulent premixed flames and walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.
1992-01-01
The interaction between turbulent premixed flames and walls is studied using a two-dimensional full Navier-Stokes solver with simple chemistry. The effects of wall distance on the local and global flame structure are investigated. Quenching distances and maximum wall heat fluxes during quenching are computed in laminar cases and are found to be comparable to experimental and analytical results. For turbulent cases, it is shown that quenching distances and maximum heat fluxes remain of the same order as for laminar flames. Based on simulation results, a 'law-of-the-wall' model is derived to describe the interaction between a turbulent premixed flame and a wall. This model is constructed to provide reasonable behavior of flame surface density near a wall under the assumption that flame-wall interaction takes place at scales smaller than the computational mesh. It can be implemented in conjunction with any of several recent flamelet models based on a modeled surface density equation, with no additional constraints on mesh size or time step.
Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastase, Cristian R.
2004-11-01
The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.
Dynamic formulation of thickened flame model for LES of premixed turbulent combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, C.; Nottin, C.; Veynante, D.
2000-11-01
As demonstrated in Colin et al. (Phys. Fluids 12, p. 1843, 2000) the thickened flame model for LES of premixed combustion (TFLES) has a number of attractive features such as correct asymptotics in the limit of DNS, in the case of a thickened laminar, steady flame, etc.. For the general case of turbulent, unsteady and curved, premixed flames, the model requires empirical parameters to be specified. With the aim of decreasing the dependence on empirical parameters, the dynamic procedure is applied to this problem. We find that the traditional application of the Germano identity, which seeks undetermined multiplicative model coefficients, fails because of a trivial cancellation of the coefficients when inserted in the Germano identity. We suggest that this is a general problem when applying the dynamic model to phenomena that occur at very disparate length-scales (here the true reaction occurs in a region which is typically much thinner than the LES grid-size). On the other hand, we find that the dynamic procedure is well-posed when searching for unknown scaling exponents (instead of coefficients). A new power-law formulation of dynamic TFLES is developed, and tested using a fully compressible, sixth-order finite-difference code (NTMIX). Applications to several cases are discussed: (a) 1-D laminar flame, (b) laminar flame-vortex interaction, and (c) flame propagation through 2-D decaying isotropic turbulence.
Pre-mixed flame simulations for non-unity Lewis numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.
1990-01-01
A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet region is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For non-unity Lewis numbers (Le), the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional, constant density, decaying isotropic turbulence with a single step, finite rate chemical reaction. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. The turbulent flame speed, S(sub T), increases as Le decreases. The correlation between S(sub T) and u prime found in previous Le = 1 simulations has a strong Lewis number dependency. The variance of the pdf of the flame curvature increases as Le decreases, indicating that the flames become more wrinkled. A strong correlation between local flame speed and curvature was found. For Le greater than 1, the flame speed increases in regions concave towards the products and decreases in convex regions. The opposite correlation was found for Le less than 1. The mean temperature of the products was also found to vary with Lewis number. For Le = 0.8, it is less than the adiabatic flame temperature and for Le = 1.2 it is greater.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2015-06-22
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent Bunsen flames were performed at three different turbulence intensities. We performed these simulations using a reduced methane–air chemical mechanism which was specifically tailored for the lean premixed conditions simulated here. A planar-jet turbulent Bunsen flame configuration was used in which turbulent preheated methane–air mixture at 0.7 equivalence ratio issued through a central jet and was surrounded by a hot laminar coflow of burned products. The turbulence characteristics at the jet inflow were selected such that combustion occured in the thin reaction zones (TRZ) regime. At the lowest turbulence intensity, the conditions fall on the boundary between the TRZ regime and the corrugated flamelet regime, and progressively moved further into the TRZ regime by increasing the turbulent intensity. The data from the three simulations was analyzed to understand the effect of turbulent stirring on the flame structure and thickness. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data showed that the thermal preheat layer of the flame was thickened due to the action of turbulence, but the reaction zone was not significantly affected. A global and local analysis of the burning velocity of the flame was performed to compare the different flames. Detailed statistical averages of the flame speed were also obtained to study the spatial dependence of displacement speed and its correlation to strain rate and curvature.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2015-06-22
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent Bunsen flames were performed at three different turbulence intensities. We performed these simulations using a reduced methane–air chemical mechanism which was specifically tailored for the lean premixed conditions simulated here. A planar-jet turbulent Bunsen flame configuration was used in which turbulent preheated methane–air mixture at 0.7 equivalence ratio issued through a central jet and was surrounded by a hot laminar coflow of burned products. The turbulence characteristics at the jet inflow were selected such that combustion occured in the thin reaction zones (TRZ) regime. At the lowest turbulence intensity, the conditions fall onmore » the boundary between the TRZ regime and the corrugated flamelet regime, and progressively moved further into the TRZ regime by increasing the turbulent intensity. The data from the three simulations was analyzed to understand the effect of turbulent stirring on the flame structure and thickness. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data showed that the thermal preheat layer of the flame was thickened due to the action of turbulence, but the reaction zone was not significantly affected. A global and local analysis of the burning velocity of the flame was performed to compare the different flames. Detailed statistical averages of the flame speed were also obtained to study the spatial dependence of displacement speed and its correlation to strain rate and curvature.« less
Consistent flamelet modeling of differential molecular diffusion for turbulent non-premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haifeng
2016-03-01
Treating differential molecular diffusion correctly and accurately remains as a great challenge to the modeling of turbulent non-premixed combustion. The aim of this paper is to develop consistent modeling strategies for differential molecular diffusion in flamelet models. Two types of differential molecular diffusion models are introduced, linear differential diffusion models and nonlinear differential diffusion models. A multi-component turbulent mixing layer problem is analyzed in detail to gain insights into differential molecular diffusion and its characteristics, particularly the dependence of differential molecular diffusion on the Reynolds number and the Lewis number. These characteristics are then used to validate the differential molecular diffusion models. Finally, the new models are applied to the modeling of a series of laboratory-scale turbulent non-premixed jet flames with different Reynolds number (Sandia Flames B, C, and D) to further assess the models' performance.
A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion
Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F
2008-06-30
Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benezech, Laurent Jean-Michel
A methodology based on the comparison of flame simulations relying on reacting flow models with experiment is applied to C1-C3 stagnation flames. The work reported targets the assessment and validation of the modeled reactions and reaction rates relevant to (C1-C3)-flame propagation in several detailed combustion kinetic models. A concensus does not, as yet, exist on the modeling of the reasonably well-understood oxidation of C1-C2 flames, and a better knowledge of C3 hydrocarbon combustion chemistry is required before attempting to bridge the gap between the oxidation of C1-C2 hydrocarbons and the more complex chemistry of heavier hydrocarbons in a single kinetic model. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and CH-radical profiles were performed in atmospheric propane(C3H8)- and propylene(C3H6)-air laminar premixed stagnation flames stabilized in a jet-wall configuration. These nearly-flat flames can be modeled by one-dimensional simulations, providing a means to validate kinetic models. Experimental data for these C3 flames and similar experimental data for atmospheric methane(CH4)-, ethane(C2H6)-, and ethylene(C2H4)-air flames are compared to numerical simulations performed with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a multi-component transport formulation including thermal diffusion, and different detailed-chemistry models, in order to assess the adequacy of the models employed. A novel continuation technique between kinetic models was developed and applied successfully to obtain solutions with the less-robust models. The 2005/12 and 2005/10 releases of the San Diego mechanism are found to have the best overall performance in C3H8 and C3H6 flames, and in CH4, C2H6, and C2H4 flames, respectively. Flame position provides a good surrogate for flame speed in stagnation-flow stabilized flames. The logarithmic sensitivities of the simulated flame locations to variations in the kinetic rates are calculated via the "brute-force" method for fifteen representative flames
A comparison of transport algorithms for premixed, laminar steady state flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coffee, T. P.; Heimerl, J. M.
1980-01-01
The effects of different methods of approximating multispecies transport phenomena in models of premixed, laminar, steady state flames were studied. Five approximation methods that span a wide range of computational complexity were developed. Identical data for individual species properties were used for each method. Each approximation method is employed in the numerical solution of a set of five H2-02-N2 flames. For each flame the computed species and temperature profiles, as well as the computed flame speeds, are found to be very nearly independent of the approximation method used. This does not indicate that transport phenomena are unimportant, but rather that the selection of the input values for the individual species transport properties is more important than the selection of the method used to approximate the multispecies transport. Based on these results, a sixth approximation method was developed that is computationally efficient and provides results extremely close to the most sophisticated and precise method used.
The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trouve, A.
1993-01-01
In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.
Wangher, Athena; Searby, Geoff; Quinard, Joel
2008-07-15
Using OH{sup *} chemiluminescence, we measure the experimental unsteady response of a 1-D premixed flame to an acoustic pressure wave for a range of frequencies below and above the inverse of the flame transit time. We find that the response is positive and, at low frequency, the order of magnitude is comparable with existing theoretical analyses. However, if it is assumed that the chemiluminescence is proportional to the mass consumption rate, despite some uncertainty in the interpretation of the chemiluminescence signal we find that the frequency dependence of the measured response is not compatible with the predictions of the standard flame model for one-step Arrhenius kinetics. A better, but not perfect, correlation is obtained for the heat release rate. We conclude that the standard model does not provide an adequate description of the unsteady response of real flames and that it is necessary to investigate more realistic chemical models. (author)
Ignition and propagation of premixed methane flame by successive laser-induced breakdowns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wermer, Lydia; Bak, Moon Soo; Im, Seong-Kyun
2015-11-01
The ignition and the propagation of premixed methane flame by two successive laser-induced breakdowns were investigated. The ignition and flame propagation were visualized using a high-speed schlieren imaging technique. Experiments were performed for various time intervals between the two pulses ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds and were compared to the ignition by a single laser breakdown. For time intervals in the nanosecond range, the second pulse energy coupled with the first breakdown increasing energy absorption in the breakdown. For time intervals in the microseconds and milliseconds, the blast wave from the second breakdown interacted with the propagating flame induced by the first breakdown. The interaction triggered Richtmyer-Meshkov instability enhancing flame propagation. It is observed that there are time intervals inhibiting the second breakdown due to the heating either by the first breakdown or by combustion.
Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K
2010-12-12
Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.
Structure of the Soot Growth Region of Laminar Premixer Methane/Oxygen Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.
1999-01-01
Soot is a dominant feature of hydrocarbon/air flames, affecting their reaction mechanisms and structure. As a result, soot processes affect capabilities for computational combustion as well as predictions of flame radiation and pollution emissions. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation extended past work on soot growth in laminar premixed flames, seeking to evaluate model predictions of flame structure. Xu et al. report direct measurements of soot residence times, soot concentrations, soot structure, gas temperatures and gas compositions for premixed flames similar to those studied by Harris and Weiner and Ramer et al. respectively. It was found that predictions of major stable gas species concentrations based on mechanisms of Leung and Lindstedt and Frenklach and coworkers, were in good agreement with the measurements. The results were also used to evaluate the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms of Frenklach and coworkers and Colket and Hall. It was found that these mechanisms were effective using quite reasonable correlations for the steric factors appearing in the theories. The successful evaluation of the HACA mechanism of soot growth in Refs. 1 and 2 is encouraging but one aspect of this evaluation is a concern. In particular, H-atom concentrations play a crucial role in the HACA mechanism and it was necessary to estimate these concentrations because they were not measured directly. These estimates were made assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium between H, and H based on measured temperatures and H2 concentrations and the equilibrium constant data of Kee et al.. This approach was justified by the flame structure predictions; nevertheless, direct evaluation of equilibrium estimates of H-atom concentrations in the soot growth regions of laminar premixed flames is needed to provide more convincing proof of this behavior. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to complete new measurements of the
Sensitivity analysis for premixed, laminar, steady-state flames. Technical report
Coffee, T.P.; Heimerl, J.M.
1983-01-01
A procedure has been developed to perform a sensitivity analysis on the transport and rate input parameters for a premixed, laminar, one-dimensional, steady-state flame. Computer codes exist to perform the sensitivity analysis automatically. The analysis can be done in terms of Taylor expansions or Logarithmic expansions. Both first and second order coefficients may be computed. As a test case, the analysis has been carried out for a set of H2/O2/N2/flames. The relative accuracy and the range of validity of the various expansions is discussed.
A comparison of experimental results of soot production in laminar premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caetano, Nattan R.; Soares, Diego; Nunes, Roger P.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Smith Schneider, Paulo; Vielmo, Horácio A.; van der Laan, Flávio Tadeu
2015-05-01
Soot emission has been the focus of numerous studies due to the numerous applications in industry, as well as the harmful effects caused to the environment. Thus, the purpose of this work is to analyze the soot formation in a flat flame burner using premixed compressed natural gas and air, where these quasi-adiabatic flames have one-dimensional characteristics. The measurements were performed applying the light extinction technique. The air/fuel equivalence ratiowas varied to assess the soot volume fractions for different flame configurations. Soot production along the flamewas also analyzed by measurements at different heights in relation to the burner surface. Results indicate that soot volume fraction increases with the equivalence ratio. The higher regions of the flamewere analyzed in order to map the soot distribution on these flames. The results are incorporated into the experimental database for measurement techniques calibration and for computational models validation of soot formation in methane premixed laminar flames, where the equivalence ratio ranging from 1.5 up to 8.
Combustion dynamics linked to flame behaviour in a partially premixed swirled industrial burner
Biagioli, Fernando; Guethe, Felix; Schuermans, Bruno
2008-07-15
Previous work [Biagioli, F., Stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in strongly swirled flows, Combustion, Theory and Modelling 10 (3) (2006) 389-412; Guethe, F., Lachner, R., Schuermans, B., Biagioli, F., Geng, W., Inauen, A., Schenker, S., Bombach, R., Hubschmid, W., Flame imaging on the ALSTOM EV-burner: thermo acoustic pulsations and CFD-validation, in: AIAA Paper 2006-437 presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006] has shown that turbulent dry low NO{sub x} (partially premixed) flames in high swirl conical burners may be subject to a large change of their anchoring location at the symmetry axis when a critical value of the bulk equivalence ratio is reached, i.e. they are bi-stable. This flame behavior is linked here to combustion pressure dynamics measured in an atmospheric test rig for a prototype version of the Alstom EnVironmental (EV) conical burner. The link is made via the solution of the problem of the 'travelling flameholder', which shows that the unsteady displacement of the flame anchoring location implies an unsteady variation of the flame surface area and therefore unsteady heat release. The relevance of this source of unsteady heat release - which is different from more usual ones due to variations in turbulent burning rate and in the sensible enthalpy jump across the flame - to the generation of combustion dynamics in strongly swirled flows is confirmed here by the strong positive correlation between the tendency of the flame to be displaced and the measured amplitude of pressure pulsations. (author)
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Ethylene/Air Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix G
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Sunderland, P. B.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Soot formation was studied within laminar premixed ethylene/air flames (C/O ratios of 0.78-0.98) stabilized on a flat-flame burner operating at atmospheric pressure. Measurements included soot volume fractions by both laser extinction and gravimetric methods, temperatures by multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of condensable hydrocarbons by gravimetric sampling. and velocities by laser velocimetry. These data were used to find soot surface growth rates and primary soot particle nucleation rates along the axes of the flames. Present measurements of soot surface growth rates were correlated successfully by predictions based on typical hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall. These results suavest that reduced soot surface growth rates with increasing residence time seen in the present and other similar flames were mainly caused by reduced rates of surface activation due to reduced H atom concentrations as temperatures decrease as a result of radiative heat losses. Primary soot particle nucleation rates exhibited variations with temperature and acetylene concentrations that were similar to recent observations for diffusion flames; however, nucleation rates in the premixed flames were significantly lower than in, the diffusion flames for reasons that still must be explained. Finally, predictions of yields of major gas species based on mechanisms from both Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt were in good agreement with present measurements and suggest that H atom concentrations (relevant to HACA mechanisms) approximate estimates based on local thermodynamic equilibrium in the present flames.
Effects of Lewis number on vorticity and enstrophy transport in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Konstantinou, Ilias; Lipatnikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
The effects of Lewis number Le on both vorticity and enstrophy transport within the flame brush have been analysed using direct numerical simulation data of freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames, representing the thin reaction zone regime of premixed turbulent combustion. In the simulations, Le was ranged from 0.34 to 1.2 by keeping the laminar flame speed, thermal thickness, Damköhler, Karlovitz, and Reynolds numbers unchanged. The enstrophy has been shown to decay significantly from the unburned to the burned gas side of the flame brush in the Le ≈ 1.0 flames. However, a considerable amount of enstrophy generation within the flame brush has been observed for the Le = 0.34 case and a similar qualitative behaviour has been observed in a much smaller extent for the Le = 0.6 case. The vorticity components have been shown to exhibit anisotropic behaviour within the flame brush, and the extent of anisotropy increases with decreasing Le. The baroclinic torque term has been shown to be principally responsible for this anisotropic behaviour. The vortex stretching and viscous dissipation terms have been found to be the leading order contributors to the enstrophy transport for all cases, but the baroclinic torque and the sink term due to dilatation play increasingly important role for flames with decreasing Le. Furthermore, the correlation between the fluctuations of enstrophy and dilatation rate has been shown to play an important role in determining the material derivative of enstrophy based on the mean flow in the case of a low Le.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibarreta, Alfonso F.; Driscoll, James F.; Feikema, Douglas A.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The effect of flame stretch, composed of strain and curvature, plays a major role in the propagation of turbulent premixed flames. Although all forms of stretch (positive and negative) are present in turbulent conditions, little research has been focused on the stretch due to curvature. The present study quantifies the Markstein number (which characterizes the sensitivity of the flame propagation speed to the imposed stretch rate) for an inwardly-propagating flame (IPF). This flame is of interest because it is negatively stretched, and is subjected to curvature effects alone, without the competing effects of strain. In an extension of our previous work, microgravity experiments were run using a vortex-flame interaction to create a pocket of reactants surrounded by an IPF. Computations using the RUN-1DL code of Rogg were also performed in order to explain the measurements. It was found that the Markstein number of an inwardly-propagating flame, for both the microgravity experiment and the computations, is significantly larger than that of an outwardly-propagating flame. Further insight was gained by running the computations for the simplified (hypothetical) cases of one step chemistry, unity Lewis number, and negligible heat release. Results provide additional evidence that the Markstein numbers associated with strain and curvature have different values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reisel, John R.; Laurendeau, Normand M.
1994-01-01
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been applied to the quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in premixed, laminar, high-pressure flames. Their chemistry was also studied using three current kinetics schemes to determine the predictive capabilities of each mechanism with respect to NO concentrations. The flames studied were low-temperature (1600 less than T less than 1850K) C2H6/O2/N2 and C2H6/O2/N2 flames, and high temperature (2100 less than T less than 2300K) C2H6/O2/N2 flames. Laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) was initially used to measure the NO concentrations. However, while the excitation transition was well saturated at atmospheric pressure, the fluorescence behavior was basically linear with respect to laser power at pressures above 6 atm. Measurements and calculations demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching rate variation is negligible for LIF measurements of NO at a given pressure. Therefore, linear LIF was used to perform quantitative measurements of NO concentration in these high-pressure flames. The transportability of a calibration factor from one set of flame conditions to another also was investigated by considering changes in the absorption and quenching environment for different flame conditions. The feasibility of performing LIF measurements of (NO) in turbulent flames was studied; the single-shot detection limit was determined to be 2 ppm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furukawa, Junichi; Noguchi, Yoshiki; Hirano, Toshisuke; Williams, Forman A.
2002-07-01
The density change across premixed flames propagating in turbulent flows modifies the turbulence. The nature of that modification depends on the regime of turbulent combustion, the burner design, the orientation of the turbulent flame and the position within the flame. The present study addresses statistically stationary turbulent combustion in the flame-sheet regime, in which the laminar-flame thickness is less than the Kolmogorov scale, for flames stabilized on a vertically oriented cylindrical burner having fully developed upward turbulent pipe flow upstream from the exit. Under these conditions, rapidly moving wrinkled laminar flamelets form the axisymmetric turbulent flame brush that is attached to the burner exit. Predictions have been made of changes in turbulence properties across laminar flamelets in such situations, but very few measurements have been performed to test the predictions. The present work measures individual velocity changes and changes in turbulence across flamelets at different positions in the turbulent flame brush for three different equivalence ratios, for comparison with theory.
Domingo, Pascale; Vervisch, Luc; Payet, Sandra; Hauguel, Raphaeel
2005-12-01
Two complementary simulations of premixed turbulent flames are discussed. Low Reynolds number two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of a premixed turbulent V flame is first performed, to further analyze the behavior of various flame quantities and to study key ingredients of premixed turbulent combustion modeling. Flame surface density, subgrid-scale variance of progress variables, and unresolved turbulent fluxes are analyzed. These simulations include fully detailed chemistry from a flame-generated tabulation (FPI) and the analysis focuses on the dynamics of the thin flame front. Then, a novel subgrid scale closure for large eddy simulation of premixed turbulent combustion (FSD-PDF) is proposed. It combines the flame surface density (FSD) approach with a presumed probability density function (PDF) of the progress variable that is used in FPI chemistry tabulation. The FSD is useful for introducing in the presumed PDF the influence of the spatially filtered thin reaction zone evolving within the subgrid. This is achieved via the exact relation between the PDF and the FSD. This relation involves the conditional filtered average of the magnitude of the gradient of the progress variable. In the modeling, this conditional filtered mean is approximated from the filtered gradient of the progress variable of the FPI laminar flame. Balance equations providing mean and variance of the progress variable together with the measure of the filtered gradient are used to presume the PDF. A three-dimensional larger Reynolds number flow configuration (ORACLES experiment) is then computed with FSD-PDF and the results are compared with measurements.
Meier, W.; Weigand, P.; Duan, X.R.; Giezendanner-Thoben, R.
2007-07-15
A nozzle configuration for technically premixed gas turbine flames was operated with CH{sub 4} and air at atmospheric pressure. The flames were confined by a combustion chamber with large quartz windows, allowing the application of optical and laser diagnostics. In a distinct range of operating conditions the flames exhibited strong self-excited thermoacoustic pulsations at a frequency around 290 Hz. A flame with P=25kW thermal power and an equivalence ratio of {phi}=0.7 was chosen as a target flame in order to analyze the dynamics and the feedback mechanism of the periodic instability in detail. The velocity field was measured by three-component laser Doppler velocimetry, the flame structures were measured by chemiluminescence imaging and planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH, and the joint probability density functions of major species concentrations, mixture fraction, and temperature were measured by laser Raman scattering. All measuring techniques were applied in a phase-locked mode with respect to the phase angle of the periodic pulsation. In addition to the pulsating flame, a nonpulsating flame with increased fuel flow rate (P=30kW, {phi}=0.83) was studied for comparison. The measurements revealed significant differences between the structures of the pulsating and the nonpulsating (or ''quiet'') flame. Effects of finite-rate chemistry and unmixedness were observed in both flames but were more pronounced in the pulsating flame. The phase-locked measurements revealed large variations of all measured quantities during an oscillation cycle. This yielded a clear picture of the sequence of events and allowed the feedback mechanism of the instability to be identified and described quantitatively. The data set presents a very good basis for the verification of numerical combustion simulations because the boundary conditions of the experiment were well-defined and the most important quantities were measured with a high accuracy. (author)
Experimental and numerical study of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagating in a combustion chamber.
Xiao, Huahua; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Peng
2014-03-15
An experimental and numerical study of dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flame in a closed explosion vessel is described. High-speed shlieren cinematography and pressure recording are used to elucidate the dynamics of the combustion process in the experiment. A dynamically thickened flame model associated with a detailed reaction mechanism is employed in the numerical simulation to examine the flame-flow interaction and effect of wall friction on the flame dynamics. The shlieren photographs show that the flame develops into a distorted tulip shape after a well-pronounced classical tulip front has been formed. The experimental results reveal that the distorted tulip flame disappears with the primary tulip cusp and the distortions merging into each other, and then a classical tulip is repeated. The combustion dynamics is reasonably reproduced in the numerical simulations, including the variations in flame shape and position, pressure build-up and periodically oscillating behavior. It is found that both the tulip and distorted tulip flames can be created in the simulation with free-slip boundary condition at the walls of the vessel and behave in a manner quite close to that in the experiments. This means that the wall friction could be unimportant for the tulip and distorted tulip formation although the boundary layer formed along the sidewalls has an influence to a certain extent on the flame behavior near the sidewalls. The distorted tulip flame is also observed to be produced in the absence of vortex flow in the numerical simulations. The TF model with a detailed chemical scheme is reliable for investigating the dynamics of distorted tulip flame propagation and its underlying mechanism. PMID:24486615
Balachandran, R.; Dowling, A.P.; Mastorakos, E.; Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.
2005-10-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation of acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body-stabilised flames in an enclosure short enough so that no coupling of the combustor downstream acoustics occurred for the frequencies studied here, which allows an unambiguous examination of the flame response to inlet velocity fluctuations. Special emphasis was placed on the amplitude dependence of this response. Measurements of the heat release rate were performed with OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH from which the flame surface density (FSD) was computed, and simultaneous CH{sub 2}O and OH PLIF imaging from which the local heat release rate (RX) was estimated. The global heat release measured with chemiluminescence and that integrated from the local FSD measurements were in close agreement, while a comparison between FSD and high-resolution RX imaging also showed good agreement. This suggests that estimates of the flame area are sufficient to determine heat release rate for this flow. The heat release response became nonlinear after inlet velocity amplitudes of around 15% of the bulk velocity. This value depended on the forcing frequency and the equivalence ratio. The nonlinearity was found to occur when the shear layers rolled up into vortices. The vortices induced by the inlet velocity fluctuations not only generated flame area when the flame wrapped around them, but also caused cusps and even large-scale flame annihilation events, as observed in time-resolved OH PLIF images. Such events occurred when parts of the flame stabilised on the inner shear layer close to the recirculation zone collapsed on parts of the flame stabilised on the outer recirculation zone, a phenomenon that was made more prominent with increasing forcing amplitude. A further nonlinearity occurred at high amplitudes and at some equivalence ratios, where a significant leakage of energy to higher harmonics was observed, but the
Laser ablation plasma-assisted stabilization of premixed methane/air flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Peng, Jiangbo; Yu, Xin; Fan, Rongwei; Sun, Rui; Chen, Deying
2016-01-01
Laser ablation plasma has been applied to assist stabilization of premixed methane/air flames with a flow speed up to 15.3 m/s. The ablation plasma was generated using the 50 Hz, 1064 nm output of a Nd:YAG laser onto a tantalum slab. With the ablation plasma, the stabilization equivalence ratio has been extended to the fuel-leaner end and the blow off limits have been enhanced by from 3.6- to 14.8-folds for flames which can stabilize without the plasma. The laser pulse energy required for flameholding was reduced to 10 mJ, a 64 % reduction compared with that of gas breakdown plasma, which will ease the demand for high-power lasers for high-frequency plasma generation. The temporal evolutions of the flame kernels following the ablation plasma were investigated using the OH* chemiluminescence imaging approach, and the flame propagation speed ( v f) was measured from the flame kernel evolutions. With the ablation plasma, the v f with flow speed of 4.7-9.0 m/s and equivalence ratio of 1.4 has been enhanced from 0.175 m/s of laminar premixed methane/air flame to 2.79-4.52 and 1.59-5.46 m/s, respectively, in the early and late time following the ablation plasma. The increase in the combustion radical concentrations by the ablation plasma was thought to be responsible for the v f enhancement and the resulted flame stabilization.
Near field flow structure of isothermal swirling flows and reacting non-premixed swirling flames
Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio; Cozzi, Fabio; Coghe, Aldo
2007-04-15
Two confined lean non-premixed swirl-stabilized flame typologies were investigated in order to achieve detailed information on the thermal and aerodynamic field in the close vicinity of the burner throat and provide correlation with the exhaust emissions. Previous finding indicated the generation of a partially premixed flame with radial fuel injection and a purely diffusive flame with co-axial injection in a swirling co-flow. In the present work, the experimental study is reported which has been conducted on a straight exit laboratory burner with no quarl cone, fuelled by natural gas and air, and fired vertically upwards with the flame stabilized at the end of two concentric pipes with the annulus supplying swirled air and the central pipe delivering the fuel. Two fuel injection typologies, co-axial and radial (i.e., transverse), leading to different mixing mechanisms, have been characterized through different techniques: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for a comprehensive analysis of the velocity field, still photography for the detection of flame front and main visible features, and thermocouples for the temperature distribution. Isothermal flow conditions have been included in the experimental investigation to provide a basic picture of the flow field and to comprehend the modifications induced by the combustion process. The results indicated that, although the global mixing process and the main flame structure are governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the two different fuel injection methodologies play an important role on mixture formation and flame stabilization in the primary mixing zone. Particularly, it has been found that, in case of axial injection, the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the backflow generated by the swirl can induce an intermittent fuel penetration in the recirculated hot products and the formation of a central sooting luminous plume, a phenomenon totally
Xiao, Xudong; Puri, Ishwar K; Agrawal, Ajay K
2002-04-01
We focus on the utility of rainbow schlieren as a tool for measuring the temperature of axisymmetric partially premixed flames (PPFs). Methane-air PPFs are established on a coannular burner. The flames involve two spatially distinct reaction zones, one in an inner premixed region that has a curved tip and a spatially planar wing portion and another that involves an outer nonpremixed zone in which intermediate species burn in air. Schlieren images are found to visualize clearly these PPF characteristics through light deflection by steep refractive-index gradients in the two reaction zone fronts. The temperature distributions of two flames established at fuel-rich mixture equivalence ratios of phi(r) = 1.5 and 2.0, with bulk-averaged velocities, Vreac = 60 cm s(-1) and Vair = 50 cm s(-1), are inferred from color schlieren images, and a measurement error analysis is performed. Errors arise from two sources. One lies in the process of inferring the temperature from the refractive-index measurement by making assumptions regarding the local composition of the flame. We have shown through simulations that the average temperature deviations due to these assumptions are 1.7% for the phi(r) = 1.5 flame and 2.3% for the phi(r) = 2.0 flame. Another source involves the local uncertainty in the measurement of the transverse ray displacement at the filter plane that is used to determine the refractive index and thereafter the flame temperature. We have ascertained that a maximum error of 4.3% in the temperature determination can be attributed to this local measurement uncertainty. This investigation demonstrates the capability of the schlieren technique for providing not only qualitative displays of the PPFs but also full-field-of-view temperature measurements that are accurate, spatially resolved, and nonintrusive. PMID:11936791
Turbulent partially premixed flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction
Mansour, M.S.; Bilger, R.W. ); Dibble, R.W. )
1991-05-01
Spontaneous Raman/Rayleigh measurements have been carried out in turbulent partially premixed flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction. The flames are created in a reverse flow reactor (RFR) and are stabilized by means of a recirculation zone. The flames are stretched by reducing the residence time of the flow within the reactor. The mean profiles, scatter plots, and conditional pdfs are used to study the flame structure in the present investigation. The detailed structure studies have been carried out in two shear layers, where the stretch rates are highest. The data presented in this article are for two flames close to extinction at low residence times (3.6 and 5.1 ms). The flame structure at both shear layers shows quite significant chemical kinetic effects on approaching extinction. These effects reduce the products concentration and temperature and increase the reactants. Also, these effects increase the CO concentration. A substantial decrease in the reactedness of the reactive scalars has also been found at both shear layers on approaching extinction. The flame structure shows broad distribution between the equilibrium and frozen limits with no obvious bimodality. From the conditional pdfs, the reactedness decreases around stoichiometric and increases at the lean side of the stoichiometric.
Numerical simulations of turbulent premixed H2/O2/N2 flames with complex chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baum, M.; Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.
1992-01-01
Premixed stoichiometric H2/O2/N2 flames propagating in two-dimensional turbulence were studied using direct numerical simulation (simulations in which all fluid and thermochemical scales are fully resolved) including realistic chemical kinetics and molecular transport. Results are compared with earlier zero-chemistry (flame sheet) and one-step chemistry simulations. Consistent with the simpler models, the turbulent flame with realistic chemistry aligns preferentially with extensive strain rates in the tangent plane and flame curvature probability density functions are close to symmetric with near-zero means. By contrast to simple-chemistry results with non-unity Lewis numbers (ratio of thermal to species diffusivity), local flame structure does not correlate with curvature but rather with tangential strain rate. Turbulent straining results in substantial thinning of the flame relative to the steady unstrained laminar case. Heat release and H2O2 contours remain thin and connected ('flamelet-like') while species including H-atom and OH are more diffuse. Peak OH concentration occurs well behind the peak heat-release zone. The feasibility of incorporating realistic chemistry into full turbulence simulations to address issues such as pollutant formation in hydrocarbon-air flames is suggested.
A numerical and experimental investigation of premixed methane-air flame transient response
Habib N. Najm; Phillip H. Paul; Omar M. Knio; Andrew McIlroy
2000-01-06
The authors report the results of a numerical and experimental investigation of the response of premixed methane-air flames to transient strain-rate disturbances induced by a two-dimensional counter-rotating vortex-pair. The numerical and experimental time histories of flow and flame evolution are matched over a 10 ms interaction time. Measurements and computations of CH and OH peak data evolution are reported, and found to indicate mis-prediction of the flame time scales in the numerical model. Qualitative transient features of OH at rich conditions are not predicted in the computations. On the other hand, evolution of computed and measured normalized HCO fractions are in agreement. The computed CH{sub 3}O response exhibits a strong transient driven by changes to internal flame structure, namely temperature profile steepening, induced by the flow field. Steady state experimental PLIF CH{sub 3}O data is reported, but experimental transient CH{sub 3}O data is not available. The present analysis indicates that the flame responds at time scales that are quite distinct from ``propagation'' time scale derived from flame thickness and burning speed. Evidently, these propagation time scales are not adequate for characterizing the transient flame response.
Numerical study of the direct pressure effect of acoustic waves in planar premixed flames
Schmidt, H.; Jimenez, C.
2010-08-15
Recently the unsteady response of 1-D premixed flames to acoustic pressure waves for the range of frequencies below and above the inverse of the flame transit time was investigated experimentally using OH chemiluminescence Wangher (2008). They compared the frequency dependence of the measured response to the prediction of an analytical model proposed by Clavin et al. (1990), derived from the standard flame model (one-step Arrhenius kinetics) and to a similar model proposed by McIntosh (1991). Discrepancies between the experimental results and the model led to the conclusion that the standard model does not provide an adequate description of the unsteady response of real flames and that it is necessary to investigate more realistic chemical models. Here we follow exactly this suggestion and perform numerical studies of the response of lean methane flames using different reaction mechanisms. We find that the global flame response obtained with both detailed chemistry (GRI3.0) and a reduced multi-step model by Peters (1996) lies slightly above the predictions of the analytical model, but is close to experimental results. We additionally used an irreversible one-step Arrhenius reaction model and show the effect of the pressure dependence of the global reaction rate in the flame response. Our results suggest first that the current models have to be extended to capture the amplitude and phase results of the detailed mechanisms, and second that the correlation between the heat release and the measured OH* chemiluminescence should be studied deeper. (author)
An Experimental Study of the Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel
2000-11-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the structure of transitional and turbulent non-premixed jet flames under microgravity conditions. The microgravity experiments are being conducted using a newly developed drop rig and the University of Texas 1.5 second drop tower. The rig itself measures 16”x33”x38” and contains a co-flowing round jet flame facility, flow control system, CCD camera, and data/image acquisition computer. These experiments are the first phase of a larger study being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2 second drop tower facility. The flames being studied include methane and propane round jet flames at jet exit Reynolds numbers as high as 10,000. The primary diagnostic technique employed is emission imaging of flame luminosity using a relatively high-speed (350 fps) CCD camera. The high-speed images are used to study flame height, flame tip dynamics and burnout characteristics. Results are compared to normal gravity experimental results obtained in the same apparatus.
Local quenching phenomena of a lean premixed flat flame impinging with a pulsating air jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahagi, Y.; Makino, I.
2014-08-01
Local quenching phenomena of a lean methane air premixed flat flame formed horizontally in a wall stagnating flow impinging with a pulsating air jet has been investigated experimentally. The burner system consists of 40mm inverted nozzle burner and a solid wall with 8mm diameter air jet placed in line vertically. The pulsating frequencies set up to 100Hz while the jet intensities generate up to 6 m/s by a loud speaker. Approximately '00mm disk shape flame front is curved by the pulsating air jet and the air jet impacting point is locally quenched. The fuel concentration of quenching start condition increases with increasing the intensity of air jet, because the increased jet intensity linked with the flame strain rate gain. For weak jet intensity range, the quenching hole becomes directly to develop the whole flame extinction. On the other hand, for moderate or strong jet condition, the flame can recover from the local quenching phenomena. In this condition, once the quenching hole creates, but the hole may close by the flame propagation or reigniting process. Then, the whole flame extinction limits are lower than no jet impacting condition depending on the circumstances.
Effects of Lewis number on turbulent scalar transport and its modelling in turbulent premixed flames
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Cant, R.S.
2009-07-15
The behaviour of the turbulent scalar flux in premixed flames has been studied using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with emphasis on the effects of Lewis number in the context of Reynolds-averaged closure modelling. A database was obtained from DNS of three-dimensional freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with simplified chemistry and a range of global Lewis numbers from 0.34 to 1.2. Under the same initial conditions of turbulence, flames with low Lewis numbers are found to exhibit counter-gradient transport, whereas flames with higher Lewis numbers tend to exhibit gradient transport. The Reynolds-averaged transport equation for the turbulent scalar flux is analysed in detail and the performance of existing models for the unclosed terms is assessed with respect to corresponding quantities extracted from DNS data. Based on this assessment, existing models which are able to address the effects of non-unity Lewis number on turbulent scalar flux transport are identified, and new or modified models are suggested wherever necessary. In this way, a complete set of closure models for the scalar flux transport equation is prescribed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. (author)
OH-Planar Fluorescence Measurements of Pressurized, Hydrogen Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor
Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C.; Schefer, R.W.
2008-07-01
Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the Simulation Validation combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which were collected in a combustor with well-controlled boundary conditions, are intended to be used for validating computational fluid dynamics models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching, are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and nondimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared with the effects of hydrogen addition, which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed, and results are presented. Finally, the results of several large eddy simulations are presented and compared with the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.
Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.
2016-01-01
This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar
Quantifying real-gas effects on a laminar n-dodecane - air premixed flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopal, Abishek; Yellapantula, Shashank; Larsson, Johan
2015-11-01
With the increasing demand for higher efficiencies in aircraft gas-turbine engines, there has been a progressive march towards high pressure-ratio cycles. Under these conditions, the aviation fuel, Jet A, is injected into the combustor at supercritical pressures. In this work, we study and quantify the effects of transcriticality on a 1D freely propagating laminar n-dodecane - air premixed flame. The impact of the constitutive state relations arising from the Ideal Gas equation of state(EOS) and Peng-Robinson EOS on flame structure and propagation is presented. The effects of real-gas models of transport properties, such as viscosity on laminar flame speed, are also presented.
Wang, H.; Frenklach, M.
1997-07-01
A computational study was performed for the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in laminar premixed acetylene and ethylene flames. A new detailed reaction mechanism describing fuel pyrolysis and oxidation, benzene formation, and PAH mass growth and oxidation is presented and critically tested. It is shown that the reaction model predicts reasonably well the concentration profiles of major and intermediate species and aromatic molecules in a number of acetylene and ethylene flames reported in the literature. It is demonstrated that reactions of n-C{sub 4}H{sub x} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} leading to the formation of one-ring aromatics are as important as the propargyl recombination, and hence must be included in kinetic modeling of PAH formation in hydrocarbon flames. It is further demonstrated that the mass growth of PAHs can be accounted for by the previously proposed H-abstraction-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-addiction mechanism.
Potential-flow models for channelled two-dimensional premixed flames around near-circular obstacles.
Joulin, G; Denet, B; El-Rabii, H
2010-01-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional thin premixed flames is addressed in the framework of mathematical models where the flow field on either side of the front is piecewise incompressible and vorticity free. Flames confined in channels with asymptotically straight impenetrable walls are considered. Besides a few free propagations along straight channels, attention is focused on flames propagating against high-speed flows and positioned near a round central obstacle or near two symmetric bumps protruding inward. Combining conformal maps and Green's functions, a regularized generalization of Frankel's integro-differential equation for the instantaneous front shape in each configuration is derived and solved numerically. This produces a variety of real looking phenomena: steady fronts (symmetric or not), noise-induced subwrinkles, flashback events, and breathing fronts in pulsating flows. Perspectives and open mathematical and physical problems are finally evoked. PMID:20365467
Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed V-Flames Part I: Laminar and Turblent Flame Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit; Kostiuk, Larry W.
1998-01-01
Laser schlieren and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques have been used to investigate laminar and turbulent v-flames in +g, -g, and micro g under flow conditions that span the regimes of momentum domination (Ri < 0. 1) and buoyancy domination (Ri > 0.1). Overall flame features shown by schlieren indicate that buoyancy dominates the entire flow field for conditions close to Ri = 1. With decreasing Ri, buoyancy effects are observed only in the far-field regions. Analyses of the mean flame angles demonstrate that laminar and turbulent flames do not have similar responses to buoyancy. Difference in the laminar +g and -g flame angles decrease with Ri (i.e., increasing Re) and converge to the microgravity flame angle at the momentum limit (Ri - 0). This is consistent with the notion that the effects of buoyancy diminish with increasing flow momentum. The +g and -g turbulent flame angles, however, do not converge at Ri = 0. As shown by OH-PLIF images, the inconsistency in +g and -g turbulent flame angles is associated with the differences in flame wrinkles. Turbulent flame wrinkles evolve more slowly in +g than in -g. The difference in flame wrinkle structures, however, cannot be explained in terms of buoyancy effects on flame instability mechanisms. It seems to be associated with the field effects of buoyancy that stretches the turbulent flame brushes in +g and compresses the flame brush in -g. Flame wrinkling offers a mechanism through which the flame responds to the field effects of buoyancy despite increasing flow momentum. These observations point to the need to include both upstream and downstream contributions in theoretical analysis of flame turbulence interactions.
The influence of pressure on the control of premixed turbulent flames using an electric field
Sakhrieh, A.; Dinkelacker, F.; Leipertz, A.; Lins, G.; Hammer, T.; Branston, D.W.
2005-11-01
Previous investigations of the effects of electric fields on flames have shown the potential for stabilizing flames and reducing emissions with comparatively little effort, but were restricted to atmospheric pressure. In the present work the influence of the electric field on premixed turbulent jet flames at increased pressure is investigated. Besides the question of whether field effects persist at elevated pressure, it is of interest to find physically based scaling laws. The current work describes experiments with premixed turbulent seven-hole Bunsen-jet flames for pressures between 1 and 10 bar, where the exit velocity was held constant, and where electric fields of varied strength and direction were applied to the flame. Concentrations of CO, NO, and NO{sub 2} were measured in the exhaust gas section. Experiments show that the electric field influence is clearly visible for increased pressures, without any indication that 10 bar should be an upper limit. CO emissions could be reduced by about 95%, irrespective of pressure. The decrease of CO was accompanied by an increase of NO{sub x} by about 25%. Both of these effects can be understood qualitatively within the framework of a one-dimensional model. For reduced voltages up to 3.5 kV/bar the model correctly describes the current-voltage characteristics and leads to the conclusion that high pressure should favor rather than hamper electric field effects on flames. The electric power required for a CO reduction of 95% amounted to 0.1% of the thermal power. The improvement of the lean blowoff limit upon application of an electric field observed so far ranges from 1 to 3% and increases with pressure.
Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames
Bremer, Peer-Timo; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Day, Marc; Bell, John
2009-06-01
This paper presents topology-based methods to robustly extract, analyze, and track features defined as subsets of isosurfaces. First, we demonstrate how features identified by thresholding isosurfaces can be defined in terms of the Morse complex. Second, we present a specialized hierarchy that encodes the feature segmentation independent of the threshold while still providing a flexible multi-resolution representation. Third, for a given parameter selection we create detailed tracking graphs representing the complete evolution of all features in a combustion simulation over several hundred time steps. Finally, we discuss a user interface that correlates the tracking information with interactive rendering of the segmented isosurfaces enabling an in-depth analysis of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen flames subject to different levels of turbulence. Due to their unstable nature, lean flames burn in cells separated by locally extinguished regions. The number, area, and evolution over time of these cells provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. Utilizing the hierarchy we can perform an extensive parameter study without re-processing the data for each set of parameters. The resulting statistics enable scientist to select appropriate parameters and provide insight into the sensitivity of the results wrt. to the choice of parameters. Our method allows for the first time to quantitatively correlate the turbulence of the burning process with the distribution of burning regions, properly segmented and selected. In particular, our analysis shows that counter-intuitively stronger turbulence leads to larger cell structures, which burn more intensely than expected. This behavior suggests that flames could be stabilized under much leaner conditions than previously anticipated.
Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces.
Thiesset, F; Maurice, G; Halter, F; Mazellier, N; Chauveau, C; Gökalp, I
2016-01-01
This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar
Gradient and counter-gradient scalar transport in turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veynante, D.; Trouvé, A.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.
1997-02-01
In premixed turbulent combustion, the modelling of the turbulent flux of the mean reaction progress variable c˜, rho;u[double prime or second]ic[double prime or second], remains, remains somewhat controversial. Classical gradient transport assumptions based on the eddy viscosity concept are often used while both experimental data and theoretical analysis have pointed out the existence of counter-gradient turbulent diffusion. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in this paper to provide basic information on the turbulent flux of c˜ and study the occurrence of counter-gradient transport. The numerical configuration corresponds to two- or three-dimensional premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow. The simulations correspond to various flame and flow conditions that are representative of flamelet combustion. They reveal that different flames will feature different turbulent transport properties and that these differences can be related to basic dynamical differences in the flame flow interactions: counter-gradient diffusion occurs when the flow field near the flame is dominated by thermal dilatation due to chemical reaction, whereas gradient diffusion occurs when the flow field near the flame is dominated by the turbulent motions. The DNS-based analysis leads to a simple expression to describe the turbulent flux of c˜, which in turn leads to a simple criterion to delineate between the gradient and counter-gradient turbulent diffusion regimes. This criterion suggests that the occurrence of one regime or the other is determined primarily by the ratio of turbulence intensity divided by the laminar flame speed, u[prime prime or minute]/sL, and by the flame heat release factor, [tau] [identical with] (Tb [minus sign] Tu)/Tu, where Tu and Tb are respectively the temperature within unburnt and burnt gas. Consistent with the Bray Moss Libby theory, counter-gradient (gradient) diffusion is promoted by low (high) values of u[prime prime or minute]/sL and high (low
Effects of buoyancy on lean premixed v-flames. Part 1: Laminar and turbulent flame structures
Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Kostiuk, L.W.
1999-02-01
Laser schlieren and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques have been used to investigate laminar and turbulent v-flames in normal, inverse, and microgravity conditions under flow conditions that span the regimes of momentum domination (Ri < 0.1) and buoyancy domination (Ri > 0.1). Overall flame features shown by schlieren indicate that buoyancy dominates the entire flow field for conditions close to Ri = 1. With decreasing Ri, buoyancy effects are observed only in the far-field regions. Analyses of the mean flame angles demonstrate that laminar and turbulent flames do not have similar responses to buoyancy. Difference in the laminar +g and {minus}g flame angles decrease with Ri (i.e., increasing Re) and converge to the {micro}g flame angle at the momentum limit (Ri = 0). This is consistent with the notion that the effects of buoyancy diminish with increasing flow momentum. The +g and {minus}g turbulent flame angles, however, do not converge at Ri = 0. As shown by OH-PLIF images, the inconsistency in +g and {minus}g turbulent flame angles is associated with the differences in flame wrinkles. Turbulent flame wrinkles evolve more slowly in +g than in {minus}g. The difference in flame wrinkle structures, however, cannot be explained in terms of buoyancy that stretches the turbulent flame brushes in +g and compresses the flame brush in {minus}g. Flame wrinkling offers a mechanism through which the flame responds to the field effects of buoyancy despite increasing flow momentum. These observations point to the need to include both upstream and downstream contributions in theoretical analysis of flame turbulence interactions.
Soot volume fraction in a piloted turbulent jet non-premixed flame of natural gas
Qamar, N.H.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Chan, Q.N.; Nathan, G.J.; Roekaerts, D.
2009-07-15
Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been used to measure soot volume fraction in a well-characterised, piloted, turbulent non-premixed flame known as the ''Delft Flame III''. Simulated Dutch natural gas was used as the fuel to produce a flame closely matching those in which a wide range of previous investigations, both experimental and modelling, have been performed. The LII method was calibrated using a Santoro-style burner with ethylene as the fuel. Instantaneous and time-averaged data of the axial and radial soot volume fraction distributions of the flame are presented here along with the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and intermittency. The PDFs were found to be well-characterised by a single exponential distribution function. The distribution of soot was found to be highly intermittent, with intermittency typically exceeding 97%, which increases measurement uncertainty. The instantaneous values of volume fraction are everywhere less than the values in strained laminar flames. This is consistent with the soot being found locally in strained flame sheets that are convected and distorted by the flow. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Card, J. M.; Chen, J. H.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1994-01-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames modeled with reduced kinetics have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. The simulations include realistic chemical kinetics, and the molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. Consistent with earlier DNS with simple one-step chemistry, the flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and an increase in kinematic viscosity. Unlike previous results, reignition is observed in the present simulations. Lewis number effects are important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame. The results presented in this work are preliminary but demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating reduced kinetics for the oxidation of methane with direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to evaluate the limitations of various levels of reduction in the kinetics and to address the formation of thermal and prompt NO(x).
Quasi-steady stages in the process of premixed flame acceleration in narrow channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valiev, D. M.; Bychkov, V.; Akkerman, V.; Eriksson, L.-E.; Law, C. K.
2013-09-01
The present paper addresses the phenomenon of spontaneous acceleration of a premixed flame front propagating in micro-channels, with subsequent deflagration-to-detonation transition. It has recently been shown experimentally [M. Wu, M. Burke, S. Son, and R. Yetter, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2429 (2007)], 10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.098, computationally [D. Valiev, V. Bychkov, V. Akkerman, and L.-E. Eriksson, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036317 (2009)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036317, and analytically [V. Bychkov, V. Akkerman, D. Valiev, and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. E 81, 026309 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026309 that the flame acceleration undergoes different stages, from an initial exponential regime to quasi-steady fast deflagration with saturated velocity. The present work focuses on the final saturation stages in the process of flame acceleration, when the flame propagates with supersonic velocity with respect to the channel walls. It is shown that an intermediate stage may occur during acceleration with quasi-steady velocity, noticeably below the Chapman-Jouguet deflagration speed. The intermediate stage is followed by additional flame acceleration and subsequent saturation to the Chapman-Jouguet deflagration regime. We elucidate the intermediate stage by the joint effect of gas pre-compression ahead of the flame front and the hydraulic resistance. The additional acceleration is related to viscous heating at the channel walls, being of key importance at the final stages. The possibility of explosion triggering is also demonstrated.
Stability of a premixed flame in stagnation-point flow against general disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Thomas L.; Matalon, Moshe
1992-01-01
Previously, the stability of a premixed flame in a stagnation flow was discussed for a restricted class of disturbances that are self-similar to the basic undisturbed flow; thus, flame fronts with corrugations only in the cross stream direction were considered. Here, we consider a more general class of three-dimensional flame front perturbations which also permits corrugations in the streamwise direction. It is shown that, because of the stretch experienced by the flame, the hydrodynamic instability is limited only to disturbances of short wavelength. If in addition diffusion effects have a stabilizing influence, as would be the case of mixtures with Lewis number greater than one, a stretched flame could be absolutely stable. Instabilities occur when the Lewis number is below some critical value less than one. Neutral stability boundaries are presented in terms of the Lewis number, the strain rate, and the appropriate wavenumbers. Beyond the stability threshold, the two-dimensional self-similar modes always grow first. However, if disturbances of long wavelength are excluded, it is possible for the three-dimensional modes to be the least stable one. Accordingly, the pattern that will be observed on the flame front, at the onset of instability, will consist of either ridges in the direction of stretch or the more common three-dimensional cellular structure.
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M.
2009-03-15
Response of bluff-body stabilized conical turbulent premixed flames was experimentally studied for a range of excitation frequencies (10-400 Hz), mean flow velocities (5, 10 and 15 m/s) and three different spatial mixture distributions (uniform, inner and outer enrichment). Upstream excitation was provided by a loudspeaker producing velocity oscillation amplitudes of about 8% of the mean flow velocity. Flame response was detected by a photomultiplier observing the CH{sup *} emission from the flame. The studied turbulent flames exhibited transfer function characteristics of a low-pass filter with a cutoff Strouhal number between 0.08 and 0.12. The amplification factors at low frequencies ranged from 2 to 20 and generally increased for mean flow velocities from 5 to 15 m/s. The highest levels of amplification were found for the outer mixture enrichment followed in decreasing order by uniform and inner mixture gradient cases. The high levels of flame response for the outer enrichment case were attributed to the enhanced flame-vortex interaction in outer jet shear layer. At high excitation levels (u{sup '}/U{sub m}{approx}0.3) for U{sub m}=5 m/ s where non-linear flame response is expected, the flame exhibited a reduced amplitude response in the frequency range between 40 and 100 Hz for the uniform and outer equivalence ratio gradient cases and no discernible effect for the inner equivalence ratio gradient. In all cases, transfer function phase was found to vary linearly with excitation frequency. Finally, a relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the bluff-body wake transfer function and flame blowoff equivalence ratio was presented. (author)
Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.
The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.
Structure and dynamics of premixed flames in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, Gopal
1993-01-01
In this report we describe the research performed at the Naval Research Laboratory in support of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program over the past three years with emphasis on the work performed since February 1992, the beginning of the current project. The focus of our research has been on investigating fundamental combustion questions concerning the propagation and extinction of gas-phase flames in microgravity and earth-gravity environments. Our approach to resolving these fundamental questions has been to use detailed time-dependent, multidimensional numerical models to perform carefully designed computational experiments. The basic questions we have addressed, a general description of the numerical approach, and a summary of the results are described in this report. More detailed discussions are available in the papers published which are referenced herein.
Large eddy simulation of soot formation in a turbulent non-premixed jet flame
El-Asrag, Hossam; Menon, Suresh
2009-02-15
A recently developed subgrid model for soot dynamics [H. El-Asrag, T. Lu, C.K. Law, S. Menon, Combust. Flame 150 (2007) 108-126] is used to study the soot formation in a non-premixed turbulent flame. The model allows coupling between reaction, diffusion and soot (including soot diffusion and thermophoretic forces) processes in the subgrid domain without requiring ad hoc filtering or model parameter adjustments. The combined model includes the entire process, from the initial phase, when the soot nucleus diameter is much smaller than the mean free path, to the final phase, after coagulation and aggregation, where it can be considered in the continuum regime. A relatively detailed but reduced kinetics for ethylene-air is used to simulate an experimentally studied non-premixed ethylene/air jet diffusion flame. Acetylene is used as a soot precursor species. The soot volume fraction order of magnitude, the location of its maxima, and the soot particle size distribution are all captured reasonably. Along the centerline, an initial region dominated by nucleation and surface growth is established followed by an oxidation region. The diffusion effect is found to be most important in the nucleation regime, while the thermophoretic forces become more influential downstream of the potential core in the oxidation zone. The particle size distribution shows a log-normal distribution in the nucleation region, and a more Gaussian like distribution further downstream. Limitations of the current approach and possible solution strategies are also discussed. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietzsch, Felix; Gauding, Michael; Hasse, Christian
2014-11-01
By means of Direct Numerical Simulation we have investigated the influence of differential diffusion for non-premixed oxygen-enhanced turbulent flames. Oxygen-enhanced conversion usually yields higher amounts of H2 as compared to conventional air combustion. It is well known that H2 as a very diffusive species leads to differential diffusion effects. In addition to the diffusive transport mixing processes are also often controlled by turbulent transport. Previous investigations of a turbulent CH4/H2 oxygen-enhanced jet flame have shown that in mixture fraction space it is important to distinguish between regions of equal diffusivities and detailed transport. These findings are of particular interest when performing Large-Eddy simulations applying a flamelet approach. Using this approach a LES study was performed of the aforementioned flame considering differential diffusion. Therefore, flamelet equations including differential diffusion via non-unity constant Lewis numbers were solved. However, this study showed that keeping the non-unity Lewis numbers constant, is not sufficient to capture the diffusion phenomena in this particular flame. Direct Numerical Simulations have been conducted in order to investigate how Lewis numbers are affected in mixture fraction space. Computer resources for this project have been provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing/Leibniz Supercomputing Centre under Grant: pr83xa.
Study and modeling of finite rate chemistry effects in turbulent non-premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vervisch, Luc
1993-01-01
The development of numerical models that reflect some of the most important features of turbulent reacting flows requires information about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between turbulent and chemical processes is so strong that it is extremely difficult to isolate the role played by one individual physical phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (hereafter DNS) allows us to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interaction in some restricted but completely defined situations. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting regimes: the fast chemistry case, where the turbulent flame can be pictured as a random distribution of local chemical equilibrium problems; and the slow chemistry case, where the chemistry integrates in time the turbulent fluctuations. The Damkoehler number, ratio of a mechanical time scale to chemical time scale, is used to distinguish between these regimes. Today most of the industrial computer codes are able to perform predictions in the hypothesis of local equilibrium chemistry using a presumed shape for the probability density function (pdt) of the conserved scalar. However, the finite rate chemistry situation is of great interest because industrial burners usually generate regimes in which, at some points, the flame is undergoing local extinction or at least non-equilibrium situations. Moreover, this variety of situations strongly influences the production of pollutants. To quantify finite rate chemistry effect, the interaction between a non-premixed flame and a free decaying turbulence is studied using DNS. The attention is focused on the dynamic of extinction, and an attempt is made to quantify the effect of the reaction on the small scale mixing process. The unequal diffusivity effect is also addressed. Finally, a simple turbulent combustion model based on the DNS observations and tractable in real flow configurations is proposed.
Combustion oscillation monitoring using flame ionization in a turbulent premixed combustor
Chorpening, B.T.; Thornton, J.D.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.
2007-04-01
To achieve very low NOx emission levels, lean-premixed gas turbine combustors have been commercially implemented that operate near the fuel-lean flame extinction limit. Near the lean limit, however, flashback, lean blow off, and combustion dynamics have appeared as problems during operation. To help address these operational problems, a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) for gas turbine combustors is being developed. CCADS uses the electrical properties of the flame to detect key events and monitor critical operating parameters within the combustor. Previous development efforts have shown the capability of CCADS to monitor flashback and equivalence ratio. Recent work has focused on detecting and measuring combustion instabilities. A highly instrumented atmospheric combustor has been used to measure the pressure oscillations in the combustor, the OH emission, and the flame ion field at the premix injector outlet and along the walls of the combustor. This instrumentation allows examination of the downstream extent of the combustion field using both the OH emission and the corresponding electron and ion distribution near the walls of the combustor. In most cases, the strongest pressure oscillation dominates the frequency behavior of the OH emission and the flame ion signals. Using this highly instrumented combustor, tests were run over a matrix of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 0.8, with an inlet reference velocity of 25 m/s 82 ft/ s . The acoustics of the fuel system for the combustor were tuned using an active-passive technique with an adjustable quarter-wave resonator. Although several statistics were investigated for correlation with the dynamic pressure in the combustor, the best correlation was found with the standard deviation of the guard current. The data show a monotonic relationship between the standard deviation of the guard current (the current through the flame at the premix injector outlet) and the standard deviation of the chamber
Panoutsos, C.S.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A.M.K.P.
2009-02-15
This work presents results from detailed chemical kinetics calculations of electronically excited OH (A{sup 2}{sigma}, denoted as OH{sup *}) and CH (A{sup 2}{delta}, denoted as CH{sup *}) chemiluminescent species in laminar premixed and non-premixed counterflow methane-air flames, at atmospheric pressure. Eight different detailed chemistry mechanisms, with added elementary reactions that account for the formation and destruction of the chemiluminescent species OH{sup *} and CH{sup *}, are studied. The effects of flow strain rate and equivalence ratio on the chemiluminescent intensities of OH{sup *}, CH{sup *} and their ratio are studied and the results are compared to chemiluminescent intensity ratio measurements from premixed laminar counterflow natural gas-air flames. This is done in order to numerically evaluate the measurement of equivalence ratio using OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence, an experimental practise that is used in the literature. The calculations reproduced the experimental observation that there is no effect of strain rate on the chemiluminescent intensity ratio of OH{sup *} to CH{sup *}, and that the ratio is a monotonic function of equivalence ratio. In contrast, the strain rate was found to have an effect on both the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} intensities, in agreement with experiment. The calculated OH{sup *}/CH{sup *} values showed that only five out of the eight mechanisms studied were within the same order of magnitude with the experimental data. A new mechanism, proposed in this work, gave results that agreed with experiment within 30%. It was found that the location of maximum emitted intensity from the excited species OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} was displaced by less than 65 and 115 {mu}m, respectively, away from the maximum of the heat release rate, in agreement with experiments, which is small relative to the spatial resolution of experimental methods applied to combustion applications, and, therefore, it is expected that intensity
Effect of a uniform electric field on soot in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames
Wang, Y.; Yao, Q.; Nathan, G.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Ho, K.
2010-07-15
The effect of a nominally uniform electric field on the initially uniform distribution of soot has been assessed for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames from a McKenna burner. An electrophoretic influence on charged soot particles was measured through changes to the deposition rate of soot on the McKenna plug, using laser extinction (LE). Soot volume fraction was measured in situ using laser-induced incandescence (LII). Particle size and morphologies were assessed through ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostics (TSPD). The results show that the majority of these soot particles are positively charged. The presence of a negatively charged plug was found to decrease the particle residence times in the flame and to influence the formation and oxidation progress. A positively charged plug has the opposite effect. The effect on soot volume fraction, particles size and morphology with electric field strength is also reported. Flame stability was also found to be affected by the presence of the electric field, with the balance of the electrophoretic force and drag force controlling the transition to unstable flame flicker. The presence of charged species generated by the flame was found to reduce the dielectric field strength to one seventh that of air. (author)
Structure of the Soot Growth Region of Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames. Appendix I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The structure of the soot growth region of laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames (fuel-equivalence ratios of 1.60-2.77) was studied both experimentally and computationally. Measurements were carried out in flames stabilized on a flat flame burner operated at standard temperature and pressure, and included velocities by laser velocimetry, soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and hydrogen atom concentrations by the Li/LiOH technique in conjunction with atomic absorption to find the proportion of free lithium in the flames. The measured concentrations of major gas species were in reasonably good agreement with predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Leung and Lindstedt, and Frenklach and coworkers. The measurements also confirmed predictions of both these mechanisms that H-atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot growth region even through the concentrations of major gas species are not. Thus, present findings support recent evaluations of the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanism in similar flames, where the approximation that H-atom concentrations were in local thermodynamic equilibrium was adopted, based on predictions using the two mechanisms, due to the absence of direct H-atom concentration measurements.
Structure of the Soot Growth Region of Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames. Appendix G
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The structure of the soot growth region of laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames (fuel-equivalence ratios of 1.60-2.77) was studied both experimentally and computationally. Measurements were carried out in flames stabilized on a flat flame burner operated at standard temperature and pressure, and included velocities by laser velocimetry, soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and hydrogen atom concentrations by the Li/LiOH technique in conjunction with atomic absorption to find the proportion of free lithium in the flames. The measured concentrations of major gas species were in reasonably good agreement with predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Leung and Lindstedt, and Frenklach and coworkers. The measurements also confirmed predictions of both these mechanisms that H-atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot growth region even through the concentrations of major gas species are not. Thus, present findings support recent evaluations of the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanism in similar flames, where the approximation that H-atom concentrations were in local thermodynamic equilibrium was adopted, based on predictions using the two mechanisms, due to the absence of direct H-atom concentration measurements.
Structure of Soot Growth Region of Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames. Appendix B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The structure of the soot growth region of laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames (fuel-equivalence ratios of 1.60 - 2.77) was studied both experimentally and computationally. Measurements were carried out in flames stabilized on a flat flame burner operated at standard temperature and pressure, and included velocities by laser velocimetry, soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and hydrogen atom concentrations by the Li/LiOH technique in conjunction with atomic absorption to find the proportion of free lithium in the flames. The measured concentrations of major gas species were in reasonably good agreement with predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Leung and Lindstedt, and Frenklach and coworkers. The measurements also confirmed predictions of both these mechanisms that H-atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot growth region even through the concentrations of major gas species are not. Thus, present findings support recent evaluations of the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanism in similar flames, where the approximation that H-atom concentrations were in local thermodynamic equilibrium was adopted, based on predictions using the two mechanisms, due to the absence of direct H-atom concentration measurements.
Turbulent non - premixed flames driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshochi, Hilda; Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen
2015-11-01
We report on Direct Numerical Simulations of shock-induced mixing between fuel (H2) and Oxidizer (O2) streams separated by a sharp interface and driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The resulting non-premixed flame is dominated by vigorous mixing that is a consequence of deposition of baroclinic vorticity at the interface. Such RMI-driven flames, when properly controlled, could play a decisive role in improving the performance of supersonic combustors such as scramjets. While the majority of past research efforts in this area have focused on the shock-bubble flame interaction, our configuration is fundamentally different and involves a planar shock interacting with a planar interface. This allows for the placement of well-defined, precisely controlled initial perturbations on the planar surface. Furthermore, the interface is statistically homogenous in all directions perpendicular to shock traverse, thus rendering the problem amenable to reduced-order 1D modeling of planar-averaged quantities. From detailed, high-resolution DNS, we describe flow and flame characteristics of a repeatedly reshocked turbulent RMI flame. We observe that with each reshock event, fresh deposition of vorticity on the already nonlinear interface greatly enhances mixing and combustion.
Analysis of the electric currents in 1D premixed flames under applied voltages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Casey, Tiernan; Im, Hong G.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan
2015-11-01
Studying electric currents in flames has practical aspects such as the determination of the ionic structure of a flame, the analysis of the flame behavior under an electric field and the use of flame electric properties for combustion diagnostics. This study proposes a simplified model to compute the electric currents in lean-to-stoichiometric 1D premixed flames under applied voltages. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with transport equations for neutral and charged species along with a Poisson equation for the electric potential are solved. The model reproduces qualitatively the voltage-current characteristic found experimentally. The sensitivity of the electric currents to the applied voltage, equivalence ratio, and pressure is studied and the key parameters affecting the saturation current are determined. Results show that the saturation current is controlled by the amount of charged species created by the chemi-ionization reaction. We found that the recombination rate of electrons with cations and transport coefficients of charged species are the most important parameters affecting the voltage at witch saturation occurs. Analytical formulas for the voltage-current characteristic and the potential of saturation are developed and used to explain the obtained results.
Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.
1996-02-01
Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.
Premixed Atmosphere and Convection Influences on Flame Inhibition and Combustion (Pacific)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Honda, Linton K.; Ronney, Paul D.
1997-01-01
Flame spread over flat solid fuel beds is a useful paradigm for studying the behavior of more complex two-phase nonpremixed flames. For practical applications, two of the most important elements of flame spreading are the effects of (1) the ambient atmosphere (e.g. pressure and composition) and (2) the flow environment on the spread rate and extinction conditions. Concerning (1), studies of flame spread in vitiated air and non-standard atmospheres such as those found in undersea vessels and spacecraft are particularly important for the assessment of fire hazards in these environments as well as determination of the effectiveness of fire suppressants. Concerning (2), the flow environment may vary widely even when no forced flow is present because of buoyancy effects. Consequently, the goal of this work is to employ microgravity (micro g) experiments to extend previous studies of the effects of ambient atmosphere and the flow environment on flame spread through the use of microgravity (micro g) experiments. Because of the considerable differences between upward (concurrent-flow) and downward (opposed-flow) flame spread at 1g (Williams, 1976, Fernandez-Pello, 1984), in this work both upward and downward 1g spread are tested. Two types of changes to the oxidizing atmosphere are considered in this work. One is the addition of sub-flammability-limit concentrations of a gaseous fuel ('partially premixed' atmospheres). This is of interest because in fires in enclosures, combustion may occur under poorly ventilated conditions, so that oxygen is partially depleted from the air and is replaced by combustible gases such as fuel vapors, H2 or CO. Subsequent fire spread over the solid fuel could occur under conditions of varying oxygen and gaseous fuel content. The potential significance of flame spread under vitiated or partially premixed conditions has been noted previously (Beyler, 1984). The second change is the diluent type, which affects the radiative properties of the
A direct numerical simulation study of vorticity transformation in weakly turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipatnikov, A. N.; Nishiki, S.; Hasegawa, T.
2014-10-01
Database obtained earlier in 3D Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of statistically stationary, 1D, planar turbulent flames characterized by three different density ratios σ is processed in order to investigate vorticity transformation in premixed combustion under conditions of moderately weak turbulence (rms turbulent velocity and laminar flame speed are roughly equal to one another). In cases H and M characterized by σ = 7.53 and 5.0, respectively, anisotropic generation of vorticity within the flame brush is reported. In order to study physical mechanisms that control this phenomenon, various terms in vorticity and enstrophy balance equations are analyzed, with both mean terms and terms conditioned on a particular value c of the combustion progress variable being addressed. Results indicate an important role played by baroclinic torque and dilatation in transformation of average vorticity and enstrophy within both flamelets and flame brush. Besides these widely recognized physical mechanisms, two other effects are documented. First, viscous stresses redistribute enstrophy within flamelets, but play a minor role in the balance of the mean enstrophy overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. Second, negative correlation overline{mathbf {u}^' } \\cdot nabla Ω ^' }} between fluctuations in velocity u and enstrophy gradient contributes substantially to an increase in the mean overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. This negative correlation is mainly controlled by the positive correlation between fluctuations in the enstrophy and dilatation and, therefore, dilatation fluctuations substantially reduce the damping effect of the mean dilatation on the vorticity and enstrophy fields. In case L characterized by σ = 2.5, these effects are weakly pronounced and overline{Ω } is reduced mainly due to viscosity. Under conditions of the present DNS, vortex stretching plays a minor role in the balance of vorticity and enstrophy within turbulent flame brush in all three
Relevance of the Bray number in the small-scale modeling of turbulent premixed flames
Mura, Arnaud; Champion, Michel
2009-03-15
The present study is devoted to the analysis of the influence of expansion phenomena on turbulent small scales in premixed reactive flows. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the expansion that takes place across wrinkled laminar flamelet can be sufficient to control the fluctuating velocity gradients and associated dissipation rate functions. These conditions are fixed by the respective values of a set of nondimensional parameters, namely the turbulence Reynolds number Re{sub T}, the Bray number, and the ratio between integral length scale of turbulence and thermal flame front thickness. A new criterion is introduced that makes it possible to delineate the influence of expansion phenomena on small-scale turbulent premixed reactive flows. The relevance of this criterion is analyzed in the light of experimental results represented in the classical diagram of combustion regime. The present analysis confirms that special care is required to represent and include the influence of expansion phenomena when using either RANS or LES closures to model turbulent premixed combustion. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Stewart V.; Xu, Kunning G.
2016-04-01
The effect of the ionic wind on a premixed methane-air flame under a DC electric field is studied via mapping of the ion density with Langmuir probes. Ion densities were observed to increase near the burner with increasing electrode voltage up to 6 kV. Past this electrode supply voltage, ion densities ceased increasing and began to decline in some locations within the premixed flame. The increased ion density is caused by an increase in ionic wind force and cathode sheath thickness. The plateau in density is due to the cathode sheath fully encompassing the flame front which is the ion source, thereby collecting all ions in the flame. The spatial density data support the ionic wind hypothesis and provide further explanation of its limits based on the plasma sheath.