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Sample records for 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase

  1. Selectivity of substrate binding and ionization of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Luanloet, Thikumporn; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2015-08-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (EC 1.14.12.4) from Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a hydroxylation and aromatic ring cleavage reaction. The functional roles of two residues, Tyr223 and Tyr82, located ~ 5 Å away from MHPC, were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis, along with ligand binding, product analysis and transient kinetic experiments. Mutation of Tyr223 resulted in enzyme variants that were impaired in their hydroxylation activity and had Kd values for substrate binding 5-10-fold greater than the wild-type enzyme. Because this residue is adjacent to the water molecule that is located next to the 3-hydroxy group of MHPC, the results indicate that the interaction between Tyr223, H2 O and the 3-hydroxyl group of MHPC are important for substrate binding and hydroxylation. By contrast, the Kd for substrate binding of Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. However, only ~ 40-50% of the substrate was hydroxylated in the reactions of both variants, whereas most of the substrate was hydroxylated in the wild-type enzyme reaction. In free solution, MHPC or 5-hydroxynicotinic acid exists in a mixture of monoanionic and tripolar ionic forms, whereas only the tripolar ionic form binds to the wild-type enzyme. The binding of tripolar ionic MHPC would allow efficient hydroxylation through an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. For the Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants, both forms of substrates can bind to the enzymes, indicating that the mutation at Tyr82 abolished the selectivity of the enzyme towards the tripolar ionic form. Transient kinetic studies indicated that the hydroxylation rate constants of both Tyr82 variants are approximately two- to 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our findings suggest that Tyr82 is important for the binding selectivity of MHPC oxygenase towards the tripolar ionic species, whereas the

  2. Structure of the PLP Degradative Enzyme 2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic Acid Oxygenase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and Its Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.; Cornell

    2009-06-12

    A vitamin B{sub 6} degradative pathway has recently been identified and characterized in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099. One of the enzymes on this pathway, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase (MHPCO), is a flavin-dependent enzyme and catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid to form E-2-(acetamino-methylene)succinate. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned, and the corresponding protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The crystal structure of MHPCO has been solved to 2.1 {angstrom} using SAD phasing with and without the substrate MHPC bound. These crystal structures provide insight into the reaction mechanism and suggest roles for active site residues in the catalysis of a novel oxidative ring-opening reaction.

  3. Use of 8-substituted-FAD analogues to investigate the hydroxylation mechanism of the flavoprotein 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chaiyen, Pimchai; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Svasti, Jisnuson; Entsch, Barrie; Massey, Vincent; Ballou, David P

    2004-04-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (MHPCO) is a flavoprotein that catalyzes the oxygenation of MHPC to form alpha-(N-acetylaminomethylene)-succinic acid. Although formally similar to the oxygenation reactions catalyzed by phenol hydroxylases, MHPCO catalyzes the oxygenation of a pyridyl derivative rather than a simple phenol. Therefore, in this study, the mechanism of the reaction was investigated by replacing the natural cofactor FAD with FAD analogues having various substituents (-Cl, -CN, -NH(2), -OCH(3)) at the C8-position of the isoalloxazine. Thermodynamic and catalytic properties of the reconstituted enzyme were investigated and found to be similar to those of the native enzyme, validating that these FAD analogues are reasonable to be used as mechanistic probes. Dissociation constants for the binding of MHPC or the substrate analogue 5-hydroxynicotinate (5HN) to the reconstituted enzymes indicate that the reconstituted enzymes bind well with ligands. Redox potential values of the reconstituted enzymes were measured and found to be more positive than the values of free FAD analogues, which correlated well with the electronic effects of the 8-substituents. Studies of the reductive half-reaction of MHPCO have shown that the rates of flavin reduction by NADH could be described as a parabolic relationship with the redox potential values of the reconstituted enzymes, which is consistent with the Marcus electron transfer theory. Studies of the oxidative half-reaction of MHPCO revealed that the rate of hydroxylation depended upon the different analogues employed. The rate constants for the hydroxylation step correlated with the calculated pK(a) values of the 8-substituted C(4a)-hydroxyflavin intermediates, which are the leaving groups in the oxygen transfer step. It was observed that the rates of hydroxylation were greater when the pK(a) values of C(4a)-hydroxyflavins were lower. Although these results are not as dramatic as those from

  4. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  5. Alkylamine-Dependent Amino-Acid Oxidation by Lysine Monooxygenase—Fragmented Substrate of Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shozo; Yamauchi, Takashi; Hayaishi, Osamu

    1972-01-01

    Lysine monooxygenase catalyzes the oxygenative decarboxylation of L-lysine and produces a corresponding acid amide. L-Alanine was inactive as substrate. However, when propylamine was present, oxidation, but not oxygenation, of alanine was demonstrated with the oxygenase. Alanine was converted to pyruvate, with the liberation of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, but propylamine remained unchanged. Other α-monoamino acids were also oxidized in the presence of alkylamines with various carbon chain lengths. The highest oxidase activity was observed when the total chain length of both amino acid and amine was nearly identical with that of lysine. Available evidence indicates that the amine-dependent amino-acid oxidase activity is associated with the lysine oxygenase activity. PMID:4509334

  6. Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Shulaev, V.; Yalpani, N.

    1995-10-24

    Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicyclic acid with {sup 18}O{sub 2} suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco mosaic virus inoculation of benzoic acid infiltration of tobacco leaves and it was inhibited by CO and other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. The BA2H activity was immunodepleted by antibodies raised against SU2, a soluble cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseolus. The anti-SU2 antibodies immunoprecipitated a radiolabeled polypeptide of around 160 kDa from the soluble protein extracts of L-[{sup 35}S]-methionine-fed tobacco leaves. Purified BA2H showed CO-difference spectra with a maximum at 457 nm. These data suggest that BA2H belongs to a novel class of soluble, high molecular weight cytochrome P450 enzymes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C. . E-mail: beckeja@uni-muenster.de; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  8. Substrate diversity and expression of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid oxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100.

    PubMed Central

    Danganan, C E; Shankar, S; Ye, R W; Chakrabarty, A M

    1995-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 uses the chlorinated aromatic compound 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. The genes encoding the proteins involved in the first step (tftA and tftB [previously designated tftA1 and tftA2, respectively]) have been cloned and sequenced. The oxygenase, TftAB, is capable of converting not only 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol but also a wide range of chlorinated aromatic phenoxyacetates to their corresponding phenolic derivatives, as shown by whole-cell and cell-free assays. The rate of substrate utilization by TftAB depends upon the extent of chlorination of the substrate, the positions of the chlorines, and the phenoxy group. These results indicate a mechanistic similarity between TftAB and the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, TfdA, from Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. The promoter of the oxygenase genes was localized by promoter-probe analysis, and the transcriptional start site was identified by primer extension. The beta-galactosidase activity of the construct containing the promoter region cloned upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene in the promoter-probe vector pKRZ-1 showed that this construct is constitutively expressed in Escherichia coli and in AC1100. The -35 and -10 regions of the oxygenase genes show significant sequence identity to typical Escherichia coli sigma 70 promoters. PMID:8534119

  9. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Marek M.; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Buhrow, Leann M.; Nelson, Ken M.; Switala, Jacek; Cutler, Adrian J.; Palmer, David R. J.; Loewen, Peter C.; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+)-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+)-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate. Functionally, (+)-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM), but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM). Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+)-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+)-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+)-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation. PMID:26197050

  10. His-311 and Arg-559 are key residues involved in fatty acid oxygenation in pathogen-inducible oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Krol, Adam C; Simmons, Danielle M; Goulah, Christopher C; Wroblewski, Liliana; Malkowski, Michael G

    2008-09-01

    Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) oxygenates fatty acids into 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX belongs to the fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase family, which exhibits homology to cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Although these enzymes share common catalytic features, including the use of a tyrosine radical during catalysis, little is known about other residues involved in the dioxygenase reaction of PIOX. We generated a model of linoleic acid (LA) bound to PIOX based on computational sequence alignment and secondary structure predictions with COX-1 and experimental observations that governed the placement of carbon-2 of LA below the catalytic Tyr-379. Examination of the model identified His-311, Arg-558, and Arg-559 as potential molecular determinants of the dioxygenase reaction. Substitutions at His-311 and Arg-559 resulted in mutant constructs that retained virtually no oxygenase activity, whereas substitutions of Arg-558 caused only moderate decreases in activity. Arg-559 mutant constructs exhibited increases of greater than 140-fold in Km, whereas no substantial change in Km was observed for His-311 or Arg-558 mutant constructs. Thermal shift assays used to measure ligand binding affinity show that the binding of LA is significantly reduced in a Y379F/R559A mutant construct compared with that observed for Y379F/R558A construct. Although Oryza sativa PIOX exhibited oxygenase activity against a variety of 14-20-carbon fatty acids, the enzyme did not oxygenate substrates containing modifications at the carboxylate, carbon-1, or carbon-2. Taken together, these data suggest that Arg-559 is required for high affinity binding of substrates to PIOX, whereas His-311 is involved in optimally aligning carbon-2 below Tyr-379 for catalysis. PMID:18596034

  11. Ascorbic acid partly antagonizes resveratrol mediated heme oxygenase-1 but not paraoxonase-1 induction in cultured hepatocytes - role of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both resveratrol and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are frequently used in complementary and alternative medicine. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for potential health benefits of resveratrol and its interactions with ascorbic acid. Methods The antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 were analysed for their mRNA and protein levels in HUH7 liver cells treated with 10 and 25 μmol/l resveratrol in the absence and presence of 100 and 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Additionally the transactivation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and paraoxonase-1 were determined by reporter gene assays. Results Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 in cultured hepatocytes. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by resveratrol was accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 transactivation. Resveratrol mediated Nrf2 transactivation as well as heme oxygenase-1 induction were partly antagonized by 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Conclusions Unlike heme oxygenase-1 (which is highly regulated by Nrf2) paraoxonase-1 (which exhibits fewer ARE/Nrf2 binding sites in its promoter) induction by resveratrol was not counteracted by ascorbic acid. Addition of resveratrol to the cell culture medium produced relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide which may be a positive hormetic redox-signal for Nrf2 dependent gene expression thereby driving heme oxygenase-1 induction. However, high concentrations of ascorbic acid manifold increased hydrogen peroxide production in the cell culture medium which may be a stress signal thereby disrupting the Nrf2 signalling pathway. PMID:21199573

  12. REGULATION OF RAT HEPATIC DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE AND HEME OXYGENASE ACTIVITIES: EVIDENCE FOR CONTROL BY HEME AND AGAINST MEDIATION BY PROSTHETIC IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of in vivo administration of 6 compounds on the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and heme oxygenase were determined. The order of decreasing potency in reducing ALA synthetase activity was heme, bilirubin, protoporphyrin IX, bilirubin dimethyl es...

  13. Bryonolic Acid: A Large-Scale Isolation and Evaluation of Heme Oxygenase 1 Expression in Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Emily C.; Gatbonton-Schwager, Tonibelle N.; Han, Yong; Clay, Jennifer E.; Letterio, John J.; Tochtrop, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Bryonolic acid (BA) is a triterpenoid found in the Cucurbitaceae family of plants. Our interests in the immunomodulatory effects of this class of natural products led us to discover that BA induces a marked increase in the expression of a phase 2 response enzyme, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in a dose dependent manner. This phenotype has translational implications in malarial disease progression, and consequently we developed a large scale isolation method for BA that will be enabling in terms of future in vitro and in vivo analysis. We have determined ideal growth conditions and time scale for maximizing BA content in the roots of Cucurbita pepo L., and analyzed BA production by HPLC. Large-scale extraction yielded 1.34% BA based on dry weight, allowing for the isolation of BA on a multi-gram scale. PMID:20481554

  14. ACTIVATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND HEME OXYGENASE-1 EXPRESSION BY ELECTROPHILIC NITRO-FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Rudolph, Volker; Cole, Marsha P.; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Batthyany, Carlos; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species mediate a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, with secondary oxidized and nitrated byproducts of these reactions contributing to the pathogenesis of numerous vascular diseases. While oxidized lipids and lipoproteins exacerbate inflammatory reactions in the vasculature, in stark contrast the nitration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex lipids yield electrophilic products that exhibit pluripotent anti-inflammatory signaling capabilities acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Herein we report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) treatment increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the vasculature, thus transducing vascular protective effects associated with enhanced NO production. Administration of OA-NO2 via osmotic pump results in a significant increase in eNOS and HO-1 mRNA in mouse aortas. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that NO2-FAs are rapidly metabolized in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and treatment with NO2-FAs stimulated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179. These post-translational modifications of eNOS, in concert with elevated eNOS gene expression, contributed to an increase in endothelial NO production. In aggregate, OA-NO2-induced eNOS and HO-1 expression by vascular cells can induce beneficial effects on endothelial function and provide a new strategy for treating various vascular inflammatory and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19857569

  15. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells from menadione cytotoxicity by caffeic acid phenethyl ester: the role of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Stavchansky, Salomon; Zhao, Baiteng; Bynum, James A; Kerwin, Sean M; Bowman, Phillip D

    2008-09-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from various plant sources, has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo, and this has been attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress. Here we investigated the cytoprotection of CAPE against menadione-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to evaluate potential gene expression involvement. CAPE exhibited dose-dependent cytoprotection of HUVEC. A gene screen with microarrays was performed to identify the potential cytoprotective gene(s) induced by CAPE. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was highly upregulated by CAPE and this was confirmed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Inhibition of HO-1 activity using the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), resulted in loss of cytoprotection. Carbon monoxide, one of HO-1 catabolic products appeared to play a small role in CAPE protection. Caffeic acid, a potential metabolite of CAPE with similar free radical scavenging ability, however, didn't show any cytoprotective effect nor induce HO-1. These findings suggest an important role of HO-1 induction in CAPE cytoprotection against oxidant stress, which may not relate to CAPE structural antioxidant activity nor to its traditional enzymatic activity in decomposing heme but to a yet to be determined activity. PMID:18573251

  16. Rupestonic acid derivative YZH-106 suppresses influenza virus replication by activation of heme oxygenase-1-mediated interferon response.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Wu, Ping; Hu, Jin; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Wu, Shuo; Ge, Miao; Sun, Wen-Fang; Zhao, Jiang-Yu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Li, Yu-Huan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Given the limitation of available antiviral drugs and vaccines, there remains to be a pressing need for novel anti-influenza drugs. Rupestonic acid derivatives were reported to have an anti-influenza virus activity, but their mechanism remains to be elucidated. Herein, we aim to evaluate the antiviral activity of YZH-106, a rupestonic acid derivative, against a broad-spectrum of influenza viruses and to dissect its antiviral mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that YZH-106 exhibited a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against influenza viruses, including drug-resistant strains in vitro. Furthermore, YZH-106 provided partial protection of the mice to Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, as judged by decreased viral load in lungs, improved lung pathology, reduced body weight loss and partial survival benefits. Mechanistically, YZH-106 induced p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which led to the activation of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in addition to other genes. HO-1 inhibited IAV replication by activation of type I IFN expression and subsequent induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), possibly in a HO-1 enzymatic activity-independent manner. These results suggest that YZH-106 inhibits IAV by up-regulating HO-1-mediated IFN response. HO-1 is thus a promising host target for antiviral therapeutics against influenza and other viral infectious diseases. PMID:27107768

  17. Ammonia-induced oxidative damage in neurons is prevented by resveratrol and lipoic acid with participation of heme oxygenase 1.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Flores, Marianne Pires; Leite, Marina Concli; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia is a metabolite that, at high concentrations, is implicated in neurological disorders, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which is associated with acute or chronic liver failure. Astrocytes are considered the primary target of ammonia toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) because glutamine synthetase (GS), responsible for ammonia metabolism in CNS, is an astrocytic enzyme. Thus, neuronal dysfunction has been associated as secondary to astrocytic impairment. However, we demonstrated that ammonia can induce direct effects on neuronal cells. The cell viability was decreased by ammonia in SH-SY5Y cells and cerebellar granule neurons. In addition, ammonia induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased GSH intracellular content, the main antioxidant in CNS. As ammonia neurotoxicity is strongly associated with oxidative stress, we also investigated the potential neuroprotective roles of the antioxidants, resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA), against ammonia toxicity in cerebellar granule neurons. RSV and LA were able to prevent the oxidative damage induced by ammonia, maintaining the levels of ROS production and GSH close to basal values. Both antioxidants also decreased ROS production and increased GSH content under basal conditions (in the absence of ammonia). Moreover, we showed that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), a protein associated with protection against stress conditions, is involved in the beneficial effects of RSV and LA in cerebellar granule neurons. Thus, this study reinforces the neuroprotective effects of RSV and LA. Although more studies in vivo are required, RSV and LA could represent interesting therapeutic strategies for the management of HE. PMID:26003724

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against ischemic injury by activating Nrf2 and upregulating heme oxygenase 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Suping; Mao, Leilei; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Sun, Baoliang; Cao, Guodong; Gao, Yanqin; Xu, Yun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-29

    Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate ischemic neuronal injury by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in both in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that pretreatment of rat primary neurons with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly reduced neuronal death following oxygen-glucose deprivation. This protection was associated with increased Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the protective effects of DHA. Further studies showed that 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs, was a more potent Nrf2 inducer than 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal derived from n-6 PUFAs. In an in vivo setting, transgenic mice overexpressing fatty acid metabolism-1, an enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, were remarkably resistant to focal cerebral ischemia compared with their wild-type littermates. Regular mice fed with a fish oil-enhanced diet also demonstrated significant resistance to ischemia compared with mice fed with a regular diet. As expected, the protection was associated with HO-1 upregulation, Nrf2 activation, and 4-HHE generation. Together, our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs are highly effective in protecting the brain, and that the protective mechanisms involve Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation by 4-HHE. Further investigation of n-3 PUFA neuroprotective mechanisms may accelerate the development of stroke therapies. PMID:24478369

  19. Applications of Stereospecifically-labeled Fatty Acids in Oxygenase and Desaturase Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Brash, Alan R.; Schneider, Claus; Hamberg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenation and desaturation reactions are inherently associated with the abstraction of a hydrogen from the fatty acid substrate. Since the first published application in 1965, stereospecific placement of a labeled hydrogen isotope (deuterium or tritium) at the reacting carbons has proven a highly effective strategy for investigating the chemical mechanisms catalyzed by lipoxygenases, hemoprotein fatty acid dioxygenases including cyclooxygenases, cytochromes P450, and also the desaturases and isomerases. This review presents a synopsis of all published studies through 2010 on the synthesis and use of stereospecifically labeled fatty acids (70 references), and highlights some of the mechanistic insights gained by application of stereospecifically labeled fatty acids. PMID:21971646

  20. Oxygenation by COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) of 3-HETE (3-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), a fungal mimetic of arachidonic acid, produces a cascade of novel bioactive 3-hydroxyeicosanoids

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Cyclo-oxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) catalyse the oxygenation of AA (arachidonic acid) and related polyunsaturated fatty acids to endoperoxide precursors of prostanoids. COX-1 is referred to as a constitutive enzyme involved in haemostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The fungus Dipodascopsis uninucleata has been shown by us to convert exogenous AA into 3(R)-HETE [3(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid]. 3R-HETE is stereochemically identical with AA, except that a hydroxy group is attached at its C-3 position. Molecular modelling studies with 3-HETE and COX-1/2 revealed a similar enzyme–substrate structure as reported for AA and COX-1/2. Here, we report that 3-HETE is an appropriate substrate for COX-1 and -2, albeit with a lower activity of oxygenation than AA. Oxygenation of 3-HETE by COX-2 produced a novel cascade of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids, as identified with EI (electron impact)–GC–MS, LC–MS–ES (electrospray) and LC–MS–API (atmospheric pressure ionization) methods. Evidence for in vitro production of 3-hydroxy-PGE2 (3-hydroxy-prostaglandin E2) was obtained upon infection of HeLa cells with Candida albicans at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 100. Analogous to interaction of AA and aspirin-treated COX-2, 3-HETE was transformed by acetylated COX-2 to 3,15-di-HETE (3,15-dihydroxy-HETE), whereby C-15 showed the (R)-stereochemistry. 3-Hydroxy-PGs are potent biologically active compounds. Thus 3-hydroxy-PGE2 induced interleukin-6 gene expression via the EP3 receptor (PGE2 receptor 3) in A549 cells, and raised cAMP levels via the EP4 receptor in Jurkat cells. Moreover, 3R,15S-di-HETE triggered the opening of the K+ channel in HTM (human trabecular meshwork) cells, as measured by the patch–clamp technique. Since many fatty acid disorders are associated with an ‘escape’ of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from the β-oxidation cycle, the production of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids may be critical in

  1. High-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid by a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-25

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor and fragrance compounds in foods and cosmetics. Recently, we demonstrated that vanillin could be produced from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol in a coenzyme-independent manner using the decarboxylase Fdc and the oxygenase Cso2. In this study, we investigated a new two-pot bioprocess for vanillin production using the whole-cell catalyst of Escherichia coli expressing Fdc in the first stage and that of E. coli expressing Cso2 in the second stage. We first optimized the second-step Cso2 reaction from 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin, a rate-determining step for the production of vanillin. Addition of FeCl2 to the cultivation medium enhanced the activity of the resulting E. coli cells expressing Cso2, an iron protein belonging to the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family. Furthermore, a butyl acetate-water biphasic system was effective in improving the production of vanillin. Under the optimized conditions, we attempted to produce vanillin from ferulic acid by a two-pot bioprocess on a flask scale. In the first stage, E. coli cells expressing Fdc rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid and completely converted 75 mM of this substrate to 4-vinylguaiacol within 2 h at pH 9.0. After the first-stage reaction, cells were removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, and the pH of the resulting supernatant was adjusted to 10.5, the optimal pH for Cso2. This solution was subjected to the second-stage reaction. In the second stage, E. coli cells expressing Cso2 efficiently oxidized 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The concentration of vanillin reached 52 mM (7.8 g L(-1)) in 24 h, which is the highest level attained to date for the biotechnological production of vanillin using recombinant cells. PMID:25765579

  2. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  3. ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsi...

  4. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl2 exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis. PMID:22915740

  5. Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Conti, Silvia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Colleoni, Mariapia

    2002-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity, nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radical production were investigated in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation and compared with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. Palmitoylethanolamide (1, 3, 5, 10 mg kg−1; p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg kg−1; p.o.) were administered daily after the onset of inflammation for three days and the paw oedema was measured daily; 24 h after the last dose (fourth day) the rats were killed and the COX activity and the content of nitrite/nitrate (NO2−/NO3−), malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS) were evaluated in the paw tissues. Palmitoylethanolamide had a curative effect on inflammation, inhibiting the carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by the selective CB2 receptor antagonist (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) (SR144528), 3 mg kg−1 p.o. On the fourth day after carrageenan injection, COX activity and the level of NO2−/NO3−, eNOS and MDA were increased in the inflamed paw, but iNOS was not present. Palmitoylethanolamide (10 mg kg−1) and indomethacin markedly reduced these increases. Our findings show, for the first time, that palmitoylethanolamide has a curative effect in a model of acute inflammation. The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity. PMID:12359622

  6. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  7. ARSENIC INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    EPA Science Inventory


    Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are not. Therefore, HO enzyme induction ...

  8. Analysis of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in a treatment plant of acid rock drainage from a Japanese pyrite mine by use of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Kazuo; Okabayashi, Ai; Kikumoto, Mei; Manchur, Mohammed Abul; Wakai, Satoshi; Kanao, Tadayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in a treatment plant of acid rock drainage (ARD) from a pyrite mine in Yanahara, Okayama prefecture, Japan, were analyzed using the gene (cbbL) encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Analyses of partial sequences of cbbL genes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus strains revealed the diversity in their cbbL gene sequences. In contrast to the presence of two copies of form I cbbL genes (cbbL1 and cbbL2) in A. ferrooxidans genome, A. thiooxidans and A. caldus had a single copy of form I cbbL gene in their genomes. A phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences from cbbL genes detected in the ARD treatment plant and their close relatives revealed that 89% of the total clones were affiliated with A. ferrooxidans. Clones loosely affiliated with the cbbL from A. thiooxidans NB1-3 or Thiobacillus denitrificans was also detected in the treatment plant. cbbL gene sequences of iron- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the ARD and the ARD treatment plant were not detected in the cbbL libraries from the treatment plant, suggesting the low frequencies of isolates in the samples. PMID:20159572

  9. Dimerumic Acid and Deferricoprogen Activate Ak Mouse Strain Thymoma/Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathways and Prevent Apoptotic Cell Death in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which can be modeled using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to generate oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effects of the antioxidants deferricoprogen (DFC) and dimerumic acid (DMA), produced by rice fermented with Monascus purpureus NTU 568, on 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and their potential protective mechanisms. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated associated upregulation of the Ak mouse strain thymoma (Akt), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways along with inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways and altered homodimeric glycoprotein, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and immunoglobulin Fc receptor gene expression. These results suggested that the neuroprotection elicited by DMA and DFC against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity was associated with the Akt, MAPK, and HO-1 pathways via regulating the gene expression of NMDA receptor, homodimeric glycoprotein, and immunoglobulin Fc receptor. PMID:27431098

  10. Resveratrol analog piceatannol restores the palmitic acid-induced impairment of insulin signaling and production of endothelial nitric oxide via activation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative heme oxygenase-1 in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun-Oh; Son, Yong; Lee, Ju Hwan; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seong Hoon; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Pae, Hyun-Ock

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the elevation of free fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, characterized by the reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) synthesized from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is important in the preservation of NO bioavailability. Piceatannol (Pic), with similar chemical structure to resveratrol, is suggested to possess similar protective effects as resveratrol. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), stimulated with PA, were used to examine the endothelial protective effects of Pic. Pic increased the expression of HO-1 via nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 activation in the HUVECs, and decreased the PA-induced secretions of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS via inhibition of NF-κB activation. Notably, following inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphryin-IX, Pic did not prevent cytokine secretion, ROS formation, and NF-κB activation in the PA-stimulated HUVECs. PA attenuated insulin-mediated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to decreased glucose uptake, and phosphorylation of eNOS, leading to a reduction in the production of NO. Pic effectively mitigated the inhibitory effects of PA on the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and eNOS, which was not observed following inhibition of HO‑1 activity. The results of the present study suggested that Pic may have the potential to prevent PA-induced impairment of insulin signaling and eNOS function, by inducing the expression of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, HO-1. PMID:25815690

  11. Lycopene and Apo-10′-lycopenoic Acid Have Differential Mechanisms of Protection against Hepatic Steatosis in β-Carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase Knockout Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Blanche C; Liu, Chun; Lichtenstein, Alice H; von Lintig, Johannes; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is positively associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Apo-10′-lycopenoic acid (APO10LA), a potential oxidation product of apo-10′-lycopenal that is generated endogenously by β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2) cleavage of lycopene, inhibited hepatic steatosis in BCO2-expressing mice. Objective: The present study evaluated lycopene and APO10LA effects on hepatic steatosis in mice without BCO2 expression. Methods: Male and female BCO2-knockout (BCO2-KO) mice were fed a high saturated fat diet (HSFD) with or without APO10LA (10 mg/kg diet) or lycopene (100 mg/kg diet) for 12 wk. Results: Lycopene or APO10LA supplementation reduced hepatic steatosis incidence (78% and 72%, respectively) and severity in BCO2-KO male mice. Female mice did not develop steatosis, had greater hepatic total cholesterol (3.06 vs. 2.31 mg/g tissue) and cholesteryl ester (1.58 vs. 0.86 mg/g tissue), but had lower plasma triglyceride (TG) (229 vs. 282 mg/dL) and cholesterol (97.1 vs. 119 mg/dL) than male mice. APO10LA-mitigated steatosis in males was associated with reduced hepatic total cholesterol (18%) and activated sirtuin 1 signaling, which resulted in reduced fatty acids (FAs) and TG synthesis markers [stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase protein, 71%; acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, 79%; AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, 67%], and elevated cholesterol efflux genes (cytochrome P450 family 7A1, 65%; ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/8, 11%). These APO10LA-mediated effects were not mimicked by lycopene supplementation. Intriguingly, steatosis inhibition by lycopene induced peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)α- and PPARγ-related genes in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) that increases mitochondrial uncoupling [cell death–inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α subunit-like effector a, 55%; PR domain-containing 16, 47%; uncoupling protein 3 (Ucp3), 55%], FA β-oxidation (PPARα, 53

  12. Crystal Structure of Dicamba Monooxygenase: A Rieske Nonheme Oxygenase that Catalyzes Oxidative Demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Razvan; Jiang, Wen Zhi; Weeks, Donald P.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-08-28

    Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a widely used herbicide that is efficiently degraded by soil microbes. These microbes use a novel Rieske nonheme oxygenase, dicamba monooxygenase (DMO), to catalyze the oxidative demethylation of dicamba to 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and formaldehyde. We have determined the crystal structures of DMO in the free state, bound to its substrate dicamba, and bound to the product DCSA at 2.10-1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The structures show that the DMO active site uses a combination of extensive hydrogen bonding and steric interactions to correctly orient chlorinated, ortho-substituted benzoic-acid-like substrates for catalysis. Unlike other Rieske aromatic oxygenases, DMO oxygenates the exocyclic methyl group, rather than the aromatic ring, of its substrate. This first crystal structure of a Rieske demethylase shows that the Rieske oxygenase structural scaffold can be co-opted to perform varied types of reactions on xenobiotic substrates.

  13. 7-Methoxy-(9H-β-Carbolin-1-il)-(E)-1-Propenoic Acid, a β-Carboline Alkaloid From Eurycoma longifolia, Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Activating the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Dang; Choo, Young-Yeon; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Chau, Van Minh; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2016-03-01

    Eurycoma longifolia is an herbal medicinal plant popularly used in Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, we show that 7-methoxy-(9H-β-carbolin-1-il)-(E)-1-propenoic acid (7-MCPA), a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from E. longifolia, exerted anti-inflammatory effects by activating the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. 7-MCPA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RAW264.7 cells and rescued C57BL/6 mice from LPS-induced lethality in vivo. LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and IL-6 was also significantly suppressed by treatment of 7-MCPA in RAW264.7 cells. 7-MCPA induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased transcription of its target genes, such as HO-1. Treating RAW264.7 cells with 7-MCPA increased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); however, co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) blocked 7-MCPA-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Moreover, NAC or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) blocked 7-MCPA-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, suggesting that 7-MCPA activated Nrf2 via a ROS-dependent p38 pathway. 7-MCPA induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression and knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA or SB203580 blocked 7-MCPA-mediated induction of HO-1 expression. Inhibiting Nrf2 or HO-1 abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-MCPA in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We also demonstrated that 7-MCPA suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. These results provide the first evidence that 7-MCPA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways and may be a potential Nrf2 activator to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:26291957

  14. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N. F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Rydzik, Anna M.; Rose, Nathan R.; Bagg, Eleanor A.; McDonough, Michael A.; Krojer, Tobias; Yue, Wyatt W.; Ng, Stanley S.; Olsen, Lars; Brennan, Paul E.; Oppermann, Udo; Muller-Knapp, Susanne; Klose, Robert J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement PMID:26682036

  15. Crystallization of recombinant cyclo-oxygenase-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Anna M.; Pawlitz, Jennifer L.; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Gierse, James K.; Moreland, Kirby T.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Loduca, Jina Y.; Stallings, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The integral membrane protein, prostaglandin H 2 synthase, or cyclo-oxygenase (COX), catalyses the first step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and is the target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Two isoforms are known. The constitutive enzyme, COX-1, is present in most tissues and is responsible for the physiological production of PGs. The isoform responsible for the elevated production of PGs during inflammation is COX-2 which is induced specifically at inflammatory sites. Three-dimensional structures of inhibitor complexes of COX-2, and of site variants of COX-2 which mimic COX-1, provide insight into the structural basis for selective inhibition of COX-2. Additionally, structures of COX-2 mutants and complexes with the substrate can provide a clearer understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the reaction. A crystallization protocol has been developed for COX-2 which reproducibly yields diffraction quality crystals. Polyethyleneglycol 550 monomethylether (MMP550) and MgCl 2 were systematically varied and used in conjunction with the detergent β- D-octylglucopyranoside ( β-OG). As a result of many crystallization trials, we determined that the initial β-OG concentration should be held constant, allowing the salt concentration to modulate the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the detergent. Over 25 crystal structures have been solved using crystals generated from this system. Most crystals belong to the space group P2 12 12, with lattice constants of a=180, b=134, c=120 Å in a pseudo body-centered lattice.

  16. Secreted lipoxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits biomembrane oxygenase activity and induces hemolysis in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Banthiya, Swathi; Pekárová, Mária; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-10-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) expresses a secreted lipoxygenase (LOX), which oxygenates free arachidonic acid predominantly to 15S-H(p)ETE. The enzyme is capable of binding phospholipids at its active site and physically interacts with model membranes. However, its membrane oxygenase activity has not been quantified. To address this question, we overexpressed PA-LOX as intracellular his-tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified it to electrophoretic homogeneity and compared its biomembrane oxygenase activity with that of rabbit ALOX15. We found that both enzymes were capable of oxygenating mitochondrial membranes to specific oxygenation products and 13S-H(p)ODE and 15S-H(p)ETE esterified to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were identified as major oxygenation products. When normalized to similar linoleic acid oxygenase activity, the rabbit enzyme exhibited a much more effective mitochondrial membrane oxygenase activity. In contrast, during long-term incubations (24 h) with red blood cells PA-LOX induced significant (50%) hemolysis whereas rabbit ALOX15 was more or less ineffective. These data indicate the principle capability of PA-LOX of oxygenating membrane bound phospholipids which is likely to alter the barrier function of the biomembranes. Although the membrane oxygenase activity was lower than the fatty acid oxygenase activity of PA-LOX red blood cell membrane oxygenation might be of biological relevance for P. aeruginosa septicemia. PMID:26361973

  17. RNAi-induced silencing of embryonic tryptophan oxygenase in the Pyralid moth, Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Kanost, Michael R.; Baker, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Gene silencing through the introduction of double-stranded RNA (RNA interference, RNAi) provides a powerful tool for the elucidation of gene function in many systems, including those where genomics and proteomics are incomplete. The use of RNAi technology for gene silencing in Lepidoptera has lacked significant attention compared to other systems. To demonstrate that RNAi can be utilized in the lepidopteran, Plodia interpunctella, we cloned a cDNA for tryptophan oxygenase, and showed that silencing of tryptophan oxygenase through RNAi during embryonic development resulted in loss of eye-color pigmentation. The complete amino acid sequence of Plodia tryptophan oxygenase can be accessed through NCBI Protein Database under NCBI Accession # AY427951. Abbreviation RNAi RNA interference PCR polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR reverse transcription-PCR PMID:15861231

  18. Heme Oxygenases in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Anita; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Agarwal, Anupam; Stocker, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Heme oxygenases are composed of two isozymes, Hmox1 and Hmox2, that catalyze the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous iron, and biliverdin, the latter of which is subsequently converted to bilirubin. While initially considered to be waste products, CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown over the last 20 years to modulate key cellular processes, such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as antioxidant defense. This shift in paradigm has led to the importance of heme oxygenases and their products in cell physiology now being well accepted. The identification of the two human cases thus far of heme oxygenase deficiency and the generation of mice deficient in Hmox1 or Hmox2 have reiterated a role for these enzymes in both normal cell function and disease pathogenesis, especially in the context of cardiovascular disease. This review covers the current knowledge on the function of both Hmox1 and Hmox2 at both a cellular and tissue level in the cardiovascular system. Initially, the roles of heme oxygenases in vascular health and the regulation of processes central to vascular diseases are outlined, followed by an evaluation of the role(s) of Hmox1 and Hmox2 in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis. Finally, the therapeutic potential of heme oxygenases and their products are examined in a cardiovascular disease context, with a focus on how the knowledge we have gained on these enzymes may be capitalized in future clinical studies. PMID:27604527

  19. The roles of Jumonji-type oxygenases in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catrine; Tumber, Anthony; Che, KaHing; Cain, Peter; Nowak, Radoslaw; Gileadi, Carina; Oppermann, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases constitute a phylogenetically conserved class of enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation reactions in humans by acting on various types of substrates, including metabolic intermediates, amino acid residues in different proteins and various types of nucleic acids. The discovery of jumonji (Jmj), the founding member of a class of Jmj-type chromatin-modifying enzymes and transcriptional regulators, has culminated in the discovery of several branches of histone lysine demethylases, with essential functions in regulating the epigenetic landscape of the chromatin environment. This work has now been considerably expanded into other aspects of epigenetic biology and includes the discovery of enzymatic steps required for methyl-cytosine demethylation, as well as modification of RNA and ribosomal proteins. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the human Jmj-type enzymes and their involvement in human pathological processes, including development, cancer, inflammation and metabolic diseases. PMID:24579949

  20. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A.; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure–function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis–Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  1. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R

    2012-04-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure-function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  2. Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes: physiological and pharmacological role.

    PubMed

    Kam, P C; See, A U

    2000-05-01

    Prostaglandins play important roles in inflammation and the maintenance of normal physiological function of several organ systems. Prostaglandin production requires the conversion of arachidonic acid to the intermediate prostaglandin H2 catalysed by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. These isoforms vary in their distribution and expression but are similar in size, substrate specificity and kinetics. Normal physiological functions are mediated by 'constitutive' COX-1, while the inflammatory response is mediated by 'inducible' COX-2. Current nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both enzymes to varying degrees and can cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, respiratory system and platelets. Newer, selective COX-2 inhibitors offer real hope for safer anti-inflammatory drugs although their long-term safety and efficacy need to be studied as questions remain unanswered about possible physiological functions of COX-2. PMID:10792135

  3. Utilization of Dioxygen by Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Zhang, Jianye; Kleinberg, Katie A; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2015-12-18

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are non-heme, Fe(II)-dependent enzymes that participate in biologically important metabolic pathways involving carotenoids and apocarotenoids, including retinoids, stilbenes, and related compounds. CCOs typically catalyze the cleavage of non-aromatic double bonds by dioxygen (O2) to form aldehyde or ketone products. Expressed only in vertebrates, the RPE65 sub-group of CCOs catalyzes a non-canonical reaction consisting of concerted ester cleavage and trans-cis isomerization of all-trans-retinyl esters. It remains unclear whether the former group of CCOs functions as mono- or di-oxygenases. Additionally, a potential role for O2 in catalysis by the RPE65 group of CCOs has not been evaluated to date. Here, we investigated the pattern of oxygen incorporation into apocarotenoid products of Synechocystis apocarotenoid oxygenase. Reactions performed in the presence of (18)O-labeled water and (18)O2 revealed an unambiguous dioxygenase pattern of O2 incorporation into the reaction products. Substitution of Ala for Thr at position 136 of apocarotenoid oxygenase, a site predicted to govern the mono- versus dioxygenase tendency of CCOs, greatly reduced enzymatic activity without altering the dioxygenase labeling pattern. Reevaluation of the oxygen-labeling pattern of the resveratrol-cleaving CCO, NOV2, previously reported to be a monooxygenase, using a purified enzyme sample revealed that it too is a dioxygenase. We also demonstrated that bovine RPE65 is not dependent on O2 for its cleavage/isomerase activity. In conjunction with prior research, the results of this study resolve key issues regarding the utilization of O2 by CCOs and indicate that dioxygenase activity is a feature common among double bond-cleaving CCOs. PMID:26499794

  4. Purification and Characterization of a New Indole Oxygenase from the Leaves of Tecoma stans L

    PubMed Central

    Kunapuli, Satya P.; Vaidyanathan, Chelarkara S.

    1983-01-01

    A new indole oxygenase from the leaves of Tecoma stans was isolated and purified to homogenity. The purified enzyme system catalyzes the conversion of indole to anthranilic acid. It is optimally active at pH 5.2 and 30°C. Two moles of oxygen are consumed and one mole of anthranilic acid is formed for every mole of indole oxidized. Dialysis resulted in complete loss of the activity. The inactive enzyme could be reactivated by the addition of concentrated dialysate. The enzyme is not inhibited by copper-specific chelators, non-heme iron chelators or atebrin. It is not a cuproflavoprotein, unlike the other indole oxygenases and oxidases. PMID:16662784

  5. X-domain of peptide synthetases recruits oxygenases crucial for glycopeptide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Kristina; Peschke, Madeleine; Brieke, Clara; Maximowitsch, Egle; Cryle, Max J

    2015-05-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mega-enzyme complexes are modular assembly lines that are involved in the biosynthesis of numerous peptide metabolites independently of the ribosome. The multiple interactions between catalytic domains within the NRPS machinery are further complemented by additional interactions with external enzymes, particularly focused on the final peptide maturation process. An important class of NRPS metabolites that require extensive external modification of the NRPS-bound peptide are the glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs), which include vancomycin and teicoplanin. These clinically relevant peptide antibiotics undergo cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidative crosslinking of aromatic side chains to achieve their final, active conformation. However, the mechanism underlying the recruitment of the cytochrome P450 oxygenases to the NRPS-bound peptide was previously unknown. Here we show, through in vitro studies, that the X-domain, a conserved domain of unknown function present in the final module of all GPA NRPS machineries, is responsible for the recruitment of oxygenases to the NRPS-bound peptide to perform the essential side-chain crosslinking. X-ray crystallography shows that the X-domain is structurally related to condensation domains, but that its amino acid substitutions render it catalytically inactive. We found that the X-domain recruits cytochrome P450 oxygenases to the NRPS and determined the interface by solving the structure of a P450-X-domain complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the modification of peptide precursors by oxygenases in vitro--in particular the installation of the second crosslink in GPA biosynthesis--occurs only in the presence of the X-domain. Our results indicate that the presentation of peptidyl carrier protein (PCP)-bound substrates for oxidation in GPA biosynthesis requires the presence of the NRPS X-domain to ensure conversion of the precursor peptide into a mature aglycone, and that the carrier protein

  6. Endocannabinoids and their oxygenation by cyclo-oxygenases, lipoxygenases and other oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, P; Nicolaou, A; Woodward, D F

    2015-04-01

    The naturally occurring mammalian endocannabinoids possess biological attributes that extend beyond interaction with cannabinoid receptors. These extended biological properties are the result of oxidative metabolism of the principal mammalian endocannabinoids arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide; A-EA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Both endocannabinoids are oxidized by cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), but not by COX-1, to a series of prostaglandin derivatives (PGs) with quite different biological properties from those of the parent substrates. PG ethanolamides (prostamides, PG-EAs) and PG glyceryl esters (PG-Gs) are not only pharmacologically distinct from their parent endocannabinoids, they are distinct from the corresponding acidic PGs, and are differentiated from each other. Ethanolamides and glyceryl esters of the major prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, and PGI2 are formed by the various PG synthases, and thromboxane ethanolamides and glyceryl esters are not similarly produced. COX-2 is also of interest by virtue of its corollary central role in modulating endocannabinoid tone, providing a new therapeutic approach for treating pain and anxiety. Other major oxidative conversion pathways are provided for both A-EA and 2-AG by several lipoxygenases (LOXs), resulting in the formation of numerous hydroxyl metabolites. These do not necessarily represent inactivation pathways for endocannabinoids but may mimic or modulate the endocannabinoids or even display alternative pharmacology. Similarly, A-EA and 2-AG may be oxidized by P450 enzymes. Again a very diverse number of metabolites are formed, with either cannabinoid-like biological properties or an introduction of disparate pharmacology. The biological activity of epoxy and hydroxyl derivatives of the endocannabinoids remains to be fully elucidated. This review attempts to consolidate and compare the findings obtained to date in an increasingly important research area. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  7. Dicamba Monooxygenase: Structural Insights into a Dynamic Rieske Oxygenase that Catalyzes an Exocyclic Monooxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ordine, Robert L.; Rydel, Timothy J.; Storek, Michael J.; Sturman, Eric J.; Moshiri, Farhad; Bartlett, Ryan K.; Brown, Gregory R.; Eilers, Robert J.; Dart, Crystal; Qi, Youlin; Flasinski, Stanislaw; Franklin, Sonya J.

    2009-09-08

    Dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) O-demethylase (DMO) is the terminal Rieske oxygenase of a three-component system that includes a ferredoxin and a reductase. It catalyzes the NADH-dependent oxidative demethylation of the broad leaf herbicide dicamba. DMO represents the first crystal structure of a Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase that performs an exocyclic monooxygenation, incorporating O{sub 2} into a side-chain moiety and not a ring system. The structure reveals a 3-fold symmetric trimer ({alpha}{sub 3}) in the crystallographic asymmetric unit with similar arrangement of neighboring inter-subunit Rieske domain and non-heme iron site enabling electron transport consistent with other structurally characterized Rieske oxygenases. While the Rieske domain is similar, differences are observed in the catalytic domain, which is smaller in sequence length than those described previously, yet possessing an active-site cavity of larger volume when compared to oxygenases with larger substrates. Consistent with the amphipathic substrate, the active site is designed to interact with both the carboxylate and aromatic ring with both key polar and hydrophobic interactions observed. DMO structures were solved with and without substrate (dicamba), product (3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid), and either cobalt or iron in the non-heme iron site. The substitution of cobalt for iron revealed an uncommon mode of non-heme iron binding trapped by the non-catalytic Co{sup 2+}, which, we postulate, may be transiently present in the native enzyme during the catalytic cycle. Thus, we present four DMO structures with resolutions ranging from 1.95 to 2.2 {angstrom}, which, in sum, provide a snapshot of a dynamic enzyme where metal binding and substrate binding are coupled to observed structural changes in the non-heme iron and catalytic sites.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1: A Metabolic Nike

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Heme degradation, which was described more than 30 years ago, is still very actively explored with many novel discoveries on its role in various disease models every year. Recent Advances: The heme oxygenases (HO) are metabolic enzymes that utilize NADPH and oxygen to break apart the heme moiety liberating biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Heme that is derived from hemoproteins can be toxic to the cells and if not removed immediately, it causes cell apoptosis and local inflammation. Elimination of heme from the milieu enables generation of three products that influences numerous metabolic changes in the cell. Critical Issues: CO has profound effects on mitochondria and cellular respiration and other hemoproteins to which it can bind and affect their function, while BV and bilirubin (BR), the substrate and product of BV, reductase, respectively, are potent antioxidants. Sequestration of iron into ferritin and its recycling in the tissues is a part of the homeodynamic processes that control oxidation-reduction in cellular metabolism. Further, heme is an important component of a number of metabolic enzymes, and, therefore, HO-1 plays an important role in the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Future Directions: In this review, we describe the cross-talk between heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its products with other metabolic pathways. HO-1, which we have labeled Nike, the goddess who personified victory, dictates triumph over pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes, ischemia, and cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1709–1722. PMID:24180257

  9. Nickel induction of microsomal heme oxygenase activity in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Reid, M.C.; Bibeau, L.M.; Linden, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity was measured in tissues of rats killed after administration of NiCl/sub 2/ or Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. Induction of renal heme oxygenase activity occurred 6 hr after NiCl/sub 2/ injection (0.25 mmol/kg sc), reached a maximum of five to six times the baseline activity at 17 hr, and remained significantly increased at 72 hr. Heme oxygenase activities were also increased in liver, lung, and brain at 17 hr after the NiCl/sub 2/ injection; heme oxygenase activities in spleen and intestinal mucosa were unchanged. The effects of NiCl/sub 2/ on heme oxygenase activities in kidney and liver were dose-related from 0.06 to 0.75 mmol/kg, sc. Three Ni chelators were administered (1 mmol/kg, im) prior to injection of NiCl/sub 2/ (0.25 mmol/kg, sc); d-penicillamine partially prevented Ni induction of renal heme oxygenase activity; triethylenetetramine had no effect; sodium diethyldithiocarbamate enhanced the Ni induction of renal heme oxygenase activity (three times greater than NiCl/sub 2/ alone). Intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ (10 mg/rat) caused induction of renal heme oxygenase activity at 1 week but not at 2, 3, or 4 weeks; no correlation was observed between induction of renal heme oxygenase activity and erythropoietin-mediated erythrocytosis. Hypoxia (10% O/sub 2/, 12 hr/day, 7 days) did not affect renal heme oxygenase activity. Induction of renal heme oxygenase activity was observed in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs killed 17 hr after injection of NiCl/sub 2/ (0.25 mmol/kg, sc). These studies established (a) the time course, dose-effect, organ selectivity, and species susceptibility relationships for Ni induction of microsomal heme oxygenase activity, (b) the effects of Ni chelators, and (c) the lack of relationship between induction of renal heme oxygenase activity and the erythrocytosis that develops after intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/.

  10. Functional and structural characterization of an unusual cofactor-independent oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baas, Bert-Jan; Poddar, Harshwardhan; Geertsema, Edzard M; Rozeboom, Henriette J; de Vries, Marcel P; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-02-10

    The vast majority of characterized oxygenases use bound cofactors to activate molecular oxygen to carry out oxidation chemistry. Here, we show that an enzyme of unknown activity, RhCC from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, functions as an oxygenase, using 4-hydroxyphenylenolpyruvate as a substrate. This unique and complex reaction yields 3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-pyruvate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and oxalic acid as major products. Incubations with H2(18)O, (18)O2, and a substrate analogue suggest that this enzymatic oxygenation reaction likely involves a peroxide anion intermediate. Analysis of sequence similarity and the crystal structure of RhCC (solved at 1.78 Å resolution) reveal that this enzyme belongs to the tautomerase superfamily. Members of this superfamily typically catalyze tautomerization, dehalogenation, or decarboxylation reactions rather than oxygenation reactions. The structure shows the absence of cofactors, establishing RhCC as a rare example of a redox-metal- and coenzyme-free oxygenase. This sets the stage to study the mechanistic details of cofactor-independent oxygen activation in the unusual context of the tautomerase superfamily. PMID:25565350

  11. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Coursolle, Dan; Lian, Jiazhang; Shanklin, John; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-09-01

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg L(-1) long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg L(-1) titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system. PMID:26135500

  12. Expression and characterization of an N-oxygenase from Rhodococcus jostii RHAI.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Eberly, Jed O; Hancock, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Nitro group-containing natural products are rare in nature. There are few examples of N-oxygenases, enzymes that incorporate atmospheric oxygen into primary and secondary amines, characterized in the literature. N-oxygenases have yet to be characterized from the Corynebacterineae, a metabolically diverse group of organisms that includes the genera Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Mycobacterium. A preliminary in silico search for N-oxygenase AurF gene orthologs revealed multiple protein candidates present in the genome of the Actinomycete Rhodococcus jostii RHAI (RHAI_ro06104). Towards the goal of identifying novel biocatalysts with potential utility for the biosynthesis of nitroaromatics, AurF ortholog RHAI_ro6104 was cloned, expressed and purified in E. coli and amine and nitro containing phenol substrates tested for activity. RHAI-ro06104 showed the highest activity with 4-aminophenol, producing a Vmax of 18.76 μM s(-1) and a Km of 15.29 mM and demonstrated significant activities with 2-aminophenol and 2-amino-5-methylphenol, producing a Vmax of 12.86 and 12.72 μM s(-1) with a Km of 8.34 and 2.81 mM, respectively. These findings are consistent with a substrate range observed in other N-oxygenases, which seem to accommodate substrates that lack halogenated substitutions and side groups directly flanking the amine group. Attempts to identify modulators of RHAI-ro06104 gene activity demonstrated that aromatic amino acids inhibit expression by almost 50%. PMID:26782651

  13. Targeting heme oxygenase after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Roetling, Jing; Lu, Xiangping; Regan, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the primary event in approximately 10% of strokes, and has higher rates of morbidity and mortality than ischemic stroke. Experimental evidence suggests that the toxicity of hemoglobin and its degradation products contributes to secondary injury that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas to cytotoxic levels. The rate limiting step of its breakdown is catalyzed by the heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, which consist of inducible HO-1 and constitutively-expressed HO-2. The effect of these enzymes on perihematomal injury and neurological outcome has been investigated in ICH models using both genetic and pharmacological approaches to alter their expression, with variable results reported. These findings are summarized and reconciled in this review; therapeutic strategies that may optimize HO expression and activity after ICH are described. PMID:25642455

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao; Fan, Wen-Guo; Li, Dong-Pei; Lin, Marie CM; Kung, Hsiangfu

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system catabolizes heme into three products: carbon monoxide, biliverdin/bilirubin and free iron. It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. A great deal of data has demonstrated the roles of HO-1 in the formation, growth and metastasis of tumors. The interest in this system by investigators involved in gastrointestinal tumors is fairly recent, and few papers on HO-1 have touched upon this subject. This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiological significance of HO-1 induction and its possible roles in the gastrointestinal tumors studied to date. The implications for possible therapeutic manipulation of HO-1 in gastrointestinal tumors are also discussed. PMID:20518085

  15. Modifying the maker: Oxygenases target ribosome biology

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Qinqin; Feng, Tianshu; Coleman, Mathew L

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the eukaryotic protein synthesis machinery is partly driven by extensive and diverse modifications to associated proteins and RNAs. These modifications can have important roles in regulating translation factor activity and ribosome biogenesis and function. Further investigation of ‘translational modifications’ is warranted considering the growing evidence implicating protein synthesis as a critical point of gene expression control that is commonly deregulated in disease. New evidence suggests that translation is a major new target for oxidative modifications, specifically hydroxylations and demethylations, which generally are catalyzed by a family of emerging oxygenase enzymes that act at the interface of nutrient availability and metabolism. This review summarizes what is currently known about the role or these enzymes in targeting rRNA synthesis, protein translation and associated cellular processes. PMID:26779412

  16. Modifying the maker: Oxygenases target ribosome biology.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qinqin; Feng, Tianshu; Coleman, Mathew L

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the eukaryotic protein synthesis machinery is partly driven by extensive and diverse modifications to associated proteins and RNAs. These modifications can have important roles in regulating translation factor activity and ribosome biogenesis and function. Further investigation of 'translational modifications' is warranted considering the growing evidence implicating protein synthesis as a critical point of gene expression control that is commonly deregulated in disease. New evidence suggests that translation is a major new target for oxidative modifications, specifically hydroxylations and demethylations, which generally are catalyzed by a family of emerging oxygenase enzymes that act at the interface of nutrient availability and metabolism. This review summarizes what is currently known about the role or these enzymes in targeting rRNA synthesis, protein translation and associated cellular processes. PMID:26779412

  17. Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Markolovic, Suzana; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyze prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyze N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, as well as hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalyzed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries. PMID:26152730

  18. The heme oxygenases: important regulators of pregnancy and preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    George, Eric M.; Warrington, Junie P.; Spradley, Frank T.; Palei, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    The heme oxygenase system has long been believed to act largely as a housekeeping unit, converting prooxidant free heme from heme protein degradation into the benign bilirubin for conjugation and safe excretion. In recent decades, however, heme oxygenases have emerged as important regulators of cardiovascular function, largely through the production of their biologically active metabolites: carbon monoxide, bilirubin, and elemental iron. Even more recently, a number of separate lines of evidence have demonstrated an important role for the heme oxygenases in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Early preclinical and clinical studies have associated defects in the heme oxygenase with the obstetrical complication preeclampsia, as well as failure to establish adequate placental blood flow, an underlying mechanism of the disorder. Several recent preclinical studies have suggested, however, that the heme oxygenase system could serve as a valuable therapeutic tool for the management of preeclampsia, which currently has few pharmacological options. This review will summarize the role of heme oxygenases in pregnancy and highlight their potential in advancing the management of patients with preeclampsia. PMID:24898840

  19. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics. PMID:25164030

  20. Active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Stringer, C.D.; Milanez, S.; Lee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and have suggested their essentiality to function. The essential lysines occupy positions 166 and 329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and positions 175 and 334 in the spinach enzyme. Based on the pH-dependencies of inactivations of the two enzymes by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, Lys-166 (R. rubrum enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 7.9 and Lys-334 (spinach enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 9.0. These low pK/sub a/ values as well as the enhanced nucleophilicities of the lysyl residues argue that both are important to catalysis rather than to substrate binding. Lys-166 may correspond to the essential base that initiates catalysis and that displays a pK/sub a/ of 7.5 in the pH-curve for V/sub max//K/sub m/. Cross-linking experiments with 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene demonstrate that the two active-site lysines are within 12 A. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Heme oxygenase metabolites inhibit tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF).

    PubMed

    Ren, YiLin; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Wang, Hong; Liu, Ruisheng; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2008-10-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the mechanism by which the macula densa (MD) senses increases in luminal NaCl concentration and sends a signal to constrict the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). The kidney expresses constitutively heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and low levels of HO-1. HOs release carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and free iron. We hypothesized that renal HOs inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. Rabbit Af-Arts and attached MD were simultaneously microperfused in vitro. The TGF response was determined by measuring Af-Art diameter before and after increasing NaCl in the MD perfusate. When HO activity was inhibited by adding stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) to the MD perfusate, the TGF response increased from 2.1+/-0.2 to 4.1+/-0.4 microm (P=0.003, control vs. SnMP, n=7). When a CO-releasing molecule, (CORM-3; 50 microM), was added to the MD perfusate, the TGF response decreased by 41%, from 3.6+/-0.3 to 2.1+/-0.2 microm (P<0.001, control vs. CORM-3, n=12). When CORM-3 at 100 microM was added to the perfusate, it completely blocked the TGF response, from 4.2+/-0.4 to -0.2+/-0.3 microm (P<0.001, control vs. CORM-3, n=6). When biliverdin was added to the perfusate, the TGF response decreased by 79%, from 3.4+/-0.3 to 0.7+/-0.4 microm (P=0.001, control vs. biliverdin, n=6). The effects of SnMP and CORM-3 were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We concluded that renal HO inhibits TGF probably via release of CO and biliverdin. HO regulation of TGF is a novel mechanism that could lead to a better understanding of the control of renal microcirculation and function. PMID:18715939

  2. Human heme oxygenase oxidation of 5- and 15-phenylhemes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Niemevz, Fernando; Lad, Latesh; Huang, Liusheng; Alvarez, Diego E; Buldain, Graciela; Poulos, Thomas L; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2004-10-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. Previous work indicated that electrophilic addition of the terminal oxygen of the ferric hydroperoxo complex to the alpha-meso-carbon gives 5-hydroxyheme. Earlier efforts to block this reaction with a 5-methyl substituent failed, as the reaction still gave biliverdin IXalpha. Surprisingly, a 15-methyl substituent caused exclusive cleavage at the gamma-meso-rather than at the normal, unsubstituted alpha-meso-carbon. No CO was formed in these reactions, but the fragment cleaved from the porphyrin eluded identification. We report here that hHO-1 cleaves 5-phenylheme to biliverdin IXalpha and oxidizes 15-phenylheme at the alpha-meso position to give 10-phenylbiliverdin IXalpha. The fragment extruded in the oxidation of 5-phenylheme is benzoic acid, one oxygen of which comes from O2 and the other from water. The 2.29- and 2.11-A crystal structures of the hHO-1 complexes with 1- and 15-phenylheme, respectively, show clear electron density for both the 5- and 15-phenyl rings in both molecules of the asymmetric unit. The overall structure of 15-phenylheme-hHO-1 is similar to that of heme-hHO-1 except for small changes in distal residues 141-150 and in the proximal Lys18 and Lys22. In the 5-phenylheme-hHO-1 structure, the phenyl-substituted heme occupies the same position as heme in the heme-HO-1 complex but the 5-phenyl substituent disrupts the rigid hydrophobic wall of residues Met34, Phe214, and residues 26-42 near the alpha-meso carbon. The results provide independent support for an electrophilic oxidation mechanism and support a role for stereochemical control of the reaction regiospecificity. PMID:15297453

  3. Terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase system from Comamonas testosteroni T-2: purification and some properties of the oxygenase component.

    PubMed Central

    Schläfli, H R; Weiss, M A; Leisinger, T; Cook, A M

    1994-01-01

    Comamonas testosteroni T-2, grown in terephthalate (TER)-salts medium, synthesizes inducible enzymes that convert TER to (1R,2S)-dihydroxy-3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (DCD) and protocatechuate (PC). Anion-exchange chromatography of cell extracts yielded two sets of fractions, R and Z, that were necessary for oxygenation of TER to DCD; we termed this activity the TER dioxygenase system (TERDOS). An NAD(+)-dependent DCD dehydrogenase, which converted DCD to PC, overlapped all fractions R. No significant purification from fraction R, which contained an NADH-dependent reductase function(s) of TERDOS, was attained. Fraction Z, at the end of the gradient, contained essentially one protein, which was further purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This component, Z, had the UV-visible spectrum and electron paramagnetic resonance characteristics of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] protein and was considered to be the oxygenase. M(r)s of about 126,000 for oxygenase Z under native conditions were observed. Oxygenase Z consisted of two subunits, alpha and beta, with M(r)s of 49,000 and 18,000, respectively, under denaturing conditions. We presume that this oxygenase has an alpha 2 beta 2 structure. The sequences of the N-terminal amino acids of each subunit were determined. The activity of the purified enzyme was enhanced about fivefold by addition of Fe2+. In the presence of O2, NADH, and fraction R, component Z catalyzed the stoichiometric transformation of TER to PC, with the intermediate formation of DCD. The reaction was confirmed as a dioxygenation when we observed incorporation of two oxygen atoms from 18O2 into PC. The substrate range of TERDOS appeared to be narrow; apart from TER, only 2,5-dicarboxypyridine and 1,4-dicarboxynaphthalene (of 11 compounds tested) were converted to a product. Images PMID:7961417

  4. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  5. [Heme oxygenase activity in rat organs during cadmium chloride administration].

    PubMed

    Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Kaliman, P A

    2002-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity, the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of rats and blood serum absorption spectrum in the Soret region in different periods both after CdCl2 and prior alpha-tocopherol administration were studied. The increase in the hemolysis products content in the serum was observed in 15 min after CdCl2 injection and remained during 24 h. Heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney increased after 6 h and stayed at the same level 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The level of spontaneous LPO in the spleen increased after 6 h, and in the liver and kidney the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO increased in 24 h after CdCl2 injection. The preliminary alpha-tocopherol administration did not prevent the accumulation of hemolysis products in the serum and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney caused by CdCl2 administration. However, the increase in the ascorbat-induced LPO in these organs was completely blocked. The role of heme and LPO in the heme oxygenase induction by CdCl2 are discussed. PMID:12916165

  6. Detoxification of Indole by an Indole-Induced Flavoprotein Oxygenase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guang-Huey; Chen, Hao-Ping; Shu, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Indole, a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan, is a toxic signaling molecule, which can inhibit bacterial growth. To overcome indole-induced toxicity, many bacteria have developed enzymatic defense systems to convert indole to non-toxic, water-insoluble indigo. We previously demonstrated that, like other aromatic compound-degrading bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii can also convert indole to indigo. However, no work has been published investigating this mechanism. Here, we have shown that the growth of wild-type A. baumannii is severely inhibited in the presence of 3.5 mM indole. However, at lower concentrations, growth is stable, implying that the bacteria may be utilizing a survival mechanism to oxidize indole. To this end, we have identified a flavoprotein oxygenase encoded by the iifC gene of A. baumannii. Further, our results suggest that expressing this recombinant oxygenase protein in Escherichia coli can drive indole oxidation to indigo in vitro. Genome analysis shows that the iif operon is exclusively present in the genomes of A. baumannii and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis also indicate that the iif operon is activated by indole through the AraC-like transcriptional regulator IifR. Taken together, these data suggest that this species of bacteria utilizes a novel indole-detoxification mechanism that is modulated by IifC, a protein that appears to be, at least to some extent, regulated by IifR. PMID:26390211

  7. Detoxification of Indole by an Indole-Induced Flavoprotein Oxygenase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guang-Huey; Chen, Hao-Ping; Shu, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Indole, a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan, is a toxic signaling molecule, which can inhibit bacterial growth. To overcome indole-induced toxicity, many bacteria have developed enzymatic defense systems to convert indole to non-toxic, water-insoluble indigo. We previously demonstrated that, like other aromatic compound-degrading bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii can also convert indole to indigo. However, no work has been published investigating this mechanism. Here, we have shown that the growth of wild-type A. baumannii is severely inhibited in the presence of 3.5 mM indole. However, at lower concentrations, growth is stable, implying that the bacteria may be utilizing a survival mechanism to oxidize indole. To this end, we have identified a flavoprotein oxygenase encoded by the iifC gene of A. baumannii. Further, our results suggest that expressing this recombinant oxygenase protein in Escherichia coli can drive indole oxidation to indigo in vitro. Genome analysis shows that the iif operon is exclusively present in the genomes of A. baumannii and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis also indicate that the iif operon is activated by indole through the AraC-like transcriptional regulator IifR. Taken together, these data suggest that this species of bacteria utilizes a novel indole-detoxification mechanism that is modulated by IifC, a protein that appears to be, at least to some extent, regulated by IifR. PMID:26390211

  8. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer. PMID:25023856

  9. Functional characterization of diverse ring-hydroxylating oxygenases and induction of complex aromatic catabolic gene clusters in Sphingobium sp. PNB

    PubMed Central

    Khara, Pratick; Roy, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Ghosal, Debajyoti; Dutta, Tapan K.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. PNB, like other sphingomonads, has multiple ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) genes. Three different fosmid clones have been sequenced to identify the putative genes responsible for the degradation of various aromatics in this bacterial strain. Comparison of the map of the catabolic genes with that of different sphingomonads revealed a similar arrangement of gene clusters that harbors seven sets of RHO terminal components and a sole set of electron transport (ET) proteins. The presence of distinctly conserved amino acid residues in ferredoxin and in silico molecular docking analyses of ferredoxin with the well characterized terminal oxygenase components indicated the structural uniqueness of the ET component in sphingomonads. The predicted substrate specificities, derived from the phylogenetic relationship of each of the RHOs, were examined based on transformation of putative substrates and their structural homologs by the recombinant strains expressing each of the oxygenases and the sole set of available ET proteins. The RHO AhdA1bA2b was functionally characterized for the first time and was found to be capable of transforming ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, cumene, p-cymene and biphenyl, in addition to a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Overexpression of aromatic catabolic genes in strain PNB, revealed by real-time PCR analyses, is a way forward to understand the complex regulation of degradative genes in sphingomonads. PMID:24918041

  10. 2-Prenylated m-dimethoxybenzenes as potent inhibitors of 15-lipo-oxygenase: inhibitory mechanism and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Atena; Sadeghian, Hamid; Salimi, Alireza; Mousavian, Mina; Seyedi, Seyed M; Bakavoli, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    15-lipo-oxygenases are one of the iron-containing proteins capable of performing peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in animals and plants. The critical role of enzymes in the formation of inflammations, sensitivities, and some cancers has been demonstrated in mammals. The importance of enzymes has led to the development of mechanistic studies, product analysis, and synthesis of inhibitors. In this study, a series of allyl and prenyl dimethoxybenzenes were synthesized and their inhibitory potency against soybean 15-Lipo-oxygenase (L1; EC 1,13,11,12) was determined. Among the synthetic compounds, 2,6-dimethoxy-1-isopentenyl-4-methylbenzene, 2,6-dimethoxy-1-geranyl-4-methylbenzene, and 2,6-dimethoxy-1-farnesyl-4-methylbenzene showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 7.6, 5.3, and 0.52 μm, respectively. For some of the compounds, SAR studies showed acceptable relationship between inhibitory potency and enzyme-ligand interactions. Radical scavenging assessment results apart from the SAR studies indicate that electronic properties are the major factors for lipo-oxygenase inhibition potency of the mentioned compounds. Based on the theoretical studies, it was suggested that CH…O intramolecular hydrogen bond between ortho-methoxy oxygen and methine hydrogen atoms is one of the major factors in the stability of 2,6-dimethoxyallyl(or prenyl)benzenes radical via the planarity fixation between phenyl and allyl (or prenyl) pi orbitals. PMID:27113261

  11. Ribosomal Oxygenases are Structurally Conserved from Prokaryotes to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Krojer, Tobias; Ho, Chia-hua; Ng, Stanley S.; Clifton, Ian J.; Ge, Wei; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Fox, Gavin C.; Muniz, Joao R. C.; Vollmar, Melanie; Phillips, Claire; Pilka, Ewa S.; Kavanagh, Kathryn L.; von Delft, Frank; Oppermann, Udo; McDonough, Michael A.; Doherty, Aiden J.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases play important roles in the regulation of gene expression via demethylation of N-methylated chromatin components1,2, hydroxylation of transcription factors3, and of splicing factor proteins4. Recently, 2OG-oxygenases that catalyze hydroxylation of tRNA5-7 and ribosomal proteins8, have been shown to play roles in translation relating to cellular growth, TH17-cell differentiation and translational accuracy9-12. The finding that the ribosomal oxygenases (ROX) occur in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans8 raises questions as to their structural and evolutionary relationships. In Escherichia coli, ycfD catalyzes arginine-hydroxylation in the ribosomal protein L16; in humans, Mina53 (MYC-induced nuclear antigen) and NO66 (Nucleolar protein 66) catalyze histidine-hydroxylation in ribosomal proteins rpL27a and rpL8, respectively. The functional assignments of the ROX open therapeutic possibilities via either ROX inhibition or targeting of differentially modified ribosomes. Despite differences in residue- and protein-selectivities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ROX, crystal structures of ycfD and ycfDRM from E. coli and Rhodothermus marinus with those of human Mina53 and NO66 (hROX) reveal highly conserved folds and novel dimerization modes defining a new structural subfamily of 2OG-oxygenases. ROX structures in complex with/without their substrates, support their functional assignments as hydroxylases, but not demethylases and reveal how the subfamily has evolved to catalyze the hydroxylation of different residue sidechains of ribosomal proteins. Comparison of ROX crystal structures with those of other JmjC-hydroxylases including the hypoxia-inducible factor asparaginyl-hydroxylase (FIH) and histone Nε-methyl lysine demethylases (KDMs) identifies branchpoints in 2OG-oxygenase evolution and distinguishes between JmjC-hydroxylases and -demethylases catalyzing modifications of translational and transcriptional machinery. The

  12. DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANT 6 and DMR6-LIKE OXYGENASE 1 are partially redundant but distinct suppressors of immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zeilmaker, Tieme; Ludwig, Nora R; Elberse, Joyce; Seidl, Michael F; Berke, Lidija; Van Doorn, Arjen; Schuurink, Robert C; Snel, Berend; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis downy mildew resistant 6 (dmr6) mutants have lost their susceptibility to the downy mildew Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Here we show that dmr6 is also resistant to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete Phytophthora capsici. Resistance is accompanied by enhanced defense gene expression and elevated salicylic acid levels. The suppressive effect of the DMR6 oxygenase was confirmed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing DMR6 that show enhanced susceptibility to H. arabidopsidis, P. capsici, and P. syringae. Phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily of 2-oxoglutarate Fe(II)-dependent oxygenases revealed a subgroup of DMR6-LIKE OXYGENASEs (DLOs). Within Arabidopsis, DMR6 is most closely related to DLO1 and DLO2. Overexpression of DLO1 and DLO2 in the dmr6 mutant restored the susceptibility to downy mildew indicating that DLOs negatively affect defense, similar to DMR6. DLO1, but not DLO2, is co-expressed with DMR6, showing strong activation during pathogen attack and following salicylic acid treatment. DMR6 and DLO1 differ in their spatial expression pattern in downy mildew-infected Arabidopsis leaves; DMR6 is mostly expressed in cells that are in contact with hyphae and haustoria of H. arabidopsidis, while DLO1 is expressed mainly in the vascular tissues near infection sites. Strikingly, the dmr6-3_dlo1 double mutant, that is completely resistant to H. arabidopsidis, showed a strong growth reduction that was associated with high levels of salicylic acid. We conclude that DMR6 and DLO1 redundantly suppress plant immunity, but also have distinct activities based on their differential localization of expression. PMID:25376907

  13. Recombinant truncated and microsomal heme oxygenase-1 and -2: differential sensitivity to inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vukomanovic, Dragic; McLaughlin, Brian; Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Roman, Gheorghe; Dercho, Ryan A; Kinobe, Robert T; Hum, Maaike; Brien, James F; Jia, Zongchao; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2010-04-01

    Recombinant truncated forms of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 (HO-1 and HO-2) were compared with their crude microsomal counterparts from brain and spleen tissue of adult male rats with respect to their inhibition by azole-based, nonporphyrin HO inhibitors. The drugs tested were an imidazole-alcohol, an imidazole-dioxolane, and a triazole-ketone. Both the recombinant and crude forms of HO-2 were similarly inhibited by the 3 drugs. The crude microsomal spleen form of HO-1 was more susceptible to inhibition than was the truncated recombinant form. This difference is attributed to the extra amino acids in the full-length enzyme. These observations may be relevant in the design of drugs as inhibitors of HO and other membrane proteins. PMID:20555417

  14. Role of Heme Oxygenase, Leptin, Coenzyme Q10 and Trace Elements in Pre-eclamptic Women.

    PubMed

    Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Badawy, Ehsan A; Hussein, Jihan S; Elela, Somaya Abo; Megahed, Hoda A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate heme oxygenase (COHb), leptin and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in pre-eclamptic women. Also Zinc, copper, Iron, total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and uric acid were assessed. 120 female subjects were included in this study. They were divided into, 60 female with normal pregnancy attending the outpatient clinic, 60 pre-eclamptic patients were recruited from obstetrics and gynaecology department El-kasr El-Aini hospital. The results showed that in pre-eclampatic group, leptin level was significantly increased while COHb and CoQ10 was significantly decreased. It is concluded that hemeoxygenase, leptin and coenzyme CoQ10 can be considered as new markers for prediction of pre-eclampsia. PMID:24082464

  15. Escherichia coli heme oxygenase modulates host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Ryu, Hyungjin Sally; Fan, Ting-Jia; Onyiah, Joseph C.; Schulz, Stephanie; Otterbein, Sherrie L.; Wong, Ron; Hansen, Jonathan; Otterbein, Leo E; Carroll, Ian; Plevy, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of mammalian heme oxygenase-1 and exposure of animals to carbon monoxide ameliorates experimental colitis. When enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are exposed to low iron conditions, they express an heme oxygenase-like enzyme, chuS, and metabolize heme into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. Given the abundance of enteric bacteria residing in the intestinal lumen, we hypothesized that commensal intestinal bacteria may be a significant source of carbon monoxide, with the consequence that enteric bacteria expressing chuS and other heme oxygenase -like molecules suppress inflammatory immune responses through release of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide exposed mice have altered enteric bacterial composition and increased E. coli 16S and chuS DNA by real-time PCR. Moreover, severity of experimental colitis correlates with increased E. coli chuS expression in IL-10 deficient mice. To explore functional roles, E. coli were genetically modified to overexpress chuS or the chuS gene was deleted. Co-culture of chuS-overexpressing E. coli with bone marrow derived macrophages results in decreased IL-12 p40 and increased IL-10 secretion compared to wild-type or chuS-deficient E. coli. Mice infected with chuS-overexpressing E. coli have increased levels of hepatic carbon monoxide and decreased serum IL-12 p40 compared to mice infected with chuS-deficient E. coli. Thus, carbon monoxide alters the composition of the commensal intestinal microbiota and expands E. coli populations harboring the chuS gene. These bacteria are capable of attenuating innate immune responses through expression of chuS. Bacterial heme oxygenase -like molecules and bacterial-derived carbon monoxide may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory conditions. PMID:26146866

  16. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Tracy; Krol, Adam; Campanaro, Danielle; Malkowski, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The heme-containing membrane-associated fatty-acid α-dioxygenase pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from O. sativa has been crystallized and a data set collected to 3.0 Å using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector. Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) is a heme-containing membrane-associated protein found in monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants that utilizes molecular oxygen to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX is a member of a larger family of fatty-acid α-dioxygenases that includes the mammalian cyclooxygenase enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). Single crystals of PIOX from rice (Oryza sativa) have been grown from MPD using recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently extracted utilizing decyl maltoside as the solubilizing detergent. Crystals diffract to 3.0 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector, and belong to space group P1. Based on the Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function analyses, there are presumed to be four molecules in the asymmetric unit related by noncrystallographic 222 symmetry.

  18. Induction of benzo[a]pyrene Mono-oxygenase in liver cell culture by the photochemical generation of active oxygen species. Evidence for the involvement of singlet oxygen and the formation of a stable inducing intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Paine, A J

    1976-01-01

    1. The photochemical generation of excited states of oxygen in liver cell culture by the mild ilumination of culture medium containing riboflavin, results in stimulation of benzo[a]pyrene 3-mono-oxygenase, a cytochrome P-450-linked mono-oxygenase. 2. The same large increase in mono-oxygenase activity was found when medium containing riboflavin was illuminated in the absence of cells and then stored in the dark for 24h before contact with the cells. From this it may be inferred that stimulation is due to the formation of a stable inducer in the culture medium. Further experiments indicate that the stable inducer is due to the photo-oxidation of an amino acid. 3. Evidence that singlet oxygen is responsible for initiating the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase is based on the use of molecules that scavenge particular active oxygen species. Of all the scavengers tested, only those that scavenge single oxygen inhibited the stimulation. 4. A hypothesis is developed to relate the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase by singlet oxygen in cultured cells to the regulation of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system in vivo. It is suggested that single oxygen generation within cells may be a common factor linking the many structurally diverse inducers of the enzyme system. PMID:962887

  19. Induction of benzo[a]pyrene Mono-oxygenase in liver cell culture by the photochemical generation of active oxygen species. Evidence for the involvement of singlet oxygen and the formation of a stable inducing intermediate.

    PubMed

    Paine, A J

    1976-07-15

    1. The photochemical generation of excited states of oxygen in liver cell culture by the mild ilumination of culture medium containing riboflavin, results in stimulation of benzo[a]pyrene 3-mono-oxygenase, a cytochrome P-450-linked mono-oxygenase. 2. The same large increase in mono-oxygenase activity was found when medium containing riboflavin was illuminated in the absence of cells and then stored in the dark for 24h before contact with the cells. From this it may be inferred that stimulation is due to the formation of a stable inducer in the culture medium. Further experiments indicate that the stable inducer is due to the photo-oxidation of an amino acid. 3. Evidence that singlet oxygen is responsible for initiating the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase is based on the use of molecules that scavenge particular active oxygen species. Of all the scavengers tested, only those that scavenge single oxygen inhibited the stimulation. 4. A hypothesis is developed to relate the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase by singlet oxygen in cultured cells to the regulation of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system in vivo. It is suggested that single oxygen generation within cells may be a common factor linking the many structurally diverse inducers of the enzyme system. PMID:962887

  20. Novel Three-Component Rieske Non-Heme Iron Oxygenase System Catalyzing the N-Dealkylation of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides in Sphingomonads DC-6 and DC-2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Wang, Cheng-Hong; Deng, Shi-Kai; Wu, Ya-Dong; Li, Yi; Yao, Li; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomonads DC-6 and DC-2 degrade the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor, acetochlor, and butachlor via N-dealkylation. In this study, we report a three-component Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase (RHO) system catalyzing the N-dealkylation of these herbicides. The oxygenase component gene cndA is located in a transposable element that is highly conserved in the two strains. CndA shares 24 to 42% amino acid sequence identities with the oxygenase components of some RHOs that catalyze N- or O-demethylation. Two putative [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin genes and one glutathione reductase (GR)-type reductase gene were retrieved from the genome of each strain. These genes were not located in the immediate vicinity of cndA. The four ferredoxins share 64 to 72% amino acid sequence identities to the ferredoxin component of dicamba O-demethylase (DMO), and the two reductases share 62 to 65% amino acid sequence identities to the reductase component of DMO. cndA, the four ferredoxin genes, and the two reductases genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-affinity chromatography. The individual components or the components in pairs displayed no activity; the enzyme mixture showed N-dealkylase activities toward alachlor, acetochlor, and butachlor only when CndA-His6 was combined with one of the four ferredoxins and one of the two reductases, suggesting that the enzyme consists of three components, a homo-oligomer oxygenase, a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, and a GR-type reductase, and CndA has a low specificity for the electron transport component (ETC). The N-dealkylase utilizes NADH, but not NADPH, as the electron donor. PMID:24928877

  1. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene encoding the pyoverdin biosynthetic enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-ornithine (L-Orn), which represents an early step in the biosynthesis of the peptidic moiety of the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A gene bank of DNA from P. aeruginosa PAO1 (ATCC 15692) was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR3 and mobilized into the L-Orn N5-oxygenase-defective (pvdA) P. aeruginosa mutant PALS124. Screening for fluorescent transconjugants made it possible to identify the trans-complementing cosmid pPV4, which was able to restore pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity in the pvdA mutant PALS124. The 17-kb PAO1 DNA insert of pPV4 contained at least two genetic determinants involved in pyoverdin synthesis, i.e., pvdA and pvdC4, as shown by complementation analysis of a set of mutants blocked in different steps of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway. Deletion analysis, subcloning, and transposon mutagenesis enabled us to locate the pvdA gene in a minimum DNA fragment of 1.7 kb flanked by two SphI restriction sites. Complementation of the pvdA mutation was under stringent iron control; both pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity were undetectable in cells of the trans-complemented mutant which had been grown in the presence of 100 microM FeCl3. The entire nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene, from which the primary structure of the encoded polypeptide was deduced, was determined. The pvdA structural gene is 1,278 bp; the cloned DNA fragment contains at the 5' end of the gene a putative ribosome-binding site but apparently lacks known promoterlike sequences. The P. aeruginosa L-Orn N5-oxygenase gene codes for a 426-amino-acid peptide with a predicted molecular mass of 47.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.1. The enzyme shows approximately 50% homology with functional analogs, i.e., L-lysine N6-hydroxylase of aerobactin-producing Escherichia coli and L-Orn N5-oxygenase of ferrichrome-producing Ustilago maydis. The pvd

  2. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  3. Mechanism and Catalytic Diversity of Rieske Non-Heme Iron-Dependent Oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Sarah M.; Challis, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases are important enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of reactions in the biodegradation of xenobiotics and the biosynthesis of bioactive natural products. In this perspective article, we summarize recent efforts to elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of Rieske oxygenases and highlight the diverse range of reactions now known to be catalyzed by such enzymes. PMID:24244885

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease. PMID:14517400

  5. Expression and characterization of truncated human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) and a fusion protein of hHO-1 with human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Wilks, A; Black, S M; Miller, W L; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1995-04-01

    A human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) gene without the sequence coding for the last 23 amino acids has been expressed in Escherichia coli behind the pho A promoter. The truncated enzyme is obtained in high yields as a soluble, catalytically-active protein, making it available for the first time for detailed mechanistic studies. The purified, truncated hHO-1/heme complex is spectroscopically indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme and converts heme to biliverdin when reconstituted with rat liver cytochrome P450 reductase. A self-sufficient heme oxygenase system has been obtained by fusing the truncated hHO-1 gene to the gene for human cytochrome P450 reductase without the sequence coding for the 20 amino acid membrane binding domain. Expression of the fusion protein in pCWori+ yields a protein that only requires NADPH for catalytic turnover. The failure of exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase to stimulate turnover and the insensitivity of the catalytic rate toward changes in ionic strength establish that electrons are transferred intramolecularly between the reductase and heme oxygenase domains of the fusion protein. The Vmax for the fusion protein is 2.5 times higher than that for the reconstituted system. Therefore, either the covalent tether does not interfere with normal docking and electron transfer between the flavin and heme domains or alternative but equally efficient electron transfer pathways are available that do not require specific docking. PMID:7703255

  6. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. The metal centres of particulate methane mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-12-01

    pMMO (particulate methane mono-oxygenase) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol. The pMMO metal active site has not been identified, precluding detailed investigation of the reaction mechanism. Models for the metal centres proposed by various research groups have evolved as crystallographic and spectroscopic data have become available. The present review traces the evolution of these active-site models before and after the 2005 Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) pMMO crystal structure determination. PMID:19021511

  8. Activity-dependent labeling of oxygenase enzymes in a trichloroethene-contaminated groundwater site.

    PubMed

    Lee, M Hope; Clingenpeel, Scott C; Leiser, Owen P; Wymore, Ryan A; Sorenson, Kent S; Watwood, Mary E

    2008-05-01

    A variety of naturally occurring bacteria produce enzymes that cometabolically degrade trichloroethene (TCE), including organisms with aerobic oxygenases. Groundwater contaminated with TCE was collected from the aerobic region of the Test Area North site of the Idaho National Laboratory. Samples were evaluated with enzyme activity probes, and resulted in measurable detection of toluene oxygenase activity (6-79% of the total microbial cells). Wells from both inside and outside contaminated plume showed activity. Toluene oxygenase-specific PCR primers determined that toluene-degrading genes were present in all groundwater samples evaluated. In addition, bacterial isolates were obtained and possessed toluene oxygenase enzymes, demonstrated activity, and were dominated by the phylotype Pseudomonas. This study demonstrated, through the use of enzymatic probes and oxygenase gene identification, that indigenous microorganisms at a contaminated site were cometabolically active. Documentation such as this can be used to substantiate observations of natural attenuation of TCE-contaminated groundwater plumes. PMID:17904715

  9. Differential effects of metalloporphyrins on messenger RNA levels of delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase. Studies in cultured chick embryo liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cable, E E; Pepe, J A; Karamitsios, N C; Lambrecht, R W; Bonkovsky, H L

    1994-01-01

    The acute porphyrias in relapse are commonly treated with intravenous heme infusion to decrease the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, normally the rate-controlling enzyme in heme biosynthesis. The biochemical effects of heme treatment are short-lived, probably due in part to heme-mediated induction of heme oxygenase, the rate-controlling enzyme for heme degradation. In this work, selected nonheme metalloporphyrins were screened for their ability to reduce delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA and induce heme oxygenase mRNA in chick embryo liver cell cultures. Of the metalloporphyrins tested, only zinc-mesoporphyrin reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA without increasing heme oxygenase mRNA. The combination of zinc-mesoporphyrin and heme, at nanomolar concentrations, decreased delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of zinc-mesoporphyrin (50 nM) and heme (200 nM) decreased the half-life of the mRNA for delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase from 5.2 to 2.5 h, while a similar decrease was produced by heme (10 microM) alone (2.2 h). The ability of zinc-mesoporphyrin to supplement the reduction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA by heme, in a process similar to that observed with heme alone, provides a rationale for further investigation of this compound for eventual use as a supplement to heme therapy of the acute porphyrias and perhaps other conditions in which heme may be of benefit. Images PMID:8040318

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Young; Park, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule Erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon the production of intracellular iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not other metals. However, key regulators remain unknown. The heme oxygenase (HO) is a major intracellular source of iron. In this study, the role of heme oxygenase in Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death has been investigated. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, prevented Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death. Furthermore, Erastin induced the protein and mRNA levels of HO-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. HO-1+/+ and HO-1−/− fibroblast, HO-1 overexpression, and chycloheximide-treated experiments revealed that the expression of HO-1 has a decisive effects in Erastin-triggered cell death. Hemin and CO-releasing molecules (CORM) promote Erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death, not by biliverdin and bilirubin. In addition, hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death. PMID:26405158

  11. Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro,D.; Brown, E.; Yu, C.; Parales, R.; Gibson, D.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2007-01-01

    The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-F{sub B1}). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-O{sub B1}), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene. Results: In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-O{sub B1} in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-F{sub B1} has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion: This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Tracy; Krol, Adam; Campanaro, Danielle; Malkowski, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) is a heme-containing membrane-associated protein found in monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants that utilizes molecular oxygen to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX is a member of a larger family of fatty-acid alpha-dioxygenases that includes the mammalian cyclooxygenase enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). Single crystals of PIOX from rice (Oryza sativa) have been grown from MPD using recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently extracted utilizing decyl maltoside as the solubilizing detergent. Crystals diffract to 3.0 angstroms resolution using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector, and belong to space group P1. Based on the Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function analyses, there are presumed to be four molecules in the asymmetric unit related by noncrystallographic 222 symmetry. PMID:16582486

  13. A chicory cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase CYP71AV8 for the oxidation of (+)-valencene.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), which is known to have a variety of terpene-hydroxylating activities, was screened for a P450 mono-oxygenase to convert (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone. A novel P450 cDNA was identified in a chicory root EST library. Co-expression of the enzyme with a valencene synthase in yeast, led to formation of trans-nootkatol, cis-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. The novel enzyme was also found to catalyse a three step conversion of germacrene A to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid, indicating its involvement in chicory sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Likewise, amorpha-4,11-diene was converted to artemisinic acid. Surprisingly, the chicory P450 has a different regio-specificity on (+)-valencene compared to germacrene A and amorpha-4,11-diene. PMID:21115006

  14. Detergents profoundly affect inhibitor potencies against both cyclo-oxygenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Marc; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Percival, M David

    2004-02-01

    The sensitivity of Coxs (cyclo-oxygenases) to inhibition is known to be highly dependent on assay conditions. In the present study, the inhibitor sensitivities of purified Cox-1 and -2 were determined in a colorimetric assay using the reducing agent N, N, N ', N '-tetramethyl- p -phenylenediamine. With the detergent genapol X-100 (2 mM) present, the potencies of nimesulide, ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, niflumic acid and naproxen were increased over 100-fold against Cox-2 and titration curve shapes changed, so that maximal inhibition now approached 100%. Indomethacin, diclofenac and flosulide were not changed in potency. Similar effects of genapol were observed with inhibitors of Cox-1. DuP-697 and two analogues became more than 10-fold less potent against Cox-2 with genapol present. Tween-20, Triton X-100 and phosphatidylcholine, but not octylglucoside, gave qualitatively similar effects as genapol. Similar detergent-dependent changes in inhibitor potency were also observed using a [(14)C]arachidonic acid HPLC assay. The increases in potency of ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, isoxicam and niflumic acid towards Cox-2 and ibuprofen towards Cox-1 were accompanied by a change from time-independent to time-dependent inhibition. The interactions of Cox inhibitors has been described in terms of multiple binding step mechanisms. The genapol-dependent increase in inhibitor potency for ketoprofen was associated with an increase in the rate constant for the conversion of the initial enzyme-inhibitor complex to a second, more tightly bound form. The loss of potency for some inhibitors is probably due to inhibitor partitioning into detergent micelles. The present study identifies detergents as another factor that must be considered when determining inhibitor potencies against both Cox isoforms. PMID:14510637

  15. The Conserved Rieske Oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland Is a Novel Cholesterol-metabolizing Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Takuji; Enya, Sora; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Matsuya, Takeshi; Shiomi, Kensuke; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones play essential roles in a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms. The principal steroid hormones in nematodes and arthropods are dafachronic acids and ecdysteroids, respectively, both of which are synthesized from cholesterol as an indispensable precursor. The first critical catalytic step in the biosynthesis of these ecdysozoan steroids is the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. However, the enzymes responsible for cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenation remain unclear at the molecular level. Here we report that the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland (Nvd) is a cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase. The daf-36/nvd genes are evolutionarily conserved, not only in nematodes and insects but also in deuterostome species that do not produce dafachronic acids or ecdysteroids, including the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, the fish Danio rerio, and the frog Xenopus laevis. An in vitro enzymatic assay system reveals that all DAF-36/Nvd proteins cloned so far have the ability to convert cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. Moreover, the lethality of loss of nvd function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is rescued by the expression of daf-36/nvd genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Bombyx mori, or the vertebrates D. rerio and X. laevis. These data suggest that daf-36/nvd genes are functionally orthologous across the bilaterian phylogeny. We propose that the daf-36/nvd family of proteins is a novel conserved player in cholesterol metabolism across the animal phyla. PMID:21632547

  16. PIOX, a new pathogen-induced oxygenase with homology to animal cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, A; Moreno, J I; Castresana, C

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression induced in tobacco leaves by the harpin HrpN protein elicitor were examined, and a new cDNA, piox (for pathogen-induced oxygenase), with homology to genes encoding cyclooxygenase or prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS), was identified. In addition to the amino acid identity determined, the protein encoded by piox is predicted to have a structural core similar to that of ovine PGHS-1. Moreover, studies of protein functionality demonstrate that the PIOX recombinant protein possesses at least one of the two enzymatic activities of PGHSs, that of catalyzing the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. piox transcripts accumulated after protein elicitor treatment or inoculation with bacteria. Expression of piox was induced in tissues responding to inoculation with both incompatible and compatible bacteria, but RNA and protein accumulation differed for both types of interactions. We show that expression of piox is rapidly induced in response to various cellular signals mediating plant responses to pathogen infection and that activation of piox expression is most likely related to the oxidative burst that takes place during the cell death processes examined. Cyclooxygenase catalyzes the first committed step in the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are lipid-derived signal molecules that mediate many cellular processes, including the immune response in vertebrates. The finding of tobacco PIOX suggests that more similarities than hitherto expected will be found between the lipid-based responses for plant and animal systems. PMID:9724698

  17. The conserved Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland is a novel cholesterol-metabolizing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Takuji; Enya, Sora; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Matsuya, Takeshi; Shiomi, Kensuke; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2011-07-22

    Steroid hormones play essential roles in a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms. The principal steroid hormones in nematodes and arthropods are dafachronic acids and ecdysteroids, respectively, both of which are synthesized from cholesterol as an indispensable precursor. The first critical catalytic step in the biosynthesis of these ecdysozoan steroids is the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. However, the enzymes responsible for cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenation remain unclear at the molecular level. Here we report that the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland (Nvd) is a cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase. The daf-36/nvd genes are evolutionarily conserved, not only in nematodes and insects but also in deuterostome species that do not produce dafachronic acids or ecdysteroids, including the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, the fish Danio rerio, and the frog Xenopus laevis. An in vitro enzymatic assay system reveals that all DAF-36/Nvd proteins cloned so far have the ability to convert cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. Moreover, the lethality of loss of nvd function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is rescued by the expression of daf-36/nvd genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Bombyx mori, or the vertebrates D. rerio and X. laevis. These data suggest that daf-36/nvd genes are functionally orthologous across the bilaterian phylogeny. We propose that the daf-36/nvd family of proteins is a novel conserved player in cholesterol metabolism across the animal phyla. PMID:21632547

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  19. Role of rice heme oxygenase in lateral root formation

    PubMed Central

    Huei Kao, Ching

    2013-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs) play important roles in increasing the absorptive capacity of roots as well as to anchor the plant in the soil. In rice, exposure to auxin, methyl jasmonate (MJ), apocynin, and CoCl2 has been shown to increase LR formation. This review provides evidence showing a close link between rice heme oxygenase (HO) and LR formation. The effect of auxin and MJ is nitric oxide (NO) dependent, whereas that of apocynin requires H2O2. The effect of CoCl2 on the LR formation could be by some other pathway unrelated to NO and H2O2. This review also highlights future lines of research that should increase our knowledge of HO-involved LR formation in rice. PMID:23887491

  20. Retuning Rieske-type Oxygenases to Expand Substrate Range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Mahmood; Viger, Jean-François; Kumar, Pravindra; Barriault, Diane; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel

    2012-09-17

    Rieske-type oxygenases are promising biocatalysts for the destruction of persistent pollutants or for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this work, we explored pathways through which Rieske-type oxygenases evolve to expand their substrate range. BphAE{sub p4}, a variant biphenyl dioxygenase generated from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 BphAE{sub LB400} by the double substitution T335A/F336M, and BphAE{sub RR41}, obtained by changing Asn{sup 338}, Ile{sup 341}, and Leu{sup 409} of BphAE{sub p4} to Gln{sup 338}, Val{sup 341}, and Phe{sup 409}, metabolize dibenzofuran two and three times faster than BphAE{sub LB400}, respectively. Steady-state kinetic measurements of single- and multiple-substitution mutants of BphAE{sub LB400} showed that the single T335A and the double N338Q/L409F substitutions contribute significantly to enhanced catalytic activity toward dibenzofuran. Analysis of crystal structures showed that the T335A substitution relieves constraints on a segment lining the catalytic cavity, allowing a significant displacement in response to dibenzofuran binding. The combined N338Q/L409F substitutions alter substrate-induced conformational changes of protein groups involved in subunit assembly and in the chemical steps of the reaction. This suggests a responsive induced fit mechanism that retunes the alignment of protein atoms involved in the chemical steps of the reaction. These enzymes can thus expand their substrate range through mutations that alter the constraints or plasticity of the catalytic cavity to accommodate new substrates or that alter the induced fit mechanism required to achieve proper alignment of reaction-critical atoms or groups.

  1. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage.

    PubMed

    Evans, John P; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-09-22

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides, isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 microM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design. PMID:19694439

  2. The dark and bright sides of an enzyme: a three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of Zophobas morio luciferase-like enzyme, inferences on the biological function and origin of oxygenase/luciferase activity.

    PubMed

    Prado, R A; Santos, C R; Kato, D I; Murakami, M T; Viviani, V R

    2016-05-11

    Beetle luciferases, the enzymes responsible for bioluminescence, are special cases of CoA-ligases which have acquired a novel oxygenase activity, offering elegant models to investigate the structural origin of novel catalytic functions in enzymes. What the original function of their ancestors was, and how the new oxygenase function emerged leading to bioluminescence remains unclear. To address these questions, we solved the crystal structure of a recently cloned Malpighian luciferase-like enzyme of unknown function from Zophobas morio mealworms, which displays weak luminescence with ATP and the xenobiotic firefly d-luciferin. The three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain showed the expected general fold of CoA-ligases, with a unique carboxylic substrate binding pocket, permitting the binding and CoA-thioesterification activity with a broad range of carboxylic substrates, including short-, medium-chain and aromatic acids, indicating a generalist function consistent with a xenobiotic-ligase. The thioesterification activity with l-luciferin, but not with the d-enantiomer, confirms that the oxygenase activity emerged from a stereoselective impediment of the thioesterification reaction with the latter, favoring the alternative chemiluminescence oxidative reaction. The structure and site-directed mutagenesis support the involvement of the main-chain amide carbonyl of the invariant glycine G323 as the catalytic base for luciferin C4 proton abstraction during the oxygenase activity in this enzyme and in beetle luciferases (G343). PMID:27101527

  3. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  4. In vitro Activation of heme oxygenase-2 by menadione and its analogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that menadione activated rat, native heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and human recombinant heme oxygenase-2 selectively; it did not activate spleen, microsomal heme oxygenase-1. The purpose of this study was to explore some structure–activity relationships of this activation and the idea that redox properties may be an important aspect of menadione efficacy. Methods Heme oxygenase activity was determined in vitro using rat spleen and brain microsomes as the sources of heme oxygenase-1 and −2, respectively, as well as recombinant, human heme oxygenase-2. Results Menadione analogs with bulky aliphatic groups at position-3, namely vitamins K1 and K2, were not able to activate HO-2. In contrast, several compounds with similar bulky but less lipophilic moieties at position-2 (and −3) were able to activate HO-2 many fold; these compounds included polar, rigid, furan-containing naphthoquinones, furan-benzoxazine naphthoquinones, 2-(aminophenylphenyl)-3-piperidin-1-yl naphthoquinones. To explore the idea that redox properties might be involved in menadione efficacy, we tested analogs such as 1,4-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene, pentafluoromenadione, monohalogenated naphthoquinones, α-tetralone and 1,4-naphthoquinone. All of these compounds were inactive except for 1,4-naphthoquinone. Menadione activated full-length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2) as effectively as rat brain enzyme, but it did not activate rat spleen heme oxygenase. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the idea that naphthoquinones such as menadione bind to a receptor in HO-2 and activate the enzyme through a mechanism that may involve redox properties. PMID:24533775

  5. Heme oxygenase is involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced lateral root formation in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Chao, Yun-Yang; Hsu, Yun Yen; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

    2012-06-01

    Lateral root (LR) development performs the essential tasks of providing water, nutrients, and physical support to plants. Therefore, understanding the regulation of LR development is of agronomic importance. In this study, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO), auxin, and hemin (Hm) on LR formation in rice. Treatment with Hm [a highly effective heme oxygenase (HO) inducer], sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, a naturally occurring auxin) induced LR formation and HO activity. LR formation and HO activity induced by SNP and IBA but not Hm was reduced by the specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. As well, Hm, SNP, and IBA could induce OsHO1 mRNA expression. Zn protoporphyrin IX (the specific inhibitor of HO) and hemoglobin (the carbon monoxide/NO scavenger) reduced LR number and HO activity induced by Hm, SNP, and IBA. Our data suggest that HO is required for Hm-, auxin-, and NO-induced LR formation in rice. PMID:22262313

  6. Functional metagenomic selection of ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from uncultivated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Satagopan, Sriram; North, Justin A; Witte, Brian; Dourado, Manuella N; Anantharaman, Karthik; Arbing, Mark A; McCann, Shelley Hoeft; Oremland, Ronald S; Banfield, Jillian F; Wrighton, Kelly C; Tabita, F Robert

    2016-04-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a critical yet severely inefficient enzyme that catalyses the fixation of virtually all of the carbon found on Earth. Here, we report a functional metagenomic selection that recovers physiologically active RubisCO molecules directly from uncultivated and largely unknown members of natural microbial communities. Selection is based on CO2 -dependent growth in a host strain capable of expressing environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), precluding the need for pure cultures or screening of recombinant clones for enzymatic activity. Seventeen functional RubisCO-encoded sequences were selected using DNA extracted from soil and river autotrophic enrichments, a photosynthetic biofilm and a subsurface groundwater aquifer. Notably, three related form II RubisCOs were recovered which share high sequence similarity with metagenomic scaffolds from uncultivated members of the Gallionellaceae family. One of the Gallionellaceae RubisCOs was purified and shown to possess CO2 /O2 specificity typical of form II enzymes. X-ray crystallography determined that this enzyme is a hexamer, only the second form II multimer ever solved and the first RubisCO structure obtained from an uncultivated bacterium. Functional metagenomic selection leverages natural biological diversity and billions of years of evolution inherent in environmental communities, providing a new window into the discovery of CO2 -fixing enzymes not previously characterized. PMID:26617072

  7. Cleavage oxygenases for the biosynthesis of trisporoids and other apocarotenoids in Phycomyces.

    PubMed

    Medina, Humberto R; Cerdá-Olmedo, Enrique; Al-Babili, Salim

    2011-10-01

    Mixed cultures of strains of opposite sex of the Mucorales produce trisporic acids and other compounds arising from cleavage of β-carotene, some of which act as signals in the mating process. The genome of Phycomyces blakesleeanus contains five sequences akin to those of verified carotenoid cleavage oxygenases. All five are transcribed, three of them have the sequence traits that are considered essential for activity, and we have discovered the reactions catalysed by the products of two of them, genes carS and acaA. The transcripts of carS became more abundant in the course of mating, and its expression in β-carotene-producing Escherichia coli cells led to the formation of β-apo-12'-carotenal, a C₂₅ cleavage product of β-carotene. Joint expression of both genes in the same in vivo system resulted in the production of β-apo-13-carotenone, a C₁₈ fragment. In vitro, AcaA cleaved β-apo-12'-carotenal into β-apo-13-carotenone and was active on other apocarotenoid substrates. According to these and other results, the first reactions in the apocarotenoid pathway of Phycomyces are the cleavage of β-carotene at its C11'-C12' double bond by CarS and the cleavage of the resulting C₂₅-fragment at its C13-14 double bond by AcaA. PMID:21854466

  8. Crystal Structure of the Terminal Oxygenase Component of Cumene Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01†

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuesong; Fushinobu, Shinya; Fukuda, Eriko; Terada, Tohru; Nakamura, Shugo; Shimizu, Kentaro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of the terminal component of the cumene dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme system of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01 (CumDO) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å by means of molecular replacement by using the crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 (NphDO). The ligation of the two catalytic centers of CumDO (i.e., the nonheme iron and Rieske [2Fe-2S] centers) and the bridging between them in neighboring catalytic subunits by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid residue, Asp231, are similar to those of NphDO. An unidentified external ligand, possibly dioxygen, was bound at the active site nonheme iron. The entrance to the active site of CumDO is different from the entrance to the active site of NphDO, as the two loops forming the lid exhibit great deviation. On the basis of the complex structure of NphDO, a biphenyl substrate was modeled in the substrate-binding pocket of CumDO. The residues surrounding the modeled biphenyl molecule include residues that have already been shown to be important for its substrate specificity by a number of engineering studies of biphenyl dioxygenases. PMID:15774891

  9. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase content, assimilatory charge, and mesophyll conductance in leaves

    PubMed

    Eichelmann; Laisk

    1999-01-01

    The content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Et; EC 4.1.1.39) measured in different-aged leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and other plants grown under different light intensities, varied from 2 to 75 &mgr;mol active sites m-2. Mesophyll conductance (&mgr;) was measured under 1.5% O2, as well as postillumination CO2 uptake (assimilatory charge, a gas-exchange measure of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate pool). The dependence of &mgr; on Et saturated at Et = 30 &mgr;mol active sites m-2 and &mgr; = 11 mm s-1 in high-light-grown leaves. In low-light-grown leaves the dependence tended toward saturation at similar Et but reached a &mgr; of only 6 to 8 mm s-1. &mgr; was proportional to the assimilatory charge, with the proportionality constant (specific carboxylation efficiency) between 0.04 and 0.075 &mgr;M-1 s-1. Our data show that the saturation of the relationship between Et and &mgr; is caused by three limiting components: (a) the physical diffusion resistance (a minor limitation), (b) less than full activation of Rubisco (related to Rubisco activase and the slower diffusibility of Rubisco at high protein concentrations in the stroma), and (c) chloroplast metabolites, especially 3-phosphoglyceric acid and free inorganic phosphate, which control the reaction kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation by competitive binding to active sites. PMID:9880359

  10. Vitamins C, E and A and heme oxygenase in rats fed methyl/folate-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Henning, S M; Swendseid, M E; Ivandic, B T; Liao, F

    1997-01-01

    There is evidence that the development of hepatocarcinoma in rats fed a methyl-deficient diet is associated with oxidative stress. We investigated, therefore, whether the tissue concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (T) are altered in methyl/folate deficiency. We also measured retinol concentrations in tissues and hepatic mRNA expression of heme oxygenase (HO1). A 6% gelatin, 6% casein diet, devoid of choline and folate (CFD) was selected based on the high rate of tumor development in rats fed this diet. Spectrophotometric measurement of AA and HPLC determination of tissue T and retinol showed decreased concentrations of AA in blood; alpha- and gamma-T in lung, heart and plasma, alpha-T and retinol in liver; retinol in lung; and increased expression of hepatic HO1 mRNA. Similar alterations in tissue vitamin concentrations were found when the CFD diet devoid of niacin (CFND) was fed. Reducing alpha-T in the CFND diet (CFNED) further decreased hepatic alpha-T concentrations. These results show that chronic methyl/folate deficiency is associated with a compromised antioxidant defense system. PMID:9378373

  11. Human heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer lowers blood pressure and promotes growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sabaawy, H E; Zhang, F; Nguyen, X; ElHosseiny, A; Nasjletti, A; Schwartzman, M; Dennery, P; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    2001-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin, with release of free iron and carbon monoxide. Both heme and carbon monoxide have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone. A retroviral vector containing human HO-1 cDNA (LSN-HHO-1) was constructed and subjected to purification and concentration of the viral particles to achieve 5x10(9) to 1x10(10) colony-forming units per milliliter. The ability of concentrated infectious viral particles to express human HO-1 (HHO-1) in vivo was tested. A single intracardiac injection of the concentrated infectious viral particles (expressing HHO-1) to 5-day-old spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in functional expression of the HHO-1 gene and attenuation of the development of hypertension. Rats expressing HHO-1 showed a significant decrease in urinary excretion of a vasoconstrictor arachidonic acid metabolite and a reduction in myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure in isolated arterioles. Unexpectedly, HHO-1 chimeric rats showed a simultaneous significant proportionate increase in somatic growth. Thus, delivery of HHO-1 gene by retroviral vector attenuates the development of hypertension and promotes body growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:11509478

  12. Mechanistic Insights from Reaction of α-Oxiranyl-Aldehydes with Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debasis; Ellington, Benjamin; Paul, Bishwajit; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derived from fatty acids, is widespread in Nature. The last step in this pathway involves the decarbonylation of fatty aldehydes to the corresponding alkanes or alkenes. In cyanobacteria this is catalyzed by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. We have investigated the mechanism of this enzyme using substrates bearing an oxirane ring adjacent to the aldehyde carbon. The enzyme catalyzed the deformylation of these substrates to produce the corresponding oxiranes. Performing the reaction in D2O allowed the facial selectivity of proton addition to be examined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The proton is delivered with equal probability to either face of the oxirane ring, indicating the formation of an oxiranyl radical intermediate that is free to rotate during the reaction. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also catalyzes a side reaction in which oxiranyl-aldehydes undergo tandem deformylation to furnish alkanes two carbons shorter. We present evidence that this involves the rearrangement of the intermediate oxiranyl radical formed in the first step, resulting an aldehyde that is further deformylated in a second step. These observations provide support for a radical mechanism for deformylation and, furthermore, allow the lifetime of the radical intermediate to be estimated based on prior measurements of rate constants for the rearrangement of oxiranyl radicals. PMID:24313866

  13. Characterization of a Wheat Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene and Its Responses to Different Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dao-kun; Jin, Qi-jiang; Xie, Yan-jie; Liu, Ya-hui; Lin, Yu-ting; Shen, Wen-biao; Zhou, Yi-jun

    2011-01-01

    In animals and recently in plants, heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) has been found to confer protection against a variety of oxidant-induced cell and tissue injuries. In this study, a wheat (Triticum aestivum) HO1 gene TaHO1 was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 31.7 kD with a putative N-terminal plastid transit peptide. The amino acid sequence of TaHO1 was found to be 78% similar to that of maize HO1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TaHO1 clusters together with the HO1-like sequences in plants. The purified recombinant TaHO1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was active in the conversion of heme to biliverdin IXa (BV), and showed that the Vmax was 8.8 U·mg−1 protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 3.04 μM. The optimum Tm and pH were 35 °C and 7.4, respectively. The result of subcellular localization of TaHO1 showed that the putative transit peptide was sufficient for green fluorescent protein (GFP) to localize in chloroplast and implied that TaHO1 gene product is at least localized in the chloroplast. Moreover, we found that TaHO1 mRNA could be differentially induced by the well-known nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), gibberellin acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and NaCl treatments. Therefore, the results suggested that TaHO1 might play an important role in abiotic stress responses. PMID:22174625

  14. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. PMID:16222706

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects melanocytes from stress-induced cell death: implications for vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Elassiuty, Yasser E.; Klarquist, Jared; Speiser, Jodi; Yousef, Randa M.; EL Refaee, Abdelaziz A.; Hunter, Nahla S.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Gundeti, Mohan; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, Ludmila; Le Poole, I. Caroline

    2013-01-01

    To study protection of melanocytes from stress-induced cell death by heme oxygenases during depigmentation and repigmentation in vitiligo, expression of isoforms 1 and 2 was studied in cultured control and patient melanocytes and normal skin explants exposed to UV or bleaching agent 4-TBP. Similarly, expression of heme oxygenases was followed in skin from vitiligo patients before and after PUVA treatment. Single and double immunostainings were used in combination with light and confocal microscopic analysis and Western blotting. Melanocyte expression of heme oxygenase 1 is upregulated, whereas heme oxygenase 2 is reduced in response to UV and 4-TBP. Upregulation of inducible heme oxygenase 1 was also observed in UV-treated explant cultures, in skin of successfully PUVA-treated patients and in melanocytes cultured from vitiligo non-lesional skin. Heme oxygenase encoding genes were subsequently cloned to study consequences of either gene product on cell viability, demonstrating that HO-1 but not HO-2 overexpression offers protection from stress-induced cell death in MTT assays. HO-1 expression by melanocytes may contribute to beneficial effects of UV treatment for vitiligo patients. PMID:21426408

  16. Regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Okinaga, S; Takahashi, K; Takeda, K; Yoshizawa, M; Fujita, H; Sasaki, H; Shibahara, S

    1996-06-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 is an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, and its human gene promoter contains a putative heat shock element (HHO-HSE). This study was designed to analyze the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress. The amounts of heme oxygenase-1 protein were not increased by heat shock (incubation at 42 degrees C) in human alveolar macrophages and in a human erythroblastic cell line, YN-1-0-A, whereas heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was noticeably induced. However, heat shock factor does bind in vitro to HHO-HSE and the synthetic HHO-HSE by itself is sufficient to confer the increase in the transient expression of a reporter gene upon heat shock. The deletion of the sequence, located downstream from HHO-HSE, resulted in the activation of a reporter gene by heat shock. These results suggest that HHO-HSE is potentially functional but is repressed in vivo. Interestingly, heat shock abolished the remarkable increase in the levels of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in YN-1-0-A cells treated with hemin or cadmium, in which HSP70 mRNA was noticeably induced. Furthermore, transient expression assays showed that heat shock inhibits the cadmium-mediated activation of the heme oxygenase-1 promoter, whereas the HSP70 gene promoter was activated upon heat shock. Such regulation of heme oxygenase-1 under thermal stress may be of physiologic significance in erythroid cells. PMID:8652820

  17. Protective effect of heme oxygenase induction in ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Muchova, Lucie; Vanova, Katerina; Suk, Jakub; Micuda, Stanislav; Dolezelova, Eva; Fuksa, Leos; Cerny, Dalibor; Farghali, Hassan; Zelenkova, Miroslava; Lenicek, Martin; Wong, Ronald J; Vreman, Hendrik J; Vitek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-induced cholestasis is characterized by impaired hepatic uptake and biliary bile acids secretion because of changes in hepatocyte transporter expression. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), the inducible isozyme in heme catabolism, is mediated via the Bach1/Nrf2 pathway, and protects livers from toxic, oxidative and inflammatory insults. However, its role in cholestasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of HMOX1 induction by heme on ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis and possible underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were given ethinylestradiol (5 mg/kg s.c.) for 5 days. HMOX1 was induced by heme (15 μmol/kg i.p.) 24 hrs prior to ethinylestradiol. Serum cholestatic markers, hepatocyte and renal membrane transporter expression, and biliary and urinary bile acids excretion were quantified. Ethinylestradiol significantly increased cholestatic markers (P ≤ 0.01), decreased biliary bile acid excretion (39%, P = 0.01), down-regulated hepatocyte transporters (Ntcp/Oatp1b2/Oatp1a4/Mrp2, P ≤ 0.05), and up-regulated Mrp3 (348%, P ≤ 0.05). Heme pre-treatment normalized cholestatic markers, increased biliary bile acid excretion (167%, P ≤ 0.05) and up-regulated hepatocyte transporter expression. Moreover, heme induced Mrp3 expression in control (319%, P ≤ 0.05) and ethinylestradiol-treated rats (512%, P ≤ 0.05). In primary rat hepatocytes, Nrf2 silencing completely abolished heme-induced Mrp3 expression. Additionally, heme significantly increased urinary bile acid clearance via up-regulation (Mrp2/Mrp4) or down-regulation (Mrp3) of renal transporters (P ≤ 0.05). We conclude that HMOX1 induction by heme increases hepatocyte transporter expression, subsequently stimulating bile flow in cholestasis. Also, heme stimulates hepatic Mrp3 expression via a Nrf2-dependent mechanism. Bile acids transported by Mrp3 to the plasma are highly cleared into the urine, resulting in normal plasma bile acid levels. Thus, HMOX1

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates mitochondrial quality control in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Travis D.; Boddu, Ravindra; Guo, Lingling; Tisher, Cornelia C.; Traylor, Amie M.; Patel, Bindiya; Joseph, Reny; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The cardioprotective inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades prooxidant heme into equimolar quantities of carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and iron. We hypothesized that HO-1 mediates cardiac protection, at least in part, by regulating mitochondrial quality control. We treated WT and HO-1 transgenic mice with the known mitochondrial toxin, doxorubicin (DOX). Relative to WT mice, mice globally overexpressing human HO-1 were protected from DOX-induced dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac cytoarchitectural derangement, and infiltration of CD11b+ mononuclear phagocytes. Cardiac-specific overexpression of HO-1 ameliorated DOX-mediated dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondrial disorganization in the form of mitochondrial fragmentation and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria in autophagic vacuoles. HO-1 overexpression promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating protein expression of NRF1, PGC1α, and TFAM, which was inhibited in WT animals treated with DOX. Concomitantly, HO-1 overexpression inhibited the upregulation of the mitochondrial fission mediator Fis1 and resulted in increased expression of the fusion mediators, Mfn1 and Mfn2. It also prevented dynamic changes in the levels of key mediators of the mitophagy pathway, PINK1 and parkin. Therefore, these findings suggest that HO-1 has a novel role in protecting the heart from oxidative injury by regulating mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27110594

  19. The copper active site of CBM33 polysaccharide oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Taylor, Edward J; Kim, Robbert Q; Gregory, Rebecca C; Lewis, Sally J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Parkin, Alison; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2013-04-24

    The capacity of metal-dependent fungal and bacterial polysaccharide oxygenases, termed GH61 and CBM33, respectively, to potentiate the enzymatic degradation of cellulose opens new possibilities for the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to biofuels. GH61s have already been shown to be unique metalloenzymes containing an active site with a mononuclear copper ion coordinated by two histidines, one of which is an unusual τ-N-methylated N-terminal histidine. We now report the structural and spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding copper CBM33 enzymes. CBM33 binds copper with high affinity at a mononuclear site, significantly stabilizing the enzyme. X-band EPR spectroscopy of Cu(II)-CBM33 shows a mononuclear type 2 copper site with the copper ion in a distorted axial coordination sphere, into which azide will coordinate as evidenced by the concomitant formation of a new absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum at 390 nm. The enzyme's three-dimensional structure contains copper, which has been photoreduced to Cu(I) by the incident X-rays, confirmed by X-ray absorption/fluorescence studies of both aqueous solution and intact crystals of Cu-CBM33. The single copper(I) ion is ligated in a T-shaped configuration by three nitrogen atoms from two histidine side chains and the amino terminus, similar to the endogenous copper coordination geometry found in fungal GH61. PMID:23540833

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol; Woo, Je Moon; Son, Yong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  1. Crystal structure studies on sulfur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus tengchongensis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Mei; Chen Zhiwei; Zhang Pingfeng; Pan Xiaowei; Jiang Chengying; An Xiaomin; Liu Shuangjiang; Chang Wenrui

    2008-05-09

    Sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) simultaneously catalyzes oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur to produce sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfide in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this study, crystal structures of wild type and mutants of SOR from Acidianus tengchongensis (SOR-AT) in two different crystal forms were determined and it was observed that 24 identical SOR monomers form a hollow sphere. Within the icosatetramer sphere, the tetramer and trimer channels were proposed as the paths for the substrate and products, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of SOR-AT with SOR-AA (SOR from Acidianus ambivalens) structures showed that significant differences existed at the active site. Firstly, Cys31 is not persulfurated in SOR-AT structures. Secondly, the iron atom is five-coordinated rather than six-coordinated, since one of the water molecules ligated to the iron atom in the SOR-AA structure is lost. Consequently, the binding sites of substrates and a hypothetical catalytic process of SOR were proposed.

  2. Role of heme Oxygenase-1 in low dose Radioadaptive response.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lingzhi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Guodong; Hou, Jue; Hei, Tom K; Yu, K N; Han, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Radioadaptive response (RAR) is an important phenomenon induced by low dose radiation. However, the molecular mechanism of RAR is obscure. In this study, we focused on the possible role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in RAR. Consistent with previous studies, priming dose of X-ray radiation (1-10cGy) induced significant RAR in normal human skin fibroblasts (AG 1522 cells). Transcription and translation of HO-1 was up-regulated more than two fold by a priming dose of radiation (5cGy). Zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, a specific competitive inhibitor of HO-1, efficiently inhibited RAR whereas hemin, an inducer of HO-1, could mimic priming dose of X-rays to induce RAR. Knocking down of HO-1 by transfection of HO-1 siRNA significantly attenuated RAR. Furthermore, the expression of HO-1 gene was modulated by the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus after priming dose radiation and enhance the antioxidant level of cells. PMID:26966892

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J.; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B.; Deng, Alicia C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Stevenson, David K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  4. Role of heme Oxygenase-1 in low dose Radioadaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lingzhi; Ma, Jie; Chen, Guodong; Hou, Jue; Hei, Tom K.; Yu, K.N.; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Radioadaptive response (RAR) is an important phenomenon induced by low dose radiation. However, the molecular mechanism of RAR is obscure. In this study, we focused on the possible role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in RAR. Consistent with previous studies, priming dose of X-ray radiation (1–10 cGy) induced significant RAR in normal human skin fibroblasts (AG 1522 cells). Transcription and translation of HO-1 was up-regulated more than two fold by a priming dose of radiation (5 cGy). Zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, a specific competitive inhibitor of HO-1, efficiently inhibited RAR whereas hemin, an inducer of HO-1, could mimic priming dose of X-rays to induce RAR. Knocking down of HO-1 by transfection of HO-1 siRNA significantly attenuated RAR. Furthermore, the expression of HO-1 gene was modulated by the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus after priming dose radiation and enhance the antioxidant level of cells. PMID:26966892

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Deng, Alicia C; Spin, Joshua M; Stevenson, David K; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 protects against vascular constriction and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Duckers, H J; Boehm, M; True, A L; Yet, S F; San, H; Park, J L; Clinton Webb, R; Lee, M E; Nabel, G J; Nabel, E G

    2001-06-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) is an inducible protein activated in systemic inflammatory conditions by oxidant stress. Vascular injury is characterized by a local reparative process with inflammatory components, indicating a potential protective role for HO-1 in arterial wound repair. Here we report that HO-1 directly reduces vasoconstriction and inhibits cell proliferation during vascular injury. Expression of HO-1 in arteries stimulated vascular relaxation, mediated by guanylate cyclase and cGMP, independent of nitric oxide. The unexpected effects of HO-1 on vascular smooth muscle cell growth were mediated by cell-cycle arrest involving p21Cip1. HO-1 reduced the proliferative response to vascular injury in vivo; expression of HO-1 in pig arteries inhibited lesion formation and Hmox1-/- mice produced hyperplastic arteries compared with controls. Induction of the HO-1 pathway moderates the severity of vascular injury by at least two adaptive mechanisms independent of nitric oxide, and is a potential therapeutic target for diseases of the vasculature. PMID:11385506

  7. The Copper Active Site of CBM33 Polysaccharide Oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of metal-dependent fungal and bacterial polysaccharide oxygenases, termed GH61 and CBM33, respectively, to potentiate the enzymatic degradation of cellulose opens new possibilities for the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to biofuels. GH61s have already been shown to be unique metalloenzymes containing an active site with a mononuclear copper ion coordinated by two histidines, one of which is an unusual τ-N-methylated N-terminal histidine. We now report the structural and spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding copper CBM33 enzymes. CBM33 binds copper with high affinity at a mononuclear site, significantly stabilizing the enzyme. X-band EPR spectroscopy of Cu(II)-CBM33 shows a mononuclear type 2 copper site with the copper ion in a distorted axial coordination sphere, into which azide will coordinate as evidenced by the concomitant formation of a new absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum at 390 nm. The enzyme’s three-dimensional structure contains copper, which has been photoreduced to Cu(I) by the incident X-rays, confirmed by X-ray absorption/fluorescence studies of both aqueous solution and intact crystals of Cu-CBM33. The single copper(I) ion is ligated in a T-shaped configuration by three nitrogen atoms from two histidine side chains and the amino terminus, similar to the endogenous copper coordination geometry found in fungal GH61. PMID:23540833

  8. Heatstroke Effect on Brain Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ya-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Ta; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Chun-Chi; Kung, Woon-Man; Huang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Tien-Jen; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Wei, Li

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high environmental temperature leading to increased core body temperature above 40°C and central nervous system abnormalities such as convulsions, delirium, or coma is defined as heat stroke. Studies in humans and animals indicate that the heat shock responses of the host contribute to multiple organ injury and death during heat stroke. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin-has an important role in the neuroprotective mechanism against ischemic stroke. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous HO-1 in heat-induced brain damage in rats. RT-PCR results revealed that levels of HO-1 mRNA peaked at 0 h after heat exposure and immunoblot analysis revealed that the maximal protein expression occurred at 1 h post-heat exposure. Subsequently, we detected the HO-1 expression in the cortical brain cells and revealed the neuronal cell morphology. In conclusion, HO-1 is a potent protective molecule against heat-induced brain damage. Manipulation of HO-1 may provide a potential therapeutic approach for heat-related diseases. PMID:26392811

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages controls prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Li, Mailin; Csizmadia, Eva; Döme, Balazs; Johansson, Martin; Persson, Jenny Liao; Seth, Pankaj; Otterbein, Leo; Wegiel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune cells strongly influence cancer growth and progression via multiple mechanisms including regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated whether expression of the metabolic gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in tumor microenvironment imparts significant effects on prostate cancer progression. We showed that HO-1 is expressed in MARCO-positive macrophages in prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts and human prostate cancers. We demonstrated that macrophage specific (LyzM-Cre) conditional deletion of HO-1 suppressed growth of PC3 xenografts in vivo and delayed progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in TRAMP mice. However, initiation and progression of cancer xenografts in the presence of macrophages lacking HO-1 resulted in loss of E-cadherin, a known marker of poor prognosis as well as EMT. Application of CO, a product of HO-1 catalysis, increased levels of E-cadherin in the adherens junctions between cancer cells. We further showed that HO-1-driven expression of E-cadherin in cancer cells cultured in the presence of macrophages is dependent on mitochondrial activity of cancer cells. In summary, these data suggest that HO-1-derived CO from tumor-associated macrophages influences, in part, E-cadherin expression and thus tumor initiation and progression. PMID:26418896

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages controls prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Li, Mailin; Csizmadia, Eva; Döme, Balazs; Johansson, Martin; Persson, Jenny Liao; Seth, Pankaj; Otterbein, Leo; Wegiel, Barbara

    2015-10-20

    Innate immune cells strongly influence cancer growth and progression via multiple mechanisms including regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated whether expression of the metabolic gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in tumor microenvironment imparts significant effects on prostate cancer progression.We showed that HO-1 is expressed in MARCO-positive macrophages in prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts and human prostate cancers. We demonstrated that macrophage specific (LyzM-Cre) conditional deletion of HO-1 suppressed growth of PC3 xenografts in vivo and delayed progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in TRAMP mice. However, initiation and progression of cancer xenografts in the presence of macrophages lacking HO-1 resulted in loss of E-cadherin, a known marker of poor prognosis as well as EMT. Application of CO, a product of HO-1 catalysis, increased levels of E-cadherin in the adherens junctions between cancer cells. We further showed that HO-1-driven expression of E-cadherin in cancer cells cultured in the presence of macrophages is dependent on mitochondrial activity of cancer cells.In summary, these data suggest that HO-1-derived CO from tumor-associated macrophages influences, in part, E-cadherin expression and thus tumor initiation and progression. PMID:26418896

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 modulates fetal growth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kreiser, Doron; Nguyen, Xuandai; Wong, Ron; Seidman, Daniel; Stevenson, David; Quan, Shou; Abraham, Nader; Dennery, Phyllis A

    2002-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as with lifelong cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Deficiency of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is associated with growth restriction in mice and in humans, suggesting a role for HO-1 in fetal growth and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that modulation of HO-1 in the pregnant rat would alter fetal growth. In pregnant dams, placental HO activity was significantly inhibited with zinc deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis glycol, and HO-1 protein was increased by transducing adenoviral human HO-1. Inhibition of HO-1 by zinc deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis glycol resulted in a significant decrease in pup size, whereas transfection with hHO-1 resulted in increased pup size. Furthermore, the expression of IGF binding protein-1 and its receptor paralleled the expression of HO-1 in the placenta and were significantly modulated by modification of HO-1 along with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. These observations demonstrate that HO-1 modulates fetal growth by its effects on placental growth factors. PMID:12065678

  12. Tin-mesoporphyrin, a potent heme oxygenase inhibitor, for treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Wagner, K R; Hua, Y; de Courten-Myers, G M; Broderick, J P; Nishimura, R N; Lu, S Y; Dwyer, B E

    2000-05-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the stroke subtype with highest mortality and morbidity. ICH can also occur following traumatic brain injury and thrombolysis for ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Development of ICH-induced hemispheric edema can elevate intracranial pressure and cause death. In survivors, edema-related white matter injury can lead to life-long neurological deficits. At present, there are no scientifically proven treatments for ICH. Heme oxygenase products, particularly iron and bilirubin, can be toxic to cells. In cerebral ischemia models, metalloporphyrins that are potent heme oxygenase inhibitors, reduce edema and infarct size. Tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) is a neuroprotectant that has also been used clinically to treat hyperbilirubinemia. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that SnMP treatment would reduce edema development following experimental ICH. We produced hematomas in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs (9-11 kg) by infusing autologous blood into the frontal white matter. To maximize tissue concentrations, SnMP (87.5 microM in DMSO) or DMSO (vehicle controls) was included in the infused blood. Pig brains were frozen in situ at 24 hrs. following ICH and hematoma and edema volumes were determined on coronal sections by computer-assisted image analysis. We also examined the effects of SnMP in vitro on ferritin iron release, the formation of iron-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and initial clot formation and hemolysis. SnMP treatment significantly reduced intracerebral mass following ICH. This was due to significant decreases in hematoma (0.68+/-0.08 vs. 1.39+/-0.30 cc, vehicle controls p<0.025) and edema volumes (edema = 1. 16+/-0.33 vs. 1.77+/-0.31 cc, p<0.05). In vitro, SnMP did not stabilize ferritin iron against reductive release nor did it decrease iron-induced TBARS formation in brain homogenates. SnMP or DMSO added to pig blood did not alter clot weights. In conclusion, SnMP reduced intracerebral

  13. Oxidative cyclizations in orthosomycin biosynthesis expand the known chemistry of an oxygenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; McCranie, Emilianne K.; Smith, Jarrod A.; Sarwar, Maruf; Mathieu, Jeannette L.; Gitschlag, Bryan L.; Du, Yu; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Orthosomycins are oligosaccharide antibiotics that include avilamycin, everninomicin, and hygromycin B and are hallmarked by a rigidifying interglycosidic spirocyclic ortho-δ-lactone (orthoester) linkage between at least one pair of carbohydrates. A subset of orthosomycins additionally contain a carbohydrate capped by a methylenedioxy bridge. The orthoester linkage is necessary for antibiotic activity but rarely observed in natural products. Orthoester linkage and methylenedioxy bridge biosynthesis require similar oxidative cyclizations adjacent to a sugar ring. We have identified a conserved group of nonheme iron, α-ketoglutarate–dependent oxygenases likely responsible for this chemistry. High-resolution crystal structures of the EvdO1 and EvdO2 oxygenases of everninomicin biosynthesis, the AviO1 oxygenase of avilamycin biosynthesis, and HygX of hygromycin B biosynthesis show how these enzymes accommodate large substrates, a challenge that requires a variation in metal coordination in HygX. Excitingly, the ternary complex of HygX with cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate and putative product hygromycin B identified an orientation of one glycosidic linkage of hygromycin B consistent with metal-catalyzed hydrogen atom abstraction from substrate. These structural results are complemented by gene disruption of the oxygenases evdO1 and evdMO1 from the everninomicin biosynthetic cluster, which demonstrate that functional oxygenase activity is critical for antibiotic production. Our data therefore support a role for these enzymes in the production of key features of the orthosomycin antibiotics. PMID:26240321

  14. Alternative 5’ Untranslated Regions Are Involved in Expression Regulation of Human Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Marcel; Sponholz, Christoph; Slaba, Monique; Wissuwa, Bianka; Claus, Ralf A.; Menzel, Uwe; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias; Bauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2071746 and a (GT)n microsatellite within the human gene encoding heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) are associated with incidence or outcome in a variety of diseases. Most of these associations involve either release of heme or oxidative stress. Both polymorphisms are localized in the promoter region, but previously reported correlations with heme oxygenase-1 expression remain not coherent. This ambiguity suggests a more complex organization of the 5’ gene region which we sought to investigate more fully. We evaluated the 5‘ end of HMOX1 and found a novel first exon 1a placing the two previously reported polymorphisms in intronic or exonic positions within the 5’ untranslated region respectively. Expression of exon 1a can be induced in HepG2 hepatoma cells by hemin and is a repressor of heme oxygenase-1 translation as shown by luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, minigene approaches revealed that the quantitative outcome of alternative splicing within the 5’ untranslated region is affected by the (GT)n microsatellite. This data supporting an extended HMOX1 gene model and provide further insights into expression regulation of heme oxygenase-1. Alternative splicing within the HMOX1 5' untranslated region contributes to translational regulation and is a mechanistic feature involved in the interplay between genetic variations, heme oxygenase-1 expression and disease outcome. PMID:24098580

  15. Microinjection of heme oxygenase genes rescues phytochrome-chromophore-deficient mutants of the moss Ceratodon purpureus.

    PubMed

    Brücker, G; Zeidler, M; Kohchi, T; Hartmann, E; Lamparter, T

    2000-03-01

    In protonemal tip cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid., phototropism and chlorophyll accumulation are regulated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The mutant ptr116 lacks both responses as a result of a defect in the biosynthesis of phytochromobilin, the chromophore of phytochrome, at the point of biliverdin formation. The rescue of the phototropic response and of chlorophyll synthesis were tested by injecting different substances into tip cells of ptr116. Microinjection was first optimised with the use of fluorescent dyes and an expression plasmid containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Injected phycocyanobilin, which substitutes for phytochromobilin, rescued both the phototropic response and light-induced chlorophyll accumulation in ptr116. The same results were obtained when expression plasmids with heme oxygenase genes of rat (HO-1) and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (HY1) were injected. Heme oxygenase catalyses the conversion of heme into biliverdin. Whereas HY1 has a plastid target sequence and is presumably transferred to plastids, HO-1 is proposed to be cytosolic. The data show that ptr116 lacks heme oxygenase enzyme activity and indicate that heme oxygenases of various origin are active in Ceratodon bilin synthesis. In addition, it can be inferred from the data that the intracellular localisation of the expressed heme oxygenase is not important since the plastid enzyme can be replaced by a cytosolic one. PMID:10787045

  16. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in atrial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Lung-An; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium constitutes the main feature of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent anti-oxidant system that may provide protection against various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 has a protective effect on AF-related remodeling. Cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cell line) were used to evaluate tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, structural, and electrical remodeling. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was utilized to assess collagen (a main fibrosis-related protein) expression in atrial fibroblasts. Tachypacing in HL-1 myocytes and treatment of atrial fibroblasts with TGF-β enhanced the expression of HO-1, both of which were mediated by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2. Over-expression of HO-1 in HL-1 cells attenuated tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, down-regulation of L-type calcium channel, and shortening of action potential duration. Furthermore, HO-1 over-expression in atrial fibroblasts blocked the up-regulation of collagen by TGF-β, implicating a protective role of HO-1 in structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium. In vivo, HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited a higher degree of oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, and collagen deposit in their atria than wild-type mice. Moreover, burst atrial pacing induced a greater susceptibility to AF in HO-1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In conclusion, a negative-feedback regulation of HO-1 in activated atrial myocytes and fibroblasts may provide protection against AF-related remodeling and AF development. PMID:27562817

  17. Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates alcoholic liver steatosis: histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Palipoch, Sarawoot; Koomhin, Phanit; Punsawad, Chuchard; Na-Ek, Prasit; Sattayakhom, Apsorn; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important causes of hepatic steatosis, which involves oxidative stress. In particular, increased oxidative stress has been strongly linked to stimulation of the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study aimed to investigate whether HO-1 could alleviates alcoholic steatosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) the control group, 2) the EtOH group, 3) the EtOH + ZnPP-IX group and 4) the EtOH + Hemin group. Liver histopathology was investigated in weeks 1 and 4 after the start of the treatment period. Alcohol treatment significantly increased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, an oxidative stress marker. In addition, it increased the triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in both weeks. Gross examination demonstrated a yellowish and slightly enlarged liver in the alcohol-treated rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining indicated hepatic steatosis, which was characterized by diffuse, extensive fatty accumulation and discrete lipid droplets of variable size in hepatocytes of the alcohol-treated rats. Administration of the HO-1 inducer hemin resulted in upregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression, reduced the MDA, triglyceride, ALT and AST levels and alleviated alcoholic hepatic steatosis, whereas administration of the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) resulted in downregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression and could not alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis either week. In conclusion, HO-1 could alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis in male Wistar rats and may be useful in development of a new therapeutic approach. PMID:26989297

  19. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. PMID:26862199

  20. How Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Heme-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Lanceta, Lilibeth; Mattingly, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier observations indicate that free heme is selectively toxic to cells lacking heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) but how this enzyme prevents heme toxicity remains unexplained. Here, using A549 (human lung cancer) and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with exogenous heme, we find knock-down of HO-1 using siRNA does promote the accumulation of cell-associated heme and heme-induced cell death. However, it appears that the toxic effects of heme are exerted by “loose” (probably intralysosomal) iron because cytotoxic effects of heme are lessened by pre-incubation of HO-1 deficient cells with desferrioxamine (which localizes preferentially in the lysosomal compartment). Desferrioxamine also decreases lysosomal rupture promoted by intracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide. Supporting the importance of endogenous oxidant production, both chemical and siRNA inhibition of catalase activity predisposes HO-1 deficient cells to heme-mediated killing. Importantly, it appears that HO-1 deficiency somehow blocks the induction of ferritin; control cells exposed to heme show ~10-fold increases in ferritin heavy chain expression whereas in heme-exposed HO-1 deficient cells ferritin expression is unchanged. Finally, overexpression of ferritin H chain in HO-1 deficient cells completely prevents heme-induced cytotoxicity. Although two other products of HO-1 activity–CO and bilirubin–have been invoked to explain HO-1-mediated cytoprotection, we conclude that, at least in this experimental system, HO-1 activity triggers the induction of ferritin and the latter is actually responsible for the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 activity. PMID:26270345

  1. Heme oxygenase system and hypertension: a comprehensive insight.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shuchita; Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex interplay of interrelated etiologies, and the leading risk factor for many cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardinal pathophysiological features of hypertension include enhanced vascular inflammation, vascular remodeling, vascular contractility and increased oxidative stress. In response to oxidative, inflammatory or other noxious stimuli, many physiological pathways like the heme oxygenase (HO) system are activated in an attempt to counteract tissue insults. However, the pathophysiological activation of the HO system only results to a transient increase of HO activity that fall below the necessary threshold capable of activating the downstream signaling components of the HO system like the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) secondary messenger system. Therefore, a more robust potentiation of the HO system by pharmacological agents such as hemin, heme-arginate, cobalt protoporphyrin or through retroviral HO-1 gene delivery would be needed to surmount the threshold for cytoprotection. The HO system modulates cellular homeostasis. Importantly, the HO system plays a vital role in a wide spectrum of physiologic including the regulation of blood vessel tone. Alterations in the activity and expression of HO has been correlated to pathophysiology of hypertension and related complications such as hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Moreover, the cytoprotection exerted by HO is attributable to its catabolic products namely, carbon monoxide, bilirubin/biliverdin, and ferritin that are known to modulate immune, inflammatory and oxidative insults. The growing incidence of hypertension and associated cardiometabolic complications has prompted the need for the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies like substances capable of potentiating the HO system. This review briefly, highlights the functional significance of the HO system and its downstream signaling molecules

  2. Natural heme oxygenase-1 inducers in hepatobiliary function

    PubMed Central

    Volti, Giovanni Li; Sacerdoti, David; Giacomo, Claudia Di; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Scacco, Antonio; Murabito, Paolo; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Gazzolo, Diego; Abella, Raul; Frigiola, Alessandro; Galvano, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Many physiological effects of natural antioxidants, their extracts or their major active components, have been reported in recent decades. Most of these compounds are characterized by a phenolic structure, similar to that of α-tocopherol, and present antioxidant properties that have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenols may increase the capacity of endogenous antioxidant defences and modulate the cellular redox state. Changes in the cellular redox state may have wide-ranging consequences for cellular growth and differentiation. The majority of in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far have attributed the protective effect of bioactive polyphenols to their chemical reactivity toward free radicals and their capacity to prevent the oxidation of important intracellular components. However, in recent years a possible novel aspect in the mode of action of these compounds has been suggested; that is, the ultimate stimulation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is likely to account for the established and powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties of these polyphenols. The products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is interesting to note that induction of HO-1 expression by means of natural compounds contributes to protection against liver damage in various experimental models. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against various stressors in several pathological conditions. PMID:18985801

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 and Carbon Monoxide Promote Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Claudia; Schmidt, Imke H E; Sayfart, Yana; Steinmetz, Ivo; Bast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The environmental bacterium and potential biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease. Increased serum bilirubin has been shown to be a negative predictive factor in melioidosis patients. We therefore investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of heme into the bilirubin precursor biliverdin, ferrous iron, and CO during B. pseudomallei infection. We found that infection of murine macrophages induces HO-1 expression, involving activation of several protein kinases and the transcription factor nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Deficiency of Nrf2 improved B. pseudomallei clearance by macrophages, whereas Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane and tert-butylhydroquinone with subsequent HO-1 induction enhanced intracellular bacterial growth. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX diminished proinflammatory cytokine levels, leading to an increased bacterial burden in macrophages. In contrast, HO-1 gene knockdown reduced the survival of intramacrophage B. pseudomallei Pharmacological administration of cobalt protoporphyrin IX to mice resulted in an enhanced bacterial load in various organs and was associated with higher mortality of intranasally infected mice. The unfavorable outcome of B. pseudomallei infection after HO-1 induction was associated with higher serum IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 levels but decreased secretion of IFN-γ. Finally, we demonstrate that the CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 increases the B. pseudomallei load in macrophages and mice. Thus, our data suggest that the B. pseudomallei-mediated induction of HO-1 and the release of its metabolite CO impair bacterial clearance in macrophages and during murine melioidosis. PMID:27316684

  4. Heme oxygenase metabolites inhibit tubuloglomerular feedback in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Garvin, Jeffrey L; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Falck, John R; Leung, Pablo; Liu, Ruisheng; Ren, YiLin; Carretero, Oscar A

    2011-04-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a renal autoregulatory mechanism that constricts the afferent arteriole in response to increases in distal NaCl. Heme oxygenases (HO-1 and HO-2) release carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, which may help control renal function. We showed in vitro that HO products inhibit TGF; however, we do not know whether this also occurs in vivo or the mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that in vivo HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. We first performed laser capture microdissection followed by real-time PCR and found that both HO-1 and HO-2 are expressed in the macula densa. We next performed micropuncture experiments in vivo on individual rat nephrons, adding different compounds to the perfusate, and found that an HO inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP), potentiated TGF (P < 0.05, SnMP vs. control). The CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 partially inhibited TGF at 50 μmol/l (P < 0.01, CORM-3 vs. control) and blocked it completely at higher doses. A soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, LY83583, blocked the inhibitory effect of CORM-3 on TGF. Biliverdin also partially inhibited TGF (P < 0.01, biliverdin vs. control), most likely attributable to decreased superoxide (O(2)(-)) because biliverdin was rendered ineffective by tempol, a O(2)(-) dismutase mimetic. We concluded that HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF by releasing CO and biliverdin. The inhibitory effect of CO on TGF is mediated by the sGC/cGMP signaling pathway, whereas biliverdin probably acts by reducing O(2)(-). PMID:21239629

  5. Generation and Characterization of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Transgenic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J.; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D.; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation. PMID:23071605

  6. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation. PMID:23071605

  7. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing Heme Oxygenase-1 Reverse Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Olin D.; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Chang, Mun Seog; Vergadi, Eleni; Lee, Changjin; Aslam, Muhammad; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Liu, Xianlan; Baveja, Rajiv; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a serious disease, and, while current treatments may prolong and improve quality of life, search for novel and effective therapies is warranted. Using genetically-modified mouse lines, we tested the ability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs), to treat chronic hypoxia-induced PAH. Recipient mice were exposed for five weeks to normobaric hypoxia (8%–10% O2), MSC preparations were delivered through jugular vein injection and their effect on PAH was assessed after two additional weeks in hypoxia. Donor MSCs derived from wild-type (WT) mice or Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) null mice (Hmox1KO) conferred partial protection from PAH when transplanted into WT or Hmox1KO recipients, whereas treatment with MSCs isolated from transgenic mice harboring a human HO-1 transgene under the control of surfactant protein C promoter (SHO1 line) reversed established disease in WT recipients. SH01-MSC treatment of Hmox1KO animals, which develop right ventricular (RV) infarction under prolonged hypoxia, resulted in normal RV systolic pressure, significant reduction of RV hypertrophy and prevention of RV infarction. Donor MSCs isolated from a bitransgenic mouse line with doxycycline-inducible, lung-specific expression of HO-1 exhibited similar therapeutic efficacy only upon doxycycline treatment of the recipients. In vitro experiments indicate that potential mechanisms of MSC action include modulation of hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Cumulative, our results demonstrate that MSCs ameliorate chronic hypoxia – induced PAH and their efficacy is highly augmented by lung-specific HO-1 expression in the transplanted cells, suggesting an interplay between HO-1 dependent and HO-1 independent protective pathways. PMID:20957739

  8. Induction of heme oxygenase is a rapid, protective response in rhabdomyolysis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nath, K A; Balla, G; Vercellotti, G M; Balla, J; Jacob, H S; Levitt, M D; Rosenberg, M E

    1992-01-01

    Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinate amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase exacerbates kidney dysfunction. We provide the first in vivo evidence that induction of heme oxygenase coupled to ferritin synthesis is a rapid, protective antioxidant response. Our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for populations at a high risk for rhabdomyolysis. Images PMID:1634613

  9. Recent insights into copper-containing lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2013-10-01

    Recently the role of oxidative enzymes in the degradation of polysaccharides by saprophytic bacteria and fungi was uncovered, challenging the classical model of polysaccharide degradation of being solely via a hydrolytic pathway. 3D structural analyses of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases of both bacterial AA10 (formerly CBM33) and fungal AA9 (formerly GH61) enzymes revealed structures with β-sandwich folds containing an active site with a metal coordinated by an N-terminal histidine. Following some initial confusion about the identity of the metal ion it has now been shown that these enzymes are copper-dependent oxygenases. Here we assess recent developments in the academic literature, focussing on the structures of the copper active sites. We provide critical comparisons with known small-molecules studies of copper-oxygen complexes and with copper methane monoxygenase, another of nature's powerful copper oxygenases. PMID:23769965

  10. The pharmacology and therapeutic relevance of endocannabinoid derived cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 products.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Carling, R W C; Cornell, C L; Fliri, H G; Martos, J L; Pettit, S N; Liang, Y; Wang, J W

    2008-10-01

    The discovery of anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) as naturally occurring mammalian endocannabinoids has had important and wide-reaching therapeutic implications. This, to a large extent, ensues from the complexity of endocannabinoid biology. One facet of endocannabinoid biology now receiving increased attention is the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived oxidation products. Anandamide and 2-AG are oxidized to a range of PG-ethanolamides and PG-glyceryl esters that closely approaches that of the prostaglandins (PGs) formed from arachidonic acid. The pharmacology of these electrochemically neutral PG-ethanolamides (prostamides) and PG-glyceryl esters appears to be unique. No meaningful interaction with natural or recombinant prostanoid receptors is apparent. Nevertheless, in certain cells and tissues, prostamides and PG-glyceryl esters exert potent effects. The recent discovery of selective antagonists for the putative prostamide receptor has been a major advance in further establishing prostamide pharmacology as an entity distinct from prostanoid receptors. Since discovery of the prototype prostamide antagonist (AGN 204396), rapid progress has been made. The latest prostamide antagonists (AGN 211334-6) are 100 times more potent than the prototype and are, therefore, sufficiently active to be used in living animal studies. These compounds will allow a full evaluation of the role of prostamides in health and disease. To date, the only therapeutic application for prostamides is in glaucoma. The prostamide analog, bimatoprost, being the most effective ocular hypotensive drug currently available. Interestingly, PGE(2)-glyceryl ester and its chemically stable analog PGE(2)-serinolamide also lower intraocular pressure in dogs. Nevertheless, the therapeutic future of PGE(2)-glyceryl ester is more likely to reside in inflammation. PMID:18700152

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 induction prevents neuronal damage triggered during mitochondrial inhibition: role of CO and bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Massieu, Lourdes; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2009-06-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin, the latter being further reduced to bilirubin (BR). A protective role of the inducible isoform, HO-1, has been described in pathological conditions associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HO-1 in the neurotoxicity induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Toxicity of 3-NP is associated with ROS production, and this metabolic toxin has been used to mimic pathological conditions such as Huntington's disease. We found that cell death caused by 3-NP exposure was exacerbated by inhibition of HO with tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). In addition, HO-1 up-regulation induced by the exposure to cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) before the incubation with 3-NP, prevented the cell death and the increase in ROS induced by 3-NP. Interestingly, addition of SnMP to CoPP-pretreated CGNs exposed to 3-NP, abolished the protective effect of CoPP suggesting that HO activity was responsible for this protective effect. This was additionally supported by the fact that CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, and BR, were able to protect against cell death and the increase in ROS induced by 3-NP. Our data clearly show that HO-1 elicits in CGNs a neuroprotective action against the neurotoxicity of 3-NP and that CO and BR may be involved, at least in part, in this protective effect. The present results increase our knowledge about the role of HO-1 in neuropathological conditions. PMID:19063990

  12. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 exacerbates ischaemia-induced acute myocardial dysfunction in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Rossoni, Giuseppe; Muscara, Marcelo N; Cirino, Giuseppe; Wallace, John L

    2002-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a number of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, (celecoxib, meloxicam, DuP-697 and aspirin) on ischaemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial dysfunction were examined using an in vitro perfused rabbit heart model.Ischaemia resulted in myocardial dysfunction, as indicated by a significant increase in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and marked changes in coronary perfusion pressure and left ventricular developed pressure. In the post-ischaemic state, coronary perfusion pressure increased dramatically, left ventricular developed pressure recovered to a small degree and there were significant increases in creatinine kinase release (indicative of myocardial damage) and prostacyclin release.Pretreatment with aspirin, or with drugs that selectively inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-2 (celecoxib, meloxicam and DuP-697), resulted in a concentration-dependent exacerbation of the myocardial dysfunction and damage. Exacerbation of myocardial dysfunction and damage was evident with 10 μM concentrations of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, which inhibited prostacyclin release but did not affect cyclo-oxygenase-1 activity (as measured by whole blood thromboxane synthesis).NCX-4016, a nitric oxide-releasing aspirin derivative, significantly reduced the myocardial dysfunction and damage caused by ischaemia and reperfusion. Beneficial effects were observed even at a concentration (100 μM) that significantly inhibited prostacyclin synthesis by the heart.The results suggest that prostacyclin released by cardiac tissue in response to ischaemia and reperfusion is derived, at least in part, from cyclo-oxygenase-2. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 plays an important protective role in a setting of ischaemia-reperfusion of the heart. PMID:11906968

  13. Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Badger, M R; von Caemmerer, S; Ruuska, S; Nakano, H

    2000-10-29

    Linear electron transport in chloroplasts produces a number of reduced components associated with photosystem I (PS I) that may subsequently participate in reactions that reduce O2. The two primary reactions that have been extensively studied are: first, the direct reduction of O2 to superoxide by reduced donors associated with PS I (the Mehler reaction), and second, the rubisco oxygenase (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase EC 4.1.1.39) reaction and associated peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions of the photorespiratory pathway. This paper reviews a number of recent and past studies with higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria that have attempted to quantify O2 fluxes under various conditions and their contributions to a number of roles, including photon energy dissipation. In C3 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, a Mehler O2 uptake reaction is unlikely to support a significant flow of electron transport (probably less than 10%). In addition, if it were present it would appear to scale with photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle (PCO) and photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) activity This is supported by studies with antisense tobacco plants with reduced rubisco at low and high temperatures and high light, as well as studies with potatoes, grapes and madrone during water stress. The lack of significant Mehler in these plants directly argues for a strong control of Mehler reaction in the absence of ATP consumption by the PCR and PCO cycles. The difference between C3 and C4 plants is primarily that the level of light-dependent O2 uptake is generally much lower in C4 plants and is relatively insensitive to the external CO2 concentration. Such a major difference is readily attributed to the operation of the C4 CO2 concentrating mechanism. Algae show a range of light-dependent O2 uptake rates, similar to C4 plants. As in C4 plants, the O2 uptake appears to be largely insensitive to CO2, even in species that lack a CO2 concentrating

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Stem Cells Transplantation in Diabetes: Role of Heme Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Raffaele, Marco; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio A.; Vanella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The growing data obtained from in vivo studies and clinical trials demonstrated the benefit of adult stem cells transplantation in diabetes; although an important limit is represented by their survival after the transplant. To this regard, recent reports suggest that genetic manipulation of stem cells prior to transplantation can lead to enhanced survival and better engraftment. The following review proposes to stimulate interest in the role of heme oxygenase-1 over-expression on transplantation of stem cells in diabetes, focusing on the clinical potential of heme oxygenase protein and activity to restore tissue damage and/or to improve the immunomodulatory properties of transplanted stem cells. PMID:27547752

  15. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  16. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Tiwari, Shuchita

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and excessive inflammation/oxidative stress are pathophysiological forces associated with kidney dysfunction. Although we recently showed that heme-oxygenase (HO) improves renal functions, the mechanisms are largely unclear. Moreover, the effects of the HO-system on podocyte cytoskeletal proteins like podocin, podocalyxin, CD2-associated-protein (CD2AP) and proteins of regeneration/repair like beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1 and Pax2 in renal tissue from normoglycemic obese Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs) have not been reported. Treatment with hemin reduced renal histo-pathological lesions including glomerular-hypertrophy, tubular-cast, tubular-atrophy and mononuclear cell-infiltration in ZFs. These were associated with enhanced expression of beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1, Pax2 and nephrin, an essential transmembrane protein required for the formation of the scaffoldings of the podocyte slit-diaphragm, permitting the filtration of small ions, but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Besides nephrin, hemin also enhanced other important podocyte-regulators including, podocalyxin, podocin and CD2AP. Correspondingly, important markers of renal dysfunction such as albuminuria and proteinuria were reduced, while creatinine clearance increased, suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. The renoprotection by hemin was accompanied by the reduction of inflammatory/oxidative mediators including, macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α, macrophage-chemoattractant-protein-1 and 8-isoprostane, whereas HO-1, HO-activity and the total-anti-oxidant-capacity increased. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the reno-protection by hemin. Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with

  17. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2003-01-24

    NO and CO may complement each other as signaling molecules in some physiological situations. We have examined the binding of NO to human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an enzyme that oxidizes heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron, to determine whether inhibition of hHO-1 by NO can contribute to the signaling interplay of NO and CO. An Fe(3+)-NO hHO-1-heme complex is formed with NO or the NO donors NOC9 or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide.sodium salt. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that ferric hHO-1-heme forms a 6-coordinated, low spin complex with NO. The nu(N-O) vibration of this complex detected by Fourier transform IR is only 4 cm(-1) lower than that of the corresponding metmyoglobin (met-Mb) complex but is broader, suggesting a greater degree of ligand conformational freedom. The Fe(3+)-NO complex of hHO-1 is much more stable than that of met-Mb. Stopped-flow studies indicate that k(on) for formation of the hHO-1-heme Fe(3+)-NO complex is approximately 50-times faster, and k(off) 10 times slower, than for met-Mb, resulting in K(d) = 1.4 microm for NO. NO thus binds 500-fold more tightly to ferric hHO-1-heme than to met-Mb. The hHO-1 mutations E29A, G139A, D140A, S142A, G143A, G143F, and K179A/R183A do not significantly diminish the tight binding of NO, indicating that NO binding is not highly sensitive to mutations of residues that normally stabilize the distal water ligand. As expected from the K(d) value, the enzyme is reversibly inhibited upon exposure to pathologically, and possibly physiologically, relevant concentrations of NO. Inhibition of hHO-1 by NO may contribute to the pleiotropic responses to NO and CO. PMID:12433915

  18. Inhibition of murine T-cell responses by anti-oxidants: the targets of lipo-oxygenase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Dornand, J; Gerber, M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously established that oxidative phenomena are involved in human T-cell activation (Sekkat, Dornand & Gerber, 1988). In the present work we have studied the effect of different anti-oxidants (scavengers of O2-, .OH and lipo-oxygenase inhibitors) on the stimulation of murine T cells. We report here that all the anti-oxidants used suppressed T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 synthesis, the former effect resulting very likely from the latter. This inhibition was concomitant with the triggering of activation. We also demonstrate that the various anti-oxidants have different biochemical targets. Unlike the other compounds, the phenolic drugs nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which block lipid peroxidation, affect both signals triggered by the binding of lectin to its receptors: they suppress the rise of intracellular free calcium concentration and inhibit some of the events, depending on the sole protein kinase C activation, namely IL-2 receptor expression and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced pH change. Our results are discussed within the framework of a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species and of arachidonic acid derivative(s) in T-cell activation and IL-2 production. PMID:2512249

  19. Inhibition of murine T-cell responses by anti-oxidants: the targets of lipo-oxygenase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dornand, J; Gerber, M

    1989-11-01

    We have previously established that oxidative phenomena are involved in human T-cell activation (Sekkat, Dornand & Gerber, 1988). In the present work we have studied the effect of different anti-oxidants (scavengers of O2-, .OH and lipo-oxygenase inhibitors) on the stimulation of murine T cells. We report here that all the anti-oxidants used suppressed T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 synthesis, the former effect resulting very likely from the latter. This inhibition was concomitant with the triggering of activation. We also demonstrate that the various anti-oxidants have different biochemical targets. Unlike the other compounds, the phenolic drugs nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which block lipid peroxidation, affect both signals triggered by the binding of lectin to its receptors: they suppress the rise of intracellular free calcium concentration and inhibit some of the events, depending on the sole protein kinase C activation, namely IL-2 receptor expression and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced pH change. Our results are discussed within the framework of a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species and of arachidonic acid derivative(s) in T-cell activation and IL-2 production. PMID:2512249

  20. Insights into Substrate and Metal Binding from the Crystal Structure of Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase with Substrate Bound

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nonheme diiron enzyme cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase, cADO, catalyzes the highly unusual deformylation of aliphatic aldehydes to alkanes and formate. We have determined crystal structures for the enzyme with a long-chain water-soluble aldehyde and medium-chain carboxylic acid bound to the active site. These structures delineate a hydrophobic channel that connects the solvent with the deeply buried active site and reveal a mode of substrate binding that is different from previously determined structures with long-chain fatty acids bound. The structures also identify a water channel leading to the active site that could facilitate the entry of protons required in the reaction. NMR studies examining 1-[13C]-octanal binding to cADO indicate that the enzyme binds the aldehyde form rather than the hydrated form. Lastly, the fortuitous cocrystallization of the metal-free form of the protein with aldehyde bound has revealed protein conformation changes that are involved in binding iron. PMID:25222710

  1. Interaction between potyvirus P3 and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) of host plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Zhaopeng; Yan, Fei; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jianping

    2011-08-01

    The P3 protein encoded by Shallot yellow stripe virus onion isolate (SYSV-O) interacted in the Yeast Two-hybrid (Y2H) system and in co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays with the large subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) protein that is encoded by the rbcL gene of its onion host. Dissection analysis by Y2H showed that the main part of SYSV P3 (amino acids 1-390) and onion RbcL (amino acids 1-137) were responsible for the interaction. The P3 proteins encoded by Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Soybean mosaic virus Pinellia isolate (SMV-P), and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) also interacted with RbcL, suggesting that a P3/RbcL interaction might exist generally for potyviruses. An interaction between P3 of these potyviruses and the small subunit of RubisCO (RbcS) was also demonstrated. Moreover, the P3N-PIPO protein encoded by a newly identified open reading frame embedded within the P3 cistron also interacted with both RbcL and RbcS. It is possible that the potyvirus P3 protein affects the normal functions of RubisCO which thus contributes to symptom development. PMID:21400205

  2. AN INTEGRATED PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDY OF ARSENITE ACTION 2. HEME OXYGENASE INDUCTION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation and its activity has a significant impact on intracellular heme pools. Rat studies indicate that HO induction is a sensitive, dose-dependent response to arsenite (AsIII) exposure in both liver and kidney. The o...

  3. Some properties of a soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1976-01-01

    Soluble extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by centrifugation of crude extracts at 160000g for 1h, catalyse the NAD(P)H- and O2-dependent disappearance of bromomethane, and also the formation of methanol from methane. Soluble methane mono-oxygenase is not inhibited by chelating agents or by most electron-transport inhibitors, and is a multicomponent enzyme. PMID:962879

  4. Isolation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multi-functional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a...

  5. Heme oxygenase effect on mesenchymal stem cells action on experimental Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziza, MT; Atta, HM; Samer, H; Ahmed, HH; Rashed, LA; Sabry, D; Abdel Raouf, ER; Alkaffas, Marwa Abdul latif

    2013-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme inducer and inhibitor on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Alzheimer disease. 70 female albino rats were divided equally into 7 groups as follows: group 1: healthy control; group 2: Aluminium chloride induced Alzheimer disease; group 3: induced Alzheimer rats that received intravenous injection of MSCs; group 4: induced Alzheimer rats that received MSCs and HO inducer cobalt protoporphyrin; group 5: induced Alzheimer rats that received MSCs and HO inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin; group 6: induced Alzheimer rats that received HO inducer; group7: induced Alzheimer rats that received HO inhibitor. Brain tissue was collected for HO-1, seladin-1 gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, heme oxygenase activity, cholesterol estimation and histopathological examination. MSCs decreased the plaque lesions, heme oxygenase induction with stem cells also decreased plaque lesions however there was hemorrhage in the brain. Both heme oxygenase inducer alone or with stem cells increased seladin-1 expression and decreased cholesterol level. MSCs alone or with HO-1 induction exert a therapeutic effect against the brain lesion in Alzheimer's disease possibly through decreasing the brain cholesterol level and increasing seladin-1 gene expression. PMID:26622218

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Stuart T.; Midwinter, Robyn G.; Coupland, Lucy A.; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S.; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Chong, Beng H.; Parish, Christopher R.; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119+-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119+-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the reduced form of the terminal oxygenase component of the Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Jun; Umeda, Takashi; Aikawa, Hiroki; Suzuki, Chiho; Fujimoto, Zui; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2013-11-01

    The initial reaction of bacterial carbazole degradation is catalysed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of terminal oxygenase, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components. The reduced form of the terminal oxygenase component was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG MME 550 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.74 Å and belonged to space group P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.0, c = 243.6 Å. The asymmetric unit contained a trimer of terminal oxygenase molecules. PMID:24192370

  8. Evolutionary Changes in Chlorophyllide a Oxygenase (CAO) Structure Contribute to the Acquisition of a New Light-harvesting Complex in Micromonas*♦

    PubMed Central

    Kunugi, Motoshi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll b is found in photosynthetic prokaryotes and primary and secondary endosymbionts, although their light-harvesting systems are quite different. Chlorophyll b is synthesized from chlorophyll a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), which is a Rieske-mononuclear iron oxygenase. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of CAO among photosynthetic organisms elucidated changes in the domain structures of CAO during evolution. However, the evolutionary relationship between the light-harvesting system and the domain structure of CAO remains unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we investigated the CAO structure and the pigment composition of chlorophyll-protein complexes in the prasinophyte Micromonas. The Micromonas CAO is composed of two genes, MpCAO1 and MpCAO2, that possess Rieske and mononuclear iron-binding motifs, respectively. Only when both genes were introduced into the chlorophyll b-less Arabidopsis mutant (ch1-1) was chlorophyll b accumulated, indicating that cooperation between the two subunits is required to synthesize chlorophyll b. Although Micromonas has a characteristic light-harvesting system in which chlorophyll b is incorporated into the core antennas of reaction centers, chlorophyll b was also incorporated into the core antennas of reaction centers of the Arabidopsis transformants that contained the two Micromonas CAO proteins. Based on these results, we discuss the evolutionary relationship between the structures of CAO and light-harvesting systems. PMID:23677999

  9. Purification and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 involved in three different monocyclic monoterpene degradation pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Werf, M J

    2000-01-01

    A Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase (BVMO), catalysing the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent oxidation of the monocyclic monoterpene ketones 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. Monocyclic monoterpene ketone mono-oxygenase (MMKMO) is a monomeric enzyme of molecular mass 60 kDa. It contains 1 mol of FAD/monomer as the prosthetic group. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology with many other NADPH-dependent and FAD-containing (Type 1) BVMOs. Maximal enzyme activity was measured at pH 9 and 35 degrees C. MMKMO has a broad substrate specificity, catalysing the lactonization of a large number of monocyclic monoterpene ketones and substituted cyclohexanones. The natural substrates 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone were converted stoichiometrically into 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate (the spontaneous rearrangement product of the lactone formed by MMKMO), 4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone and 7-isopropyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone respectively. The MMKMO-catalysed conversion of iso-dihydrocarvone showed an opposite regioselectivity to that of dihydrocarvone; in this case, 6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone was formed as the product. MMKMO converted all enantiomers of the natural substrates with almost equal efficiency. MMKMO is involved in the conversion of the monocyclic monoterpene ketone intermediates formed in the degradation pathways of all stereoisomers of three different monocyclic monoterpenes, i.e. limonene, (dihydro)carveol and menthol. PMID:10769172

  10. A new classification system for bacterial Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Baek, Songjoon; Chae, Jong-Chan; Adjei, Michael D; Baek, Dong-Heon; Kim, Young-Chang; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Background Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) are multi-component enzyme systems that are remarkably diverse in bacteria isolated from diverse habitats. Since the first classification in 1990, there has been a need to devise a new classification scheme for these enzymes because many RHOs have been discovered, which do not belong to any group in the previous classification. Here, we present a scheme for classification of RHOs reflecting new sequence information and interactions between RHO enzyme components. Result We have analyzed a total of 130 RHO enzymes in which 25 well-characterized RHO enzymes were used as standards to test our hypothesis for the proposed classification system. From the sequence analysis of electron transport chain (ETC) components of the standard RHOs, we extracted classification keys that reflect not only the phylogenetic affiliation within each component but also relationship among components. Oxygenase components of standard RHOs were phylogenetically classified into 10 groups with the classification keys derived from ETC components. This phylogenetic classification scheme was converted to a new systematic classification consisting of 5 distinct types. The new classification system was statistically examined to justify its stability. Type I represents two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRC-type reductase. Type II contains other two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRN-type reductase. Type III represents a group of three-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and an FNRN-type reductase. Type IV represents another three-component systems that consist of oxygenase, [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and GR-type reductase. Type V represents another different three-component systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and a GR-type reductase. Conclusion The new classification system provides the following

  11. Curcumin inhibits HCV replication by induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of AKT

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, MING-HO; LEE, MING-YANG; CHUANG, JING-JING; LI, YI-ZHEN; NING, SIN-TZU; CHEN, JUNG-CHOU; LIU, YI-WEN

    2012-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 130–170 million people worldwide, no vaccines are available. HCV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to the need for liver transplantation. In this study, curcumin, a constituent used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been evaluated for its anti-HCV activity and mechanism, using a human hepatoma cell line containing the HCV genotype 1b subgenomic replicon. Below the concentration of 20% cytotoxicity, curcumin dose-dependently inhibited HCV replication by luciferase reporter gene assay, HCV RNA detection and HCV protein analysis. Under the same conditions, curcumin also dose-dependently induced heme oxygenase-1 with the highest induction at 24 h. Hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer, also inhibited HCV protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. The knockdown of heme oxygenase-1 partially reversed the curcumin-inhibited HCV protein expression. In addition to the heme oxygenase-1 induction, signaling molecule activities of AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were inhibited by curcumin. Using specific inhibitors of PI3K-AKT, MEK-ERK and NF-κB, the results suggested that only PI3K-AKT inhibition is positively involved in curcumin-inhibited HCV replication. Inhibition of ERK and NF-κB was likely to promote HCV protein expression. In summary, curcumin inhibited HCV replication by heme oxygenase-1 induction and AKT pathway inhibition. Although curcumin also inhibits ERK and NF-κB activities, it slightly increased the HCV protein expression. This result may provide information when curcumin is used as an adjuvant in anti-HCV therapy. PMID:22922731

  12. Structure of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme and enzymatic inactivation by mutation of the heme coordinating residue His-193

    SciTech Connect

    Suits,M.; Jaffer, N.; Jia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Heme oxygenases catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. For pathogenic microorganisms, heme uptake and degradation are critical mechanisms for iron acquisition that enable multiplication and survival within hosts they invade. Here we report the first crystal structure of the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution. When compared with other heme oxygenases, ChuS has a unique fold, including structural repeats and a {beta}-sheet core. Not surprisingly, the mode of heme coordination by ChuS is also distinct, whereby heme is largely stabilized by residues from the C-terminal domain, assisted by a distant arginine from the N-terminal domain. Upon heme binding, there is no large conformational change beyond the fine tuning of a key histidine (His-193) residue. Most intriguingly, in contrast to other heme oxygenases, the propionic side chains of heme are orientated toward the protein core, exposing the {alpha}-meso carbon position where O{sub 2} is added during heme degradation. This unique orientation may facilitate presentation to an electron donor, explaining the significantly reduced concentration of ascorbic acid needed for the reaction. Based on the ChuS-heme structure, we converted the histidine residue responsible for axial coordination of the heme group to an asparagine residue (H193N), as well as converting a second histidine to an alanine residue (H73A) for comparison purposes. We employed spectral analysis and CO measurement by gas chromatography to analyze catalysis by ChuS, H193N, and H73A, demonstrating that His-193 is the key residue for the heme-degrading activity of ChuS.

  13. Clinical pharmacology of lumiracoxib: a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rordorf, Christiane M; Choi, Les; Marshall, Paul; Mangold, James B

    2005-01-01

    Lumiracoxib (Prexige) is a selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and acute pain. Lumiracoxib possesses a carboxylic acid group that makes it weakly acidic (acid dissociation constant [pKa] 4.7), distinguishing it from other selective COX-2 inhibitors. Lumiracoxib has good oral bioavailability (74%). It is rapidly absorbed, reaching maximum plasma concentrations 2 hours after dosing, and is highly plasma protein bound. Lumiracoxib has a short elimination half-life from plasma (mean 4 hours) and demonstrates dose-proportional plasma pharmacokinetics with no accumulation during multiple dosing. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, peak lumiracoxib synovial fluid concentrations occur 3-4 hours later than in plasma and exceed plasma concentrations from 5 hours after dosing to the end of the 24-hour dosing interval. These data suggest that lumiracoxib may be associated with reduced systemic exposure, while still reaching sites where COX-2 inhibition is required for pain relief. Lumiracoxib is metabolised extensively prior to excretion, with only a small amount excreted unchanged in urine or faeces. Lumiracoxib and its metabolites are excreted via renal and faecal routes in approximately equal amounts. The major metabolic pathways identified involve oxidation of the 5-methyl group of lumiracoxib and/or hydroxylation of its dihaloaromatic ring. Major metabolites of lumiracoxib in plasma are the 5-carboxy, 4'-hydroxy and 4'-hydroxy-5-carboxy derivatives, of which only the 4'-hydroxy derivative is active and COX-2 selective. In vitro, the major oxidative pathways are catalysed primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 with very minor contribution from CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. However, in patients genotyped as poor CYP2C9 metabolisers, exposure to lumiracoxib (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) is not significantly increased compared with control subjects, indicating no requirement for adjustment

  14. Isoporphyrin intermediate in heme oxygenase catalysis. Oxidation of alpha-meso-phenylheme.

    PubMed

    Evans, John P; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-07-11

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the alpha-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin pi-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of alpha-meso-phenylheme-IX, alpha-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and alpha-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593-42604), only the alpha-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced alpha-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  15. The heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system is involved in the auxin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Ben-Kai; Ling, Teng-Fang; Qi, Ji-Yan; Ye, Mao-Bing; Shen, Wen-Biao

    2008-10-01

    Indole acetic acid (IAA) is an important regulator of adventitious rooting via the activation of complex signaling cascades. In animals, carbon monoxide (CO), mainly generated by heme oxygenases (HOs), is a significant modulator of inflammatory reactions, affecting cell proliferation and the production of growth factors. In this report, we show that treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid prevented auxin-mediated induction of adventitious rooting and also decreased the activity of HO and its by-product CO content. The application of IAA, HO-1 activator/CO donor hematin, or CO aqueous solution was able to alleviate the IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation. Meanwhile, IAA or hematin treatment rapidly activated HO activity or HO-1 protein expression, and CO content was also enhanced. The application of the HO-1-specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) could inhibit the above IAA and hematin responses. CO aqueous solution treatment was able to ameliorate the ZnPPIX-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting. Molecular evidence further showed that ZnPPIX mimicked the effects of naphthylphthalamic acid on the inhibition of adventitious rooting, the down-regulation of one DnaJ-like gene (CSDNAJ-1), and two calcium-dependent protein kinase genes (CSCDPK1 and CSCDPK5). Application of CO aqueous solution not only dose-dependently blocked IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting but also enhanced endogenous CO content and up-regulated CSDNAJ-1 and CSCDPK1/5 transcripts. Together, we provided pharmacological, physiological, and molecular evidence that auxin rapidly activates HO activity and that the product of HO action, CO, then triggers the signal transduction events that lead to the auxin responses of adventitious root formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). PMID:18689445

  16. The Heme Oxygenase/Carbon Monoxide System Is Involved in the Auxin-Induced Cucumber Adventitious Rooting Process1

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Wei; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Ben-Kai; Ling, Teng-Fang; Qi, Ji-Yan; Ye, Mao-Bing; Shen, Wen-Biao

    2008-01-01

    Indole acetic acid (IAA) is an important regulator of adventitious rooting via the activation of complex signaling cascades. In animals, carbon monoxide (CO), mainly generated by heme oxygenases (HOs), is a significant modulator of inflammatory reactions, affecting cell proliferation and the production of growth factors. In this report, we show that treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid prevented auxin-mediated induction of adventitious rooting and also decreased the activity of HO and its by-product CO content. The application of IAA, HO-1 activator/CO donor hematin, or CO aqueous solution was able to alleviate the IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation. Meanwhile, IAA or hematin treatment rapidly activated HO activity or HO-1 protein expression, and CO content was also enhanced. The application of the HO-1-specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) could inhibit the above IAA and hematin responses. CO aqueous solution treatment was able to ameliorate the ZnPPIX-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting. Molecular evidence further showed that ZnPPIX mimicked the effects of naphthylphthalamic acid on the inhibition of adventitious rooting, the down-regulation of one DnaJ-like gene (CSDNAJ-1), and two calcium-dependent protein kinase genes (CSCDPK1 and CSCDPK5). Application of CO aqueous solution not only dose-dependently blocked IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting but also enhanced endogenous CO content and up-regulated CSDNAJ-1 and CSCDPK1/5 transcripts. Together, we provided pharmacological, physiological, and molecular evidence that auxin rapidly activates HO activity and that the product of HO action, CO, then triggers the signal transduction events that lead to the auxin responses of adventitious root formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). PMID:18689445

  17. Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Faulkner, Jessica; Pye, Chelsey; Rouch, Katelyn; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Baban, Babak

    2013-10-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) increased EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of HO (haem oxygenase)-1. The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the renoprotective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). After 6 weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB {trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid}, treated with the HO inhibitor SnMP (stannous mesoporphyrin), and treated with both inhibitors for 4 more weeks; non-diabetic SHR served as a control group. Induction of diabetes significantly increased renal sEH expression and decreased the renal EETs/DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid) ratio without affecting HO-1 activity or expression in SHR. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB increased the renal EETs/DHETEs ratio and HO-1 activity in diabetic SHR; however, it did not significantly alter systolic blood pressure. Treatment of diabetic SHR with t-AUCB significantly reduced the elevation in urinary albumin and nephrin excretion, whereas co-administration of the HO inhibitor SnMP with t-AUCB prevented these changes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevations in renal fibrosis as indicated by increased renal TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) levels and fibronectin expression in diabetic SHR and these changes were reduced with sEH inhibition. Co-administration of SnMP with t-AUCB prevented its ability to reduce renal fibrosis in diabetic SHR. In addition, SnMP treatment also prevented t-AUCB-induced decreases in renal macrophage infiltration, IL-17 expression and MCP-1 levels in diabetic SHR. These findings suggest that HO-1 induction is involved in the protective effect of sEH inhibition against diabetic renal injury. PMID:23611540

  18. Chemical and physical characterization of the activation of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere. 1 drawing.

  19. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Activation of Ribulosebiphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Donnelly, M. I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F. C.

    1983-08-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere.

  20. Crystal structure of CmlI, the arylamine oxygenase from the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Knoot, Cory J; Kovaleva, Elena G; Lipscomb, John D

    2016-09-01

    The diiron cluster-containing oxygenase CmlI catalyzes the conversion of the aromatic amine precursor of chloramphenicol to the nitroaromatic moiety of the active antibiotic. The X-ray crystal structures of the fully active, N-terminally truncated CmlIΔ33 in the chemically reduced Fe(2+)/Fe(2+) state and a cis μ-1,2(η (1):η (1))-peroxo complex are presented. These structures allow comparison with the homologous arylamine oxygenase AurF as well as other types of diiron cluster-containing oxygenases. The structural model of CmlIΔ33 crystallized at pH 6.8 lacks the oxo-bridge apparent from the enzyme optical spectrum in solution at higher pH. In its place, residue E236 forms a μ-1,3(η (1):η (2)) bridge between the irons in both models. This orientation of E236 stabilizes a helical region near the cluster which closes the active site to substrate binding in contrast to the open site found for AurF. A very similar closed structure was observed for the inactive dimanganese form of AurF. The observation of this same structure in different arylamine oxygenases may indicate that there are two structural states that are involved in regulation of the catalytic cycle. Both the structural studies and single crystal optical spectra indicate that the observed cis μ-1,2(η (1):η (1))-peroxo complex differs from the μ-η (1):η (2)-peroxo proposed from spectroscopic studies of a reactive intermediate formed in solution by addition of O2 to diferrous CmlI. It is proposed that the structural changes required to open the active site also drive conversion of the µ-1,2-peroxo species to the reactive form. PMID:27229511

  1. Perspective of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the key catalyst in photosynthesis and photorespiration

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    Reported works dealing with the opposing processes photosynthesis and photorespiration, catalyzed by ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (RuBP) are summarized with 75 references being cited. Some recent findings that suggest that it should be possible to increase the RuBP carboxylase:oxygenase ratio by mutation and that this increase should lead to higher plant productivity are reported. It is pointed out that a better understanding of these catalytic mechanisms is necessary before the activities can be tailored to specific purposes. (BLM)

  2. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Induces a Heme Oxygenase Dependent Increase in Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Khalil; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Chau, Jessie; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of feeding with a Lactobacillus species on the immune environment in GALT, and the role of dendritic cells and heme oxygenase-1 in mediating these responses. Feeding with a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced a significant increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ functional regulatory T cells in GALT. This increase was greatest in the mesenteric lymph nodes and associated with a marked decrease in TNF and IFNγ production. Dendritic cell regulatory function and HO-1 expression was also increased. The increase in Foxp3+ T cells could be prevented by treatment with a heme oxygenase inhibitor. However, neither inhibition of heme oxygenase nor blockade of IL-10 and TGFβ prevented the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. In conclusion Lactobacillus feeding induced a tolerogenic environment in GALT. HO-1 was critical to the enhancement of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells while additional, as yet unknown, pathways were involved in the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. PMID:23077634

  3. Regiospecificity determinants of human heme oxygenase: differential NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent heme cleavage by the R183E mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Lad, Latesh; Poulos, Thomas L; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2005-01-28

    The ability of the human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) R183E mutant to oxidize heme in reactions supported by either NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase or ascorbic acid has been compared. The NADPH-dependent reaction, like that of wild-type hHO-1, yields exclusively biliverdin IXalpha. In contrast, the R183E mutant with ascorbic acid as the reductant produces biliverdin IXalpha (79 +/- 4%), IXdelta (19 +/- 3%), and a trace of IXbeta. In the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase, the yield of biliverdin IXdelta is decreased to 8 +/- 1% with a corresponding increase in biliverdin IXalpha. Spectroscopic analysis of the NADPH-dependent reaction shows that the R183E ferric biliverdin complex accumulates, because reduction of the iron, which is required for sequential iron and biliverdin release, is impaired. Reversal of the charge at position 183 makes reduction of the iron more difficult. The crystal structure of the R183E mutant, determined in the ferric and ferrous-NO bound forms, shows that the heme primarily adopts the same orientation as in wild-type hHO-1. The structure of the Fe(II).NO complex suggests that an altered active site hydrogen bonding network supports catalysis in the R183E mutant. Furthermore, Arg-183 contributes to the regiospecificity of the wild-type enzyme, but its contribution is not critical. The results indicate that the ascorbate-dependent reaction is subject to a lower degree of regiochemical control than the NADPH-dependent reaction. Ascorbate may be able to reduce the R183E ferric and ferrous dioxygen complexes in active site conformations that cannot be reduced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. PMID:15525643

  4. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and heme oxygenase-1 interaction attenuates diabetes and metabolic syndrome complications

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Angela; Vanella, Luca; Bellner, Lars; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2011-01-01

    MSCs are considered to be the natural precursors to adipocyte development through the process of adipogenesis. A link has been established between decreased protective effects of EETs or HO-1 and their interaction in metabolic syndrome. Decreases in HO-1 or EET were associated with an increase in adipocyte stem cell differentiation and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. EET agonist (AKR-I-27-28) inhibited MSC-derived adipocytes and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We further describe the role of CYP-epoxygenase expression, HO expression, and circulating cytokine levels in an obese mouse, ob/ob−/− mouse model. Ex vivo measurements of EET expression within MSCs derived from ob/ob−/− showed decreased levels of EETs that were increased by HO induction. This review demonstrates that suppression of HO and EET systems exist in MSCs prior to the development of adipocyte dysfunction. Further, adipocyte dysfunction can be ameliorated by induction of HO-1 and CYP-epoxygenase, i.e. EET. PMID:22100745

  5. The source and characteristics of chemiluminescence associated with the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by Mn(2+)-ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lilley, R M; Riesen, H; Andrews, T J

    1993-07-01

    We confirm the observation of Mogel and McFadden (Mogel, S.N., and McFadden, B. A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 8333-8337) that ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) exhibits chemiluminescence while catalyzing its oxygenase reaction in the presence of Mn2+. However, our results with the spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum enzymes differ markedly in the following respects. 1) Chemiluminescence intensity was directly proportional to enzyme concentration and behaved as if representing the rate of oxygenase catalysis. 2) The wavelength spectrum peaked at about 770 nm and extended beyond 810 nm. This seems inconsistent with chemiluminescence generated by simultaneous decay of pairs of singlet O2 molecules. It is consistent with manganese(II) luminescence and we discuss its possible sources. The time course of chemiluminescence (resolution, 0.25 s) was distinctively different for spinach and R. rubrum enzymes during the initial 5 s of catalysis, with the bacterial enzyme exhibiting a pronounced initial "burst." Chemiluminescence by the spinach enzyme responded to substrate concentrations in a manner consistent with known oxygenase properties, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten kinetics with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (Km 400 nM). Chemiluminescence required carbamylated enzyme with Mn2+ bound at the active site (activation energy, -57.1 KJ.mol-1). As an indicator of oxygenase activity, chemiluminescence represents an improvement over oxygen electrode measurements in response time and sensitivity by factors of at least 100. PMID:8314755

  6. Biochemical and structural characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bfd and FPR: ferredoxin NADP+ reductase and not ferredoxin is the redox partner of heme oxygenase under iron-starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, An; Zeng, Yuhong; Han, Huijong; Weeratunga, Saroja; Morgan, Bailey N; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Schönbrunn, Ernst; Rivera, Mario

    2007-10-30

    Among the 118 genes upregulated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to iron starvation [Ochsner, U. A., Wilderman, P. J., Vasil, A. I., and Vasil, M. L. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 45, 1277-1287], we focused on the products of the two genes encoding electron transfer proteins, as a means of identifying the redox partners of the heme oxygenase (pa-HO) expressed under low-iron stress conditions. Biochemical and spectroscopic investigations demonstrated that the bfd gene encodes a 73-amino acid protein (pa-Bfd) that incorporates a [2Fe-2S]2+/+ center, whereas the fpr gene encodes a 258-residue NADPH-dependent ferredoxin reductase (pa-FPR) that utilizes FAD as a cofactor. In vitro reconstitution of pa-HO catalytic activity with the newly characterized proteins led to the surprising observation that pa-FPR efficiently supports the catalytic cycle of pa-HO, without the need of a ferredoxin. In comparison, electron transfer from pa-Bfd to pa-HO is sluggish, which strongly argues against the possibility that the seven electrons needed by pa-HO to degrade biliverdin are transferred from NADPH to pa-HO in a ferredoxin (Bfd)-dependent manner. Given that pa-HO functions to release iron from exogenous heme acquired under iron-starvation conditions, the use of a flavoenzyme rather than an iron-sulfur center-containing protein to support heme degradation is an efficient use of resources in the cell. The crystal structure of pa-FPR (1.6 A resolution) showed that its fold is comparable that of the superfamily of ferredoxin reductases and most similar to the structure of Azotobacter vinelandii FPR and Escherichia coli flavodoxin reductase. The latter two enzymes interact with distinct redox partners, a ferredoxin and a flavodoxin, respectively. Hence, findings reported herein extend the range of redox partners recognized by the fold of pa-FPR to include a heme oxygenase (pa-HO). PMID:17915950

  7. In vitro activation of cyclo-oxygenase in the rabbit carotid body: effect of its blockade on [3H]catecholamine release.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Niño, A; Almaraz, L; González, C

    1994-01-01

    The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from rabbit carotid bodies (CBs) incubated in basal conditions (PO2 approximately 132 mmHg; PCO2 approximately 33 mmHg; pH = 7.42) amounts to 94.4 +/- 10.1 pg (mg protein)-1 (10 min)-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.). Incubation of the CB in a hypoxic solution (PO2 approximately 46 mmHg) produced a significant 40% increase (P < 0.05) in the release of PGE2. Indomethacin (2 microM) prevented the hypoxia-induced release of PGE2. Sensory plus sympathetic denervation of the CB 4 days prior to the experiments did not modify either basal or low PO2-induced PGE2 release, indicating that intraglomic nerve endings are not significant sources for the PGE2 released. Incubation of the CB in an acidic-hypercapnic solution (PO2 approximately 132 mmHg; PCO2 approximately 132 mmHg; pH = 6.60) or in a high K(+)-containing solution (35 mM) was also effective in promoting an increase in the outflow of PGE2 from the organs. The release of [3H]catecholamines ([3H]CA) from the CB elicited by incubating the organs in low PO2 solutions (PO2 ranged between 66 and 13 mmHg) was potentiated by two inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 microM) and indomethacin (2 microM). The effect persisted after chronic denervation of the organ. The secretory response elicited by acidic stimuli was also augmented by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. Thus, [3H]CA release elicited by incubating the CBs in the acidic-hypercapnic solution increased by 300% in the presence of indomethacin (2 microM), and ASA (100 microM) more than doubled the release induced by dinitrophenol (100 microM), a protonophore that mimics an acidic stimulus. Indomethacin, but not ASA, moderately increased the high K(+)-evoked [3H]CA release. The effect of indomethacin on the release of [3H]CA elicited by acidic and hypoxic stimuli was reversed by PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner (0.3-300 nM). These results show that low PO2 and high PCO2-low pH, the natural stimuli to the CB, as well as high

  8. Mixed function oxygenases and xenobiotic detoxication/toxication systems in bivalve molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. N.; Livingstone, D. R.; Donkin, P.; Bayne, B. L.; Widdows, J.; Lowe, D. M.

    1980-03-01

    Components of a xenobiotic detoxication/toxication system involving mixed function oxygenases are present in Mytilus edulis. Our paper critically reviews the recent literature on this topic which reported the apparent absence of such a system in bivalve molluscs and attempts to reconcile this viewpoint with our own findings on NADPH neotetrazolium reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldrin epoxidation and other reports of the presence of mixed function oxygenases. New experimental data are presented which indicate that some elements of the detoxication/toxication system in M. edulis can be induced by aromatic hydrocarbons derived from crude oil. This includes a brief review of the results of long-term experiments in which mussels were exposed to low concentrations of the water accommodated fraction of North Sea crude oil (7.7-68 µg 1-1) in which general stress responses such as reduced physiological scope for growth, cytotoxic damage to lysosomal integrity and cellular damage are considered as characteristics of the general stress syndrome induced by the toxic action of the xenobiotics. In addition, induction in the blood cells of microsomal NADPH neotetrazolium reductase (associated with mixed function oxygenases) and the NADPH generating enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are considered to be specific biological responses to the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The consequences of this detoxication/toxication system for Mytilus edulis are discussed in terms of the formation of toxic electrophilic intermediate metabolites which are highly reactive and can combine with DNA, RNA and proteins with subsequent damage to these cellular constituents. Implications for neoplasms associated with the blood cells are also discussed. Finally, in view of the increased use of mussel species in pollutant monitoring programmes, the induction phenomenon which is associated with microsomal enzymes in the blood cells is considered as a possible tool for the

  9. A stopped-flow kinetic study of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1989-01-01

    1. The roles of the three protein components of soluble methane mono-oxygenase were investigated by the use of rapid-reaction techniques. The transfer of electrons through the enzyme complex from NADH to methane/O2 was also investigated. 2. Electron transfer from protein C, the reductase component, to protein A, the hydroxylase component, was demonstrated. Protein C was shown to undergo a three-electron--one-electron catalytic cycle. The interaction of protein C with NADH was investigated. Reduction of protein C was shown to be rapid, and a charge-transfer interaction between reduced FAD and NAD+ was observed; this intermediate was also found in static titration experiments. Thus the binding of NADH, the reduction of protein C and the intramolecular transfer of electrons through protein C were shown to be much more rapid than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. 3. The rate of transfer of electrons from protein C to protein A was shown to be lower than the reduction of protein C but higher than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. Association of the proteins was not rate-limiting. The amount of protein A present in the system had a small effect on the rate of reduction of protein C, indicating some co-operativity between the two proteins. 4. Protein B was shown to prevent electron transfer between protein C and protein A in the absence of methane. On addition of saturating concentrations of methane electron transfer was restored. With saturating concentrations of methane and O2 the observed rate constant for the conversion of methane into methanol was 0.26 s-1 at 18 degrees C. 5. By the use of [2H4]methane it was demonstrated that C-H-bond breakage is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the conversion of methane into methanol. PMID:2497729

  10. Complex formation between heme oxygenase and phytochrome during biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi; Schwach, Julia; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato carries two genes encoding bacterial phytochromes. Sequence motifs identify both proteins (PstBphP1 and PstBphP2, respectively) as biliverdin IXα (BV)-binding phytochromes. PstbphP1 is arranged in an operon with a heme oxygenase (PstBphO)-encoding gene (PstbphO), whereas PstbphP2 is flanked downstream by a gene encoding a CheY-type response regulator. Expression of the heme oxygenase PstBphO yielded a green protein (λ(max) = 650 nm), indicative for bound BV. Heterologous expression of PstbphP1 and PstbphP2 and in vitro assembly with BV IXα yielded the apoproteins for both phytochromes, but only in the case of PstBphP1 a light-inducible chromoprotein. Attempts to express the endogenous heme oxygenase BphO and either of the two phytochromes from two plasmids yielded only holo-PstBphP1. Relatively small amounts of soluble holo-PstBphP2 were just obtained upon co-expression with BphO from P. aeruginosa. Expression of the operon containing PstbphO:PstbphP1 led to an improved yield and better photoreactivity for PstBphP1, whereas an identical construct, exchanging PstbphP1 for PstbphP2 (PstbphO:PstbphP2), again yielded only minute amounts of chromophore-loaded BphP2-holoprotein. The improved yield for PstBphP1 from the PstbphO:PstbphP1 operon expression is apparently caused by complex formation between both proteins during biosynthesis as affinity chromatography of either protein using two different tags always co-purified the reaction partner. These results support the importance of protein-protein interactions during tetrapyrrole metabolism and phytochrome assembly. PMID:22415794

  11. Substrate Promotes Productive Gas Binding in the α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenase FIH.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Fermann, Justin; Garman, Scott; Knapp, Michael J

    2016-01-19

    The Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent oxygenases use molecular oxygen to conduct a wide variety of reactions with important biological implications, such as DNA base excision repair, histone demethylation, and the cellular hypoxia response. These enzymes follow a sequential mechanism in which O2 binds and reacts after the primary substrate binds, making those structural factors that promote productive O2 binding central to their chemistry. A large challenge in this field is to identify strategies that engender productive turnover. Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) is a Fe(2+)/αKG-dependent oxygenase that forms part of the O2 sensing machinery in human cells by hydroxylating the C-terminal transactivation domain (CTAD) found within the HIF-1α protein. The structure of FIH was determined with the O2 analogue NO bound to Fe, offering the first direct insight into the gas binding geometry in this enzyme. Through a combination of density functional theory calculations, {FeNO}(7) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that CTAD binding stimulates O2 reactivity by altering the orientation of the bound gas molecule. Although unliganded FIH binds NO with moderate affinity, the bound gas can adopt either of two orientations with similar stability; upon CTAD binding, NO adopts a single preferred orientation that is appropriate for supporting oxidative decarboxylation. Combined with other studies of related enzymes, our data suggest that substrate-induced reorientation of bound O2 is the mechanism utilized by the αKG oxygenases to tightly couple O2 activation to substrate hydroxylation. PMID:26727884

  12. Heme oxygenase activity and some indices of antioxidant protection in rat liver and kidney in glycerol model of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Filimonenko, V P

    2003-01-01

    Activity of heme oxygenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, the content of reduced glutathione and total heme in the liver and kidneys, and serum absorption spectrum in the Soret band were studied in rats with glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Glycerol increased the content of heme-containing metabolites in the serum and the total heme content in the liver and kidneys, and decreased the content of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in the examined organs. Superoxide dismutase activity increased in the liver and decreased in the kidneys. Heme oxygenase activity increased in the liver and kidneys 2 and 6 h postinjection, respectively. The effects of heme delivered to the liver and kidneys from the vascular bed on the antioxidant defense and heme oxygenase activity were studied. PMID:12717508

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Acute Murine Colitis by Regulating Th17/Treg Cell Balance*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liya; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Xia, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent investigations suggest that activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Treg) is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protein with a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory function, which exerts significantly protective roles in various T cell-mediated diseases. In this study, we aim to explore the immunological regulation of HO-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. BALB/c mice were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium orally; some mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with HO-1 inducer hemin or HO-1 inhibitor stannum protoporphyrin IX. The results show that hemin enhances the colonic expression of HO-1 and significantly ameliorates the symptoms of colitis with improved histological changes, accompanied by a decreased proportion of Th17 cells and increased number of Tregs in mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Moreover, induction of HO-1 down-regulates retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt expression and IL-17A levels, while promoting Treg-related forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression and IL-10 levels in colon. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to Tregs when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. Therefore, HO-1 may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the murine model of acute experimental colitis via regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, thus providing a possible novel therapeutic target in IBD. PMID:25112868

  14. Induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA by prostaglandin E2 in human prostatic carcinoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Dahiya, R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. There are two isoforms of cyclooxygenases: COX-1 (a constitutive form) and COX-2 (an inducible form). COX-2 has recently been categorized as an immediate-early gene and is associated with cellular growth and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous dimethylprostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) on prostate cancer cell growth. Results of these experiments demonstrate that administration of dmPGE2 to growing PC-3 cells significantly increased cellular proliferation (as measured by the cell number), total DNA content and endogenous PGE2 concentration. DmPGE2 also increased the steady-state mRNA levels of its own inducible synthesizing enzyme, COX-2, as well as cellular growth to levels similar to those seen with fetal calf serum and phorbol ester. The same results were observed in other human cancer cell types, such as the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, breast cancer MDA-MB-134 cells and human colorectal carcinoma DiFi cells. In PC-3 cells, the dmPGE2 regulation of the COX-2 mRNA levels was both time dependent, with maximum stimulation seen 2 h after addition, and dose dependent on dmPGE2 concentration, with maximum stimulation seen at 5 microg ml(-1). The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous dmPGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and PC-3 cell growth. Taken together, these data suggest that PGE2 has a specific role in the maintenance of human cancer cell growth and that the activation of COX-2 expression depends primarily upon newly synthesized PGE2, perhaps resulting from changes in local cellular PGE2 concentrations.

  15. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.H.; Tabita, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which rubulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake Erie phytoplanktonic microorganisms, we have isolated total RNA and DNA from four Lake Erie sampling sites. Probes prepared from RubisCO large-subunit genes (rbcL) of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 (representative of type IB) and the diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1 (representative of type ID) was determined. It appeared that type ID (diatom) rbcL gene expression per gene dose decreased as the sampling sites shifted toward open water. By contrast, a similar trend was not observed for cyanobacterial (type IB) rbcL gene expression per gene dose. Thus far, a total of 21 clones of rbcL genes derived from mRNA have been obtained and completely sequenced from the Ballast Island site. For surface water samples, deduced amino acid sequences of five of six clones appeared to be representative of green algae. In contrast, six of nine sequenced rbcL clones from 10-m-deep samples were a chromophytic and rhodophytic lineages. At 5 m deep, the active CO{sub 2}-fixing planktonic organisms represented a diverse group, including organisms related to Chlorella ellipsoidea, Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1, and Olisthodiscus luteus. Although many more samplings at diverse sites must be accomplished, the discovery of distinctly different sequences of rbcL mRNA at different water depths suggests that there is a stratification of active CO{sub 2}-fixing organisms in western Lake Erie. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Purification and characterization of the oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400.

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, J D; Gibson, D T

    1995-01-01

    The iron-sulfur protein of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (ISPBPH) was purified from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400. The protein is composed of a 1:1 ratio of a large (alpha) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 53,300 and a small (beta) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 27,300. The native molecular weight was 209,000, indicating that the protein adopts an alpha 3 beta 3 native conformation. Measurements of iron and acid-labile sulfide gave 2 mol of each per mol of alpha beta heterodimer. The absorbance spectrum showed peaks at 325 and 450 nm with a broad shoulder at 550 nm. The spectrum was bleached upon reduction of the protein with NADPH in the presence of catalytic amounts of ferredoxinBPH and ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the reduced protein showed three signals at gx = 1.74, gy = 1.92, and gz = 2.01. These properties are characteristic of proteins that contain a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] center. Biphenyl was oxidized to cis-(2R,3S)-dihydroxy-1-phenylcyclohexa-4,6-diene by ISPBPH in the presence of ferredoxinBPH, ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase, NADPH, and ferrous iron. Naphthalene was also oxidized to a cis-dihydrodiol, but only 3% was converted to product under the same conditions that gave 92% oxidation of biphenyl. Benzene, toluene, 2,5-dichlorotoluene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene were not oxidized. ISPBPH is proposed to be the terminal oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase where substrate binding and oxidation occur via addition of molecular oxygen and two reducing equivalents. PMID:7592331

  17. Isolation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from leaves.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Barta, Csengele; Salvucci, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a viable strategy for increasing plant productivity. Advances in biotechnology have made this goal more attainable by making it possible to modify Rubisco in planta. To properly evaluate the properties of Rubisco, it is necessary to isolate the enzyme in pure form. This chapter describes procedures for rapid and efficient purification of Rubisco from leaves of several species. PMID:20960141

  18. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  19. Posttranslational Modifications in the Amino- Terminal Region of the Large Subunit of Ribulose- 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Several Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Houtz, Robert L.; Poneleit, Loelle; Jones, Samantha B.; Royer, Malcolm; Stults, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A combination of limited tryptic proteolysis, reverse phasehigh performance liquid chromatography, Edman degradative sequencing, amino acid analysis, and fast-atom bombardment mass-spectrometry was used to remove and identify the first 14 to 18 N-terminal amino acid residues of the large subunit of higher plant-type ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Marchantia polymorpha, pea (Pisum sativum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), soybean (Glycine max), petunia (Petunia x hybrida), cowpea (Vigna sinensis), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. The N-terminal tryptic peptide from acetylated Pro-3 to Lys-8 of the large subunit of Rubisco was identical in all species, but the amino acid sequence of the penultimate N-terminal tryptic peptide varied. Eight of the 10 species examined contained a trimethyllysyl residue at position 14 in the large subunit of Rubisco, whereas Chlamydomonas and Marchantia contained an unmodified lysyl residue at this position. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668742

  20. [Heme oxygenase induction in rat heart and vessels and peroxidative resistance of erythrocytes during hemolytic anemia development].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Pavychenko, O V

    2005-01-01

    The hemolytic anemia development caused by phenylhydrazine injection (7 mg/100 g b.w.) was shown to be caused by the decreasing of both catalase activity and glutathione content in erythrocytes, and by the increasing of spontaneouse hemolysis level of these cells in blood stream. The increasing of heme oxygenase activity and TBA-active products in rat heart and vessels were revealed 24 hrs after phenylhydrazine injection. Possible mechanisms of heme oxygenase-1 induction under hypoxia as response to the hemolytic anemia development and it's role in defense of the cells from damage are discussed. PMID:16329389

  1. Crystallization of the extracellular rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Maren; Braaz, Reinhard; Jendrossek, Dieter; Einsle, Oliver

    2008-02-01

    The extracellular rubber-degrading enzyme rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y has been crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to high resolution. Rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y is an extracellular dioxygenase that is capable of cleaving the double bonds of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) into short-chain isoprene units with 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyl-trideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD) as the major cleavage product. Crystals of the dihaem c-type cytochrome RoxA were grown by sitting-drop vapour diffusion using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. RoxA crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.4, b = 97.1, c = 101.1 Å, β = 98.39°, resulting in two monomers per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a limiting resolution of 1.8 Å. Despite a protein weight of 74.1 kDa and only two iron sites per monomer, phasing was successfully carried out by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  2. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, L.A.; Luscher, P.; Tyrrell, R.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role.

  3. Studies on the catalytic domains of multiple JmjC oxygenases using peptide substrates

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie T; Walport, Louise J; Hopkinson, Richard J; Madden, Sarah K; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Schofield, Christopher J; Kawamura, Akane

    2014-01-01

    The JmjC-domain-containing 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases catalyze protein hydroxylation and Nε-methyllysine demethylation via hydroxylation. A subgroup of this family, the JmjC lysine demethylases (JmjC KDMs) are involved in histone modifications at multiple sites. There are conflicting reports as to the substrate selectivity of some JmjC oxygenases with respect to KDM activities. In this study, a panel of modified histone H3 peptides was tested for demethylation against 15 human JmjC-domain-containing proteins. The results largely confirmed known Nε-methyllysine substrates. However, the purified KDM4 catalytic domains showed greater substrate promiscuity than previously reported (i.e., KDM4A was observed to catalyze demethylation at H3K27 as well as H3K9/K36). Crystallographic analyses revealed that the Nε-methyllysine of an H3K27me3 peptide binds similarly to Nε-methyllysines of H3K9me3/H3K36me3 with KDM4A. A subgroup of JmjC proteins known to catalyze hydroxylation did not display demethylation activity. Overall, the results reveal that the catalytic domains of the KDM4 enzymes may be less selective than previously identified. They also draw a distinction between the Nε-methyllysine demethylation and hydroxylation activities within the JmjC subfamily. These results will be of use to those working on functional studies of the JmjC enzymes. PMID:25625844

  4. Steady-state kinetic analysis of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1986-01-01

    A steady-state kinetic analysis of purified soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was performed. The enzyme was found to follow a concerted-substitution mechanism. Methane binds to the enzyme followed by NADH, which reacts to yield reduced enzyme and NAD+. The reduced enzyme-methane complex binds O2 to give a second ternary complex, which breaks down to release water and methanol. In this way the enzyme can control the supply of electrons to the active site to coincide with the arrival of methane. Product-inhibition studies (with propylene as substrate) supported the reaction mechanism proposed. Ki values for NAD+ and propylene oxide are reported. The Km for NADH varied from 25 microM to 300 microM, depending on the nature of the hydrocarbon substrate, and thus supports the proposed reaction sequence. With methane as substrate the Km values for methane, NADH and O2 were shown to be 3 microM, 55.8 microM and 16.8 microM respectively. With propylene as substrate the Km values for propylene, NADH and O2 were 0.94 microM, 25.2 microM and 12.7-15.9 microM respectively. Methane mono-oxygenase was shown to be well adapted to the oxidation of methane compared with other straight-chain alkanes. PMID:3098230

  5. Analysis of Carotenoid Isomerase Activity in a Prototypical Carotenoid Cleavage Enzyme, Apocarotenoid Oxygenase (ACO)*

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuewu; Kiser, Philip D.; Che, Tao; Carey, Paul R.; Golczak, Marcin; Shi, Wuxian; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage enzymes (CCEs) constitute a group of evolutionarily related proteins that metabolize a variety of carotenoid and non-carotenoid substrates. Typically, these enzymes utilize a non-heme iron center to oxidatively cleave a carbon-carbon double bond of a carotenoid substrate. Some members also isomerize specific double bonds in their substrates to yield cis-apocarotenoid products. The apocarotenoid oxygenase from Synechocystis has been hypothesized to represent one such member of this latter category of CCEs. Here, we developed a novel expression and purification protocol that enabled production of soluble, native ACO in quantities sufficient for high resolution structural and spectroscopic investigation of its catalytic mechanism. High performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ACO exclusively formed all-trans products. We also found that linear polyoxyethylene detergents previously used for ACO crystallization strongly inhibited the apocarotenoid oxygenase activity of the enzyme. We crystallized the native enzyme in the absence of apocarotenoid substrate and found electron density in the active site that was similar in appearance to the density previously attributed to a di-cis-apocarotenoid intermediate. Our results clearly demonstrated that ACO is in fact a non-isomerizing member of the CCE family. These results indicate that careful selection of detergent is critical for the success of structural studies aimed at elucidating structures of CCE-carotenoid/retinoid complexes. PMID:24648526

  6. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  7. A Novel, ;Double-Clamp; Binding Mode for Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Mona N.; Vlahakis, Jason Z.; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A.; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-08-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be {approx}15 times more potent (IC{sub 50} = 0.27{+-}0.07 {mu}M) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC{sub 50} = 4.0{+-}1.8 {mu}M). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This 'double-clamp' binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  8. Pathway of assembly of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Anabaena 7210 expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevitz, M.; Somerville, C.R.; McIntosh, L.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have placed the genes encoding ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the Anabaena 7120 operon under transcriptional control of the lac promoter carried on the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19. The genes encoding both the large and small subunit polypeptides (rbcL and rbcS) are transcribed and translated so that approx. = 0.6% of the soluble protein in E. coli extracts is a fully functional holoenzyme with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, which contains stoichiometric amounts of the two subunits. However, expression of the large subunit polypeptide vastly exceeds that of the small subunit because the majority of transcripts terminate in the intergenic region between the rbcL and rbcS genes. As a result, excess large subunit is synthesized and accumulates in E. coli as an insoluble and catalytically inactive form. Because small subunit is found only in the high molecular weight soluble form of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the authors propose that the small subunit promotes assembly of the hexadecameric form of the enzyme via heterodimers of large and small subunits.

  9. A Novel, “Double-Clamp” Binding Mode for Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mona N.; Vlahakis, Jason Z.; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A.; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC50 = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC50 = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This “double-clamp” binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors. PMID:22276118

  10. A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50) = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50) = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors. PMID:22276118

  11. Biosynthesis of piperazic acid via N5-hydroxy-ornithine in Kutzneria spp. 744.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christopher S; Jiang, Wei; Heemstra, John R; Gontang, Erin A; Kolter, Roberto; Walsh, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    Which came first? We have investigated the biosynthesis of the piperazic acid (Piz) building blocks in the kutzneride family of metabolites. The flavin-dependent oxygenase KtzI was shown to convert ornithine to N(5)-OH-Orn. LC-MS/MS showed (13)C(5)-labeled versions of these two amino acids to be direct precursors of piperazic acid in vivo. PMID:22522643

  12. Time-resolved Studies of IsdG Protein Identify Molecular Signposts along the Non-canonical Heme Oxygenase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Streit, Bennett R; Kant, Ravi; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Celis, Arianna I; Machovina, Melodie M; Skaar, Eric P; Bothner, Brian; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    IsdGs are heme monooxygenases that break open the tetrapyrrole, releasing the iron, and thereby allowing bacteria expressing this protein to use heme as a nutritional iron source. Little is currently known about the mechanism by which IsdGs degrade heme, although the products differ from those generated by canonical heme oxygenases. A synthesis of time-resolved techniques, including in proteo mass spectrometry and conventional and stopped-flow UV/visible spectroscopy, was used in conjunction with analytical methods to define the reaction steps mediated by IsdG from Staphylococcus aureus and their time scales. An apparent meso-hydroxyheme (forming with k = 0.6 min(-1), pH 7.4, 10 mm ascorbate, 10 μm IsdG-heme, 22 °C) was identified as a likely common intermediate with the canonical heme oxygenases. Unlike heme oxygenases, this intermediate does not form with added H2O2 nor does it convert to verdoheme and CO. Rather, the next observable intermediates (k = 0.16 min(-1)) were a set of formyloxobilin isomers, similar to the mycobilin products of the IsdG homolog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MhuD). These converted in separate fast and slow phases to β-/δ-staphylobilin isomers and formaldehyde (CH2O). Controlled release of this unusual C1 product may support IsdG's dual role as both an oxygenase and a sensor of heme availability in S. aureus. PMID:26534961

  13. Regulation of heme oxygenase activity in rat liver during oxidative stress induced by cobalt chloride and mercury chloride.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Nikitchenko, I V; Sokol, O A; Strel'chenko, E V

    2001-01-01

    Activities of heme oxygenase and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase and cytochrome P450 content in liver as well as absorption of the Soret band and optical density at 280 nm in serum were determined 2 and 24 h after administration of HgCl(2) and CoCl(2) and after co-administration of the metal salts with alpha-tocopherol. Administration of HgCl(2) and CoCl(2) increased the contents of hemolysis products in the serum, induced heme oxygenase, and decreased cytochrome P450 content in the liver. Injection of HgCl(2) increased the activity of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase holoenzyme and enzyme saturation with the heme, but administration of CoCl(2) decreased these parameters. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol completely blocked the changes induced by HgCl(2) after 24 h. Induction of heme oxygenase induced by CoCl(2) was not blocked by alpha-tocopherol, but this antioxidant normalized the increase in the level of hemolysis products in the serum and decrease in tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase holoenzyme activity and cytochrome P450 content. Mechanisms of regulation of heme oxygenase by mercury and cobalt ions are discussed. PMID:11240397

  14. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Anthocyanins Modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 and Glutathione S-Transferase-pi Expression in the ARPE-19 Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE. To determine whether anthocyanin-enriched bilberry extracts modulate pre- or post-translational levels of oxidative stress defense enzymes heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. METHODS. Confluent ARPE-19 c...

  15. Isolation and sequencing of an active-site peptide from Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase after affinity labeling with 2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fraij, B.; Hartman, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate was reported to be a highly selective affinity label for ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The enzyme has now been inactivated with a /sup 14/C-labeled reagent in order to identify the target residue at the sequence level. Subsequent to inactivation, the enzyme was carboxymethylated with iodoacetate and then digested with trypsin. The only radioactive peptide in the digest was obtained at a high degree of purity by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sephadex, and Sephadex G-25. On the basis of amino acid analysis of the purified peptide, the derivatized residue was a methionyl sulfonium salt. Automated Edman degradation confirmed the purity of the labeled peptide and established its sequence as Leu-Gln-Gly-Ala-Ser-Gly-Ile-His-Thr-Gly-Thr-Met-Gly-Phe-Gly-Lys-Met-Glu-Gly-Glu-Ser-Ser-Asp-Arg. Cleavage of this peptide with cyanogen bromide showed that the reagent moiety was covalently attached to the second methionyl residue. Sequence homology with the carboxylase/oxygenase from spinach indicates that the lysyl residue immediately preceding the alkylated methionine corresponds to Lys-334, a residue previously implicated at the active site. 31 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 attenuates chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats: A possible link between heme oxygenase-1 and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Ihab Talat; Omran, Gamal Abd El-Hay

    2016-03-01

    A critical restriction in the use of bleomycin (BLM) is development of pulmonary fibrosis via oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms. Drugs that induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) like hemin (HEM), have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Accordingly, it is worth to test HEM against BLM-induced lung Injury. Four groups of rats were used: control group; HEM group (50 mg/kg, i.p.); BLM group (5 mg/kg, intratracheal single injection) and HEM+BLM group (HEM administered 1 day before BLM injection and continued for 14 days). At the end of experiment, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and NO levels were estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Hydroxyproline (HP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-6, GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity were determined in lung tissues. In addition, expression of HO-1 and NF-κB protein in lung tissues was determined using both western blot and immunohistochemical techniques. Also lung tissues were investigated histopathologically. BLM produced lung damage as indicated from the elevation in LDH and NO, perturbation in lung oxidative stress indicators, increased HP, MPO, IL-6 contents and NF-κB expression. On the other side, HEM, reduced BLM harmful effects as noticed from amelioration of biochemical markers and histopathological lesions, which is concomitant with over-expression of HO-1. Therefore, induction of HO-1 in lung by HEM may alleviate the lung damaging effects of BLM. PMID:27113308

  17. Isotetrandrine ameliorates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lidong; Ci, Xinxin; Lv, Hongming; Wang, Xiaosong; Qin, F Xiaofeng; Cheng, Genhong

    2016-08-01

    1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine, a naturally occurring plant alkaloid found in Mahonia of Berberidaceae, possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral properties, but the antioxidative activity and mechanism action remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidative effect and mechanism of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. We found that 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine suppressed cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and glutathione depletion. Additionally, our study confirmed that 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 expression and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Specifically, the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine was associated with Nrf2 negative regulatory protein Keap1 inactivation and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Preincubation with thiol-reducing agents reduced 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression, and treatment with either extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors attenuated the levels of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine-induced Nrf2 activation and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine was abolished by heme oxygenase-1, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors. These results indicated that the 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine ameliorated tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by the dissociation of Nrf2 from Nrf2-Keap1 complex via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation and Keap1 inactivation. PMID:27190261

  18. Cloning and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) cDNA from green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Noroozi, Mostafa; Napis, Suhaimi

    2011-11-01

    An initial study on gene cloning and characterization of unicellular green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus was carried out to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) as a first step towards elucidating the structure of A. convolutus RbcS gene. The full-length of A. convolutus RbcS cDNA (AcRbcS) contained 28 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 225 bp of 3' non-coding region, and an open reading frame of 165 amino acids consisting of a chloroplast transit peptide with 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 141 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has high identity to those of other green algae RbcS genes. The AcRbcS contained a few conserved domains including protein kinase C phosphorylation site, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and N-myristoylation sites. The AcRbcS was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and a ~21 kDa of anticipated protein band was observed on SDS-PAGE. From the phylogenetic analysis of RbcS protein sequences, it was found that the RbcS of A. convolutus has closer genetic relationship with green microalgae species compared to those of green seaweed and green macroalgae species. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the AcRbcS is a member of a small multigene family comprising of two to six members in A. convolutus genome. Under different illumination conditions, RT-PCR analysis showed that AcRbcS transcription was reduced in the dark, and drastically recovered in the light condition. Results presented in this paper established a good foundation for further study on the photosynthetic process of A. convolutus and other green algae species where little information is known on Rubisco small subunit. PMID:21287365

  19. Potential therapeutic applications of aspirin and other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Farah, A. E.; Rosenberg, F.

    1980-01-01

    1 The ubiquitous actions of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors are described. 2 These include the inhibitory effect on prostaglandin synthesis and the direct effect of aspirin on lymphocytes and their ability to produce lymphokines. 3 Aspirin reduces some types of platelet aggregation possibly involving inhibition of the precursors of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. 4 The therapeutic implications in relation to transient ischaemic attacks, coronary artery disease and reno-allograft rejection are discussed. 5 The beneficial and adverse effects on the gastro-intestinal tract are described. 6 The effects of aspirin-like drugs on the genito-urinary tract are described with particular reference to their adverse effects on labour and their therapeutic effect on dysmenorrhoea. PMID:6776977

  20. Mutation in bovine beta-carotene oxygenase 2 affects milk color.

    PubMed

    Berry, S D; Davis, S R; Beattie, E M; Thomas, N L; Burrett, A K; Ward, H E; Stanfield, A M; Biswas, M; Ankersmit-Udy, A E; Oxley, P E; Barnett, J L; Pearson, J F; van der Does, Y; Macgibbon, A H K; Spelman, R J; Lehnert, K; Snell, R G

    2009-07-01

    beta-Carotene biochemistry is a fundamental process in mammalian biology. Aberrations either through malnutrition or potentially through genetic variation may lead to vitamin A deficiency, which is a substantial public health burden. In addition, understanding the genetic regulation of this process may enable bovine improvement. While many bovine QTL have been reported, few of the causative genes and mutations have been identified. We discovered a QTL for milk beta-carotene and subsequently identified a premature stop codon in bovine beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2), which also affects serum beta-carotene content. The BCO2 enzyme is thereby identified as a key regulator of beta-carotene metabolism. PMID:19398771

  1. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Hyman M.; Song, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders. PMID:25761244

  2. Regio- and stereodivergent antibiotic oxidative carbocyclizations catalysed by Rieske oxygenase-like enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydor, Paulina K.; Barry, Sarah M.; Odulate, Olanipekun M.; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Haynes, Stuart W.; Corre, Christophe; Song, Lijiang; Challis, Gregory L.

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative cyclizations, exemplified by the biosynthetic assembly of the penicillin nucleus from a tripeptide precursor, are arguably the most synthetically powerful implementation of C-H activation reactions in nature. Here, we show that Rieske oxygenase-like enzymes mediate regio- and stereodivergent oxidative cyclizations to form 10- and 12-membered carbocyclic rings in the key steps of the biosynthesis of the antibiotics streptorubin B and metacycloprodigiosin, respectively. These reactions represent the first examples of oxidative carbocyclizations catalysed by non-haem iron-dependent oxidases and define a novel type of catalytic activity for Rieske enzymes. A better understanding of how these enzymes achieve such remarkable regio- and stereocontrol in the functionalization of unactivated hydrocarbon chains will greatly facilitate the development of selective man-made C-H activation catalysts.

  3. Positive and negative regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Takahashi, Y; Ito, K; Nagano, T; Shibahara, S; Miura, T

    1999-10-28

    To elucidate the regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene expression, we assessed approximately 4 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the hHO-1 gene for basal promoter activity and sequenced approximately 2 kb of the 5'-flanking region. A series of deletion mutants of the 5'-flanking region linked to the luciferase gene was constructed. Basal level expression of these constructs was tested in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. By measuring luciferase activity, which was transiently expressed in the transfected cells, we found a positive regulatory region at position -1976 to -1655 bp. This region functions in HepG2 cells but not in HeLa cells. A negative regulatory region was also found at position -981 to -412 bp that functions in both HepG2 cells and HeLa cells. PMID:10542320

  4. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  5. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation protects against oxidative stress via heme-oxygenase I induction.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Elisa; Buendia, Izaskun; Parada, Esther; León, Rafael; Jansen-Duerr, Pidder; Pircher, Haymo; Egea, Javier; Lopez, Manuela G

    2015-10-15

    Subchronic oxidative stress and inflammation are being increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of α7 nicotinic receptor activation in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration based on subchronic oxidative stress. Rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) were exposed for 4 days to low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the complex III mitochondrial blocker, antimycin-A. Antimycin-A (0.1μM) and lipopolysaccharide (1ng/ml) caused low neurotoxicity on their own, measured as propidium iodide fluorescence in CA1 and CA3 regions. However, their combination (LPS/AA) caused a greater detrimental effect, in addition to mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nox4 overexpression. Antimycin-A per se increased ROS and mitochondrial depolarization, although these effects were significantly higher when combined with LPS. More interesting was the finding that exposure of OHCs to the combination of LPS/AA triggered aberrant protein aggregation, measured as thioflavin S immunofluorescence. The α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, PNU282987, prevented the neurotoxicity and the pathological hallmarks observed in the LPS/AA subchronic toxicity model (oxidative stress and protein aggregates); these effects were blocked by α-bungarotoxin and tin protoporphyrin, indicating the participation of α7 nAChRs and heme-oxygenase I induction. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of OHCs to low concentration of antimycin-A plus LPS reproduced pathological features of neurodegenerative disorders. α7 nAChR activation ameliorated these alterations by a mechanism involving heme-oxygenase I induction. PMID:26212551

  6. Substrate Specificity of Purified Recombinant Chicken β-Carotene 9',10'-Oxygenase (BCO2).

    PubMed

    Dela Seña, Carlo; Sun, Jian; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Kenneth M; Yuan, Yan; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2016-07-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this. PMID:27143479

  7. Measurement of membrane-bound human heme oxygenase-1 activity using a chemically defined assay system.

    PubMed

    Huber, Warren J; Marohnic, Christopher C; Peters, Michelle; Alam, Jawed; Reed, James R; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Backes, Wayne L

    2009-04-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes heme degradation in a reaction requiring NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Although most studies with HO used a soluble 30-kDa form, lacking the C-terminal membrane-binding region, recent reports show that the catalytic behavior of this enzyme is very different if this domain is retained; the overall activity was elevated 5-fold, and the K(m) for CPR decreased approximately 50-fold. The goal of these studies was to accurately measure HO activity using a coupled assay containing purified biliverdin reductase (BVR). This allows measurement of bilirubin formation after incorporation of full-length CPR and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into a membrane environment. When rat liver cytosol was used as the source of partially purified BVR, the reaction remained linear for 2 to 3 min; however, the reaction was only linear for 10 to 30 s when an equivalent amount of purified, human BVR (hBVR) was used. This lack of linearity was not observed with soluble HO-1. Optimal formation of bilirubin was achieved with concentrations of bovine serum albumin (0.25 mg/ml) and hBVR (0.025-0.05 microM), but neither supplement increased the time that the reaction remained linear. Various concentrations of superoxide dismutase had no effect on the reaction; however, when catalase was included, the reactions were linear for at least 4 to 5 min, even at high CPR levels. These results not only show that HO-1-generated hydrogen peroxide leads to a decrease in HO-1 activity but also provide for a chemically defined system to be used to examine the function of full-length HO-1 in a membrane environment. PMID:19131520

  8. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bellner, Lars; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; van Rooijen, Nico; Dunn, Michael W.; Abraham, Nader G.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-2 deficiency impairs wound healing and exacerbates inflammation following injury. We examine the impact of HO-2 deficiency on macrophage function and the contribution of macrophage HO-2 to inflammatory and repair responses to injury. Corneal epithelial debridement was performed in control and macrophage-depleted HO-2−/− and wild-type (WT) mice and in bone marrow chimeras. Peritoneal macrophages were collected for determination of phagocytic activity and classically activated macrophage (M1)-alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization. Depletion of macrophages delayed corneal healing (13.2%) and increased neutrophil infiltration (54.1%) by day 4 in WT mice, whereas in HO-2−/− mice, it did not worsen the already impaired wound healing and exacerbated inflammation. HO-2−/− macrophages displayed an altered M1 phenotype with no significant expression of M2 or M2-like activated cells and a 31.3% reduction in phagocytic capacity that was restored by inducing HO-1 activity or supplementing biliverdin. Macrophage depletion had no effect, whereas adoptive transfer of WT bone marrow improved wound healing (34% on day 4) but did not resolve the exaggerated inflammatory response in HO-2−/− mice. These findings indicate that HO-2–deficient macrophages are dysfunctional and that macrophage HO-2 is required for proper macrophage function but is insufficient to correct the impaired healing of the HO-2−/− cornea, suggesting that corneal epithelial expression of HO-2 is a key to resolution and repair in wound healing.—Bellner, L., Marrazzo, G., van Rooijen, N., Dunn, M. W., Abraham, N. G., Schwartzman, M. L. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing. PMID:25342128

  9. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P < 0.05) and protein levels in blue-shelled chickens compared with brown-shelled chickens. At the functional level, blue-shelled chickens also showed 1.40-fold (P < 0.05) higher HO activity than brown-shelled chickens. To explore the reasons for the differential expression of HMOX1, an association study of 6 SNP capturing the majority of HMOX1 variants with the blue egg coloration was performed. Results showed no significant association between SNP and the blue egg coloration in HMOX1 (P > 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor. PMID:21406370

  10. Upregulation of human heme oxygenase gene expression by Ets-family proteins.

    PubMed

    Deramaudt, B M; Remy, P; Abraham, N G

    1999-03-01

    Overexpression of human heme oxygenase-1 has been shown to have the potential to promote EC proliferation and angiogenesis. Since Ets-family proteins have been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, we investigated the presence of ETS binding sites (EBS), GGAA/T, and ETS protein contributing to human HO-1 gene expression. Several chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs were examined in order to analyze the effect of ETS family proteins on the transduction of HO-1 in Xenopus oocytes and in microvessel endothelial cells. Heme oxygenase promoter activity was up-regulated by FLI-1ERGETS-1 protein(s). Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays demonstrated that the promoter region (-1500 to +19) contains positive and negative control elements and that all three members of the ETS protein family were responsible for the up-regulation of HHO-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), performed with nuclear extracts from endothelial cells overexpressing HHO-1 gene, and specific HHO-1 oligonucleotides probes containing putative EBS resulted in a specific and marked bandshift. Synergistic binding was observed in EMSA between AP-1 on the one hand, FLI-1, ERG, and ETS-1 protein on the other. Moreover, 5'-deletion analysis demonstrated the existence of a negative control element of HHO-1 expression located between positions -1500 and -120 on the HHO-1 promoter. The presence of regulatory sequences for transcription factors such as ETS-1, FLI-1, or ERG, whose activity is associated with cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinase transduction, may be an indication of the important role that HO-1 may play in coronary collateral circulation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and hemoglobin-induced endothelial cell injuries. PMID:10022513

  11. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Tabita, F R

    1996-06-01

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished, with types A and B and types C and D more closely related to one another. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake Erie phytoplanktonic microorganisms, we have isolated total RNA and DNA from four Lake Erie sampling sites. Probes prepared from RubisCO large-subunit genes (rbcL) of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 (representative of type IB) and the diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1 (representative of type ID) were hybridized to the isolated RNA and DNA. To quantitate rbcL gene expression for each sample, the amount of gene expression per gene dose (i.e., the amount of mRNA divided by the amount of target DNA) was determined. With a limited number of sampling sites, it appeared that type ID (diatom) rbcL gene expression per gene dose decreased as the sampling sites shifted toward open water. By contrast, a similar trend was not observed for cyanobacterial (type IB) rbcL gene expression per gene dose. Complementary DNA specific for rbcL was synthesized from Lake Erie RNA samples and used as a template for PCR amplification of portions of various rbcL genes. Thus far, a total of 21 clones of rbcL genes derived from mRNA have been obtained and completely sequenced from the Ballast Island site. For surface water samples, deduced amino acid sequences of five of six clones appeared to be representative of green algae. In contrast, six of nine sequenced rbcL clones from 10-m-deep samples were of chromophytic and rhodophytic lineages. At 5 m deep, the active CO2-fixing planktonic organisms represented a diverse group, including organisms related to Chlorella ellipsoidea

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells elevate CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells of asthmatic patients via heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-guo; Zhuan-sun, Yong-xun; Wen, Bing; Wu, Hao; Huang, Feng-ting; Ghimire, Hridaya bibhu; Ran, Pi-xin

    2013-09-01

    Up-regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a new target in the treatment of asthma. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can up-regulate CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in vitro, meanwhile, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. However the mechanism has not yet been adequately understood. Hence, we wondered what effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 made on regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells mediated by mesenchymal stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from asthmatic patients and healthy controls were co-cultured with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells which were pretreated with Hemin (the revulsive of Heme Oxygenase-1), Protoporphyrin Ⅸ zinc (the inhibitor of Heme Oxygenase-1) and saline. The expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 in MSCs was enhanced by Hemin and inhibited by Protoporphyrin  zinc in vitro. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 elevated the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in CD4+ T cells, meanwhile, inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1 decreased the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in CD4+ T cells as compared with mesenchymal stem cells alone. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Heme Oxygenase-1 contributed to the up-regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells mediated by mesenchymal stem cells in asthma.  PMID:23893806

  13. Effect of Nd{sup 3+} ion on carboxylation activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Hong Fashui . E-mail: Hongfsh_cn@sina.com; Wu Kang; Ma, Hong-bing; Zhang Xueguang; Hong Chengjiao; Wu Cheng; Gao Fengqing; Yang Fan; Zheng Lei; Wang Xuefeng; Liu Tao; Xie Yaning; Xu Jianhua; Li Zhongrui

    2006-03-31

    Neodymium (Nd), as a member of rare earth elements, proved to enhance the photosynthesis rate and organic substance accumulation of spinach through the increase in carboxylation activity of Rubisco. Although the oxygenase activity of spinach Rubisco was slightly changed with the Nd{sup 3+} treatment, the specific factor of Rubisco was greatly increased. It was partially due to the promotion of Rubisco activase (R-A) activity but mainly to the formation of Rubisco-Rubisco activase super-complex, a heavier molecular mass protein (about 1200 kD) comprising both Rubisco and Rubisco activase. This super-complex was found during the extraction procedure of Rubisco by the gel electrophoresis and Western-blot studies. The formation of Rubisco-R-A super-complex suggested that the secondary structure of the protein purified from the Nd{sup 3+}-treated spinach was different from that of the control. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of the 'Rubisco' purified from the Nd{sup 3+}-treated spinach revealed that Nd was bound with four oxygen atoms and two sulfur atoms of amino acid residues at the Nd-O and Nd-S bond lengths of 2.46 and 2.89 A, respectively.

  14. Residues in three conserved regions of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase are required for quaternary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fitchen, J.H.; McIntosh, L. ); Knight, S.; Andersson, I.; Branden, C.I. )

    1990-08-01

    To explore the role of individual residues in the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, small subunits with single amino acid substitutions in three regions of relative sequence conservation were produced by directed mutagenesis of the rbcS gene from Anabaena 7120. These altered small subunits were cosythesized with large subunits (from an expressed Anabaena rbcL gene) in Escherichia coli. Mutants were analyzed for effects on quaternary structure and catalytic activity. Changing Glu-13S (numbering used is that of the spinach enzyme) to Val, Trp-67S to Arg, Pro-73S to His, or Tyr-98S to Asn prevented accumulation of stable holoenzyme. Interpretation of these results using a model for the three-dimensional structure of the spinach enzyme based on x-ray crystallographic data suggests that our small subunit mutants containing substitutions at positions 13S and 67S probably do not assemble because of mispairing or nonpairing of charged residues on the interfacing surfaces of the large and small subunits. The failure of small subunits substituted at positions 73S or 98S to assemble correctly may result from disruption of intersubunit or intrasubunit hydrophobic pockets, respectively.

  15. Expression of L-ornithine Ndelta-oxygenase (PvdA) in fluorescent Pseudomonas species: an immunochemical and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Putignani, Lorenza; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Omega-amino acid monooxygenases (EC 1.14.13.-), catalysing the formation of hydroxamate precursors of microbial siderophores (e.g., pyoverdine), have so far eluded structural and biochemical characterisation. Here, the expression of recombinant L-ornithine-Ndelta-oxygenase (PvdA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is reported. A library of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against PvdA has been generated. Two MAb families recognising the N- and C-terminal regions of PvdA were identified. The MAbs made it possible to demonstrate that 45-48 kDa PvdA homologues are expressed in response to iron limitation by different species and strains of fluorescent pseudomonads. Despite the different degrees in sequence similarity between P. aeruginosa PvdA and putative homologues from Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae, Burkholderia cepacia, and Ralstonia solanacearum, in silico domain scanning predicts an impressive conservation of putative cofactor and substrate binding domains. The MAb library was also used to monitor PvdA expression during the transition of P. aeruginosa from iron-sufficient to iron-deficient growth. PMID:14684153

  16. Characterization of the second prosthetic group of the flavoenzyme NADH-acceptor reductase (component C) of the methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-01-01

    1. A new two-step purification is described that routinely yields 100mg quantities of component C for biochemical studies. 2. Chemical analyses show component C purified by this procedure to contain 2 g-atoms of iron, 2 mol of acid-labile sulphide (S) and 1 mol of FAD per mol of protein. 3. The Fe-S core of component C was extruded by treating the protein with p-methoxybenzenethiol in hexamethyl phosphoramide/50mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5 (4:1, v/v), under anaerobic conditions. The spectral properties of the extruded core suggest that component C contains 1 mol of [2Fe-2S(S-Cys)4] centre per mol of protein. 4. E.p.r. spectroscopy confirms the presence of a Fe-S centre in component C. 5. Component C catalyses the reduction by NADH of ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol or horse heart cytochrome c, with specific activities of 50--230 units/mg of protein. 6. The optimum pH for the NADH-acceptor reductase activity is 8.5--9.0, and the apparent Km values for NADH and NADPH are 0.05mM and 15.5mM respectively. 7. Unlike methane mono-oxygenase activity, NADH-acceptor reductase activity of component C is not inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline or by acetylene. PMID:220953

  17. Serum Heme Oxygenase-1 and BMP-7 Are Potential Biomarkers for Bone Metabolism in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tong-ling; Chen, Jin; Tong, Yan-li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Liu, Yi; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (p < 0.01). In RA group, HO-1 was positively correlated with BMP-7, Runx2, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b) (p < 0.05, resp.), BMP-7 was positively correlated with Runx2 and TRAP-5b (p < 0.05, resp.), and Runx2 was negatively correlated with N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (NMID) (p < 0.05). In AS group, we observed identical correlation between HO-1 and BMP-7, but opposite correlations between BMP-7 and TRAP-5b and between Runx2 and NMID, when comparing with the RA cohort. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that HO-1 and BMP-7 are potential biomarkers for bone metabolism in patients with RA and AS. The different correlations between the bone markers point to distinct differences in bone remodeling pathways in the two types of arthritis. PMID:27314037

  18. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25405743

  19. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, impacts leaf senescence and indirectly affects grain yield and quality in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Huang, Lichao; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Rao, Yuchun; Chen, Long; Wang, Yuqiong; Tu, Zhengjun; Hu, Jiang; Ren, Deyong; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2016-03-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) b is a ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. This pigment is synthesized from Chl a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase and plays a key role in adaptation to various environments. This study characterizes a rice mutant, pale green leaf (pgl), and isolates the gene PGL by using a map-based cloning approach. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, is mainly expressed in the chlorenchyma and activated in the light-dependent Chl synthesis process. Compared with wild-type plants, pgl exhibits a lower Chl content with a reduced and disorderly thylakoid ultrastructure, which decreases the photosynthesis rate and results in reduced grain yield and quality. In addition, pgl exhibits premature senescence in both natural and dark-induced conditions and more severe Chl degradation and reactive oxygen species accumulation than does the wild-type. Moreover, pgl is sensitive to heat stress. PMID:26709310

  20. Glutamine synthetase in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase deficient tobacco mutants in cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Hirel, B; Nato, A; Martin, F

    1984-06-01

    In two tobacco mutants lacking ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase the amount of glutamine synthetase and its activity were determined and compared with the wild type green cells. It was shown that in these two mutants glutamine synthetase protein content was six times lower than in the wild type. This situation was comparable to that found in etiolated cells where ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was absent. These observations suggest that a common regulatory mechanism might control the dual light dependent biosynthesis of both enzymes. The results have also implications concerning the efficiency of the reassimilation of ammonia by chloroplastic glutamine synthetase during the photorespiratory process. PMID:24253436

  1. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, impacts leaf senescence and indirectly affects grain yield and quality in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Huang, Lichao; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Rao, Yuchun; Chen, Long; Wang, Yuqiong; Tu, Zhengjun; Hu, Jiang; Ren, Deyong; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) b is a ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. This pigment is synthesized from Chl a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase and plays a key role in adaptation to various environments. This study characterizes a rice mutant, pale green leaf (pgl), and isolates the gene PGL by using a map-based cloning approach. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, is mainly expressed in the chlorenchyma and activated in the light-dependent Chl synthesis process. Compared with wild-type plants, pgl exhibits a lower Chl content with a reduced and disorderly thylakoid ultrastructure, which decreases the photosynthesis rate and results in reduced grain yield and quality. In addition, pgl exhibits premature senescence in both natural and dark-induced conditions and more severe Chl degradation and reactive oxygen species accumulation than does the wild-type. Moreover, pgl is sensitive to heat stress. PMID:26709310

  2. Caffeine Junkie: an Unprecedented Glutathione S-Transferase-Dependent Oxygenase Required for Caffeine Degradation by Pseudomonas putida CBB5

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ryan M.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Quandt, Erik M.; Yu, Chi Li; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine and other N-methylated xanthines are natural products found in many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it is not surprising that bacteria have evolved to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The caffeine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida CBB5 utilizes an unprecedented glutathione-S-transferase-dependent Rieske oxygenase for demethylation of 7-methylxanthine to xanthine, the final step in caffeine N-demethylation. The gene coding this function is unusual, in that the iron-sulfur and non-heme iron domains that compose the normally functional Rieske oxygenase (RO) are encoded by separate proteins. The non-heme iron domain is located in the monooxygenase, ndmC, while the Rieske [2Fe-2S] domain is fused to the RO reductase gene, ndmD. This fusion, however, does not interfere with the interaction of the reductase with N1- and N3-demethylase RO oxygenases, which are involved in the initial reactions of caffeine degradation. We demonstrate that the N7-demethylation reaction absolutely requires a unique, tightly bound protein complex composed of NdmC, NdmD, and NdmE, a novel glutathione-S-transferase (GST). NdmE is proposed to function as a noncatalytic subunit that serves a structural role in the complexation of the oxygenase (NdmC) and Rieske domains (NdmD). Genome analyses found this gene organization of a split RO and GST gene cluster to occur more broadly, implying a larger function for RO-GST protein partners. PMID:23813729

  3. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min; Ye, Jing-xue; Si, Jian-yong; Xu, Hui-bo; Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2012-12-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage.

  4. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dual control mechanism for heme oxygenase: tin(IV)-protoporphyrin potently inhibits enzyme activity while markedly increasing content of enzyme protein in liver.

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, M K; Kappas, A

    1987-01-01

    Tin(IV)-protoporphyrin (Sn-protoporphyrin) potently inhibits heme degradation to bile pigments in vitro and in vivo, a property that confers upon this synthetic compound the ability to suppress a variety of experimentally induced and naturally occurring forms of jaundice in animals and humans. Utilizing rat liver heme oxygenase purified to homogeneity together with appropriate immunoquantitation techniques, we have demonstrated that Sn-protoporphyrin possesses the additional property of potently inducing the synthesis of heme oxygenase protein in liver cells while, concurrently, completely inhibiting the activity of the newly formed enzyme. Substitution of tin for the central iron atom of heme thus leads to the formation of a synthetic heme analogue that regulates heme oxygenase by a dual mechanism, which involves competitive inhibition of the enzyme for the natural substrate heme and simultaneous enhancement of new enzyme synthesis. Cobaltic(III)-protoporphyrin (Co-protoporphyrin) also inhibits heme oxygenase activity in vitro, but unlike Sn-protoporphyrin it greatly enhances the activity of the enzyme in the whole animal. Co-protoporphyrin also acts as an in vivo inhibitor of heme oxygenase; however, its inducing effect on heme oxygenase synthesis is so pronounced as to prevail in vivo over its inhibitory effect on the enzyme. These studies show that certain synthetic heme analogues possess the ability to simultaneously inhibit as well as induce the enzyme heme oxygenase in liver. The net balance between these two actions, as reflected in the rate of heme oxidation activity in the whole animal, appears to be influenced by the nature of the central metal atom of the synthetic metalloporphyrin. Images PMID:3470805

  6. NMI-1182, a gastro-protective cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donor.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James L; Augustyniak, Michael E; Cochran, Edward D; Earl, Richard A; Garvey, David S; Gordon, Laura J; Janero, David R; Khanapure, Subhash P; Letts, L Gordon; Melim, Terry L; Murty, Madhavi G; Schwalb, David J; Shumway, Matthew J; Selig, William M; Trocha, A Mark; Young, Delano V; Zemtseva, Irina S

    2005-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat inflammation and to provide pain relief but suffer from a major liability concerning their propensity to cause gastric damage. As nitric oxide (NO) is known to be gastro-protective we have synthesized a NO-donating prodrug of naproxen named NMI-1182. We evaluated two cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibiting nitric oxide donors (CINODs), NMI-1182 and AZD3582, for their ability to be gastro-protective compared to naproxen and for their anti-inflammatory activity. NMI-1182 and AZD3582 were found to produce similar inhibition of COX activity to that produced by naproxen. Both NMI-1182 and AZD3582 produced significantly less gastric lesions after oral administration than naproxen. All three compounds effectively inhibited paw swelling in the rat carrageenan paw edema model. In the carrageenan air pouch model all three compounds significantly reduced PGE2 levels in the pouch exudate but only NMI-1182 and naproxen inhibited leukocyte influx. These data demonstrate that NMI-1182 has comparable anti-inflammatory activity to naproxen but with a much reduced likelihood to cause gastric damage. PMID:16259719

  7. Carbon monoxide mediates heme oxygenase 1 induction via Nrf2 activation in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bok-Soo; Heo, JungHee; Kim, Yong-Man; Shim, Sang Moo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Kim, Young-Myeong; Chung, Hun-Taeg . E-mail: htchung@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2006-05-12

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are two gas molecules which have cytoprotective functions against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in many cell types. Currently, it is known that NO produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) expression and CO produced by the HO1 inhibits inducible NOS expression. Here, we first show CO-mediated HO1 induction and its possible mechanism in human hepatocytes. Exposure of HepG2 cells or primary hepatocytes to CO resulted in dramatic induction of HO1 in dose- and time-dependent manner. The CO-mediated HO1 induction was abolished by MAP kinase inhibitors (MAPKs) but not affected by inhibitors of PI3 kinase or NF-{kappa}B. In addition, CO induced the nuclear translocation and accumulation of Nrf2, which suppressed by MAPKs inhibitors. Taken together, we suggest that CO induces Nrf2 activation via MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby resulting in HO1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  8. Active site histidine in spinach ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Y.; McFadden, B.A.; el-Gul, T.

    1985-07-16

    (TH) Diethyl pyrocarbonate was synthesized from (TH) ethanol prepared by the reduction of acetaldehyde by NaB3H4. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) from spinach was inactivated with this reagent at pH 7.0 the presence of 20 mM MgS , and tryptic peptides that contained modified histidine residues were isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Labeling of the enzyme was conducted in the presence and absence of the competitive inhibitor sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate. The amount of one peptide that was heavily labeled in the absence of this compound was reduced 10-fold in its presence. The labeled residue was histidine-298. This result, in combination with earlier experiments, suggests that His-298 in spinach RuBisCO is located in the active site domain and is essential to enzyme activity. This region of the primary structure is strongly conserved in seven other ribulosebisphosphate carboxylases from divergent sources.

  9. Heme activates the heme oxygenase-1 gene in renal epithelial cells by stabilizing Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Alam, Jawed; Killeen, Erin; Gong, Pengfei; Naquin, Ryan; Hu, Bin; Stewart, Daniel; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Nath, Karl A

    2003-04-01

    The mechanism of heme oxygenase-1 gene (ho-1) activation by heme in immortalized rat proximal tubular epithelial cells was examined. Analysis of the ho-1 promoter identified the heme-responsive sequences as the stress-response element (StRE), multiple copies of which are present in two enhancer regions, E1 and E2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified Nrf2, MafG, ATF3, and Jun and Fos family members as StRE-binding proteins; binding of Nrf2, MafG, and ATF3 was increased in response to heme. Dominant-negative mutants of Nrf2 and Maf, but not of c-Fos and c-Jun, inhibited basal and heme-induced expression of an E1-controlled luciferase gene. Heme did not affect the transcription activity of Nrf2, dimerization between Nrf2 and MafG, or the level of MafG, but did stimulate expression of Nrf2. Heme did not influence the level of Nrf2 mRNA but increased the half-life of Nrf2 protein from approximately 10 min to nearly 110 min. These results indicate that heme promotes stabilization of Nrf2, leading to accumulation of Nrf2. MafG dimers that bind to StREs to activate the ho-1 gene. PMID:12453873

  10. An Oxygenase-Independent Cholesterol Catabolic Pathway Operates under Oxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Wael; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Lin, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Yu-Wen; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most ubiquitous compounds in nature. The 9,10-seco-pathway for the aerobic degradation of cholesterol was established thirty years ago. This pathway is characterized by the extensive use of oxygen and oxygenases for substrate activation and ring fission. The classical pathway was the only catabolic pathway adopted by all studies on cholesterol-degrading bacteria. Sterolibacterium denitrificans can degrade cholesterol regardless of the presence of oxygen. Here, we aerobically grew the model organism with 13C-labeled cholesterol, and substrate consumption and intermediate production were monitored over time. Based on the detected 13C-labeled intermediates, this study proposes an alternative cholesterol catabolic pathway. This alternative pathway differs from the classical 9,10-seco-pathway in numerous important aspects. First, substrate activation proceeds through anaerobic C-25 hydroxylation and subsequent isomerization to form 26-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one. Second, after the side chain degradation, the resulting androgen intermediate is activated by adding water to the C-1/C-2 double bond. Third, the cleavage of the core ring structure starts at the A-ring via a hydrolytic mechanism. The 18O-incorporation experiments confirmed that water is the sole oxygen donor in this catabolic pathway. PMID:23826110